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# The Islamic University of Gaza Faculty of Post Graduate Studies \Civil Engineering Design and Rehabilitation of Structures

## Analysis of Cylindrical Shells

ENGC 6353

Done By: Eng. Mahmoud M. Jahjouh Submitted to: Prof. Mohammed H. Arafa Submission Date: November 30th, 2010 Eng. Mahmoud Jahjouh 120100099 ENGC 6353

Table of Content

## Analysis of Cylindrical Shells ENGC

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TOPIC NAME 1. INTRODUCTION TO SHELLS 1.1. SHELLS IN ENGINEERING 1.2. ADVANTAGES OF USING SHELLS 1.3. DISADVANTAGES OF USING SHELLS 1.4. MAIN SHELL TYPES 2. THE CYLINDRICAL SHELL 2.1. FORMING OF CYLINDRICAL SHELL 2.2. DIMENSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 2.3. TYPES OF CYLINDRICAL SHELLS 3. STRESSES IN A CYLINDRICAL SHELL 3.1. THE MEMBRANE THEORY 3.1.1. THE MEMBRANE THEORY 3.1.2. STRESSES DUE TO LOAD 3.1.3. THE PROBLEM OF MEMBRANE THEORY 3.2. THE BEAM THEORY 4. DIAPHRAGM ANALYSIS 5. APPENDIX: GRAPHS FOR CURVED BEAM CROSS SECTIONAL CHARACTERISTICS.

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1. Introduction to Shells
1.1 Shells in Engineering: 1.2
1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6)

## Analysis of Cylindrical Shells ENGC

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Thin Shells as structural elements occupy a leadership position in engineering and especially in civil engineering, since they can be used in the construction of large span roofs, liquid retaining structures, domes folded plates and so on.

## Advantages of using shell structures:

The efficiency in its load carrying behavior (being treated as a membrane) High degree of reserved strength and structural integrity High Strength : weight ratio (which is the main criteria in measuring a structure efficiency Very High Stiffness Containment of Space High Aesthetic Value

1.3
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Its impossible to build a story above the story that has a shell roof, thus shells are always used as a terminating roof.

1.4

Toroidal Shells

## 2. The Cylindrical Shell

2.1 Forming of Cylindrical Shells

## Analysis of Cylindrical Shells ENGC

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A Cylindrical Shell can be thought of a surface generated by a straight line (generator) moving over a plane curve (directrix)

2.2

## Some Recommended Values: t1 = 8 to 12cm t2 = t1+4 d = 1/3h f = 2/3h

h = L/(8 to 10) be = (2 to 4) t1

2.3
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## Analysis of Cylindrical Shells ENGC

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Long Cylindrical Shells o L/R >= 5 for Unstiffened Circular Shells (no stiff edge beams) o L/R >= 3 for Stiffened Circular Shells (with stiff edge beams) o OR n < 3 where n = B/(L2 R t )0.5 o Main Characteristics: Deformation of cross section is small Both Membrane Theory and Beam Analysis Applies Short Cylindrical Shells o L/R < 5 for Unstiffened Circular Shells (no stiff edge beams) o L/R < 3 for Stiffened Circular Shells (with stiff edge beams) o OR n > 3 where n = B/(L2 R t )0.5 o Main Characteristics: Deformation of cross section is large Membrane Theory Applies

## 3. Stresses in a Cylindrical Shell

3.1.1 Membrane Theory
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## Analysis of Cylindrical Shells ENGC

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The Membrane Theory: o Thin shells are assumed to work as a membrane for its low bending rigidity, thus no bending moments develop and the force is resisted entirely by both membrane and ring forces acting on the shell. o For a shell to be classified as thin it must satisfy the following criteria: max(h/R) <= 1/20, where: h shell thickness R shell radius of curvature o For practical considerations, the ratio h/R should be between 1/1000 to 1/20 and preferably 8-12 cm

## Membrane vs. Beam Theory

Schematic of a Shell

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The Cylindrical shell may be designed by using the membrane theory only if t1<=R/20. This theory implies that all forces are translated into forces in the plane of the shell. The following equation can be derived based on the general membrane theory: N /r1 + N /r2 = -Pr dNx /dx = -P 1/R . dN /d dNx/dx = -Px 1/R . dNx /d Note that for a cylinder, the radius r2 approaches infinity, then the term N /r2 will approach Zero, thus the modified equation for cylindrical shells is: N = -Pr . R

## 3.1.2 Stresses due to Load

The Figure shows a small element (in bold) that has a Load (g). Substituting in the membrane equations yields: 1) N 2) Nx 3) N x Where: = = = - g*R*cos( ) -2g*x*sin( ) -g/R * (L2/4 x2) cos( )

L = Length of Span of Shell. x = Distance Along the Span. Nx = shear forces along the element.

The Following Figure shows the variation of forces along a cylindrical shell:

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## 3.1.3 The Problem of Membrane Theory:

Along Edges of a cylindrical shell, membrane theory gives normal and shear stresses. This is wrong since the edges are free. To correct the solution: Line loads must be applied in opposite direction of membrane forces to cancel the edge stresses obtained from the membrane analysis. These line loads cause bending moments in the shell at edges. This analysis is called bending analysis.

## 3.2.1 The Bending Analysis

There are two main steps in the bending method which are: 1) Beam Analysis: the shell is regarded as beam of curved cross section. All elastic equations apply. This analysis obtains the stresses that vary along the shell. a. s c = M*(psi)/I b. s t = M*(h-psi)/I c. taw max = Q S (N.A.) /(I*2t) d. Moments (M) and Shears (Q) are obtained from a static analysis of shell over its diaphragms (every diaphragm is considered a support) 2) Arch Analysis: the shell is regarded as successive arches. This analysis obtains the stresses that vary across the shell. a. M1 = wR2. 2/21 b. M2 = wR2. 2/44.5 c. M1 = wR2. 2/48 in radians d. A good practice is to enlarge thickness near beam to assist in resisting the moments and reduce them, this distance is approximated to about 0.75m 1m e. The attached Page Contains Graphs to Get Moment of Inertia and other properties.

4. Diaphragm Analysis

## Analysis of Cylindrical Shells ENGC

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The Diaphragm is considered the support of a cylindrical shell and is subjected to its shear and gravity loads. To analyze it, we need to consider two loads: 1) The direct gravity loads: consists of the loads transferred from the shell to the diaphragm as well as the diaphragms self weight. 2) The indirect Loads that are transferred due to shear stresses. These loads are transferred in the form of Horizontal Components and Vertical Components. And are obtained by dividing the diaphragm into small elements as shown in the next figure.

F = Shear . ds V = F sin H = F cos The Moment is calculated by adding the normal static moment and the moment induced by the additional V and H forces. Once all forces are obtained, the diaphragm is treated as a beam (or beam column).

5. References
1) Reinforced Concrete Halls 2) Concrete Shell Roofs 3) Thin Plates and Shells

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