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INTRODUCTION APPRECIATION A BRIEF HISTORY OF STATISTICS PART A PART B PART C FURTHER EXPLORATION REFLECTION CONCLUSION

and I gladly choose to do this individually. Upon completion of the Additional Mathematics Project Work.We students taking Additional Mathematics are required to carry out a project work while we are in Form 5. Ministry of Education has prepared four tasks for us. to cooperate. Experience classroom environments where knowledge and skills are applied in meaningful ways in solving real -life problems Experience classroom environments where expressing ones mathematical thinking. This project can be done in groups or individually. Train ourselves not only to be independent learners but also to collaborate. We are expected to submit the project work within three weeks from the first day the task is being administered to us. . reasoning and communication are highly encouraged and expected Experience classroom environments that stimulates and enhances effective learning. Failure to submit the written report will result in us not receiving certificate. and to use the language of mathematics to express mathematical ideas correctly and precisely Enhance acquisition of mathematical knowledge and skills through problem-solving in ways that increase interest and confidence Prepare ourselves for the demand of our future undertakings and in workplace Realize that mathematics is an important and powerful tool in solving real life problems and hence develop positive attitude towards mathematics. We are to choose and complete only ONE task based on our area of interest. Acquire effective mathematical communication through oral and writing. we are to gain valuable experiences and able to: Apply and adapt a variety of problem solving strategies to solve routine and nonroutine problems Experience classroom environments which are challenging. interesting and meaningful and hence improve their thinking skills. and to share knowledge in an engaging and healthy environment Use technology especially the ICT appropriately and effectively Train ourselves to appreciate the intrinsic values of mathematics and to become more creative and innovative Realize the importance and the beauty of mathematics.This year the Curriculum Development Division.

For their strong support. I thank you all . Also for helping me to find the mark to complete this project. Last but not least. I also would like to give thanks to all my friends for helping me and always supporting me to help complete this project work. They have always been by my side and i hope they will still be there in the future. Najihah Binti Mustaffa as she gives us important guidance and commitment during this project work. I would like to thank my Additional Mathematics teacher.First and foremost. They have done a great job at collecting form 4 end of year result for additional mathematics and sharing information with other people including me. Without them this project would never have had its conclusion. I would like to express my gratitude to my beloved parents. She has been a very supportive figure throughout the whole project. . i would also like to thank all the teacher and my friend for helping me collect the much needed data and statistics for this.. Not forgetting too all the other people who were involved directly or indirectly towards making this project a reality. Mrs.

the term "statistics" designated the systematic collection of demographic and economic data by states. statistics has great overlap with the decision science and microeconomics. probability and statistics have been in continual development.By the 18th century. statistical theory has close association with the philosophy of science. In the early 19th century. astronomy used probability models and statistical theories. Today statistics is widely employed in government. like computer science or operations research. By 1800. . following Laplace. The development of statistical reasoning was closely associated with the development of inductive logic and the scientific method Statistics is not a field of mathematics but an autonomous mathematical science. The term "mathematical statistics" designates the mathematical theories of probability and statistical inference. statistics had its origins in public administration and maintains a special concern with demography and economics. whose initial results were found in the17th and 18th centuries. statistics has overlap with information science and computer science. summary. social scientists used statistical reasoning and probability models to advance the new sciences of experimental psychology and sociology. physical scientists used statistical reasoning and probability models to advance the new sciences of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics. and all the sciences. With its concerns with data. In the 19th century. which are used in statistical practice. Being concerned with the scientific method and inductive logic. with its emphasis on learning from data and making best predictions. however. the meaning of "statistics" broadened. and have allowed statisticians to develop "computerintensive" methods. particularly in the analysis of games of chance(gambling). statistics increasingly used probability theory. Electronic computers have expedited statistical computation. and analysis of data. The relation between statistics and probability theory developed rather late. particularly the method of least squares. business. then including the discipline concerned with the collection. Unlike mathematics. which was invented by Legendre and Gauss Early probability theory and statistics was systematized and extended by Laplace. In the19th century.

biostatistics. field. education and public health. Statistics are generally regarded not as the subfield of mathematics but rather as a distinct. industrial quality control. and economic and social purposes(unemployment rate.STATISTICS TODAY During the 20th century. econometry. allied.) necessitated substantial advances in statistical practices. Individuals and organisations use statistics to understand data and make informed decisions throughout the natural and social sciences. business. the creation of precise instruments for agricultural research. public health concerns (epidemiology. . medicines. Many universities maintain separate mathematics and statistic departments. Today the used of statistic has broadened far beyond its origin. Statistic is also taught in department as diverse as psychology . etc. and other area. etc.).

and money. Finally. time. you may find yourself assigned to one of these studies. a knowledge of measurements and statistics will be invaluable. Thus. the two jobs have approximately the same amount of absenteeism. Without the use of statistics it would be very difficult to make decisions based on the data collected from a research project. Now many a student may by saying to themselves: "But I never plan on doing any research. The second reason to study statistics is to be able to read journals. a research methods or experimental psychology course)." While you may never plan to be involved in research. is the difference in recorded absenteeism between psychiatric and obstetrics nurses large enough to conclude that there is meaningful difference in absenteeism between the two units? There are two possibilities: The first possibility is that the difference between the two groups is a result of chance factors. It is extremely important for a researcher to know what statistics they want to use before they collect their data. it you decide to continue your education and work on a masters or doctoral degree. you will find them in something called the results section. Secondly. The second possibility is that there is a real difference between the two units with the psychiatric unit being more nurses missing work. however. We will be able to decide which of the two possibilities is more likely to be true. the information contained in this section will be meaningless. Certainly. Unfortunately. involvement in research will result from that decision.The first reason is to be able to effectively conduct research. Usually. in the study cited in Chapter One. provides us with a tool to make an educated decision. more and more work places are conducting internal research or are becoming part of broader research studies. The ability to extract meaning from journal articles and the ability to critically evaluate research from a statistical perspective are fundamental skills that will enhance your knowledge and understanding in . it may find its way into your life. Otherwise data might be collected that is uninterpretable. We will base this decision on our knowledge of probability and inferential statistics. when this happens it results in a loss of data. many classes on the undergraduate level may require you to conduct research (for example. In each of these instances. In reality. An understanding of basic statistics will provide you with the fundamental skills necessary to read and evaluate most results sections. Most technical journals you will read contain some form of statistics. For example. A second point about research should be made. Without an understanding of statistics. Statistics. Without statistics we have no way of making an educated decision between the two possibilities.

If you know some of the basic statistical concepts. Conducting research is time consuming and expensive. The study of statistics will serve to enhance and further develop these skills. you will be in a better position to evaluate the information you have been given. As with the mechanic discussed above. Also. Like any other tool. the five reasons to study statistics are to be able to effectively conduct research. it does not make sense to risk an entire project by attempting to compute the data analyses yourself. statistics can be used or misused. More often. The fifth reason to have a working knowledge of statistics is to know when you need to hire a statistician. Yes. It is very east to compute incomplete or inappropriate statistical analysis of one's data. you want to be able to make sure that your statistician is on the right track. Usually. we don't attempt the repair ourselves because we don't want to cause any irreparable damage. it is true that some individuals do actively lie and mislead with statistics. The fourth reason to study statistics is to be an informed consumer. however. it is also important to have enough statistical savvy to be able to discuss your project and the data analyses you want computed with the statistician you hire. In other words. to act a an informed consumer.related coursework. The third reason is to further develop critical and analytic thinking skills. . Most students completing high school and introductory undergraduate coursework have at their disposal a variety of critical thinking and analytic skills. and to know when you need to hire outside statistical help. We should be the same way about hiring a statistician. If you are in over your statistical head. to be able to read and evaluate journal articles. Most of us know enough about our cars to know when to take it into the shop. well meaning individuals unintentionally report erroneous statistical conclusions. to further develop critical thinking and analytic skills. To summarize. To do well in statistics one must develop and use formal logical thinking abilities that are both high level and creative. we try to know enough to be able to carry on an intelligible conversation with the mechanic (or we take someone with us who can) to insure that we don't get a whole new engine (big bucks) when all we need is a new fuel filter (a few bucks).

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Line Graph Number of student's additional mathematic TOV marks 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 5 15 10 2 29 38 28 Number of student's additional mathematic TOV marks 57 0 .79 80 .89 90 .99 Frequency.69 70 .70 .80 .50 .19 20 .90 19 29 39 49 59 69 79 89 99 B. f 0 5 29 57 38 28 15 10 2 A. Pie Chart .30 .60.39 40 .59 60.29 30 .40 .Class 0 .20 .49 50 .

39 40 .40 .19 20 .59 60.50 29 39 49 59 60.19 20 .Number of student's additional mathematic TOV marks 15 28 38 10 20 5 29 57 0 .49 Mode = 40 Median = 50 Mean = 52. The mode is not suitable because the data does not seem to cluster about mode .49 50 .30 .80 .79 C.29 30 .70 .652 *The mean is a more suitable measure of central tendency because it reflects the central value around which the data seems to cluster.69 70 . Bar Chart Number of student's additional mathematic TOV marks 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 .90 69 79 89 99 0 5 29 38 28 15 10 2 Number of student's additional mathematic TOV marks 57 Modal Class = 40 .

14 The standard deviation answer is getting from the square root of a variance which is also a measure of dispersion that has same unit as each value of data.5 f(x) 0 122. Thus.25 112874.49 50 . x 4.25 112869.Range= midpoint of highest class-midpoint of lowest class When comparing the range of two sets of data.99 ∑ frequency. f 0 5 29 57 38 28 15 10 2 184 midpoint .5 17860.25 34517.69 70 .5 24.39 40 . .5 552266 (b) My TOV mark is higher than all three measure of central tendencies. the range of this overall data have a greater dispersion.19 20 .5 74.5 116487 83253.75 71402. my result is increase based on the comparison.5 44.5 2071 1806 1117. ∑ ∑ ̃ class 0 .5 84.59 60. the set with a greater range is said have a greater variation or dispersion.5 94.5 2536.5 1000.29 30 . So.79 80 .5 480.5 845 189 9688 f(x2) 0 3001.5 64.5 54.5 34. Standard Deviation= √ √ √ =15.89 90 .

X Y (2) 100 90 80 70 60 Marks 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 10 2 20 3 30 4 40 5 50 6 60 7 75 8 80 9 85 10 90 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 number each student spent in doing additional mathematics (h) Based on the graph above. it is positive linear correlation which 0 < r < 1. (3) n 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Total X 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 55 Y 10 20 30 40 50 60 75 80 85 90 540 XY 10 40 90 160 250 360 525 640 765 900 3740 1 4 9 16 25 36 49 64 81 100 385 100 400 900 1600 2500 3600 5625 6400 7225 8100 36450 .

B(1) x 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 55 y 10 20 30 40 50 60 75 80 85 90 540 xy 10 40 90 160 250 360 525 640 765 900 3740 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Total 1 4 9 16 25 36 49 64 81 100 385 X= Y= b= = (2) = 5. we can conclude that the strength of the linear relationship between x and y is strong.33(x-5. I am agreed if more time is taking to make revision in additional mathematics. Since our result is 0.69 = 9. more mark will get.5 = 54 y-54=9.33 .992887 The range of the correlation coefficient is from -1 to 1. Based on data above.33x+2.r = √ √ √ =0.992887.5) y= 9.

(3)(i) Prediction of score for student who spent 7 hours per week is 66%. .

and to explore the forms of these relationships. I’m agreed that least square regression line is suitable in help me for prediction. So. where its use has substantial overlap with the field of machine learning. Regression analysis is also used to understand which among the independent variables are related to the dependent variable.(ii) Regression analysis is widely used for prediction. .

35 0.3 1.41 3.56 0.633 0.83 0.13 (1) .13 0.26 3.9 1.2 9.447 0.96 2.8 2.x y 1.591 0.5 1.544 0.56 0.19 4.51 2.380 0.4 3.23 0.079 0.

9 2 (i) graphically y 1.5 0.4 0.1 1 0.9 (ii) statistically .55 0.9 0.15 0.9998 yintercept =1.522341*x+1.8 0.8 0.25 0.65 0.4 0.3 0.35 0.09.2 0.4 0.5 0.25 0.6 0.65 0.1 1 0.5 0.y 1.1 0.55 0.75 0. R²=0.7 0.6 0.15 0.1 Series 1 f(x)=-1.2 0.09 x 0.75 0.3 1.35 0.2 1.3 0.8 0.1 Series 1 f(x)=-1.2 1.7 0.3 1.6 0.2 0.05 0.45 0.3 0.9 0.85 0.7 0.522341*x+1.7 0.05 0. R²=0.9998 x 0.6 0.09.2 0.3 0.5 0.1 0.4 0.85 0.45 0.8 0.

654+ b= b=0.a= a=-1.5 -0.0213 .018 = 1.

. Countless Of Nights... After Sacrificing My Precious Time Just For You... You My Partner. From The Day I Born. From The Day I Heard Your Name.. And. You Are My Real Friend..... But After Countless Of Hours. From The Day I Was Able To Holding Pencil. I Realized Something Really Important In You.... I Always Thought That You Will Be My Greatest Obstacle And Rival In Excelling In My Life..... Sacrificing My Anime.. You Are My Soul Mate......... ..... Sacrificing My Facebook.... I Really Love You.. Sacrificing My Computer Games.Additional Mathematics. Sacrificing My Internet.. Sacrificing My Video Games.. From The Day I Start Learning..... I LOVE YOU ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS.. Countless Of Days.

surveys cannot be conducted. Especially in conducting an air -pollution survey. In conclusion. drawing graphs and some problem solving. answering questions. we should be thankful of the people who contribute in the idea of statistics. statistics is a daily life necessity. the stock market cannot be interpret and many more. . I saw that the usage of statistics is important in daily life. Therefore.After doing research. It is not just widely used in markets but also in interpreting the condition of the surrounding like the air or the water. Without it.

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