PIPELINE

Stefano TARCHI Maurizio Amerini Alberto TESEI

Index
1. Need for Gas Transportation: Pipeline vs LNG 2. Pipeline Design 3. Construction (Onshore) 4. Construction (Offshore) 5. Operation 6. Maintenance 7. Main Pipeline Components 8. Gas Storage 9. The Pipelines Market Today 10. Environmental Impact
NOTE : Most slides in sections 3-6 are courtesy of SRG

Index
1. Need for Gas Transportation: Pipeline vs LNG 2. Pipeline Design 3. Construction (Onshore) 4. Construction (Offshore) 5. Operation 6. Maintenance 7. Main Pipeline Components 8. Gas Storage 9. The Pipelines Market Today 10. Environmental Impact

0 Source: World Energy Outlook 2007 (EIA).Gas Market… Regional Unbalance Production . Bcm/y 50% 50% 75% Russia '05 25% Europe '15 237 2005 2020 '30 208 186 31% NA Gas Cons. 35% North America '05 '15 '30 -22 -67 -155 ME 195 301 '05 '15 '30 '05 0 China '15 -28 '30 100% 65% 2005 2020 5% Gas imported Indigenous Production Africa 8% 143 101 '05 2005 2020 290 43 '05 '15 '30 41% '05 -6 India '15 -13 Gas imported Indigenous Production Latin America Natural Gas Reserves (% of total World) 4% 16 '05 24 '15 '30 70 '30 -127 '05 Pacific '15 '30 8% '15 '30 -61 -38 -66 -37 4 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S. 3% 97% 20% 80% Gas imported Indigenous Production -292 -375 3% -516 China Gas Cons.Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev. . BP Statistical Review 08.Consumption EU Gas Cons.

technical complexity.e.e. chain bottlenecks (I. Constructions etc. PIP & LNG Value Chain (Quantitative) . plant size/flow. execution risk. distance. 0 .OPEX: Maintenance. PIP & LNG factors (Qualitative) .ROI and Payback period. Operations etc. selling gas alternatives. sensitivity depending on variables (i..Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev.. Fuel. gas price) 5 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.e. geographical.CAPEX: Engineering. geopolitical. pipe. .PIPELINE vs LNG 1. vessels etc…) 2.Same factors affect the two markets in a different way…i. .

0 6 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.Tarchi .LNG vs Pip: in the Mediterranean Source: C-Engineering 2/22/2010 Rev.

0 7 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.Tarchi .Economies of scale – 1000 km Source: C-Engineering 2/22/2010 Rev.

Tarchi .Economies of scale – 4000 km Source: C-Engineering 2/22/2010 Rev. 0 8 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.

The Pipelines Market Today 10. Environmental Impact .Index 1. Construction (Onshore) 4. Need for Gas Transportation: Pipeline vs LNG 2. Main Pipeline Components 8. Pipeline Design 3. Gas Storage 9. Maintenance 7. Construction (Offshore) 5. Operation 6.

Route selection 2. Pipeline Hydraulic modeling 4. Off design 10 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.Pipeline Design – Main Steps 1. 0 . Compression stations 5.Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev. Pipe selection 3. Model validation 6.

Route Selection Decisive criteria to ensure optimum route Geopolitical factor is often key to project success .1.

2. losses Larger pipes => reduced losses (Opex) but higher Capex.Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev.. 0 .pressure.. Pipe Selection Gas flow in a pipe..need the right compromise 12 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S..velocity...

2. 0 . construction and emergency issues may lead to different solutions 13 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S. Pipe Selection Not necessarily only #1 pipe.Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev..looping..

0005 0. 0 . mm 500 0. coefficient etc.0003 0. w/m*k 200 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 0.02 0 1000 1500 Kilometrs 2000 2500 roughness.) • Soil temperature • Ambient temperature • Elevation profile 0.015 roughness mm 0.005 0 0 500 1000 Kilometers 1500 2000 2500 • Gas Composition and flow • Establish treshold limits 14 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S. Pipeline Hydraulic Modeling PIPELINE ELEVATION PROFILE 1400 PIPELINE ROUTE Elevation.0008 Soil Thermal Conductivity.01 0. Inputs Needed: • Pipe characteristics (i. thermal exch.0007 0.3. Roughness Profile Pipe Roughness.0004 0.025 -200 Kilometers Soil Thermal Conduct.e.0006 0. Lenght.0001 0 0.Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev. size..0002 0. M 1200 1000 elev m 800 600 400 SOIL THERMAL PROFILE 0.

Compression Stations • Need to find the right balance between reducing pipe losses (which maximizes # stations) and relevant stations costs • Optimum balance depending on several factors (i. routes losses etc.4. 0 .e pipe rating..).Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev.. typical order of magnitude is 150 km average distance 15 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.

0 . flow profiles and operating conditions (iterative process) 16 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.4. available units size in the market and sparing philosophy •CC and GT curves are then included in the hydraulic model •Several simulation are run to check proper functioning of the system at different ambient temperatures. Model validation •Once Station power is established. need to move to compression units selection within the station •Units selection shall based on flow profile forecasts.Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev.

Units Off design may be due to: 1. 2. C.Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev. if possible) 17 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S. B. Pressure 1740 Psig (120 bara) Units off-design: Sparing Philosophy A. Parallel (N+1) Series Operation (extra installed power) Dynamic (recovery during cold period.5. Off Design . Units/Stations in shutdown due to (un)scheduled maintenance Pipe Unavailability (SeaLine) No Compression required / available GT power and CC pressure ratio are maximized during one station outage Disch. 0 .

Pipeline CAPE BON SEA LINE HEAD STATION N°10 FR52 + BCL404/A Compressor 1430 Km Onshore Pipeline Italian Peninsula 160 Km 20’’ Three Lines 20” and Two Lines 26” Pipeline Under Sicilian Channel Cape Bon Head Station 910 Km Onshore Pipeline Algeria-Tunisia 18 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S. 0 .5. Off Design .Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev.

Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev.Cape Bon Plant Operating Scheme Initial Normal Conditions (1983) 4 Units working in parallel to maximize Gas Flow Discharge Header (150 Bar) Middle Pressure Header (Not Used) Suction Header BCL BCL 404/a 404/a BCL BCL 404/a 404/a BCL BCL 404/a 404/a BCL BCL 404/a 404/a BCL BCL 404/a 404/a Stand-By Unit MS5002B MS5002B 19 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S. 0 MS5002B MS5002B MS5002B MS5002B MS5002B MS5002B MS5002B MS5002B .

0 .Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev.Cape Bon Plant Operating Scheme Initial Emergency Conditions (1983) 3 Units Middle Pressure and 2 Unites to Discharge Header Discharge Header (205 Bar) Middle Pressure Header (In Operation) Suction Header BCL BCL 404/a 404/a BCL BCL 404/a 404/a BCL BCL 404/a 404/a BCL BCL 404/a 404/a BCL BCL 404/a 404/a Unit In Operation MS5002B MS5002B MS5002B MS5002B MS5002B MS5002B MS5002B MS5002B MS5002B MS5002B 20 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.

2/22/2010 Rev.7 PGT25+ 41.7% 200 NO N+1 #600 India 2006 98 160 6.2 PGT25 37. 0 . regen cycle N/A NO 2+1 #600 Algeria 2000 75 150 4..1% 100 Yes (St.7 FR5B/C 36% incl..focus on  efficiency (>43%) Environmental constraints WHR becoming a must LCC approach (*) Price indicated refers to market price ( Henry Hub) at time of installation.Tarchi Trends Discharge Pressure  Gas price up .Large PIP evolution: design trends Project Year Pd (bara) Aver.1) No Sparing #900 21 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S. not to price of gas delivered trough that pipeline.dist (Km) Gas Price ($/MMBTU)* Driver type Driver ISO Efficiency Emissions (NOx ppm) Waste Heat recovery Sparing Philosophy Pipe # Russia 1992 55-75 120 1.

Operation 6.Index 1. Maintenance 7. Construction (Offshore) 5. Main Pipeline Components 8. Gas Storage 9. Need for Gas Transportation: Pipeline vs LNG 2. The Pipelines Market Today 10. Environmental Impact . Pipeline Design 3. Construction (Onshore) 4.

0 . several pipeline routes are analysed to minimize the impact to the environment • The geology and the hydrological context of the pipeline routes is analysed • When the route is defined.Onshore Pipeline Design Key Issues • During the feasibility study.Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev. the Company contacts the landowners to explain the project • Several studies and surveys are required for the detail design and for the local and national permit procedures 23 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.

according to the design pressure & diameter Example. Strip according to italian law here for 75 bar and DN 1200 20 m 40 m 20 m 24 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.Rights of Way A permanent Right-of-Way is required to operate and maintain the pipeline after construction.Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev. The strip width is usually fixed by law. 0 .

3. 6. 5. 2. 10.Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev. Removal of topsoil Clearing and grading of the working strip Handling and stringing Bending Welding and examination Digging the trench Lowering into the trench & backfilling Installing plants Special crossing Testing Restoration 25 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S. 0 . 7. 4. 11. 9.Onshore Pipeline Construction Phases: 1. 8.

the topsoil layer is carefully separated from the subsoil so to be reinstated in the same place when backfilling 26 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.1 . 0 .Removal of topsoil Before digging the trenches.Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev.

0 .Clearing and grading the working strip 27 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev.2 .

Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev.3 . 0 .Handling and stringing Pipe transport 28 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.

3 - Handling and stringing
Storage yard

29 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev. 0

3 - Handling and stringing

Trailers

Stringing phases
30 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev. 0

3 - Handling and stringing
Stringing of pipes along the pipeline work strip

31 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev. 0

Bending Pipes can be bent in the field to fit the moderate changes in pipeline route and the morfology 32 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S. 0 .4 .Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev.

5 – Welding & Examination Coupling: Various sections of pipes are joined into one continuous lenght After welding.Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev. 0 . circumferential welds examination is performed both with X-ray and ultra-sound system 33 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.

0 .5 – Welding & Examination Automatic welding Manual welding 34 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev.

Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev.5 – Welding & examination Ultra-sound examination of welds 35 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S. 0 .

9m under the ground level pipe 0. 0 .Digging the trench The trenching crew uses specialised escavators to dig the pipe trench Humus (topsoil) Italian law requires for the cover of the pipe a minimum of 0.Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev.9 m Backfill (subsoil) 36 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.6 .

6 .Digging the trench Trench 37 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev. 0 .

Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev. operators simultaneously lift and lower the pipe into the trench Such operation needs close coordination and skilled operators 38 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S. 0 .7 .Lowering into the trench Using a number of side-booms.

Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev.Lowering into the trench 39 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S. 0 .7 .

Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev.7 . 0 .Lowering into the trench 40 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.

0 .Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev.Lowering into the trench 41 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.7 .

7 – Lowering & Backfilling Backfilling Backfilling top soil 42 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev. 0 .

Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev.8 . 0 .Installing plants Construction includes design and installation of:      Pig Traps Pressure Reduction Stations Gas Compressor Stations Section valves Etc… 43 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.

8 .Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev. 0 .Installing plants Pig trap 44 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.

8 .Installing plants Pig trap 45 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S. 0 .Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev.

Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev. 0 .Installing plants Interconnection node 46 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.8 .

8 . 0 .Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev.Installing plants High Pressure Reduction Station 47 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.

Installing plants Gas Compressor Station Compressor buildings 48 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev. 0 .8 .

0 .8 .Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev.Installing plants Gas Compressor Station 49 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.

Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev. e. Raise borer Horizontal Directional Drilling Micro-tunneling Tunnel Boring Machine … 50 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S. c. the appropriate trenchless technique can be selected from the following: a. b. waterways or special natural areas without digging open trenches * Depending on soil conditions and geo-hydrology.9 . d. 0 . roads.Special Crossing * Several techniques are available for crossing railways.

Raise Borer Raise boring is an inclined drilling. The benefit of this technique is that it allows installation of the pipeline without any vegetal and morphologic impact Drilling machine well Horizontal gallery 51 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S. The pipe is lowered in the borehole.Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev.9a . 0 .

9a .Raise Borer Completed borehole Inserting the pipeline 52 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev. 0 .

Horizontal Directional Drilling * Based on techniques developed for drilling deviated oil wells From the point of departure where the drilling unit is placed. The hole is successively reamed out by a boring machine until it achieves the proper diameter for the pipe. with a reliable directional control system * In Italy it was used for the first time by Snam in 1982 to cross the Po River 53 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.9b . 0 . At this point.Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev. a small diameter pilot bore is drilled along the planned path. the pipeline is pulled and laid in the hole * Is the most commonly used trenchless technology.

9b - Horizontal Directional Drilling
Pilot borehole
Conductor pipe Directional control Jet drill

i Des

axis gn

Boring
Conductor pipe

Trivellazione orizzontale controllataTubo di (TOC)
linea Pulling pipe

Borer

54 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev. 0

9b - Horizontal Directional Drilling
Pipe insertion
Borer Pipe

55 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev. 0

9b - Horizontal Directional Drilling
Pipe insertion

56 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev. 0

Microtunnel * Micro-tunnelling technology drills tunnel (including curvilinear tunnel) which is completely lined with reinforced concrete segments * The excavation is done by a milling cutter pushed into the subsoil by hydraulic jacks placed in the jacking station at the starting point * By this method.9c . can be bored at great depths 57 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S. tunnels over 1000 metres in length. 0 .Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev.

9c .Microtunnel Milling head Thrust station 3.00 m Concrete segments 58 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev. 0 .

0 .9c .Microtunnel Vegetation and morphology is preserved 59 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev.

9d . 0 .Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev.Tunnel boring machine * Tunnel boring machine technology produces medium and large diameter tunnels excavated in rock by a full section self-propelling cutting wheel with rotating cutting facets * A tunnel lining is installed during the cutting operation or when the work is completed * This method can be used for tunnel length more than 500 metres to about 2/3 kilometres. with very large diameters (about 5/6 metres) 60 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.

Tunnel boring machine u nn T el Section 328 m 6.343 m 61 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.35% nnel i = Tu L = 2.9d .Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev. 0 .

Tunnel boring machine 62 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev.9d . 0 .

0 .Tunnel boring machine Demolishing the last brattice 63 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev.9d .

9d . 0 .Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev.Tunnel boring machine Welded and coated pipeline in the tunnel 64 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.

Tunnel boring machine End of works: tunnel entrance 65 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev.9d . 0 .

the pipeline stay for at least 48 hour at a pressure not less than 1. the pipeline is hydraulically tested:  In the Strength test. the pipeline stays for at least 1 hour at a pressure not less than 1.3 times the Design Pressure  In the Hydraulic test.2 times the Design Pressure 66 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev.10 .Testing After backfilling. 0 .

Restoration * Since the design phase.11 . 0 .Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev. foresty agronomists and geologists perform all the operations to protect the ecosystems.Vegetation restoration 67 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S. water courses and landscapes * The final step in the construction process is restoring the land as closely as possible to its original condition * Restoration works includes: .Morphologic restoration .

11 .Restoration During works… …After 1 year… …After 2 years… 68 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev. 0 .

the only evidence of the pipe presence. are the pipeline markings 69 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.Restoration After construction.Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev.11 . 0 .

0 .Restoration fields orchard vineyard 70 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev.11 .

Environmental Impact . The Pipelines Market Today 10. Main Pipeline Components 8. Pipeline Design 3. Need for Gas Transportation: Pipeline vs LNG 2. Gas Storage 9. Maintenance 7. Operation 6. Construction (Onshore) 4.Index 1. Construction (Offshore) 5.

Offshore pipelines – Proven Technology Source: Nordstream website .

Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev. 0 .Offshore Construction MECHANICAL ASSEMBLY WORK ON THE SEA FLOOR TESTING AND START UP 73 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.

0 .Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev.Offshore Construction: Mechanical Assembly Laying Methods • ‘S-lay’ and the ‘J-lay’ • Coiled Pipeline 74 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.

Offshore Construction: Mechanical Assembly Laying J-Lay S-Lay 75 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev. 0 .

Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev.Offshore Construction: Mechanical Assembly S . The pipe is welded horizontally and lowered into the sea supported by a curved pontoon structure known as a Stinger which forms an elongated "S". 0 . 76 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.Lay Process Both for shallow waters and deepwater pipelines up to a depth of 3000 m.

Offshore Construction: Mechanical Assembly Source: Nordstream website .

Lay Process This system is used to lay pipelines at depths of between 400 and 3500 m. Here the pipe is welded in a vertical position and lowered onto the sea floor without the use of a support structure.htm 2/22/2010 78 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S. 0 .medgaz.Offshore Construction: Mechanical Assembly J .Tarchi Rev.com/medgaz/pages/archivos_multimedia-eng. thus forming a “J” shape http://www.

6-40.Offshore Construction: Mechanical Assembly Coiled Pipeline Pipes which have already welded together an onshore worksite. up to 14-16 inches (35.Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev.6 cm) Requires pipes with thick walls 79 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S. 0 . For pipelines of a modest diameter.

0 .Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev.Offshore Construction MECHANICAL ASSEMBLY WORK ON THE SEA FLOOR TESTING AND START UP 80 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.

0 .Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev.Offshore Construction Work on the Sea bed 81 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.

0 .Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev.Offshore Construction MECHANICAL ASSEMBLY WORK ON THE SEA FLOOR TESTING AND START UP 82 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.

Dewater by air through a train of pigs 4. Hydraulic Test (1.Offshore Construction Testing and preparation for Start up 1. Air-dry 5.25 times the project pressure) 3.15/1. 0 . Fill with water /cleaning by pigs 2.Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev. Gas or oil fill 83 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S. Nitrogen fill or air purging 6.

Gas Storage 9. The Pipelines Market Today 10. Construction (Onshore) 4. Construction (Offshore) 5.Index 1. Maintenance 7. Pipeline Design 3. Environmental Impact . Main Pipeline Components 8. Need for Gas Transportation: Pipeline vs LNG 2. Operation 6.

The control is managed through:  Continuous monitoring of the process parameters of the network  Use of simulation SW to predict gas demand and balance of the network 85 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev.Gas transmission control Gas transmission is ensured through network pressure control using the following plants installed along the pipelines:     Compressor stations Manifolds Pressure reduction and regulation plants Check valves. 0 .

Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev.Supervisory Control & Data Acquisition Composed by SW. telecommunication and control systems designed to ensure remote and centralized control of network operation. Control Room HMI RTU Transmission systems RTU RTU Server Cable Radio/Satellte transmission 86 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S. 0 Transmission systems .

Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev. 0 .Dispatching Centre  Integrated control system capable of making gas readily available anywhere at any time  Monitoring the transportation system through data acquisition stations  Evaluating the total volume of gas available  Regulating the gas flows according to the demand 87 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.

Physical compressor station. 88 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S. 0 ...Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev.

SCADA compressor station 89 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.... 0 .Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev.

Station Control System (SCS) HMI Measurement and regulation system Operating modes Local manual Local automatic Supervision system (operation logic) Remote automatic 90 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S. 0 .Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev.

Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev.Compressor Stations remote control To ensure the remote control of the stations. a local automated control system is installed in the station interfaced with the Dispatching Centre that operates the plant directly from Headquarters. The operation is optimised according to operating needs defined in terms of the overall transportation flows and the global operational conditions. ensuring gas transmission satisfying gas demand. 91 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S. 0 . Dispatching Centre Station Control Room Transport optimization consists of finding a steady condition of network operation which minimizes total fuel gas consumption of compressor stations.

automatically regulates the units speed match the required setpoint 92 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S. through UCP.Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev. 0 . Dispatching Centre define setpoints for: • suction pressure • discharge pressure • flow • discharge temperature (local set point) and starts a number of units according to simulation results.Compressor Station regulation To ensure compressor station regulation. The station control system (SCS).

0 .Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev.Annual Supply – Demand Modulation Sum of: •Importation •Domestic Production •Storage withdrawal Demand Storage injection Storage withdrawal 93 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.

Operation 6. Construction (Onshore) 4. Construction (Offshore) 5. Gas Storage 9.Index 1. Main Pipeline Components 8. Need for Gas Transportation: Pipeline vs LNG 2. The Pipelines Market Today 10. Environmental Impact . Maintenance 7. Pipeline Design 3.

Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev. 0 .European Gas Pipeline Incident Data Group 1970-2004 95 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.

European Gas Pipeline Incident Data Group 1970-2004 96 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev. 0 .

European Gas Pipeline Incident Data Group 1970-2004 97 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S. 0 .Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev.

European Gas Pipeline Incident Data Group 1970-2004 98 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S. 0 .Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev.

Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev. 0 .Third parties interferencies 99 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.

Aerial / Ground surveillance 100 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S. 0 .Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev.Markings .

0 .Floodings 101 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev.

Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev.Mill / Construction defects Misallignment Porosity Slag Lack of fusion Lack of penetration Undercut Cracking Welding defects Base material defects Delamination Inclusion Cracking 102 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S. 0 .

Ground movements 103 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev. 0 .

Landslide monitoring
* For the gas pipeline network in Italy over 1,800 geologically unstable areas have been identified. * Periodical geological surveys are performed to visually monitor morphological evolutions * Over 320 critical areas are currently monitored using a combination of inclinometers, piezometers and strain gauges.
GEOLOGICALLY UNSTABLE AREAS
MAIN PIPELINES

104 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev. 0

Landslide monitoring
STRAIN GAUGES

105 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev. 0

Landslide control
SOIL CONSOLIDATION STRESS RELEASE

106 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev. 0

Corrosion 107 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev. 0 .

Cathodic protection Installation of electrical (cathodic) protection Impressed Currents Cathodic Protection Rectifier 108 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev. 0 .

Cathodic protection 109 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev. 0 .

0 .Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev.Pig inspections 110 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.

0 .Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev.Inspection/Maintenance: Pigging Operations Pig Before Cleaning 111 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.

Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev. 0 .Inspection/Maintenance: Pigging Operations Pig After Cleaning 112 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.

Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev. 0 . 3 1 PI 3 2 PI 2 Pipeline 4 Traps for Launching and Receiving Pigs 1 Launching Trap 2 Special T 3 Pig transit signaller 4 Receiving Trap 113 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.Inspection/Maintenance: Pigging Operations .

Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev. 0 .Inspection/Maintenance: Pigging Operations 3 1 PI 3 2 Pipeline 2 PI 4 Pipeline start Pipeline arrival Traps for Launching and Receiving Pigs: Normal Production Condition 114 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.

0 .Inspection/Maintenance: Pigging Operations 3 1 PI 3 2 Pipeline 2 PI 4 Pipeline start Pipeline arrival Traps for Launching and Receiving Pigs Cleaning Condition 115 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev.

Pipeline repair 116 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev. 0 .

Pipeline repair 117 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev. 0 .

Construction (Onshore) 4. Maintenance 7. Construction (Offshore) 5. Main Pipeline Components 8. Pipeline Design 3. Gas Storage 9. Operation 6. The Pipelines Market Today 10. Need for Gas Transportation: Pipeline vs LNG 2.Index 1. Environmental Impact .

0 .Components of a Pipeline INITIAL INJECTION STATION This is the beginning of the system. where the product is injected into the line. Storage facilities.Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev. pumps or compressors are usually located at these locations. 119 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.

these facilities allow the pipeline operator to deliver part of the product being transported. 120 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.Components of a Pipeline PARTIAL DELIVERY STATION Known also as Intermediate Stations.Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev. 0 .

The location of these stations is defined by the topography of the terrain. or operational conditions of the network. the type of product being transported.Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev. 0 .Components of a Pipeline COMPRESSOR/PUMP STATIONS Pumps for liquid pipelines and compressors for gas pipelines are located along the line to move the product through the pipeline. 121 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.

0 .Components of a Pipeline BLOCK VALVES These are the first line of protection for pipelines. Block valves are usually located at regular intervals along the line.Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev. With these valves the operator can isolate any segment of the line for maintenance work or isolate a rupture or leak. 122 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S. depending on the type of pipeline.

123 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.Components of a Pipeline FINAL DELIVERY STATION Known also as Outlet stations or Terminals. 0 . this is where the product will be distributed to the consumer.Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev.

Compressor Stations gas coolers gas filters compressor unit control room 2/22/2010 124 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S. 0 .Tarchi Rev.

Typical CS Process Flow Diagram 125 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev. 0 .

0 .Design Philosophy for Gas Pipeline CS Unit design to • • • • Security of Supply Maximum efficiency Maximum availability/reliability Maximum Service Intervals Centrifugal Compressor • • • • Referenced High efficiency tri-dimensional impellers Wide operating range with flat efficiency curve Robust Design for Availability/Reliability Very stiff casing providing excellent internal alignment at full pressure and capability to withstand extremely high nozzle loads Gas Turbine • Aero derivative high efficiency • High reliability / Availability • Reduced maintenance with Extended Life Parts 2/22/2010 126 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.Tarchi Rev.

(6800 BTU/Hp-hr) .5% eff.37.Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev.30 MW unit: 85% GT Load .Why is efficiency so important in PIP? Order of Magnitude CAPEX (Unit) CAPEX (Station) Fuel Maintenance Spares MM$ 15 15 45 7 % 18% 18% 55% 9% Assumptions .MI (50kFH) Incl.BI. (every 6m) .HGPI (25kFH) . 0 . In capex Total 82 100% 127 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.8600 FH/Y .20 Y Cycle .Gas price: 3$/MMBTU Maintenance .WACC: 12% Fuel .

Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev. 0 .Gas Pipeline Compressors Cover Head Typical Design used when: Cover Head • Optimized stages efficiency (>88%) • Short time assembly and maintenance time • Cylindrical Barrel casing permits shorter manufacturing cycles (no weldings) and maximum optimization of the discharge volute (here not limited by the casing) BEAM TYPE with Two Cover Head fixed with “shear rings” method 128 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.

Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev.Centrifugal Compressor Skid 129 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S. 0 .

Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev.Reduction Station: Typical scheme filters heating pressure regulation streams inlet by-pass relief valve outlet meter run 130 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S. 0 .

Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev. 0 .Filters filters heating pressure regulation streams inlet by-pass relief valve outlet meter run 131 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.

Heaters filters heating pressure regulation streams inlet by-pass relief valve outlet meter run 132 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev. 0 .

Pressure regulators filters heating pressure regulation streams inlet by-pass relief valve outlet meter run 133 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev. 0 .

Construction (Onshore) 4. Environmental Impact . Need for Gas Transportation: Pipeline vs LNG 2. Maintenance 7. Pipeline Design 3. Operation 6. Gas Storage 9. The Pipelines Market Today 10. Construction (Offshore) 5. Main Pipeline Components 8.Index 1.

.gie..because its role is also evolving UGS CAGR ~4% ’08-’20 Installed UGS + under construction 2010 2012 2015 2020 Source: www.com (updated at Feb 09) • Existing capacity insufficient… needed +15 BCMY • Higher demand for flexibility & peak gas rates • Growth driven by security of supply & arbitrage 135 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S...Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev. 0 . WGV (Bcm) 700 650 600 550 500 450 400 350 300 250 200 2008 high base min .The Gas Storage Market UGS market is growing worldwide.

0 . Exporting the Gas P max Compressor start up P grid Note: curve profiles are qualitative From cavern Pressure to grid Pr • Flexibility in pressure ratio & flows necessary to manage both the operating modes • Pgrid high variance range enhance the need for flexibility 136 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S. Filling the Reservoir P grid From grid Pressure to the Max Pressure of the Reservoir II.Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev.2 main operating modes in Gas Storage P max I.

How this apply to centrifugals Process operations I) Storage 2 Sections in Series Requiring… Low Flow & High Pressure Ratio II) Withdrawal/Export 2 Sections in Parallel Requiring… Large Flow & Low Pressure Ratio One Single unit for storage & export… Optimum Efficiency over the complete map 2/22/2010 137 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S. 0 .Tarchi Rev.

Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev. 0 .Main Types of Storage Porous Rocks Aquifer Reservoir Max P  170 bar Depleted Oil/Gas Reservoirs Caverns Max P  250 bar … exceptionally up to  450 bar Salty Caverns Max P  250 bar Abandoned Mines Lined Rock Caverns 138 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.

The Pipelines Market Today 10.Index 1. Construction (Onshore) 4. Pipeline Design 3. Environmental Impact . Gas Storage 9. Maintenance 7. Need for Gas Transportation: Pipeline vs LNG 2. Operation 6. Main Pipeline Components 8. Construction (Offshore) 5.

Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev. 0 .Pipeline Capex (By Cost Component) 140 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.

Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev. 0 .Pipeline Capex (By Product) 141 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.

Pipeline Capex (By Region) 142 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S. 0 .Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev.

0 .Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev.EU Pipeline Infrastructure 143 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.

0 .China Pipeline Infrastructure Heihe Kaladierdaban Zhuaji Manzhouli Gas from Turkmenistan and KazahkstanAlashankou Kelamayi Cainan Shaanxi BJ 3 WEPP 2 Length :8000 -9000km Diameter 1219mm : Pressure :10MPa Startup: 2011 Hongliu Huoerguosi Dushanzi Urumuqi Shanshan Length :1400km Diameter 1016mm : Pressure :10MPa Startup: 2011 阿尔善 Daqing Harbin Changchun Jilin Tieling Fushun Anshan Yilan Northeast Pipelines Length :967km Diameter 1016mm : Pressure :10MPa Startup: 2010 Luntai Kuerle Lunnan Tahe Saihantala Shenyang Yingkou Tazhong Hohhot : : : Dunhuang 花土沟 Baotou Hetian Beijing Fangshan Cangzhou Qinhuangdao Yinchuan Sebei Tianjin Taiyuan Dezhou Shijiazhuang Handan Anyang Puyang Jining Bo’ai Dongying Northeast Pipelines Dalian Xining Geermu Zhongning Jingbian Zibo Qingdao Linyi Huai’an Yancheng Qingyang Jinan Length :390km Diameter 1016mm : Pressure :10MPa Startup: 2011 Lhasa Pipeline Length :1200km Diameter 508mm : Pressure :10MPa Startup: N/A Lhasa Sebei-Xining -Lanzhou Duplicate Length :930km Diameter 660mm : Startup: 2012 Lanzhou Baoji Zhengzhou Xi’an Zhumadian Xiangfan Xiaogan Tangshan Pipelines Hefei Nanjing Anqing Jiujiang Jiangyou Dujiangyan Nanchong Longgang Shanghai Ningbo LonggangPipeline Chengdu Length :670km Diameter 1016mm : Pressure :10MPa Startup: 2013 Dali Wuhan Zhangshu Hangzhou Rui’an Chongqing Changsha Huaihua Xiangtan Shangrao Length :450km Diameter 1016mm : Pressure :10MPa Startup: N/A Nanchang Pingxiang Hengyang Ruijin Shaoguan China .Burma Length 2748km : Diameter 1016mm : Pressure 10MPa : Startup: 2011 Guiyang Guilin Liuzhou Fuzhou Taipei Kunming Guangzhou Nanning Maoming Legend Existing 29 / GE Oil & Gas ECLP/ 144 10/28/2008 New Hong Kong Macao Haikou GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev.

0 .Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev.North America Pipeline Infrastructure 145 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.

India Pipeline Infrastructure

146 GE Confidential and Proprietary Information GE2006 All Rights Reserved Author: S.Tarchi 2/22/2010 Rev. 0

Index
1. Need for Gas Transportation: Pipeline vs LNG 2. Pipeline Design 3. Construction (Onshore) 4. Construction (Offshore) 5. Operation 6. Maintenance 7. Main Pipeline Components 8. Gas Storage 9. The Pipelines Market Today 10. Environmental Impact

Environmental Impact - Example

Source: Nordstream website

Environmental Impact .Example Source: Nordstream website .

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