Xavier Graham Mr.

Aguilar HSS-Period 4 23 April 2012 India Post-Independence Essay As India grows in population, many problems grow with it, such as the pollution, the religious differences, the differing gender roles, and so forth. There are many different problems, major and miniscule, of which India is trying to solve, however, five major topics will always be found at the roots of these problems. These five major topics Post-Independence India has dealt with and still deal with are, women’s gender roles, government organization, religious conflict, environmental issues, and India’s role in the modern age and in the global market. Post-Independence India’s religious conflict has deep roots in its majority Hindu and minority Muslim society. As Gandhi liberated the country, he was forced to separate the Hindus and Muslims by creating a new country, Pakistan, which would have a population that was majority Muslim. However, this failed to stop the battle between the differing religions, as shown by the Indo-Pakistani War over Kashmir in 1947, and two more wars occurring in 1961, which was another unsuccessful fight over the state of Kashmir, and in 1975, where Pakistan tried to pacify Bengal’s peasantry by taking Hindu/Indian land and handing it the Muslim society of Pakistan (Ismail; par. 4). These actions left terrible consequences for both sides, where India ended up receiving 8 million refugees, placing a huge burden on the government, and Pakistan being utterly crushed in 2 weeks by the Indian military after tension built up over Bengal and war was declared (Ismail; par. 4). There is still currently some conflict between the two countries today, although not nearly as brutal. This current conflict has to do with Kashmir and who can

4). According to the Hindu religion. Again. On the contrary. In exchange they receive ten percent of all income and receive a mere one percent of all the [country]’s means of production. ch. India holds around a little more than one-third. Hindu women are “more sexually voracious than men” and “must be controlled” (Nanda. women have received expanded “freedom” in their households. the agreement was that areas of India that contained 70% or more Muslim population would be Pakistan (Ismail. . ch. Pakistan has recently presented an argument than has resulted in stronger support. par. have changed since this time period. This conflict is still occurring today. in India have also been a major issue regarding India after the British pulled out in 1947. 2). which is the fact that when the British pulled out in early 1947. 1 par. Gender roles. even if the “freedom” is still limited. “Women do two-thirds of all the [country]’s work. par. Recently. Thus women were restricted to housework and used as a means of reproduction whilst the men of the household were noted as the “bread-winners” (Sudha. and China holds the remaining fourth or so. mostly women’s. men perform one-third of the [country]’s work and are rewarded with ninety percent of the income and ninety-nine percent of means of production” (Sudha. par. India has a much larger population. This is a prime example of how women held a submissive gender role in the household. Gender roles. however. 6). and were expected to live up to these guidelines. Pakistan holds almost exactly one-third. 3). just to keep things “balanced” (Ismail. and therefore still holds a firm grasp on the state of Kashmir. 1 par. and have also received more income and means of production. However. 5-7). however. Right now.grasp a better hold onto it. The current standing for this conflict over the state of Kashmir revolves around the question of which country will receive a better hold on the state.

Atal Bihari Vajpayee (1998-2004). the water is running out. Although. 3). Also. Environment par. and population. Charan Singh (1979-1980). India has had many environmental problems. Environment par. In addition to these floods. Indira Gandhi (1980-1984). until 1964 (Kapur. the floods still do much damage to crops. held power from the start in 1947. flooding. India has taken a lot of land damage. taking nearly 2000 lives in the 1980s and ruining 60% of the potential crops in 1990 (India. Jawaharlal Nehru.Post-Independence India’s government is another major topic. political parties. and the present Prime Minister. Pamulaparti Venkata Narasimha Rao (1991-1996). who greatly influenced Gandhi’s decisions during his lifetime. par. including the deforestation in 1987 when 21% of India’s total land was forested (India. through the assassination of Gandhi. major and minor. agriculture. cattle. India’s first Prime Minister. Since 1947. and even with this pollution. Morarji Desai (1977-1979). Inder Kumar Gujral (1997-1998). some of which are still occurring today. starting with Gandhi’s fall from power when he was assassinated a few years after India’s Independence. Manmohan Singh (2004-present) (Kapur. costing the country near an estimated 10 billion dollars. Chandra Shekhar (19901991). Rajiv Gandhi (1984-1989). Next came Lal Bahadur Shastri (1964-1966). par. legislation. Haradanahalli Dodde Deve Gowda (1996-1997). Particularly. The most significant of these leaders were Nehru. over 70% of the water in India is . This deforestation produced another problem. and political leaders. Indira Gandhi. 3). much of India’s water and air is polluted. and Indira Gandhi. including it’s state organization. who took the position of Prime Minister twice and influenced India. many different political leaders have fallen and risen. Vishwanath Pratap Singh (1989-1990). which started occurring after deforestation occurred around the Himalayan watershed areas. Starting after the British left. 2). 6). India has tried to prevent this flooding with 30 years of flood control programs.

where the burning wood or charcoal mixed with the dust in the air can create some pretty significant problems. it can still be a successful country nonetheless. This would mean that everyday. with the technology and engineering markets blowing up in India.7 million tons). The money spent on the research and development of technology is $20. Science and Technology par. but also in rural areas. Additionally.8 trillion).676 million ($20. twenty years before these statistics. Environment par. however. India is still a new country that is facing many problems such as pollution and religious differences. The value of India’s technology exports in 2002 rose up to $1. Also. especially in urban centers like Mumbai and Delhi. 2).5 pounds of carbon dioxide. which in 1992.88 metric tons (about 1 ton or 2000 pounds) per person (India. 5). amounted to 769 million metric tons (847. technology and engineering students have accounted for more that 25% of the total college and university applications. the National Committee on Environmental Planning and Coordination was created to solve environmental problems created by the population growth and industrialization. These problems include the airborne acids. In 1972. The air is also polluted. Currently. each person in India in 1992 let into the atmosphere 5. Science and Technology par. 6). .782.788 billion (India. 150 nuclear scientists per year (India. or around 0. India’s nuclear technology facility. Bhabha Atomic Research Center. Not only that. contains four nuclear reactors for the sake of research and trains. from 1987 to 1997. India is currently a major part of the world’s economy and global market. 4). which is also the country’s largest scientific establishment. not much progress has been made. on average. And even though. Environment par. India’s recent successes in technology are good signs that things can get better. India holds the sixth highest amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions.polluted. which are dulling the exterior of the Taj Mahal (India.

com. 2012.Who Is Right. This is not a source as credible of a source as the one above (the one with the encyclopedia) because it’s written by someone.Annotated Works Cited "India. 2012." Worldmark Encyclopedia of Nations.org/transnational/articles/article495.htm>. but that's not allowed and it would probably result in too much “similar wording”. Sloan. Kapur. Serena. For some reason I felt like this source was somewhat biased against the foreign policies of the Prime Ministers like Manmohan Singh. "Foreign Policies of India's Prime Ministers. 17 Apr. <http://www. "Gender Roles in India. however.pdf>.transnational-perspectives. it also provided me with information on the order of the prime ministers and explained what each of them did and how each of then were equal in significance even though some were more equal than others. 22 Apr. If it was allowed I could of written my whole paper off of this one source. 2012. Harish. <http://www. <http://www." Safraproject.org/downloads/Gender_roles_in_india_by_ser ena_nanda. 20 Apr. Nonetheless. 21 Apr.encyclopedia. Web. such as brutal of terrible. Nanda. Safra Project. this someone is a person living in Pakistan who has lived through most of the conflict between the two countries and there was not as much bias against India as I thought there would be so I think it is safe to say that this source is reliable as a secondary source. <http://www." Web.pdf>. There was also minimal bias evident because not many “bias-able” adjectives were used. 2007. Encyclopedia.anusha. 2012. and Rene Wadlow.org. "Kashmir Conflict .com/kashmir. Ismail. India or Pakistan?" Web. . I was pretty happy with this source because I found a lot of information from it.com>.safraproject.

useful. than I would have wanted.This source had a lot more information on “sexual relations” in terms of religion. Print. It used a lot of detail as it explored the gender roles as well and gave me a quote that was very relevant.P. and meaningful to my paper. 2000.S. 19 April 2012. Pub. it did provide me with some interesting quotes to use during my second body paragraph when I explored the gender role of women.H. . D. Sudha. New Delhi: A. This book is a very interesting book to read because it not only covers gender roles in India in the first chapter but also covers many other social issues in many different places such as China and the U. Gender Roles. K. However.

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