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A Project Report On VALIDATION OF EXPECTANCY THEORY OF MOTIVATION IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS

SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT FOR THE AWARD OF DEGREE OF MASTER OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (U.P.TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY, LUCKNOW)

2009-11
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the bonafide worked carried out by Mr. /Ms…………………………..is a student of MBA IV semester of ………………………………………... during the year ……………..,in partial fulfillment of the requirement of MBA curriculum of U.P. Technical University, Lucknow. And that the project has not formed the basis for the award previously of any degree , diploma or any other sim

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I hereby declare the that research report entitled…………………………………..………… ………………………………………………………………submitted for the partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of Master of Business Administration is the outcome of original study undertaken by me and the has not formed the basis for the award of any degree, diploma or any other similar title.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The project title VALIDATION OF EXPECTANCT THEORY OF MOTIVATION has been conducted by me during my 4th semester.

I owe enormous intellectual debt towards my faculty guide Mr. NITIN SALUNKHE , who has augmented my knowledge in this field . He has helped me learn about the process and giving me valuable insight into the (subjects/issues that are addressed through the project).

I am obliged to (other persons/organizations) for cooperation during my research.

I would like to thank all the respondents without whose cooperation my study/project would have been possible/complete.

Last but not the least, I feel indebted to all those persons and organizations who/which have provided helped directly or indirectly in successful completion of this study.

Devesh Chaudhary

CONTENTS

1. INTRODUCTION 2. OVERVIEW OF EXPECTANCY THEORY 3. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 4. RESEARCH METHODOLGY 5. ANALYSIS 6. LIMITATIONS 7. FINDINGS 8. CONCLUSION 9. ANNEXURES 10.BIBLIOGRAPHY

This has a practical and positive benefit of improving motivation because it can. Expectancy theory is classified as a process theory of motivation because it emphasizes individual perceptions of the environment. helped leaders create motivational programs in the workplace. The desire to satisfy the need is strong enough to make the effort worthwhile . The reward will satisfy an important need. it provides leaders with a foundation on which to build a better understanding of ways to motivate subordinates". "This theory is built upon the idea that motivation comes from a person believing they will get what they want in the form of performance or rewards. It provides an explanation of why individuals choose one behavioral option over others.INTRODUCTION EXPECTANCY THEORY OF MOTIVATION: The Expectancy Theory of Motivation is one of the process theories. The theory states that individuals have different sets of goals and can be motivated if they believe that:     There is a positive correlation between efforts and performance. and has. and subsequent interactions arising as a consequence of personal expectations. Favorable performance will result in a desirable reward. "The basic idea behind the theory is that people will be motivated because they believe that their decision will lead to their desired outcome". . "Expectancy theory proposes that work motivation is dependent upon the perceived association between performance and outcomes and individuals modify their behavior based on their calculation of anticipated outcomes". Although the theory is not "all inclusive" of individual motivation factors.

called Work and Motivation. He has served as a consultant to a number of government agencies. The theory suggests that an individual's perceived view of an outcome will determine the level of motivation. It assumes that the choices being made are to maximize pleasure and minimize pain. an international expert on leadership and decision making. as also seen in the Law of Effect. He suggests that prior belief of the relationship between people's . Vroom has focused much of his research on dealing with motivation and leadership within an organization. He is currently a professor in the Yale School of Management at Yale University. including General Electric and American Express. as well as more than 100 major corporations worldwide.THEORY DEVELOPER The expectancy theory of motivation was suggested by Victor H. Vroom's Expectancy Theory addresses motivation and management. "one of the principles of reinforcement theory which states that people engage in behaviors that have pleasant outcomes and avoid behaviors that have unpleasant outcomes" . He was named to the original board of officers of the Yale School of Management when it was founded in 1976. One of the most influential books on the subject of motivation was written by Vroom in 1964. Vroom.

I will make something better". having the right skill set for the job at hand. Individual factors including skills. Vroom theorized that the source of motivation in Expectancy Theory is a "multiplicative function of valence. and seeing transparency in the process of who gets what reward. personality and abilities can all have an impact on an employee's performance. Instrumentality: Instrumentality can be described as the thought that if an individual performs well. having trust and respect for people who make the decisions on who gets what reward." He suggested that "people consciously chose a particular course of action. experience. a bonus may not increase motivation for an employee who is motivated by formal recognition or by increased status such as promotion. Some things that help instrumentality are having a clear understanding of the relationship between performance and the outcomes. based upon perceptions.work and their goal as a simple correlation is incorrect.   . Some things that help expectancy are having the correct resources available. instrumentality and expectancy. and beliefs as a consequence of their desires to enhance pleasure and avoid pain" (Vroom. knowledge. Valence: Valence means "value" and refers to beliefs about outcome desirability (Redmond. 2010). Vroom's Expectancy Theory is based on these three components:  Expectancy: Expectancy can be described as the belief that higher or increased effort will yield better performance. This can be explained by the thinking of "If I work harder. 1964). attitudes. For instance. There are individual differences in the level of value associated with any specific outcome. then a valued outcome will come to that individual. Valence can be thought of as the pressure or importance that a person puts on an expected outcome. and having the right support to get the job done correctly.

Vroom concludes that the force of motivation in an employee can be calculated using the formula: Motivation = Valence*Expectancy*Instrumentality .

The theory.  Performance-reward relationship: The degree to which the individual believes. . that performing at a particular level he or she will attain the desired outcome or expectations of his employer. most of the evidence is supportive of the theory. Although it has its critics.OVERVIEW OF EXPECTANCY THEORY Expectancy theory argues that the strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual. he or she believes that effort will lead to a good performance appraisal. In more practical terms. expectancy theory says that an employee will be motivated to exert a high-level of effort.  Rewards-personal goals relationship: The degree to which organizational rewards satisfy individual personal goals or needs and the attractiveness is of those potential rewards for the individual. or a promotion. and that the rewards will satisfy the employee’s personal goals. This theory is now one of the most widely accepted explanation of motivation from Victor Vroom. When an employee is motivated to exert a high level of effort. focuses on three relationships.  Effort-performance relationship: The probability perceived by the individual that exerting a given amount of effort will lead to performance. a salary increase. therefore. A good appraisal will lead to organizational rewards such as a bonus.

Vroom introduces three variables within the expectancy theory which are valence (V). Expectancy: Effort → Performance (E→P) 2.KEY ELEMENTS OF EXPECTANCY THEORY The Expectancy Theory of Motivation explains the behavioral process of why individuals choose one behavioral option over another. Valence. performance-outcome expectancy (P>O expectancy). expectancy (E) and instrumentality (I). The three elements are important behind choosing one element over another because they are clearly defined: effort-performance expectancy (E>P expectancy).V(R . It also explains how they make decisions to achieve the end they value. Three components of expectancy theory: 1. Instrumentality: Performance → Outcome (P→O) 3.

Employers. "Lack of ability or interest will decrease a person’s expectancy. people will have an increased level of expectancy. "The expectancy component of expectancy theory is the belief that one's effort (E). that individual needs to perceive that their personal expenditure of effort will result in an acceptable level of performance. With proper training and a high interest level. will give the expected performance (P) goal" . peoples’ beliefs can vary greatly . Because VIE Theory involves perceptions and expectancy is a belief about the future rather than a concrete existence in the environment. another person may believe their same effort will not lead to much accomplishment at all. Two factors that can affect expectancy are ability and interest . goal difficulty and control (does the person actually have control over the expected outcome). Key question to ask to determine expectancy:  What is the strength of the relationship between the effort I put forth and how well I perform? Examples of determinations of expectancy :  If I spend most of tonight studying will it improve my grade on tomorrow's math exam? If I work harder than everyone else in the plant will I produce more? If I practice my foul shot more will my foul shooting improve in the game?   . This is to say that in order for a person to be motivated to exert effort they need to believe that their effort will result in a certain level of performance. In order for a person to be properly motivated. These variables include self-efficacy (a person's belief in their ability to perform successfully). for example. This means that while one person perceives their efforts to lead to a great accomplishment. need to keep this in mind as they create ideas to motivate their employees.EXPECTANCY Expectancy is slated as the first component of VIE theory. By encouraging employees and building self-efficacy. will it be safer to walk on?" There are variables that affect an individual's expectancy perception. This difference in perceptions is due to many factors. "The relationship between effort and performance is known as the E-P linkage" . "If I salt the sidewalk. managers can increase employee expectancy" . An example would be. or that a certain level of performance is attainable.

Goal difficulty happens when goals are set too high or performance expectations that are made too difficult are most likely to lead to low expectancy perceptions. individuals must believe that they have some degree of control over the expected outcome. In order for expectancy to be high. self confidence (self efficacy). and control. Self efficacy is the person’s belief about their ability to successfully perform a particular behavior. Usually based on an individual's past experience. Control is one's perceived control over performance. goal difficulty. If I make more sales calls will I make any more sales? Expectancy is the belief that one's effort (E) will result in attainment of desired performance (P) goals. . Factors associated with the individual's Expectancy perception are self efficacy. and the perceived difficulty of the performance standard or goal.

In other words. Instrumentality is the perception that a given performance level is related to a given outcome. they will receive "a great reward" . Remembering the idea of perceptions and beliefs. The instrumentality component of expectancy theory is the person's belief that if they can meet performance expectations. "If people do not see a connection between their performance level and a possible outcome. Key question to ask to determine instrumentality:  What is the strength of the relationship between the things I do and the rewards I get from my actions? Examples of determinations of instrumentality :   If I get a better grade on tomorrow's math test will I get an "A" in math? If I produce more than anyone else in the plant. control. a person's belief that a given output will facilitate a given reward (outcome). what people believe to be an outcome may not be the actual outcome resulting from their performance.INSTRUMENTALITY Instrumentality is the second component in the equation of expectancy theory. A person will only perform at a certain level if they believe that the performance will lead to a given expressed outcome. they are less likely to be motivated" . or is believed to directly result into a particular outcome . Something is considered to be instrumental if it is conditional upon something else. will I get a promotion before they do?" The variables affecting instrumentality are trust (in leaders). An example of instrumentality of expectancy theory would be. and policies (how formalized are rewards systems in written policies?. The relationship is represented by the P-O linkage . "If I complete more work than anyone else. will I get a bigger raise? A faster promotion? If my foul shooting improves will I have a shot a team MVP? If I make more sales will I get a bonus? A greater commission?   If I make more sales will I believe that I am the best sales person or be recognized by others as the best sales person? .

people often attempt to control the reward system. Instrumentality tends to increase.Thus Instrumentality is the belief that a person will receive a reward if the performance expectation is met. When individuals believe they have some kind of control over how. Instrumentality is increased when formalized policies associates rewards to performance. Factors associated with the individual's instrumentality for outcomes are trust. they are more likely to believe their leaders promises. promotion. recognition or sense of accomplishment. Instrumentality is low when the reward is given for all performances given. . and why rewards are distributed. when. When there is a lack of trust on leadership. If individuals trust their superiors. control and policies. Formalized written policies impact the individuals' instrumentality perceptions. This reward may come in the form of a pay increase.

Thus valence isthe value the individual places on the rewards based on their needs. Key question to ask to determine valence: How valuable do I perceive the potential reward(s) to be? Examples of determinations of valence :     How much I really want an "A" in math? Do I want a bigger raise? Is it worth the extra effort? Do I want a promotion? How important to me is it to be team MVP? Do I need a sales bonus? Is the extra time I spend making extra sales calls worth the extra commission? Is it important to me that I am the best salesperson?  It is important to note that valence is not the actual level of satisfaction that an individual receives from an outcome. goals. preferences and Sources of Motivation Strength of an individual’s preference for a particular outcome. goals. This subjective value is based on the individual's perceptions. values and Sources of Motivation. This “value” is based in individual differences. The valence refers the value the individual personally places on the rewards. Valence is characterized by the extent to which a person values a given outcome. needs. Factors associated with the individual's valence for outcomes are values. the person must prefer attaining the outcome to not attaining it. "The level at which an individual values an outcome is described as it'svalencee. but rather it is the EXPECTED satisfaction a person receives from a particular outcome. and values. attitudes. and beliefs. -1 →0→ +1 -1= avoiding the outcome 0= indifferent to the outcome +1=welcomes the outcome In order for the valence to be positive. The value a person places on an outcome is directly related to who they are and their needs.VALENCE Valence is the final component of VIE theory. goals. .

This value will determine how satisfactory the outcome is to them. . and the intersection of each link represent its components: expectancy. Expectancy theory or "VIE theory" is based on the premise that motivation occurs when three specific conditions are satisfied: effort.  Think of motivation as a chain where each link represents a condition. instrumentality. a person expects their effort to result in some level of performance (expectancy).  Within the chain. and valence.  Finally. performance and outcome. a person will place subjective value on their belief about the outcome (valence).  The perceived or expected outcome of their performance level will be considered instrumental to the outcome (instrumentality).

For example. motivation will be low. there is no reason to work hard to attain them ". If any one of those is low. since valence is negative or low. valence. instrumentality and valence are met. expectancy. The larger the force.MOTIVATIONAL FORCE Motivational Force (MF) = Expectancy x Instrumentality x Valence    When expectancy. Therefore. . a “motivational force” occurs. instrumentality and expectancy must also be high. For each action. the more a person will be motivated to obtain the outcomes of the job. This force exerts internal pressure on an individual to be motivated. then motivation will also be negative or low. "if a person is indifferent to the outcomes or perceives them as negatively valent. In order for motivational force to be high. instrumentality and valence can be assessed and a motivational force computed.

= avoidance of outcome 0 = indifference + = expected outcome would be satisfactory A motivated employee is thus the product of the perceived level of satisfaction. a subjective probability formula that is multiplicative in nature is used to more accurately measure expectancy and arrive at a predicted motivational force (represented as a number). will have a zero valence. The VIE formula is represented (within a range) as MF = E(V x I) [3] TABLE SHOWING VIE RANGES Component Expectancy Range 0 to 1 Range Definition 0 = belief she could not perform successfully 1 = firm belief she could perform successfully 0 = no relationship between performance and outcome 1 = outcome dependent on performance Instrumentality 0 to 1 Valence -1 to +1 . Employees should feel that the efforts that he/she would like to put into work would yield the desired results. Perception is the engine that drives the belief of effort. if any one condition is perceived that it will be low. perception is perhaps the most significant factor. and the rewards that the employee hopes to receive on achieving the set goals. with each component having its own probability range. An employee who is not positively oriented with respect to the perceived consequences of the attainment of goals. Because beliefs can vary however. the higher the motivation. should have strong convictions regarding their ability to deliver. Thus. People who desire the rewards that management is expected to bestow upon them. In other words. the confidence to achieve. It is .  Among the many factors that influence expectancy. such as ability or interest. motivation will be low just as the bond between links affects the chain. on account of superior performance.  The higher the number. performance and outcome. valence * expectancy * instrumentality = motivation Expectancy is a person's strength of conviction in regards to the ability to attain goals.

A self-proclaimed achiever may be immensely confident of the ability to perform astoundingly high. the offer of promotion within a sales department if certain sales targets are met.1 = 0. An employee who feels that the efforts will not yield the desired results.09 Alternatively.9).6). almost impossible (Expectancy = 0. Let's consider the following example: Example 1 Sales Department Example Let's consider one initiative to motivate staff. while a skeptic may have an entirely different perspective. Here we see that the motivational force is far stronger in comparison: F=VxE F = 0. but their portfolio of clients and past performance means they perceive achievement of the outcome. when anyone of these products are zero then the whole equations becomes zero.48 . e. and past sales performance. For one member of staff this is a highly attractive (Valence = + 0. and based on their portfolio of clients.1). 2009).g. then overall motivation is lacking. they feel reasonably confident that they will achieve the sales target set (Expectancy = 0. will have a low probability of expectancy.8 = 0. By applying the formula we see that the motivational force will be : F=VxE F = 0.6 x 0. In terms of the above Motivational Force equation. Probability of an event can assume values between 0 and 1. another member of staff finds the possibility of promotion reasonably attractive (Valence = + 0.ultimately a question of how confident one feels about oneself. *Motivational Force (MF)= Expectancy x Instrumentality x Valance When deciding among behavioral options individuals select the option with the greatest motivational forces (MF). How well an employee scores on this scale of confidence will have a direct bearing on the employee's level of motivation (Iyer.9 x 0.8). the sales target. If a person does not have one of the three products. in terms of achieving the set targets.

STRENGTHS AND WEAKNESSES OF EXPECTANCY THEORY .

Validity studies show that the average validity coefficients for within-subjects designs ranges in the . rather than looking at differences in motivation between different subjects. and show more loyalty towards the organization. the research method that is used to evaluate the motivations of the employee is the within-subject design. A key factor of expectancy theory is that it calculates the difference in motivational levels between tasks of one individual. researchers compute correlations based on the predictions and the actual amount of effort exerted by individuals .50’s and . With proper goals set. For each task the researcher computes a force score. their employees will perform stronger. This is done with the use of the within-subject design research method. . The strength of the within-subject designs reflects the fact that Vroom developed the VIE theory to determine different motivational levels across various tasks performed by an individual.STRENGTHS When using the expectancy theory within organizations/institutions. This score is used to predict the choices that individuals make among the different tasks. By utilizing expectancy theory. organizations are able to understand the importance of demonstrating appreciation for their employees' work. an evaluation can be made in regard to two factors that lead to valence (the reward):  the expectations of the individual  the belief that their actions will lead to the reward. participants are given many different tasks to complete. this will trigger a motivational process that improves performance. To use within-subject designs. To utilize the expectancy theory accurately. Expectations are influenced by incentives and rewards.60’s. Using these predictions of effort. and as a result. and that of another.

40’s. it assumes that people consciously know what rewards are in their own best interest. The assumptions that are made within this theory show that individuals' motivations are consciously chosen. even though the long-term system might deliver more valence. "the concept of instrumentality is found to be ambiguous and difficult to operationalize" .WEAKNESSES A major weakness of expectancy theory is using between-subjects designs. The average validity coefficients for between-subjects designs ranges in the . Expectancy theory. Validation studies have shown that between-subjects designs result in lower prediction validities. or public recognition. an argument can be made that many individuals might demand a reward system that is based on a short-term time horizon. Because VIE theory was developed to account for difference within the individual and not across different subjects. bonus. The concept of this assumption is that people contemplate their actions to achieve the rewards. Empirical research studies have been conducted that demonstrate that expectancy theory "ignores the rationality assumptions underlying this choice behavior". looking at these differences does not give valid results. or in other words. Due to the fact that not all motivations are derived consciously. only focuses on the extrinsic motivational factors and the conscious decisions employees make about their performance. This is clearly lower than validity coefficients for withinsubjects designs. this theory cannot apply to all individuals. by nature. It is also assumed that the contemplation is designed to capitalize on rewards and evade losses. such as a paycheck. Along these lines. Many employees and leaders are not motivated solely by extrinsic factors. As a result. while forgoing a long-term reward system.30’s and .

The model might best be used in conjunction with other models of motivation.. it is critical for managers and leaders in an organization to really understand what motivates their employees before attempting to utilize the expectancy theory model. lower or higher) than the satisfaction that they anticipated APPLICATION OF EXPECTANCY THEORY IN THE WORKPLACE Organizational Applications: Expectancy . knowing what will motivate the employee may not help since the scarcity of available resources makes it difficult to complete their job. In this case. so to an employee might lack the genetics required to reach a desired level of performance. Therefore. Everyone needs to have the ability. the resources and the opportunity to perform their job well.g. This theory is not as helpful unless certain needs are met. For example. Another weakness of the expectancy theory is that it “falls short of explaining how employees update and change their beliefs over time. valence beliefs can change as employees realize that their actual satisfaction with an outcome is different (e. An example of this would be the role genetics can play as a biological limiting factor of performance. Just as an athlete might lack the genetic potential to perform at an income producing level. in order to ensure leaders are able to effectively motivate their employees to achieve a higher level of performance. such as the Hierarchy of Needs and Reinforcement Theory..

 Third. . among other things. Organizational Applications: Instrumentality The strength performance output (instrumentality) linkage will be contingent upon three beliefs of the follower. knowledge. leaders must recognize that followers differ greatly regarding their levels of self-esteem in regards to completing a task.  Fourth. A leader that is aware of these distinct aspects of human perceptions. skill. frustration and marginal performance. education. training. a leader needs to do is present a reasonably challenging assignment to the employee. training. Because people differ on experience. a leader must consider the follower's ability. a leader should recognize that expenditure of effort for many followers leads to satisfaction on the job. If an individual feels they are not capable to complete the tasks assigned. competent. Most individuals want to feel useful. ability development. Challenging work allows for self-confidence. educational level and so forth.  First. Managing these elements effectively allows a leader to strengthen the expectancy of each of their followers. Concrete levels of performance allow the follower an accurate assessment of the strength associated with the E-P linkage. It has been shown that unchallenging work leads to boredom. and which do not. a leader needs to determine and specify which outcomes constitute acceptable performance.  Fifth. tasks need to be assigned based on the individual's level of competence. involved and productive. Both the follower and the leader need to reach a mutual agreement on the behavior that represents a successful outcome for each of them. There are five distinct components for a leader to keep in mind concerning this linkage. The workplace provides a vehicle to fulfill these needs. the E-P linkage will be weak. Confidence will play a significant role in the follower’s ability to perceive their effort as capable of reaching a desired performance output. can effectively understand and facilitatethe E-P linkage for each of their employees.A leaders' ability to understand expectancy as related to the E-P linkage can be extremely useful in the workplace.  Second. skills and experience. as they relate to expectancy.

and these types of rewards become highly valuable motivational tools. and so on. to praise. This understanding reinforces the P-O linkage(. the motivational force equation can be established. However. Organizational Applications: Valence With valence. there are two issues a leader should concern himself with. If the follower perceives that their goals are congruent with the goals of the organization. The pairing of these goals is crucial to workplace motivation. It is the outcome (given that the outcome is valued by the individual) that drives the motivational state according to the expectancy theory. leaders need to make sure followers receive fair treatment in a predictable manner. a follower needs to be able to trust that a leader will be able to deliver the outcome promised. Once a valuable outcome is identified. There are several types of rewards that can induce heightened motivational states for individuals. the follower's motivational force associated with receiving outcomes of high valence are aligned . These rewards range from money.A leader’s ability to manage the behavior associated with these beliefs will determine how his workers perceive Instrumentality. A leader needs to be able to identify the value of each outcome from the perspective of the follower. Instrumentality is rooted in the belief that the performance rendered will result in the outcome promised. As we know from this theory. people vary based on individual differences.  Second. It is extremely important that the goals of the individual worker are assimilated into the goals of the organization. A followers ability to trust that a leader can and will follow through with an outcome greatly effects the P-O linkage. the attractiveness or value of outcomes differs amongst individuals.  The outcome of treatment a follower receives from a specific performance needs to be consistently applied. Many motivational outcomes are of little or no cost to a company. A follower should come to understand that a particular action is associated with a particular type of treatment. to time off. This is not to suggest that people should be treated exactly the same. leaders must put a lot of effort into the alignment of the followers’ personal goals and those of the organization.  Second.  First. First. this factor does suggest that treatment needs to be considered fair. to appreciation.

. A leader’s ability to do this will greatly enhance both their understanding of valence. as well as give them the ability to use this understanding to motivate workers on the job.with the furthering of organizational interests. as it pertains to individual followers.

or a sense of belonging. These isolated variables will bring about improved desired outcomes. Some of these include:  reduced employee turnover  improved morale  higher productivity. however. Some people are motivated by external rewards. such as improved morale and higher productivity. a reward system can be more effectively designed. or some type of monetary bonus. One example of this may include certain external rewards. while others may have more intrinsic motivators. and can make it possible to determine whether or not the rewards implemented are effecting positive change. paid vacation.Knowing what factors motivate employees can have positive implications for businesses. it can be administered to all company employees and can better facilitate isolating certain variables within the company overall. Some other examples might include:  providing specialized training for an employee who feels they are lacking the ability and confidence to complete a function in a satisfactory manner  acquiring a piece of equipment that would improve the efficiency of the employees production. or a great benefits package.  By isolating selected variables. . such as an increase in pay. The expectancy theory suggests. such as recognition. such as a paycheck. A few simple ways to discover what motivates an individual would be to either ask them directly. When the questionnaire method is selected. or through a less confrontational method of administering a questionnaire. that people are motivated by different things. or survey.

Unions can benefit from understanding what drives these changes.Utilizing the VIE formula will also allow leaders to set motivating objectives for employees (e. and what the union offers in pay and/or benefits is perceived as valuable (valence). If a worker perceives that joining a union will be of low cost to them (low effort). or additional responsibilities might motivate him/her to achieve a higher level of performance).g.. Over time. Labor unions are sometimes considered participants. and can also play an important role in the workplace. based on different situations and adjustments in work environment. Much like a company wants to learn what motivates their employees (whether it be intrinsic or extrinsic factors). the worker will be more motivated to join or remain a member of a union . as more and more employees are motivated to achieve a higher level of performance. then the worker might decide that they have the means to join. unions want to know what draws workers to join unions or to vote them out (decertify). . Many of such unions have looked into forms of expectancy and expectancy-value theory to build and understand their membership. workers ideas of unions change. For instance. if a union is already in place (instrumentality). the workplace can involve more participants than company and employee alone. and can learn how to make adjustments to the workers perceptions and expectations of unions. a high achiever might not be motivated to work hard if the work he/she is performing is mundane. The company will be better off. Additionally. Giving the person harder work.

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 It emphasizes on rewards or pay-offs. It is related to other parameters also such as position.  The application of this theory is limited as reward is not directly correlated with performance in many organizations.  This theory stresses upon the expectations and perception. what is real and actual is immaterial. .  It focuses on psychological extravagance where final objective of individual is to attain maximum pleasure and least pain LIMITATIONS OF THE EXPECTANCY THEORY  The expectancy theory seems to be idealistic because quite a few individuals perceive high degree correlation between performance and rewards. education. etc. effort. responsibility.ADVANTAGES OF THE EXPECTANCY THEORY  It is based on self-interest individual who want to achieve maximum satisfaction and who wants to minimize dissatisfaction.

 The deserving employees must be rewarded for their exceptional performance.  The employee’s motivation level should be continually assessed through various techniques such as questionnaire. personal interviews. .  The managers must ensure that the employees can achieve the aimed performance levels. dynamic and challenging jobs.  The reward system must be fair and just in an organization.IMPLICATIONS OF THE EXPECTANCY THEORY  The managers can correlate the preferred outcomes to the aimed performance levels. etc.  Organizations must design interesting.

 To Share and utilize the knowledge gathered from this project wherever and whenever required .OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY“ VALIDATION OF EXPECTANCY THEORY OF MOTIVATION IN EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS” The strategic intent of the project was to validate the Expectancy theory of motivation in educational institutions . The purpose was to find out whether the findings of the theory hold true or not. To study the relevance of this theory in educational institutions   To interview the faculty and staff members regarding this theory To find the pitfalls of the theory   For the Partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the Post Graduate Degree in Management. The main objectives are:  To validate the theory in educational institutions.

One problem to be studied is decided.The first step towards any research is to identify the problem and look at it objectively. Scope of the StudyThe Scope of the Project is to find the relevance of this theory in educational institutions and validateit. Questionnaires were filled up by the faculty members and the staff members ofGalgotias educational instituions and Greater Noida institute of engineering and technology. The study relied on the survey conducted to validate the theory to collect a broad range of information on the same.  Provide the necessary recommendations and suggestions. so as to bring into light some new and novel facts .  Methods to be used for collecting required information.RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The ConceptThe term ‘Research Methodology’ indicates an exhaustive and searching investigating into some accepted principles and conclusions. the steps to be finalized as follows:-  The Sample is to be surveyed as to get the reliable result. .  Interpretation of data to get the required result through an analysis.

. and questionnaires to get along with research project.Tools of Data Collection Methods refer to the designing of evaluation instrument . but the main emphasis is given to the responses collected through questionnaires.Evaluation instrument is a data collection device administered at the appropriate stage of any analysis . To get the data quite a few methods can be used like –  Questionnaires  Personal Interviews and Discussions  Internet and Intranet I have used Internet . books on Organistional Behavior .Data Collection is a major ingredient of any research project.

ANALYSIS OFTHE SURVEY FOR VALIDATION OF EXPECTANCY THEORY OF MOTIVATION .

The following are details of the survey:- QUESTION-1 Are you satisfied with the efforts you are putting in the organization? As the graph show most of respondents said that they were satisfied with the efforts they were putting in for the organization.I did my survey in GalgotiasEducational Institutions and GNIT and with 60 faculty and staff members and filled up the questionnaires. Though there were a few who said that they were partially satisfied with the efforts they were putting in for the organization. .

.QUESTION-2 Do you expect a promotion for your efforts? Almost all the respondents felt that they expected a promotion for their efforts. This proves one of the claims of expectancy theory which says that individuals when put the best efforts they expect a reward for that.

QUESTION-3 Are your efforts being recognized by the organization? Most of the employees felt that their efforts were being recognized by the organization But. which means more effort will not necessarily result in a higher evaluation. their skill level may be deficient. a lot of employees said that their maximum effort was not recognized in their performance appraisal. . they are not likely to be a performer. The organization’s performance appraisal system may be designed to assess nonperformance factors such as loyalty. The reasons may be. or courage. initiative. which means that no matter how hard they try.

the likelihood of getting a good performance appraisal is low. . rightly or wrongly. These examples suggest that one possible source of low employee motivation is the belief by the employee that no matter how hard he or she works. he or she expects to get a poor appraisal regardless of her level of effort.Another possibility is that the employee. perceives that her boss does not like her and as a result.

QUESTION-4 Are you being rewarded for good performance? Many employees see the performance-reward relationship in their job as weak. . The reason is that organizations reward a lot of things other than just performance. being cooperative. employees are likely to see the performances reward relationship as weak and not motivating. or for kissing up? to the boss. When pay is allocated to employees based on factors such as seniority.

This illustrates the importance of the rewards being tailored to individual employee needs. Or the employee wants a more interesting and challenging job but receives only a few words of praise. .QUESTION-5 If you are rewarded. are the rewards one that you personally find attractive? Many employees said that the rewards they received were not found personally attractive. The employee works hard in hope of getting a promotion but gets a pay raise instead.

QUESTION-6 Has making more effort improved your performance? Almost all the respondents said that making more effort lead to a good performance. .

there were still many who were of a different opinion. .QUESTION-7 Does the management discover what resources. training or supervision they needed . training or supervision you need? Most of the respondents said that the management did discover what resources.

.QUESTION-8 Do the rewards you get satisfy your personal goals? Most of the employees were satisfied with the rewards but they felt that the rewards they received did not satisfy their personal goals.

QUESTION-9 Are the rewards you get of any value to you? The respondents felt that the rewards they received were of value to them . irrespective of the fact that they were personally attractive or not. Also there were a few who felt that the rewards they received were of no value to them. .

still there were many who felt that the rewards were not tailored to individual employee needs. some managers incorrectly assume that all employees want the same thing thus overlooking the motivational effects of differentiating rewards. Many managers have limitation in the rewards they can distribute. employee motivation is undermined.QUESTION-10 Are the rewards tailored to individual employee needs? Although many respondents said that the rewards were tailored to individual employee needs . QUESTION-11 . In either case. Moreover. which makes it difficult to individualize rewards.

.Does the management have an understanding of individual goals? A majority of respondents felt that the management had no understanding of individual goals which was necessary to motivate the employees to put in their best efforts for the organization.

skill level. etc? Most of the employees felt that they were not rewarded on the basis of performance. job difficulty. effort.QUESTION-12 Does your organization reward you for performance rather than according to criteria such as seniority. .

FINDINGS . There is a time limitation. The respondents may not actually reveal what they felt.LIMITATIONS Sample size is too small to reflect the opinion of all the employees. as no one can study exhaustively in a very less time period.

resources or training they needed. while the rest did not. Around 87% Respondents said that they were satisfied with the efforts they were putting in for the organization.  Around 46% of the respondents said that the rewards were tailored to individual employee needs while the rest did not feel so.  Around 65 % said that there efforts were being recognized by the organization while aroun 31 % felt the opposite  Around 65% said that they were rewarded for good performance.  Around 49% of the respondents said that they found the rewards personally attractive.  Around 56% respondents said that the rewards they received satisfied their personal goals.  Almost all the respondents felt that making more effort lead to a good performance.  Around 74% respondents said that the rewards they received were of value to them. .  Around 96% respondents said that they expected a promotion for there efforts.  Around 36% respondents said that the management had an understanding of individual goals while around 51% said no. Where as 44% said that the rewards did not satisfy their personal goals.  Around 63% felt that the management discovered what supervision .

skill level. etc. while 51% said it was not so. job difficulty. . Around 41% of the respondents said that the management rewarded them for performance rather than criteria such as seniority.

 The theory tends to be idealistic if organizations actually rewarded individuals for performance rather than according to criteria such as seniority. though most of them said that the rewards were of value to them. effort.relationship was weak  Rewards-personal goal relationship was also found weak as the most of the respondents felt that the rewards they received did not satisfy their personal goals. and job difficulty. .  Also a few respondents agreed that the management did not discover what training. skill level. but not personally attractive.CONCLUSION  The effort-performance relationship was found strong but a few of the respondents felt that their efforts were not being recognized by the organization. resources or supervision the employees needed. and were not tailored to individual employee needs.  Some of the respondents felt that the performance reward .

Expectancy theory is about the mental processes regarding choice. In essence. It explains the processes that an individual undergoes to make choices. or choosing. "This theory emphasizes the needs for organizations to relate rewards directly to performance and to ensure that the rewards provided are those rewards deserved and wanted by the recipients." QUESTION-1 Are you satisfied with the efforts you are putting in for the organization? Satisfied ( QUESTION-2 Do you expect a promotion for your efforts? Yes ( QUESTION-3 Are your efforts being recognized by the organization? Yes ( QUESTION-4 ) Not really( ) No ( ) ) No ( ) ) Partially satisfied( ) Not satisfied ( ) .ANNEXURES NAME: DEPARTMENT: SURVEY ON VALIDATION OF EXPECTANCY THEORY Expectancy Theory proposes that a person will decide to behave or act in a certain way because they are motivated to select a specific behavior over other behaviors due to what they expect the result of that selected behavior will be. the motivation of the behavior selection is determined by the desirability of the outcome. In the study of organizational behavior. expectancy theory is a motivation theory first proposed by Victor Vroom of the Yale School of Management.

training or supervision you need? Yes ( QUESTION-8 Do the rewards you get satisfy your personal goals? Yes ( ) No ( ) ) Not really( ) No ( ) ) No ( ) ) Not really( ) No ( ) ) Not really( ) No ( ) QUESTION-9 Are the rewards you get of any value to you? Yes ( QUESTION-10 Are the rewards tailored to individual employee needs? Yes ( QUESTION-11 Does the management have an understanding of individual goals? Yes ( QUESTION-12 ) Not really( ) No ( ) ) Not really( ) No ( ) ) Not really( ) No ( ) . are the rewards one that you find personally attractive? Yes ( QUESTION-6 Has making more effort improved your performance? Yes ( QUESTION-7 Does the management discover what resources.Are you being rewarded for good performance? Yes ( QUESTION-5 If you are rewarded.

skill level.Does your organization reward you for performance rather than according to criteria such as seniority. effort. DATE:……………………… SIGNATURE:……………………. .. etc? Yes ( ) No ( ) PLACE:……………………. job difficulty.

COM  WWW.CITE HR.EDU  WWW.ORG  WWW.HRCOMMUNITY.IGNOU.BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS  ORGANISATIONAL BEHAVIOR  ORGANISATION THEORY AND BEHAVIOR -STEPHEN ROBBINS -TN CHABBRA WEBSITES  WWW.AC.COM  WWW.GOOGLE.IN  WWW.AIMA-IND.COM  WWW.STANFORD.HRDNETWORK.COM .