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**An Image SegmentationA lgorithm SegmentationA Based on F uzzy C -Means Clustering uzzyC -Means
**

Xin-bo ZHANG College of Information and Electronic Engineering,ZheJiang Gongshang University Hangzhou,zhejiang,china Li JIANG College of Information and Electronic Engineering ,ZheJiang Gongshang University Hangzhou,zhejiang,china jl321123@163.com

lots of work have been done, there is still no a general segmentation algorithm to and a impersonality criterion estimate the

Abstract

Image segmentation algorithm based on fuzzy cmeans clustering is an important algorithm in the image segmentation field. It has been used widely. However, it is not successfully to segment the noise image because the algorithm disregards of special constraint information. It only considers the gray information. Therefore , we proposed a weighed fcm algorithm based on gaussian kernel function for image segmentation . The original euclidean distance is replaced by a kernel-induced distance in the algorithm . Then, a bound term is added to the objective function to compensate the influence of the spatial information. The experimental results illustrate that the proposed method is more effective to image segmentation.

segmentation. According to concretely instances, many segmentation algorithms have been put forward. Among them, image segmentation algorithm field[10] [12]. based It on fuzzy c-means could retain much is an more important algorithm in the image segmentation information from the original image than hard segmentation methods . Fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm is a representative clustering algorithm . However, FCM algorithm can't realiz e feature optimiz ation of the sample dates. Meanwhile, with the original FCM algorithm, we can't get satisfactory results because of the influence of the noise. Document[2][4][7][9] put forward a FCM algorithm based on kernel density function. The original euclidean distance is replaced by a kernel-induced distance in the algorithm . This new algorithm can effectively analyz e many data structures such as non-hyperspherical structure, mix ed structure composed of heterogeneous cluster prototypes , and data with noise and so on . In this paper, using kernel function instead of euclidean distance, considering spatial information, initializ ing weight and increasing constraint item, we proposed a weighed fcm algorithm based on gaussian kernel function for image segmentation . The proposed method can

22

**Key words: fuzzy c-means; gaussian kernel
**

function; weighted; image segmentation

1. Introduction

Image segmentation algorithm is a crucial step

**in the image processes and analysis. It plays a
**

vital role in many fields such as computer vision, pattern recognition and medical image processing. The goal of segmentation is to Although ,

**separate an image into some regions of feature and to pick up the interesting objects.
**

978-0-7695-3565-4/09 $25.00 © 2009 IEEE DOI 10.1109/ICDIP.2009.15

x ) 2 = 1. Kernel density function[2] Solving random variable distribution density function by given sample sets is one of the basic problem in probability statistics.v)=2(1−k(x. a set of sample date as φ ( {v .. C} m of degree. was the menbership of cluster . In the literature [4].According ij menbership to the lagrange multiplier rule. Fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm based on kernel density function (x .)is a nonlinear mapping function. The Euclidean distance in the standar d FCM algorithm was replaced by kernel model.. N i could be ex pressed ∑ (u v i = j =1 N x ). v )] u = ∑ [1 − k (x . By it the target can be ex tracted from the background effectively in noisy images. j = 1. N } was a set of image j gray. C was the number of classification.fully consider the influence of the noise. The methords of solving this problem include parameter estimation and non-parameter estimation. u and v were: i 2 u ij = ⎡ φ( x j ) − φ (v i ) ⎢ ⎣ c ⎤ ⎥ ⎦ 2 1 1− m 1 ∑ N k=1 ⎡ φ( x j ) − φ (vk ) ⎢ ⎣ m ij j ⎤ ⎥ ⎦ 1− m x . degree i u ij j th object in the i th parameter estimation. ) x ∑ (u ) m ij j =1 (4) A kernel in the feature space can be represented as a function K below: While using GRBF.. And these methods can't always achieve satisfactory results.. v )] [1 − k j i ij c j k k =1 1 1− m 1 1− m (7) 23 . x j ) = (φ ( xi ). center.2. That is to say. 3. People presume that the random date sets obey specific distribution among every possible class in C N 2 m Jm = ∑ ∑ u ij φ ( x j ) − φ ( v i ) i=1 j =1 Where (3) {x . experiences and theories show that this presumption disagrees with actual physial models. That realiz ed feature optimiz ation. The objective function [3][5][9]was: 2. Due to the above defects.v) j i j j i i −2 (x.v)) k j i j i C N m J m = 2 ∑ ∑ uij (1− k( xj .then: k ( xi . i = 1....φ ( x j )) is G aussian kernel [11].x)+k(v. the author brought forward a fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm based on kernel density function. i = 1. radial basis function (1) The commonl y-used kernel function in literature (GRBF) φ(x)−φ(v) =k(x.2.. However.. classification was clustering was weighted coefficient of the It controlled the fuzzy . one kind of the nonparameter estimations.obtained by substituting (5) into (3)and(4): k ( xi .... people brought forward the kernel density estimation. i φ (. We can map the datas from highdimensional space to low-dimensional space by kernel density estimation. k ( x . δ is the width of the GRBF.2.vi)) i =1 j =1 (5) And. x j ) = exp( − xi − x j 2δ 2 2 ) (2) (6) In the formula.

L − 1.. but optimiz e the validity function judging clustering effect. is a point ( ) initializing a binary Substituting i in the upper ex pression for C k: (8) s.. that is the 2D histogram. So with the method of histogram we can't get satisfactory result... n = 1.1.vi ] = 2 ∑ i=1 1 m ⎤ j =1 ⎡ c 1 m ⎢∑[1− k xj . image's spatial information can be fully used. m = 1..vk ] − ⎥ ⎣ k=1 ⎦ ( f ( m.. n) . t = 0. building a 2D histogram multiplier u ij and v are: i u= ij [1−k xj . Therefore. the objective function relates to the gaussian kernel function merely. And every (s.. It not only optimiz e the clustering model...2 The implement segmentation implementsegmentation algorithm The objective function of KWFCM algorithm as follows: appearance probability of every gray can be ex pressed: h = M × N .vi)) =2 ∑ ∑ m 1 c j = 1i = 1⎡ [1− k . we get the Then smoothed image array g ( m. the distribution of the target and background is overlapped due to the relativity between a pix el and its neighborhood pix els. the target and background can be more easily distinguished than in a 1D histogram. ..1. on a 1D gray histogram. vi ]1−m ⎥ ⎥ (1− k (x . n ) . ( s . v )) J m' = 2 ∑ ∑ ⎢ c 1 j i i = 1 j = 1⎢ ∑[1− k . The diagonal elements of pix el pairs H st ex press the number of the ( s. For one image f (m. vi ]1−m ( ) 1 ∑[1− k(x .. M ..⎡ ⎤ 1 C N ⎢ [1− k xj .Then =0 L −1 density function is 4. t) N ⎡ ' J m = 2 ∑ ⎢ ∑ [1 − k j = 1 ⎣ k =1 (x . ]1−m ⎥ xj vk ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ k =1 ⎦ m by using the original image and its smoothed image. in another word.. However. t ) is L −1 =0 n st and the following hold the joint probability ∑ s ∑t nst = 1 . i = 0. n) .. Then the 4. s) . Its gray level is L . So the implement method of initializing weight ( ) ( ) N C [1− k xj . An image segmentation algorithm imagesegmentation based on kernel-weighed fcm kernel-weighed clustering nitializing 4. to the lagrange (9) represents the number of occurrence of the pix el. ( s . For ex ample. t) .. L − 1 i n (i ) and the following hold: ∑ h = 1 which i =0 i L −1 n (i ) C N 2 m J m'' = ∑ ∑ ω j uij φ ( x j ) −φ (vi ) i =1 j =1 According rule. i is the gray of the pix el [6]. vi ] (1− k(xj .. N .1 Initializing weight H st = n st M ×N . Let the number of occurrence of In this case. v )] j k 1 1− m ⎤ ⎥ ⎦ 1−m on plane S × T . v )] j k k=1 c 1 1−m 24 . ]1−m ⎤ ⎢∑ xj vk ⎥ ⎣ k =1 ⎦ C ( ) ( ) ) 1 1−m m 1−m ω j by using 2D histogram is: Using 3×3 or 5×5 template to smoothing N ∑[1− k xj .

background after diving includes massive noises and the target is not clear although algorithm background.Figure 2(a) is a primitive image. The primitiv e image as hair and cap ear cannot be distinguished nearly. the image divided by KWFCM Ex periment two carries out division on a image of lena. Detail parts such Figure 1(a). Ex periment one carries out division on a car license image containing many targets. it can Contrasting be seen that the the the the FCM modified Figure 2(a). we make lots of ex periments on different images and analyz e the results. the image divided by FCM Those from figure 1(b) to figure 1(d) are the images after division. Figure 1(d). The primitiv e image ex perimental results.It has demonstrated the good anti-chirp 25 .v i = m ∑ ω j (u ij ) x j j =1 N N (10) ∑ ω j (u ij ) j =1 m 5. We make division on it by FCM algorithm. Figure 2(b) and figure 2(c) are the images after division by FCM algorithm and KWFCM algorithm respectively. can separate However. with the goal from the which considers the influence of pix els we get good division Figure 2(b). pillar and the ribbon on hat can not be distinguished well. the image after division by FCM algorithm effect. Figure 1(c) . While these can be distinguished well by KWFCM algorithm. Experiments and results In order to compare the image segmentation property of the traditional FCM algorithm and the proposed algorithm. Figure 1(a) is a primitive image. After diving by FCM algorithm the mirror. KFCM algorithm and KWFCM algorithm respectively. the image div ided by KFCM Figure 1(b). algorithm neighbourhood performance.

Woods. “Mercer kernel-based clustering in feature space” . Objective Function Algorithms. Girolami. 1999.Applications. J. IEEE Transactions on V olume 34. 2. can reduce the artificial intervention effectively.China. References [1] Bezdek J C. Bezdek. “An introduction to kernel-based learning algorithms”. Aug. In: Proceedings on of the image segmentation. 20:1033—48. pp. initializ ed weight by 2D histogram and perfected the division model. “Optimiz ation of Figure 2(c). It suits the images with uncertainty and fuzziness. “A novel kernelized fuz zy C-means algorithm with application in medical image segmentation”. Xi’an. That.1993. Pattern Recognition with Fuzzy [12] Pham DL and Prince JL.The ex perimental results indicated that the proposed method is quite effective. 13. [6] Refael C. May 2002. Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Machine Learning and Cybernetics. Xiamen. Artificial PP. Pattern Recognit Lett . Publishing House of XIDIAN University. . 780-784. Xi’an. vol. 20(1):57—68. the image after div ision by KWFCM algorithm clustering criteria by reformulation”. 2004 Page(s): 1907 . Pearson Education Asia LimitedAnd Publishing House of Electronics Industyt. 2007. Since the tradition FCM algorithm failed to consider the influence of neighbourhood pix els. [9] Songcan Chen and Daoqiang Z hang. 7.1. Conclusion Image segmentation is an important aspect in image processing. [7] M.May 1995. 1981. 2004. 37—50. [3] Xin-bo GAO.1916. no. IEEE Transactions on Fuz z y System. [4] Z hang DQ and Chen SC. The division quality directly effect the high-level image analysis and understanding. Hall LO and Clarke LP. pp. “Fuz z y clustering using kernel methods. “Robust image segmentation using FCM with spatial constraints based on new kernel-induced distance measure”. IEEE Trans Neural Networks . [2] Dao-Qiang Z hang and Song-Can Chen. MedPhys . It has strong robustness to the noise and certain actual meaning. 3.Gonz alez and Richard E. [5] R. 2001. New York. Plenum Press.8.using FCM algorithm in Image proccessing(second edition). [11]Muller KR and Mika Setal. Systems. This paper proposed a weighed fcm algorithm based on gaussian kernel function for image segmentation . Part B. “An adaptive fuz zyCmeans algorithm for image segmentation in the presence of intensity inhomogeneities”. C. Neual Networks. This method introduced the influence of neighbourhood pix els and kernel function. vol. Digital 6. [10] Bezdek JC. Hathway and J.241-245. Chen SC. IEEE Trans. June. 2002. Man and Cybernetics. Issue 4. 12(2):181—202.its anti-noise ability is pretty bad. International Conference Controland Automation”. “ Review of MR image segmentation techniques using pattern recognition”.2003. [8] Z hang DQ. “Kernel-based fuz zy clustering incorporating spatial constraints for image segmentation”. Fuzzy Cluster Analysis and its 26 Intelligence in Medicine. 2004.11.

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