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Explain briefly the Computer Integrated Manufacturing. Computer Integrated Manufacturing Computer Integrated Manufacturing, known as CIM, is the phrase used to describe the complete automation of a manufacturing plant, with all processes functioning under computer control and digital information tying them together. It was promoted by machine tool manufacturers in the 1980's and the Society for Manufacturing Engineers (CASA/SME). Quite often it was mistaken for the concept of a "lights out" factory. It includes CAD/CAM, computeraided design/computer-aided manufacturing, CAPP, computer-aided process planning, CNC, computer numerical control machine tools, DNC, direct numerical control machine tools, FMS, flexible machining systems, ASRS, automated storage and retrieval systems, AGV, automated guided vehicles, use of robotics and automated conveyance, computerized scheduling and production control, and a business system integrated by a common data base. Integration occurs when a broad range of manufacturing and supporting activities are linked. CIM is the complete automation of a manufacturing plant, with all processes functioning under computer control and digital information tying them together. The three major functions in manufacturing are production, design, and management function. Production function converts resources into products. The design function transforms customer specifications into design. Finally the management functions plan and control production activities. The three computer aids in CIM are: • • • Computer aid to the production function (automated flow of materials) Computer aid to the design function (automated flow of technological information) Computer aid to the management function (automated flow of managerial information)
When it comes to production, CIMs are included in different areas of production process such as in engineering design, production planning, shop control, order processing, material control, distribution and many other areas. Information flow across all the functions takes place with the help of computers. Transmission, processing, distribution, and feedback happen almost in real time so that intended activities are conducted rapidly. CIM process helps in rapid production and also reduces indirect costs. CIM uses computers to control the entire production process. This integration allows the processes to exchange information with each other and thus they become capable of initiating actions. As response times decrease, customer satisfaction increases resulting in better business. CIM helps in SMU Roll No. XXXXXX
avoiding accumulation of materials resulting in better throughput and better utilisation of space. Bar coded labels that accompany materials contain instructions for processing them which are read by sensing devices and display the status on monitors. This information is available to all concerned personnel responsible in planning, marketing and other activities so that they will be aware of the status of any order. If expediting is needed to meet deadlines, they will be able to seek intervention. Identifying shortages and ensuring faster deliveries become easy with CIM. Thus, CIM is an important aspect of technology in manufacturing. Almost 40 percent of manufacturing companies are now using one or more elements of CIM technology The heart of computer integrated manufacturing is CAD/CAM. Computer-aided design(CAD) and computer-aided manufacturing(CAM) systems are essential to reducing cycle times in the organization. CAD/CAM is a high technology integrating tool between design and manufacturing. CAD techniques make use of group technology to create similar geometries for quick retrieval. Electronic files replace drawing rooms. CAD/CAM integrated systems provide design/drafting, planning and scheduling, and fabrication capabilities. CAD provides the electronic part images, and CAM provides the facility for toolpath cutters to take on the raw piece. The computer graphics that CAD provides allows designers to create electronic images which can be portrayed in two dimensions, or as a three dimensional solid component or assembly which can be rotated as it is viewed. Advanced software programs can analyze and test designs before a prototype is made. Finite element analysis programs allow engineers to predict stress points on a part, and the effects of loading. Once a part has been designed, the graphics can be used to program the tool path to machine the part. When integrated with an NC postprocessor, the NC program that can be used in a CNC machine is produced. The design graphics can also be used to design tools and fixtures, and for inspections by coordinate measuring machines. The more downstream use that is made of CAD, the more time that is saved in the overall process. Generative process planning is an advanced generation of CAD/CAM. This uses a more powerful software program to develop a process plan based on the part geometry, the number of parts to be made, and information about facilities in the plant. It can select the best tool and fixture, and it can calculate cost and time. Flexible machining systems (FMS) are extensions of group technology and cellular manufacturing concepts. Using integrated CAD/CAM, parts can be designed and programmed in half the time it would normally take to do the engineering. The part programs can be downloaded to a CNC machining center under the control of an FMS host computer. The FMS host can schedule the CNC and the parts needed to perform the work. Computer integrated manufacturing can include different combinations of the tools listed above.
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Q2. What is automation? What are the kinds of automation? For services, automation usually means labour saving devices In education, long distance learning technology helps in supplementing class room instruction. The facilitating goods that are used are web site and videos. Automation in the banking sector has resulted in ATMs which save the banks a huge amount of labour and it is found to have given greater customer satisfaction. Automation is ideal when the service provided or the product manufactured is highly standardized. Some extent of automation can be designed even with customization i.e. product or service s meant to produce or deliver low volumes specific to a requirement. The advantage of automation is it has low variability and will be more consistent on a repetitive basis. On the shop floor variability causes loss of quality. Automation is the use of control systems and information technologies to reduce the need for human work in the production of goods and services. In the scope of industrialization, automation is a step beyond mechanization. Whereas mechanization provides human operators with machinery to assist them with the muscular requirements of work, automation greatly decreases the need for human sensory and mental requirements as well. Automation plays an increasingly important role in the world economy and in daily experience. Automation has had a notable impact in a wide range of industries beyond manufacturing (where it began). Once have been replaced largely by automated telephone switchboards and answering machines. Medical processes such as primary screening in electrocardiography or radiography and laboratory analysis of human genes, sera, cells, and tissues are carried out at much greater speed and accuracy by automated systems. Automated teller machines have reduced the need for bank visits to obtain cash and carry out transactions. In general, automation has been responsible for the shift in the world economy from industrial jobs to service jobs in the 20th and 21st centuries. Advantages of Automation: • • • • Replacing human operators in tasks that involve hard physical or monotonous work. Replacing humans in tasks done in dangerous environments (i.e. fire, space, volcanoes, nuclear facilities, underwater, etc.) Performing tasks that are beyond human capabilities of size, weight, speed, endurance, etc. Economy improvement: Automation may improve in economy of enterprises, society or most of humanity. For example, when an enterprise invests in automation, technology recovers its investment; or when a state or country increases its income due to automation like Germany or Japan in the 20th Century. Reduces operation time and work handling time significantly. Frees up workers to take on other roles. Provides higher level jobs in the development, deployment, maintenance and running of the automated processes.
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Kinds of Automation: There are three kinds of automation viz. Fixed Automation, Programmable Automation and Flexible Automation. 1. Fixed Automation: By its very nature, fixed automation is rigid. They are designed for high volume production and their rigidity ensures less variability. They are not amenable to change in product or process. They need minimal human intervention. The machines have sensing and control devices that enable them to operate automatically. The simplest of them – called machine attachments – they replace human effort. They guide, locate, move and achieve relative positions by means of cams, optical sensing, load sensing mechanisms and activate the controls to remove human intervention. Numerically controlled machines read instructions and convert them to machine operations. Computer/s are used for controlling one machine or a number of them and they have programme written into them for operations. They are Computer Numerically Controlled or, for short, CNC machines. 2. Programmable Automation: Programming devices enable machines to operate automatically. The machines have sensing and control devices that enable this. The simplest of them called machine attachments replace human effort. They guide, locate, move, and achieve relative positions by means of cams, optical sensing, and load sensing mechanisms and activate the controls to remove human intervention. Numerically controlled machines read instructions and convert them to machine operations. Computers are used for controlling one machine or a number of them and they have programmes written into them for operations. They are Computer Numerically Controlled or, for short, CNC machines. 3. Flexible Automation: Robots are higher in the order of automation as they perform a variety of tasks. They are designed to move materials by holding them in their arms and making precise movements according to programmes written into the computers that reside in them. They simulate human actions. They can grip and hold tools with the help of sensors. These sensors are sensitive to touch and force to „know that the material is to be held with the requisite ‟ pressure for the conduct of operations. Vision sensors are used for inspection, identification and guidance. They use optics based instruments to gather data and feed them to the computers for activating the other parts of the robot. With the help of automation, 100% inspection of components can be done which ensures highest quality. Identification and movement of materials are helped by bar codes which are read and fed into the system for monitoring quantity, location, and movement. They help the automated systems to sort information and provide information for effecting any changes necessary. To make effective use of automated machines, we need to have the movement of materials from and to different stations as also stores, automated. Automated Storage and Retrieval Systems (ASRS), receive orders for materials from anywhere in the production area, collect materials and deliver materials to the workstations. Computers and information systems are used for placing orders for materials, giving commands and adjusting inventory records which show the location and quantity of materials available/needed. Continuous updating gives a clear SMU Roll No. XXXXXX
picture for all concerned to enable them initiate action to keep the throughput smooth. Automated Guided Vehicle Systems (AGVS) like pallet trucks and unit load carriers follow embedded guide wires or paint strips to reach destinations as programmed. ***************************
Q3. What are the factors that influence the plant location? Remaining answers are available in the full assignments.
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