ISBN 3 901 906 xx x Deadline for BA and D6 votes: 11.09.
OCULAR LIGHTING EFFECTS ON HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY, MOOD AND BEHAVIOUR
UDC: 612.014.481-06 Descriptor: Optical radiation effects on human
THE INTERNATIONAL COMMISSION ON ILLUMINATION The International Commission on Illumination (CIE) is an organisation devoted to international co-operation and exchange of information among its member countries on all matters relating to the art and science of lighting. Its membership consists of the National Committees in 37 countries and one geographical area and of 5 associate members. The objectives of the CIE are : 1. To provide an international forum for the discussion of all matters relating to the science, technology and art in the fields of light and lighting and for the interchange of information in these fields between countries. 2. To develop basic standards and procedures of metrology in the fields of light and lighting. 3. To provide guidance in the application of principles and procedures in the development of international and national standards in the fields of light and lighting. 4. To prepare and publish standards, reports and other publications concerned with all matters relating to the science, technology and art in the fields of light and lighting. 5. To maintain liaison and technical interaction with other international organisations concerned with matters related to the science, technology, standardisation and art in the fields of light and lighting. The work of the CIE is carried on by seven Divisions each with about 20 Technical Committees. This work covers subjects ranging from fundamental matters to all types of lighting applications. The standards and technical reports developed by these international Divisions of the CIE are accepted throughout the world. A plenary session is held every four years at which the work of the Divisions and Technical Committees is reviewed, reported and plans are made for the future. The CIE is recognised as the authority on all aspects of light and lighting. As such it occupies an important position among international organisations. LA COMMISSION INTERNATIONALE DE L'ÉCLAIRAGE La Commission Internationale de l'Éclairage (CIE) est une organisation qui se donne pour but la coopération internationale et l'échange d'informations entre les Pays membres sur toutes les questions relatives à l'art et à la science de l'éclairage. Elle est composée de Comités Nationaux représentant 37 pays plus un territoire géographique, et de 5 membres associés. Les objectifs de la CIE sont : 6. De constituer un centre d'étude international pour toute matière relevant de la science, de la technologie et de l'art de la lumière et de l'éclairage et pour l'échange entre pays d'informations dans ces domaines. 7. D'élaborer des normes et des méthodes de base pour la métrologie dans les domaines de la lumière et de l'éclairage. 8. De donner des directives pour l'application des principes et des méthodes d'élaboration de normes internationales et nationales dans les domaines de la lumière et de l'éclairage. 9. De préparer et publier des normes, rapports et autres textes, concernant toutes matières relatives à la science, la technologie et l'art dans les domaines de la lumière et de l'éclairage. 10. De maintenir une liaison et une collaboration technique avec les autres organisations internationales concernées par des sujets relatifs à la science, la technologie, la normalisation et l'art dans les domaines de la lumière et de l'éclairage. Les travaux de la CIE sont effectués par 7 Divisions, ayant chacune environ 20 Comités Techniques. Les sujets d'études s'étendent des questions fondamentales, à tous les types d'applications de l'éclairage. Les normes et les rapports techniques élaborés par ces Divisions Internationales de la CIE sont reconnus dans le monde entier. Tous les quatre ans, une Session plénière passe en revue le travail des Divisions et des Comités Techniques, en fait rapport et établit les projets de travaux pour l'avenir. La CIE est reconnue comme la plus haute autorité en ce qui concerne tous les aspects de la lumière et de l'éclairage. Elle occupe comme telle une position importante parmi les organisations internationales. DIE INTERNATIONALE BELEUCHTUNGSKOMMISSION Die Internationale Beleuchtungskommission (CIE) ist eine Organisation, die sich der internationalen Zusammenarbeit und dem Austausch von Informationen zwischen ihren Mitgliedsländern bezüglich der Kunst und Wissenschaft der Lichttechnik widmet. Die Mitgliedschaft besteht aus den Nationalen Komitees in 37 Ländern und einem geographischen Gebiet und aus 5 assoziierten Mitgliedern. Die Ziele der CIE sind : 11. Ein internationaler Mittelpunkt für Diskussionen aller Fragen auf dem Gebiet der Wissenschaft, Technik und Kunst der Lichttechnik und für den Informationsaustausch auf diesen Gebieten zwischen den einzelnen Ländern zu sein. 12. Grundnormen und Verfahren der Meßtechnik auf dem Gebiet der Lichttechnik zu entwickeln. 13. Richtlinien für die Anwendung von Prinzipien und Vorgängen in der Entwicklung internationaler und nationaler Normen auf dem Gebiet der Lichttechnik zu erstellen. 14. Normen, Berichte und andere Publikationen zu erstellen und zu veröffentlichen, die alle Fragen auf dem Gebiet der Wissenschaft, Technik und Kunst der Lichttechnik betreffen. 15. Liaison und technische Zusammenarbeit mit anderen internationalen Organisationen zu unterhalten, die mit Fragen der Wissenschaft, Technik, Normung und Kunst auf dem Gebiet der Lichttechnik zu tun haben. Die Arbeit der CIE wird in 7 Divisionen, jede mit etwa 20 Technischen Komitees, geleistet. Diese Arbeit betrifft Gebiete mit grundlegendem Inhalt bis zu allen Arten der Lichtanwendung. Die Normen und Technischen Berichte, die von diesen international zusammengesetzten Divisionen ausgearbeitet werden, sind von der ganzen Welt anerkannt. Tagungen werden alle vier Jahre abgehalten, in der die Arbeiten der Divisionen überprüft und berichtet und neue Pläne für die Zukunft ausgearbeitet werden. Die CIE wird als höchste Autorität für alle Aspekte des Lichtes und der Beleuchtung angesehen. Auf diese Weise unterhält sie eine bedeutende Stellung unter den internationalen Organisationen. Published by the COMMISSION INTERNATIONALE DE L'ECLAIRAGE CIE Central Bureau Kegelgasse 27, A-1030 Vienna, AUSTRIA Tel: +43(01)714 31 87 0, Fax: +43(01)713 08 38 18 e-mail: email@example.com WWW: http://www.cie.co.at/cie/
CIE 2003 – All rights reserved
ISBN 3 902 906 xx x
OCULAR LIGHTING EFFECTS ON HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY, MOOD AND BEHAVIOUR
UDC: 612.014.481-06 Descriptor: Optical radiation effects on human
It should be noted. Il faut consulter les plus récents comptes rendus de la CIE. daß diese nicht vollständig sind.
CIE 2003– All rights reserved
. ist es möglich.CIE 15x:2003
This Technical Report has been prepared by CIE Technical Committee 6-11 of Division 6 “Photobiology and Photochemistry” and has been approved by the Board of Administration of the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage for study and application.
Any mention of organisations or products does not imply endorsement by the CIE. pour étude et emploi. ce travail ne saurait être exhaustif. Obgleich große Sorgfalt bei der Erstellung von Verzeichnissen bis zum Zeitpunkt der Drucklegung angewendet wurde. Malgré le soin apporté à la compilation de tous les documents jusqu'à la mise sous presse.
Toute mention d'organisme ou de produit n'implique pas une préférence de la CIE. Le document expose les connaissances et l'expérience courantes dans le domaine particulier de la lumière et de l'éclairage décrit ici.
Die Erwähnung von Organisationen oder Erzeugnissen bedeutet keine Billigung durch die CIE. es ist zur Verwendung durch CIE-Mitglieder und durch andere Interessierte bestimmt. Das Dokument berichtet über den derzeitigen Stand des Wissens und Erfahrung in dem behandelten Gebiet von Licht und Beleuchtung. Es sollte jedoch beachtet werden. and is intended to be used by the CIE membership and other interested parties. that the status of this document is advisory and not mandatory.
Ce rapport technique a été élaboré par le Comité Technique CIE 6-11 de la Division 6 “Photobiologie et Photochimie” et a été approuvé par le Bureau de la Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage. ou le CIE NEWS. daß das Dokument eine Empfehlung und keine Vorschrift ist. Die neuesten CIE-Tagungsberichte oder das CIE NEWS sollten im Hinblick auf mögliche spätere Änderungen zu Rate gezogen werden. The latest CIE proceedings or CIE NEWS should be consulted regarding possible subsequent amendments. up to the time of going to press. Whilst every care has been taken in the compilation of any lists. Il est destiné à être utilisé par les membres de la CIE et par tout les intéressés. en ce qui concerne des amendements nouveaux éventuels.
Dieser Technische Bericht ist vom CIE Technischen Komitee 6-11 der Division 6 “Photobiologie und Photochemie” ausgearbeitet und vom Vorstand der Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage gebilligt worden. Il faut cependant noter que ce document est indicatif et non obligatoire. these may not be comprehensive. however. The document reports on current knowledge and experience within the specific field of light and lighting described.
Roberts (Chair) Canada the Netherlands USA USA
Acknowledgements: The committee would like to thank those who. Members: Jennifer A. Veitch Gerrit van den Beld George Brainard Joan E. “Systemic Effects of Optical Radiation on the Human” took part in the preparation of this technical report. Skene. Wiechmann. I. Reinhart. although not members of the committee. contributed or reviewed sections of this report: D. Franche. S.CIE 15x:2003
The following members of TC 6-11. C. D. The committee comes under Division 6 “Photobiology and Photochemistry”. Illustrations were provided by: G. and K. D. W. and A. Voss. Blask.
. Lockley. Provencio. Hobbs.
4 Cortisol 2.3 Retinal location of nonvisual photoreceptors 3.2 Nonvisual photoperception 3.3 Melatonin 2.1 Melatonin circadian rhythms 2. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Rhythms of activity 2.3 Effects of night-time light exposure 4.2 Ocular photoreceptors 3.2 Acute light suppression 2. BEHAVIOURAL EFFECTS IN HEALTHY PEOPLE 4.2.2. OCULAR ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 3.3.2. NEUROPHYSIOLOGY OF LIGHT AND DARK 2.2 Mood 4.3.2 Terms of reference 2.1 Circadian rhythms of behaviour 4. psychological and architectural issues 1.3.1 Location of nonvisual photoreceptors 3.1 Alertness 4.2 Performance 4.4 Circadian phase shifting 4.2 Circadian rhythms 2.6 Photoimmune responses 3.1 Jet lag VI VI VI 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 4 4 4 5 6 7 7 8 9 9 10 10 10 12 13 13 14 14 14 14 15 16 17 17 17 18 18 18
.3.1 The visual system 3.1 Activation and arousal 188.8.131.52 Mood and comfort 4.2 Light and circadian rhythms 2.4.1 Brain structures controlling circadian rhythms 2.2.3 Health and melatonin cycles 2.2 Performance 4.2.2 Effects of daytime light exposure 4.1 Biological.5 Other biological functions 2.2.4 Age and ocular sensitivity 4.2.CIE 15x:2003
CONTENTS SUMMARY RESUME ZUSAMMENFASSUNG 1.3 Circadian rhythms of ocular sensitivity 3.3.
1 General principles 7. ARCHITECTURAL AND LIFE-STYLE APPLICATIONS 7.1.3 Research design issues 6.3.3 Size and composition of research samples 7.2 Other mood disorders 5.1.1 Measuring light 6.1 Seasonal mood disorders 5.1. RESEARCH METHODS IN LIGHTING 6.1 Placebo effects 6.2 Photometric measurement 6.3.2 Fundamentals of lighting quality 7.1.2 Eliminating alternative explanations 6.2 Lighting for daytime activity 7.CIE 15x:2003
4.5 Luminous modulation 5.2 Sleep disorders 5.1.1 Mood disorders 5.2 Light exposure and light dose 6.1.2 Shift work 4. REFERENCES
19 20 21 21 21 23 23 24 24 25 25 25 25 26 27 27 27 28 28 28 28 29 30 31 31 32
. CONCLUSION 9.3 Circadian rhythms and medical treatment 5.4 Neurological disorders: Alzheimer and related dementias 6.3 Lighting for night shifts 8.1 Stimulus specification 6.3.1 Principles for healthy lighting 7.4. THERAPEUTIC EFFECTS OF LIGHT 5.
FRENCH TITLE RESUME Translation requested
GERMAN TITLE ZUSAMMENFASSUNG Translation requested
OCULAR LIGHTING EFFECTS ON HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY. Studies are testing how lighting may be incorporated into architectural designs that are optimal for vision as well as physiological and behavioural stimulation. nonclinical applications for problems of shift work and jet lag. MOOD AND BEHAVIOUR SUMMARY The nonvisual biological and behavioural effects of light in animals and humans are mediated by specific neuroanatomical pathways. Controlled empirical studies have shown that light can be used to treat some clinical disorders and may have broader.
psychological and architectural issues In the late 1990s. apart from vision. 1. Human needs. & Potts. task performance. Baum. the committee had not completed its work because of the rapid development in the field of photobiology. and aesthetic appreciation. include lighting that is appropriate to maintain good health. Among other developments. and complicated the task of writing definitive reports. 2001). as defined here. this definition reflects the many demonstrations that there are nonvisual. Specifically the document will introduce the controlled laboratory and clinical studies on the effects of light on human physiology. timing. The science continues to evolve. encompassing human needs.
Figure 1. The effects of varying light intensities are discussed throughout. Lam. 1985). Wurtman. These findings may provide the basis for major changes in future architectural lighting strategies. courtesy of the National Research Council of Canada. as well as lighting for visibility. Wetterberg. and economic constraints (including energy) (Veitch. This interest both stimulated the formation of several CIE technical committees concerned with such topics. controlled laboratory and clinical studies have demonstrated that light processed through the eye can influence human physiology. The importance of timing is underscored in this report by treating daytime and night-time exposures separately. and pattern of exposure. duration. 1995. 1998. systemic effects of light in humans.CIE 15x:2003
1. The following terms of reference adopted at the 1995 CIE Session in New Delhi. mood and behaviour (Aschoff. 1998. Studies on use of ocular light therapy for clinical disorders as well as for improving human adaptation to
. Lighting quality model. Much of what is known about spectral effects concerns photodetection. Society for Research on Biological Rhythms. Julian. key scientific references. 1998) (Figure 1). after many years of existence. 1981. Society for Research on Biological Rhythms. Specifically. 1988. interpersonal communication. this technical committee set a more modest goal. mood and behaviour. architectural integration. has dramatically increased since the 1980s (Lavie. Veitch.1 Biological. INTRODUCTION 1. When. and is discussed under that heading.2 Terms of reference Interest in the biological and psychological effects of light. At least five characteristics of light are known to be implicated in these effects: intensity. spectrum. & Slater. CIE began to shift its emphasis from lighting for visibility to a more broad definition of lighting quality. India: TERMS OF REFERENCE: Provide the CIE with a concise summary document on the systemic effects of ocularly detected optical radiation with the relevant. 1993. From Veitch (1998).
Duffy et al. secretion of the hormone melatonin is lowest during the day. 1995. body temperature. 2001a). 1991.2 h). Four rhythms have specific definitions in terms of their frequency. the period of the oscillation. or the degree of difference between the peak level and the mesor. Age might modify circadian amplitude (Arendt.discussed further below) infradian: a rhythm with a period longer than a day (e. 1998a. the circadian system is responsible for controlling daily rhythms such as sleep and wakefulness.. for example from peak to peak). In general. increasing and decreasing in level following a constant cyclic pattern. and peaks when alertness is lowest. How these new findings may change future architectural lighting strategies will be considered. Lakin-Thomas. and meal times may also influence the body's timing functions (Aschoff. but longer than one hour (e. This report is based on published work up to February 2002. It shows two full cycles (48 hours) of peaks and nadirs. and other physiological parameters including cognitive function and immune responses. At time of writing this committee had produced a draft report but had not completed final editing or division balloting. the non-rapid eye movement (NREM) – rapid eye movement (REM) sleep cycle occurs approximately every 90 minutes during sleep) circadian: a rhythm with a period of approximately 24 hours (e. although other external stimuli such as sound. Roberts. 1996). 1997. characterised by the frequency with which they complete a cycle (i..g. sleeping and waking .2 Circadian rhythms For the purposes of this report. Figure 2 shows four important circadian rhythms schematically.. as follows: • ultradian: a rhythm with a period shorter than one day. seasonal changes in hormone secretion (e. healthy subjects from ~23. to illustrate the concurrent biological rhythms over each day..g. 1991))
• • •
Biological rhythms also differ in amplitude. Wetterberg. "Psychobiological effects of lighting". 1998. by contrast. hormonal secretion. a wellknown example is the infradian rhythm of estrogen secretion in adult women. Different processes cycle at different rates. hormonal melatonin rhythm. The human circadian rhythm has an average period close to 24 (24. social cues.g. 1981. Some show dramatic changes over the period of the cycle.1 Rhythms of activity Many biological functions are rhythmic.. For example. menstrual cycles occur approximately every four weeks) circannual: a rhythm with a period of approximately one year (e. Another CIE technical committee report that relates to this topic is TC 6-16... 2. and it is not known when the report will be publicly available. CIE Technical Committee TC 3-16. 1999). These reports should be read together for a complete picture of the state of knowledge in this area as of the late 1990s/early 2000s. Wehr. have low amplitude. updated and expanded in some areas. Conversely.. Binkley.g. NEUROPHYSIOLOGY OF LIGHT AND DARK 2. Moore. with a range in sighted. 2.e. 1999). Circannual changes in hormone secretion in humans.. temperature. "Psychological Aspects of Lighting" also concerns related research. & Reppert..g. when it was written.5 h (Czeisler et al. expansion of interest in the new area of photoimmunology (Roberts. with its nadir at approximately 04H00. the major focus is on circadian rhythms. Jean-Louis et al. 2000) but does not appear to change the period of the cycle (Czeisler. which has produced an extensive annotated bibliography (CIE. 1993). Core body temperature peaks ahead of melatonin secretion and
. Alertness is shown peaking at approximately 13H00. The report is based on an invited address by Brainard and Bernecker at the CIE session in New Delhi (Brainard & Bernecker. core body temperature. Klein.CIE 15x:2003
shift work and intercontinental jet travel will be discussed. Klerman et al.9 to 24. 1990. Light detected by the eyes is the primary environmental stimulus for regulating the circadian system. 2000) has led the committee to add this area to its report. caffeine.
. are the principal termination of the RHT (Klein et al. A pair of specific hypothalamic nuclei. These bilateral nuclei are considered to be fundamental parts of the "biological clock". 1981. 1994. which regulates the body's physiological rhythms (Aschoff. Reppert & Weaver. 2001).. another endocrine hormone. Advances in genetics have begun to unravel the circadian clock mechanism in the SCN at the molecular level (Devlin & Kay. one visual and one non-visual. IGL = Intergeniculate leaflet. ALC. Pickard & Silverman. cortisol and melatonin. SCG = Superior cervical ganglion. Later sections discuss these patterns and hormones in greater detail.CIE 15x:2003
reaches its nadir shortly after the melatonin peak. 1983. Klein et al. metabolism and reproduction as well as higher neural functions such as memory and emotion (Morgane & Panksepp. projects from the retina into a non-visual part of the brain called the hypothalamus (Aschoff. The hypothalamus is a complex neural region that controls many basic functions of the body including hormonal secretion. Card. 2001. Schematic diagram of four circadian rhythms shows the rise and fall of alertness and core body temperature. Klein et al. SCN = Suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus. Secretion of cortisol.1 Brain structures controlling circadian rhythms As shown in Figure 3.
Figure 2. IMLCC = Intermediolateral cell column.
. © Philips Lighting. RHT = Retino-hypothalamic tract. 1981). peaks approximately four hours after melatonin. Moore & Lenn. courtesy of Philips Lighting. 1981).
Figure 3. 1979). CRH = Corticotropic releasing hormone. but illustrates the differences in the timing of peaks and valleys against clock time and the different shapes of the rhythms. and the secretion rates of two hormones. Pickard & Silverman. core temperature. ACTH = adrenocorticotropic hormone. 1991..2. The diagram does not show absolute levels. 1991. Light received by the eye is converted to neural signals that pass via the optic nerve to two pathways. PVN = Paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. 1981). a neural pathway called the retinohypothalamic tract (RHT).
2. Moore & Lenn. 1972. the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN). Schematic diagram of eye-brain pathways. 2001. or circadian system. 1972.
2. The activity of the rate-limiting enzyme in the chain is higher at night than during the day. 1998. Wehr. 1999. 1991.. the midbrain and the spinal cord (Klein et al. 1999). 1988. Lam.. 1997.3 Melatonin 2. Although the retinohypothalamic tract has its densest projection in or around the suprachiasmatic nuclei. Melatonin’s main role is to reflect environmental photoperiod via its secretion profile and can be considered a humoral signal of darkness. 1990. however.3.. Partonen. thyroid-stimulating hormone. 1993. 1991. 1998. Kronauer. the thalamus. retrochiasmatic area and dorsal nuclei) as well as nuclei outside the hypothalamus (thalamic IGL. 1994). this pathway has diffuse projections to other hypothalamic nuclei (preoptic nuclei. Light exposure after the nadir of the body temperature cycle (i. 1989. Czeisler et al. 1986. There is. 1994). high levels of melatonin are secreted during the dark phase of the photoperiod (night) and low levels are secreted during the light phase (day) (Aschoff. & Hoban. Miller. 1999). but the molecular mechanism underlying this physiology is under intensive investigation (Czeisler & Klerman.. The effect of light exposure differs depending on the timing in relation to the endogenous circadian phase (Czeisler et al.. a functional connection between the primary visual pathway and the circadian neuroanatomy by way of the intergeniculate leaflets (IGL) (Horvath. light exposure influences a wide variety of physiological functions. 2001).. 1997. Shanahan & Czeisler. some of which differ between men and women) (Czeisler & Klerman. Wurtman et al. Morin. The activity of the enzymes at each step varies depending on the state of the circadian clock mechanism (Gillette & Tischkau. 1998). Hermes. in a series of four enzymatic steps that include the neurotransmitter serotonin as an intermediate step (Wiechmann. Waterhouse. Klein et al. 1991). Minors et al. 1994. 1987. The functional roles of these and other nonvisual projections from the retina are under active investigation. Melatonin is synthesised from tryptophan.2 Light and circadian rhythms Numerous studies on biological responses of humans to bright artificial light have confirmed that light entering the eyes is a potent stimulus for controlling circadian rhythms (Brainard et al. 1991). in response to neural information about external light stimulation (Klein et al. Reppert & Weaver. Minors . light exposure in the evening delays both the body temperature and melatonin cycles (so that these cycles peak later than they would have) (Czeisler & Klerman. 1999. The general principles of phase-shifting are well accepted. 1999. The neural pathway responsible for vision is anatomically separate from the pathway responsible for circadian regulation. Jewett. & Kalsbeek. Jewett et al. prolactin and luteinizing hormone (which have smaller-amplitude daily rhythms. Lakin-Thomas. Light exposure close to the core body temperature minimum may also directly suppress circadian amplitude (Jewett et al. in relationships that are not entirely wellunderstood as yet but that are under active investigation (Buijs. 1997. anterior and lateral hypothalamic areas.. and melatonin (which have large-amplitude circadian rhythms). 1981.1 Melatonin circadian rhythms In all vertebrate species studied to date. Morin. and insulin.e. 1986. in the morning) advances the phase of the body temperature cycle and the melatonin rhythm (so that the new cycles peak earlier). 1997). 2000). & Czeisler. Thus. which are discussed below. including humans. Wetterberg. Menaker. midbrain periaqueductal grey) (Card.. an amino acid. 1985).CIE 15x:2003
The SCN relay photic and non-photic information to various control centres in the nervous system including other hypothalamic nuclei. growth hormone. 1985). 2. Thus. Shanahan & Czeisler. 1993. This function of melatonin persists
. the septal nuclei... 1991. Wurtman et al.... 2. Czeisler et al. These systems regulate the production of almost all hormones.. Lewy. Much of our knowledge about light input to the circadian system comes from studies of acute melatonin suppression during night-time exposures. Wetterberg. 1986). 1991). & Wirz-Justice. Czeisler et al. 1994. including cortisol. 1998. the system regulates rhythmic activity both by directly relaying information about the state of external stimulation and by circadian changes in sensitivity to incoming external signals. Sack.
both in terms of circadian phase shifting and melatonin secretion. 1997). 1997.. Wright. Hendrickson. Nelson & Takahashi. 1980). Vaughan et al. & Skene. Cajochen. the upper thoracic intermediolateral cell column. In 1980. Arendt. 2000. Zeitzer. Brainard. 1998b.5-hr episode in the early biological night of 100 lx resulted in 50% of the maximal response compared to 9000 lx.and tetraplegic patients (Zeitzer. Pinealectomy abolished such responses. it appeared to take much more light to suppress melatonin in humans than is required for human vision. Ayas. It now appears that the circadian system is very sensitive to light
. 1995). Menaker. dose-dependent melatonin suppression and phase shifts in humans has been observed at much lower illuminance levels (Boivin. Early attempts to suppress melatonin in humans failed when investigators used typical indoor light levels reported to be between 100 and 800 lux (Jimerson. & Czeisler. It has been proposed to influence sleep-wake timing and thermoregulation based mainly on extrapolation from studies of exogenous melatonin administration. and the superior cervical ganglion (Card. Hughes. Kronauer. one welldefined neural pathway that carries non-visual information about light extends from the SCN to the pineal gland via a multisynaptic pathway with connections being made sequentially in the paraventricular hypothalamus. Wehr . 1987. 1992). 1972. Czeisler. Wurtman. Ayas et al.. as marked by the timing of dim light melatonin secretion the following night (Danilenko et al. and Czeisler (2000) found a non-linear relationship in which response to a single 6. 1999. Lynch. Wetterberg. Brown.2 Acute light suppression Light can have an acute suppressive effect on high levels of melatonin during the night. Post. it was demonstrated that exposure of the eyes of normal human volunteers to 2500 lux of white light during the night induced a strong decrease in circulating melatonin within one hour. Shea. Confirmation of this pathway in humans has been demonstrated in para. Jacobs. 1994. although there is little direct evidence for an endogenous role in circadian regulation (Arendt. Zeitzer. under experimental conditions. Goodwin. 1979) ciliary body of the eye (Martin.. By way of this neuroanatomy. in which the critical photoperiods controlling reproductive development and function are signalled humorally through the melatonin profile (Arendt. Servodidio. Melatonin is present in the gastrointestinal tract (Huether. volunteers exposed to 500 lux of white light appeared to exhibit no significant melatonin suppression (Lewy. in turn.. on closer examination. & Czeisler. retina (Gern & Ralph. Moore & Lenn. 1983. Neitz. 1977. 1988. & Gamache. Newsome. the principal source of circulating melatonin is its secretion by the pineal gland (Arendt. 1998b). 1993). Endogenous melatonin may help to modulate circadian rhythmicity through feedback mechanisms via melatonin receptors on the SCN. 1998b. 2001). 2000). Dijk. 1993. Schomerus. Dijk. 2. & Markey. At its extreme. & Stehle. entrains the rhythmic production and secretion of melatonin from the pineal gland. 1991). 1976. 1981). Lynch et al.3. cycles of light and darkness which are perceived through the eyes entrain SCN neural activity which. 1972) and has been used in numerous animal studies to help determine the neural and biochemical mechanisms of melatonin regulation (Brainard et al.. Middleton. Stone. 1997. However. 1992) and in the aqueous humour which bathes the iris of the eye (Abramson.. & Lytle. 1996. Rollag. Senft. Brainard et al. However.. Brennan. 1997. Bronstein.01 lx to 1000 lx over 90 min in the early morning) resulted in a small shift of circadian rhythm. Klein et al... Duffy. Martin et al. Kronauer. Klein et al. making inferences for a direct physiological role of melatonin difficult. 2000). At first. Haak. 1991). In one study. Ellsworth. Brown. Further evidence for differences between the sensitivities of the circadian and visual systems was shown in the demonstration of acute melatonin suppression in three totally blind patients (Czeisler et al. & Czeisler. Pickard & Silverman. a single exposure to a simulated dawn signal (from 0. In contrast. Korf. Kronauer. 1998). As shown in Figure 3.CIE 15x:2003
regardless of whether the species are diurnal or nocturnal. 1978. Melatonin also synchronizes the responses of fetus and mother to environmental conditions (Menaker. Wehr. This acute light-induced suppression of nocturnal melatonin synthesis was first observed in rats (Klein & Weller. & Bunney. these findings were the result of poor experimental controls (discussed below). & Hanifin. & Lichter. Its most welldefined physiological role is the control of seasonal reproduction in some species. 1994.. 1991. 1978). Malina.
McCormick. there remains much to be learned about the effects of timing of exposure and the contrast of light exposure against background light. Melatonin suppression saturated (90% of maximal response) at 200 lx.. 1997. & Hu.) 2. with unknown health consequences. Krauchi. & Lieberman. Another possibility is that daytime light exposures (which are relatively low) might influence subsequent melatonin release. which one would expect to add to the variability in sleepiness scores immediately following the exposure. Myers. Cajochen. Boecker. 2000. Giesen. & Anderson. and whether or not one experiences sleepiness following a dose of exogenous melatonin depends on posture and activity (Arendt et al. 1998. & Nakagawa. Lynch. suppression of night-time melatonin secretion by bright light exposure is coincident with increased self-reported alertness and increased cortical arousal (as assessed by electroencephalogaph [EEG] readings) (Badia. Arendt et al. & Schwartz. & Hill. 1991. whereas the initial sleep-wake states of the participants in Dollins et al. Reeth. & Wirz-Justice. The best sleep occurs when core body temperature is dropping and melatonin production is rising (Arendt. Blood. 1993). Sack. Blind individuals with free-running circadian rhythms (Lockley. 1998. Wurtman. Lewy. For example. (The effects of behavioural consequences not directly linked to melatonin are discussed below. and light as dim as candle light may be adequate to maintain entrainment to 24 hours in combination with weak non-photic time cues (Wright et al.. although a causal relation has not been established. the onset times for light exposure varied. Tabandeh et al. 1999. Total melatonin production is unknown for any population. Melatonin’s influence on sleep is complex (Arendt et al. Middleton et al. 2001). Wehr. and in particular. raising the possibility that reduced melatonin levels in Western societies could contribute to both breast and skin cancer development. Lockley. 1992). melatonin circadian phase shifting saturated at 550 lx. Moul. Wiechmann. Muraoka. 1998a). studies show that physiological nocturnal levels of melatonin inhibits MCF-7 human breast cancer growth in vitro by suppressing the estrogen response pathway (Hill & Blask. 1995) published data suggesting that urban environments offer biological darkness by day (in interiors with relatively low illuminances) and unnatural brightness by night (electric lighting extending apparent day length. & Roberts. However. French. Danilenko... There is also in vitro evidence that physiological nocturnal melatonin concentrations inhibit the growth of melanoma cells through mechanisms that remain uncertain (Hu. Keith. Walters.. 1993. Butler. 2000). & Cauter.3. Deng.. However. Turner. Molis. Skene. 1999) and environmental lighting (Roberts. & Culpepper. 1998. Two experiments found that bright light at night suppressed melatonin but did not influence concurrent self-reported sleepiness (Dollins. (2000) found that these effects followed the expected logarithmic dose-response curve. Hannon. However. even modest changes in interior light exposures might have profound influences on circadian regulation and melatonin secretion. 1993. Methodological differences might explain the null findings: In the case of Leproult et al. & Brainard. & Blask. it is possible to sleep out of phase with melatonin secretion. Conversely. Simon. 1997). 2001). the same study found that melatonin secretion and melatonin circadian phase-shifting responses do not show identical responses to interior light. 2001. 1997. Spriggs. The causal
..3 Health and melatonin cycles Wehr (1991. 1999). Wilson. in quantity or cyclic amplitude. Roberts. One consequence of the apparently longer day is a decrease in the total melatonin release because of melatonin suppression during light exposure. Cajochen et al. Thus. as was observed in the laboratory by Wehr (1991). Skene. 1999. breast cancer (Hansen.CIE 15x:2003
exposure. Byrne. 1997) note the greatest sleep propensity around the peak of melatonin secretion and the trough of core body temperature (Arendt. concerns some scientists. Skene. Cajochen et al. & Arendt. (1997). 1992. 1988. Leproult. Stevens. (1993) appear not to have been controlled. Evidence is mounting that melatonin suppression might increase cancer risk. 1997). Lockley. melatonin alone does not control sleep. Hill. Daurat et al. 1990). but the possibility of systematic reductions.. In both cases the sensitivity of selfreport measures of sleepiness would be reduced. producing apparently constant day length over the seasons). propensity for sleep (the "sleep gate") has been associated with onset of melatonin production. Sturis.
there is no evidence linking nocturnal melatonin levels with a suppression of estrogen production in humans (Reiter. Scheer and Buijs (Scheer & Buijs. 1998). Furthermore. and (to a lesser extent) cortisol dominate research efforts at present. 1997). Cortisol’s principal functions are to regulate glucose production from protein and to facilitate fat metabolism (Baum & Grunberg. Because of its association to sleep-wake cycles and activity. spectrum and timing of light exposures that might lead to a higher incidence of breast and other cancers in humans. had no effect on cortisol circadian rhythms. much remains unknown. its secretion in response to stressful events helps to release the energy needed to respond to threat. Control of the circadian rhythm of heart rate is among the other functions actively under investigation. & Vaughan. whereas evening light has no effect on cortisol levels (Lemmer et al.. and acutely in response to strong external stimulation (Baum & Grunberg. Among the indicators cited in the development of this hypothesis is the observation that breast cancer incidence is highest in developed countries. peaking close to habitual waketime (~08h00) and reaching its trough close to habitual bedtime (~midnight) (Figure 2). & Sastre. but no acute effect following evening light exposure.CIE 15x:2003
chain in this hypothesis is light exposure at night and the consequent suppression of melatonin. sleep disruption. (1994) found that six days of bright light exposure in the morning. Kavet. nocturnal melatonin concentrations block the ability of estrogen to stimulate the growth of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells in vitro (Hill et al. 2001). 1994). Sauer.. In addition. Mirick. Scheer & Buijs. Lemmer et al. other toxic exposures). whereas six days of bright light exposure in the evening.. 1999). Despite this logical evidentiary sequence. The amplitude of this rhythm might differ in people who report morning versus evening chronotypes (“larks” versus “owls”) (Bailey & Heitkemper. Two studies have found that morning light exposure can influence cortisol secretion. 2001). cortisol has been a target of photobiologists interested in determining which circadian rhythms respond to light.. 2.5 Other biological functions Many biological functions show circadian rhythms and are the targets of photobiological research. Breast cancer is associated with high estrogen levels. which in turn stimulates the posterior pituitary to release adrenocorticotropic releasing hormone. Brainard. 1994. Although the nocturnal melatonin signal inhibits estrogen production in certain seasonally-breeding species. particularly as regards the intensity. which acts on the adrenal cortex to secrete cortisol (Buijs et al. superimposed on a distinct pulsatile (ultradian) profile. Schernhammer et al. 1992). core body temperature. Cook. and for people with some mental disorders (American Psychiatric Association. Hansen. 1999. 2001. advanced the phase of the cortisol rhythm. Gerkovich. Blask.4 Cortisol Cortisol is secreted principally by the cortex of the adrenal gland. Dim light (0. Blask. 1999). 2001). although these investigations could not entirely exclude other possible risk factors (e. although melatonin. diet. and strong circadian rhythmicity. There exists a circadian rhythm for
. Dauchy. Removing the pineal gland also stimulated tumour growth (Blask et al. 1998). Its daily rhythm corresponds to the usual patterns of daily activity in humans.. cortisol is also secreted in pulses over the day. 1999) found an acute increase in salivary cortisol following morning light exposure.25 lx) at night suppressed melatonin release by the pineal gland and increased tumour growth in a strain of rats with transplanted liver tumours (Dauchy. Cortisol secretion shows a marked circadian pattern. & Stevens. However. before the daily cortisol nadir. Sauer. no acute changes in circulating estrogen levels are associated with light-induced suppression of nocturnal melatonin in healthy women at any menstrual cycle stage (Graham. where electric lighting is ubiquitous (Brainard. 1997). at the end of a sequence of neurohormonal events. before the daily cortisol peak. 1999). as they are considered to be the strongest endogenous outputs or markers of the circadian system. 1997).. A current model for its circadian regulation holds that the SCN signals to cells in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus to secrete corticotropic releasing hormone. & Krause.g. However. & Kheifets. three epidemiological studies with differing methodologies have observed increased breast cancer risk among women who work at night or who have other light exposure at night (Davis. 2001. 2. Thus.
Roberts. in which heart rate peaks around midday and is lowest around midnight (Scheer. infradian. Rovelli. Molinero. 1999). Sanford. Hanifin. 1998). & Buijs.e. van Doornen. following exposure to 5000 lx of white light during the day. This pattern of results suggests that one pathway for influencing heart rate is via the nonvisual receptor pathway and the SCN. Castrillon. For example. 1997). Brivio. Circadian rhythms. increased in bright light in comparison to dim. Hmadcha. 1993. night-time melatonin secretion increased in comparison to secretion levels following 200 lx during the day (the bright light exposure. Florentin. 2000). The inter-relationships between hormones and neurotransmitters. Brusco. 2000). Benot. Current knowledge offers few certainties but this: Researchers working in this realm will continue to provide insight into this complex system for many years to come. increased the amplitude of the circadian rhythm) (Park & Tokura. Roberts. these mechanisms are poorly understood as yet. & Stetson. which are chemicals released by immune cells that regulate immune cell interactions (Lissoni.CIE 15x:2003
heart rate independent of sleep. One challenge to this area of research is the separation between correlation and causation. 1995.
. Canon. 1991). and nocturnally for animals active at night). 1996. 1999. and there is recognition that the neurohormonal mechanisms involved are complex and interactive (Brainard. Circannual rhythms of immunity are also known. 1999). 2001. However.. Brivio.5 beats per minute. Park & Tokura. A complete catalogue of all known SCN-controlled circadian rhythms is beyond the scope of this report. 2000. Heart rate increased in a dose-dependent manner in response to acute bright light exposure during the night and early morning. 1993. an antibody. & Esquifino. with parameters relating to fighting the initial exposure to a pathogen being more active when the organism is active (i. in effect. influences the activity of several components of the immune system (Cardinali. Reproductive hormones such as prolactin and luteinizing hormone also show circadian rhythms (Waldstreicher et al. Melatonin activity on the thymus gland also appears to contribute to the regulation of immune functions (Molinero et al. The operation of the immune system shows its own circadian rhythms (Levi. and more energetic infection-fighting mechanisms being more active when the animal is at rest (Plytycz & Seljelid. The overall melatonin secretion correlated highly with the overall salivary immunoglobulin A secretion. Maestroni. both men and women respond to changes in apparent day length with changes in both the amplitude and pattern of hormone production (Wehr. were observed to influence blood concentrations of some cytokines. and circannual rhythms.. Barker. 2. produced by the pineal gland. with an amplitude of approximately 6. Cutrera. & Guerrero. Soutto. immune response has attracted attention because of its obvious relation to disease processes. Maestroni. Maestroni. during the day for diurnal animals. 1998). Studies of these hormones’ circadian patterns have been complicated by the strong influence of sleep on their secretion (Czeisler & Klerman.. for instance. 1999. although at present such protocols are in their infancy. but not during the day. Wehr. and their circadian. The seasonal patterns that have been observed in these hormones are believed to be responses to changes in day length.. As our knowledge of these rhythms expands. 1998). Melatonin. secretion of salivary immunoglobulin A. are likely to be the target of future reports as our knowledge increases. & Fumagalli. 1999). 1999). apparently mediated by melatonin. & Misset. Dipalma. seasonal changes in immune function might be a marker for Seasonal Affective Disorder (Avissar et al. During the daytime hours.6 Photoimmune responses Among the physiological processes that the pineal gland mediates. it might become possible to optimise the effectiveness of drug administration and medical treatment by linking it to circadian or circannual phase states. 1999) and by the fact that these hormones differ in level and secretion pattern between the sexes.
A section of the eye. The overall spectral sensitivity of cones leads to the V(λ) curve. courtesy of the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America. 9th Edition. Moore. 1978). Detailed descriptions of the visual system are available from a lighting perspective in several sources (e. 1978).
Figure 4. the retina (Figure 4). However.
. 2000). 1995). which sum information from overlapping circular receptive fields before transmitting the information. Light falling on the retina is detected by two types of visual photoreceptors. Photoreceptor cells provide input to bipolar and ganglion cells. OCULAR ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY 3.g. showing major structures.CIE 15x:2003
3. the two systems share a common anatomical starting point: the eye. which predominate at the centre of the retina (the fovea). The eye is a complex organ consisting of optical structures for admitting and focusing light onto the receptor tissue.. Both types of photoreceptors contain photopigments that convert light energy to electrochemical signals. Source: IESNA Lighting Handbook. They are less able to detect fine detail but are most active at low light levels. Foster. 2001. Speh. through the optic nerve. Cones. & Card. 1998. Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA). the scotopic sensitivity function (Figure 5) (CIE. 2000. Rods are most numerous in the peripheral areas of the retina. They are most sensitive at relatively high light levels. established by the CIE as the photopic sensitivity function (Figure 5) (CIE.1 The visual system Scientists are generally agreed that separate systems process light information for vision and light detection for co-ordinating physiological responses to environmental conditions (Devlin & Kay. rods and cones. to the visual cortex. are responsible for the detection of fine detail and colour vision. The rod spectral sensitivity function is known as V’(λ).
blind subjects with loss of pupillary reflex. In some humans with complete visual blindness. or whose eyes had been removed altogether (Skene. & Brainard. 1999). 2000.. Wetterberg. still exhibited neuroendocrine sensitivity to light. Lockley et al. 1991. no conscious perception of the light stimuli. 3. Heth. and no outer retinal functioning as determined by electroretinographic testing.. 1981. & Eastman. Olcese. Hebert. 1999). 1998). and those without eyes had free-running circadian rhythms for melatonin and cortisol. Jacobsen. Campbell and Murphy (1998) elicited great interest with observations that light exposure to the popliteal region (behind the knee) caused circadian phase shifts. Martin.. Mole rats also show this ability (Pevet. 1990. and has failed attempts at independent replication (Eastman. rats with total or near-total destruction of retinal photoreceptors due to prolonged constant light exposure still entrain their melatonin rhythms normally to the ambient light:dark
. 1993).CIE 15x:2003
Figure 5. & Rosenthal. Binkley. 1998).1 Location of nonvisual photoreceptors There is considerable evidence from human and animal studies that the biological. Skwerer. 2001. & Hebert. 9th Edition. Hanifin.2. Rao. Rollag. The photopic V(λ) and scotopic V’(λ) visual sensitivity functions. Wehr.. Sack. Koorengevel et al. 2000. melatonin suppression can be induced by exposing the eyes to bright white light (Czeisler et al. One study found that congenitally anophthalmic rats exhibited entrained circadian rhythms of pineal gland activity. no light perception.2 Nonvisual photoperception 3. 1999. & Nevo. 1999. Foster. Lockley. 1987. For example. In that study. this finding has been challenged on methodological and theoretical grounds (Czeisler & Klerman. the subjects without light perception had abnormal circadian rhythms compared to those who had some light perception. Nonetheless. Reed. One hypothesis that can be ruled out is an influence of internal mental representations of light on circadian rhythms (Byrne. 3. & Gupta. the possibility that mammals might also exhibit nonocular photodetection remains controversial. Thapan.2. behavioural and therapeutic effects of light apart from vision are mediated via a photoreceptive mechanism in the eye as opposed to a photoreceptive mechanism in the skin or some other part of the body (Aschoff. In a comparison of blind subjects with some light perception. courtesy of the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America. Hiam. 2000). Martin.2 Ocular photoreceptors Data from animal and human studies raise the possibility that neither the rods nor the cones used for vision participate in regulating the circadian and neuroendocrine systems. Klein et al. which suggests a non-ocular mechanism of some kind (Jagota. 1984). 1995). However. & Arendt. Source: IESNA Lighting Handbook.
Hattar. Takahashi. The action spectrum data suggest that the photoreceptor is a vitamin A-based opsin molecule (Brainard et al. & Menaker. King. 1991). 2001b). However. The ganglion cells that project to the SCN have been shown to be directly photosensitive (Berson. Furthermore. visible light at 750 nm did not affect these responses (Brainard et al. 2002). non-cone photoreceptive system is mounting. In Siberian hamsters. evidence for the existence of a novel non-rod. monochromatic light at 555 nm is not as effective at melatonin suppression as 505 nm. Some researchers have called this the "non-image-forming" photoreceptive system (e. 1988. Farnsworth-Munsell.CIE 15x:2003
cycle and exhibit acute light-induced suppression of nocturnal melatonin (Webb. Melanopsin. in humans with normal colour vision. 1987). Taken together.. This is consistent with the pattern of evidence suggesting that the photoreceptors involved in nonvisual processing are not the same as the visual system photoreceptors. 1985). or they were deuteranomalous (having a deficiency in the "green" cone system) or unspecified in deficiency.. Volunteers were screened for colour vision defects using the Ishihara.. 1995. Bauman.. and that these retinal ganglion cells project to the SCN in the mouse. 2001a. 1987.. & Yau. 2001a. Foster et al. Mice lacking either rod or cone photodetectors show circadian phase shifts in response to bright light (Freedman et al.. Thiele & Meissl.g.. as would be expected if the three-come photopic visual system were the mediator of this response (Brainard et al. 2001). & Takao. Liao. Foster et al. Nelson & Takahashi... These findings suggest that a normal trichromatic photopic system is not necessary for light regulation of the human pineal gland.. Berson. Dunn. 1993. (2002) demonstrated that melanopsin is present in these photosensitive retinal ganglion cells in the rat. The generation of melanopsin-null mice will allow investigators to probe melanopsin’s role in nonvisual photoreception. 2000. 1984. 2002). with no significant difference in the degree of melatonin suppression between the two groups. Takao. Thapan et al. Brainard. & Foster.. Foster et al. The spectra are similar to one another but do not correspond to either the photopic or scotopic sensitivity curves (see Figure 6). 2001). Richardson. Lewinski. and those with deficiencies were compared to volunteers with normal colour vision (Ruberg et al.. Thapan. One way to determine the nature of the photoreceptors involved in circadian and neuroendocrine regulation is to study whether a deficiency in the colour perceptual system affects light-mediated melatonin suppression. Light suppressed melatonin secretion both in subjects with normal colour vision and subjects with colour vision deficiencies.. Arendt. Additional studies showed that retinally degenerate mice (rd/rd) exhibit normal circadian responses to 515 nm light pulses despite a nearly total loss of classical visual photoreceptors (Argamaso et al. 1984. the data suggest that melanopsin-containing cells form the basis for the transmission of information about external light conditions to the SCN. & Brainard. Podolin. 15-minute pulses of nearultraviolet radiation as short as 320 nm regulated photoperiodic reproductive and immune responses.
. has been localised to very few widely distributed retinal ganglion cells that are identical in number and distribution to ganglion cells that project to the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) (Provencio et al. & Reiter. DeCoursey. 1987. Hattar et al. 2001). a novel putative photopigment. Berson et al. Provencio. 1991. Champney.. Rollag. Nearly all researchers acknowledge that the peak sensitivity of the circadian and neuroendocrine systems is in the blue-green portion of the visible spectrum (Brainard et al. (2002) observed an action spectrum with a peak at 484 nm for their rat ganglion cells. 1996). & Skene. 1993. & Reiter. Although it is not known which photoreceptors and photopigments transduce light stimuli for the non-visual biological and therapeutic effects in humans. 1999). Two independent teams have proposed action spectra for melatonin suppression in humans (Brainard et al. and Nagel anomaloscope tests. Colour vision deficient subjects had either protanopia (functionally lacking the "red" cone pigment). 2000). von Schantz.. or deuteranopia (functionally lacking the "green" cone pigment). as did visible light at 500 nm. Bronstein et al.
and its possible consequences for the design or selection of light sources for light treatments. Cryptochromes have also been located in ganglion cells (Miyamoto & Sancar.91. Kripke. In addition to the intrinsic importance of understanding the physiology of nonvisual photodetection. Results from Brainard et al. and mice deficient in cryptochrome CRY2 show abnormalities in circadian rhythm entrainment (Thresher et al. & Foster. 2001.. © 2001 by The Physiological Society. Beersma. 1999. It is also possible that vitamin B2-based cryptochromes mediate circadian photoreception in mammals. Kripke. courtesy of The Physiological Society and the authors. courtesy of the Society for Neuroscience and the authors. perhaps in addition to other photoreceptors. 1999). The curve is the best-fit template for vitamin A1 retinaldehyde pigment with predicted peak spectral response at 464 nm. but not a photoreceptor (Griffin. Results from Thapan et al.74) with an opsin template having a peak at 459 nm. Others have argued that cryptochromes might act in both roles.2.
. showing good agreement (R2=0. © 2001 by the Society for Neuroscience. 2000). which is not consistent with known cryptochrome absorption spectra. Horst et al.
Figure 6. The circles are the obtained data for normalised melatonin suppression by wavelength.
6B. & Berga. 6A. These are discussed below. Resolution of this issue could have implications for the development of devices to target delivery of biologically-active light. This argument is strengthened by the action spectrum data. as photoreceptors and as circadian regulators (Devlin & Kay. corrected for lens filtering. 3. Some argue that nonvisual photoperception is stronger in the nasal area of the retina than the lateral area (Visser. 1995. Loving. 2000. The circles are obtained data for log relative melatonin suppression. which shows a very good fit to the data. 1992). Moore et al. 6B. others have observed that the upper visual field is more sensitive than the lower (Lasko. Others have found that the system involves very few ganglion cells that are widely distributed across the retina (Card. This would be consistent with early evidence that central and peripheral light exposure are equally effective at suppressing melatonin secretion (Adler. 1998). as they are known to do in plants and insects (Devlin & Kay. 1999). The role of cryptochromes in photoreception remains controversial. von Schantz et al. the receptor mechanism has important implications for light measurement and research design.. Some authors have suggested that their role is as a regulator.. (2001). 1998). Provencio.CIE 15x:2003
6A. Staknis. (2001a).. & Elliot. 1999). 1998). & Weitz. Cooper. Two proposed action spectra for melatonin suppression. 1999). R2=0. & Daan.3 Retinal location of nonvisual photoreceptors The location of the nonvisual photoreceptors is also under debate.
Source: Brainard et al.. the lens transmittance changes selectively across wavelengths. becoming less able to transmit short wavelengths (Brainard et al. 1992). 1998). not only is less light transmitted.
Figure 7. Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA). Melatonin also influences intraocular pressure (McLaren. Sieving. 2000). This might account in part for age-related reductions in the amplitude of circadian rhythms (Arendt. a melatonin receptor antagonist protects photoreceptors from such light-induced damage. As with pineal melatonin. in relation to age. Values are expressed as a percentage of the 560 nm point for newborns. 1998a). Tosini.3 Circadian rhythms of ocular sensitivity Separately from the research programs into the secretion and functions of pineal melatonin. 1992). & FitzSimon. Circadian rhythms of ocular functions have also been observed (Tuunainen. Melatonin increases the degree of light-induced photoreceptor cell death in albino rats (Wiechmann & O’Steen. 3. so that accommodative power is reduced and less light reaches the retina (cf.. 2000).
. by the presence and absence of melatonin in the aqueous humor of the eye (Martin et al. particularly dopamine (Tosini.. 2000) and ciliary body of the eye (Martin et al. Brubaker.CIE 15x:2003
3. as least in part. Thus there might be an interplay between the visual and nonvisual photoreceptor systems. investigators have also observed diurnal rhythms of melatonin release in the eye.. The discovery of a melatonin receptor in human uveal melanocytes (Roberts et al. Thus. Cress. The functions of ocular melatonin are as yet unknown. 1991). In addition. but appear to be interconnected to the actions of other neurotransmitters. but the loss is greatest in what appears to be the area of high circadian photoreceptor sensitivity. courtesy of the authors. One intriguing possibility is that melatonin might influence retinal sensitivity to light. The crystalline lens thickens and becomes more opaque. (1997). & Youngstedt. 1992). where it appears in the retina (Gern & Ralph. secretion increases in darkness and decreases with light exposure.. Iuvone. Kripke. Also. Average human lens transmittance by wavelength. 1979. thus demonstrating that the effect of melatonin is mediated through a retinal melatonin receptor (Sugawara.. 2000) suggests that the control of the circadian changes in intraocular pressure may be directed. & Bush.4 Age and ocular sensitivity Age-related changes in vision are well known (Dillon. 1996). 2001). 1997) (Figure 7). 1992) and in the aqueous humour (Martin et al.
but in complex ways depending on the state of the organism and the level of all the stimuli. shows circadian variation. Smyth. 4. 2001). 1996). does not adjust the circadian phase.
. 1999). a diffuse section of the midbrain with connections to the thalamus and hypothalamus (Kalat. in which performance declines in the early afternoon and sleep propensity increases. However. melatonin has a feedback effect on the SCN that appears to modulate the activity of the circadian clock (Gillette & Tischkau. but to date there appear to be no interdisciplinary attempts between psychologists and physiologists to examine this question. and early studies aimed at identifying the best time of day to teach academic subjects (Carrier & Monk. The effects of various stimuli are not additive (Wilkinson. 2000). 2000). 1984). with morning types showing a larger post-lunch dip than evening types (Carrier & Monk. The role of light in entraining sleep-wake cycles was revealed in part by studies showing changes in the circadian phase of temperature and hormone release (Lavie. Venables. and age. muscle tension. 2000). 2001). this pattern is modified by the effects of waking time. feeling tired and sad tended to increase. Physiological indicators include heart rate. tired. increased cortisol levels). Reppert & Weaver. There also exists an ultradian rhythm of performance. generally involving increased sympathetic nervous system activity and subjectively reported intensity of emotional response (Kalat. In addition. and endocrine hormone release (e. Carrier and Monk reviewed the literature. However.2 Effects of daytime light exposure 4. 2000) would apply here. Performance rhythms have been recognised for nearly a century. Light exposure during the day. morningnesseveningness has been suggested as one potent individual difference. Pickering. so that to observe this pattern requires extensive experimental controls. 1999). Feeling rushed tended to decline over the waking day. 1984).CIE 15x:2003
4. because the clock mechanism is sensitive only a specified points in the cycle (Gillette & Tischkau. 1999.g. 1984). It probably explains. it is not a unidimensional construct (Lacey. Among the mood constructs that most appear to show circadian patterns are feeling rushed. but such effects are difficult to detect because of the stronger effects of activity and social setting (Stone. many studies find that effects differ for different tasks. observing that the study of such rhythms over the working day has been complicated by the need to separate endogenous rhythms from the homeostatic effects of the time since waking. an evening exposure can delay the circadian phase (Czeisler & Klerman. personality. Moreover. skin conductance. 1984). Stone et al.. 1990. Bright light exposure just after the morning temperature nadir shows a strong melatonin suppression response and can advance the circadian phase of melatonin (so that the following night’s peak will occur earlier). 1969). and sad.1 Activation and arousal Waking is characterized by an increase in activity in the ascending reticular activating system. BEHAVIOURAL EFFECTS IN HEALTHY PEOPLE 4. (1996) speculated that this effect might relate to known physiological cycles.2. The selective circadian sensitivity to light exposure is at odds with a common assumption about light: that more light always increases activation levels. Arousal is a general state of mental and physical activation in response to external stimulation. & Schwartz. Many of the same considerations as discussed with reference to the performance cycle data (Carrier & Monk. External stimulation influences arousal.1 Circadian rhythms of behaviour Daily rhythms are observed in behaviour as well as in the physiological functions that underlie them. Inferences about arousal require that simultaneous observations of all the elements in the system occur as predicted (Blascovich & Kelsey. Mood. as well as activity. Under conditions of forced desynchrony. known as the "post-lunch dip" (Carrier & Monk. not all individuals show this phenomenon. when subjects are not sleepdeprived but are tested at all circadian periods. intervening variable. however. such as cortisol rhythms. there appears to be a consistency between the daily temperature rhythm (which is lowest in the early morning and peaks in the late afternoon). Arousal is popularly used as an explanatory.
1999). 2001). consistent with this belief. Their physiological measurements were limited to visual functions (pupil response) and electrodermal measures. Under the higher illuminance they observed some effects in EEG readings. for a day at a time. the best light (in arousal terms) would depend on the task. the general assumption has always been that more light will increase arousal and that this increase will improve performance. that higher illuminance increases arousal.2. the difficulty in observing the expected effects. the optimal arousal level is higher if the task is easier) (Kantowitz & Sorkin. often used imprecisely as a symbolic construct rather than measured physiologically (Blascovich & Kelsey. There were inconsistent interactions of lamp type x illuminance x hemisphere (left and right) in alpha rhythms. Grünberger. even if more light were better light. cortisol. As applied to lighting. Linzmayer.CIE 15x:2003
however. (1991). However. That is. Evidence is weak for illuminance level effects on generalised arousal. so that illuminance maintains an acceptable alertness level. found that bright light exposure at night had behavioural and physiological effects. Küller and Wetterberg (1993) hypothesized (as have many researchers) that increased room illuminance would increase physiological arousal. and these effects were small. Participants in their study added approximately 1000 lx of electric light to daylight in the range of 1000-4000 lx on the desk surface. and a contrary interaction for beta rhythms. They interpreted the pattern of findings as indicative of increased arousal in response to bright light. there were no differences in body temperature. Moreover. that the increased arousal leads to predictable changes in task performance following the inverted-U function. This prevents a test of the hypothesis that the achieved arousal level is equal to the optimal arousal level.2 Performance Arousal is a popular explanatory concept in psychology. although sometimes an acute response to a stimulus is to be inferred. Two demonstrations are needed to support this theory: first. They speculated that this could be an attempt to counteract the post-lunch dip with an acute increase in light exposure. Arousal theory holds that there is an inverted-U function between arousal levels and behaviours. Badia et al. with an optimal arousal level for each behaviour (Yerkes & Dodson. The term is often used to refer to the state of activation of an organism. 1990). illuminance recommendations increased throughout the 20th century. 1985). Begemann. for example. Part of the problem is that many variables influence
. and second. 4. Thus. Landy. particularly around midday and shortly after. the curve is believed to shift up for simple tasks (that is. and the research evidence for illuminance effects on task performance is mixed (Veitch. 1908). and Saletu (1993) exposed participants to thirtyminute periods of 2500 lx or 500 lx light on four occasions over an 8-hour day. there were statistically significant effects of light exposure on fewer than half of the physiological measures. but no effects on theta rhythms. 1983. This lack of precision is among the problems with the literature in this area. They speculated that the changes they observed in illuminance preferences over the course of the working day (small peaks in the morning and early afternoon) relate to differences in alertness. there appear to have been no attempts to replicate this effect with a complete battery of measures. EEG readings. For task performance. but lacked the physiological data to test this hypothesis. Their participants experienced 450 or 1700 lx mean horizontal illuminance. To date. and melatonin measurements showed no effects of lamp type or illuminance. until energy became a dominant issue in the 1970s (Mills & Borg. Heart rate. or psychomotor and cognitive task performance. Beld and Tenner (1997) collected illuminance level and colour temperature preferences in relation to time of day and external weather conditions. which characterise a state of sleepiness. between bright and dim light exposures (5000 lx and 50 lx) in 90-min blocks during daytime. from one of two lamp types. It is not clear that the changes in visual functions were not predictable responses to visual stimulation. arousal research in general suffers from a logical flaw in that the optimal arousal levels for a given task are defined post hoc as whatever level led to the best performance of that task. that individuals prefer higher illuminances at the time of day when the circadian cycle dips. but not the consistent pattern that would provide a clear result: There were lower delta rhythms (indicating less sleep propensity). Dietzel.
performance of any task. Hine. (1993) found that participants reported better daytime mood under 2000 lx than under 300 lx. Gifford et al. found that the median person spent 4% of each 24 hr in illumination greater than 1000 lx. 1996. & Hellekson. 1994. contrasts between low and high illuminance (average 1962 lx) produced a (statistically significant) average correlation of 0. Hurme. energy and alertness ratings of a group of people with sub-syndromal Seasonal Affective Disorder (Avery. There is contradictory evidence concerning preferred illuminance levels in interiors (Veitch. one needs more than two points (dim and bright) to determine whether the outcomes follow the curvilinear path predicted by arousal theory. driving at night. 1993).... Koller. Kundi. as compared to a relaxation programme or to an exercise program under ordinary light levels (400 . These findings point to possibilities for application to architectural lighting. Wehr. In addition. Laboratory and field evidences points to a possible effect of light exposure on mood. then one would expect the illuminance-performance relationship to follow the inverted-U function. In a 24-hour constant routine. 2000).1 to 100 lx (an additional 38. People adapt to new lighting levels. 2001).. However.6% of the time was below 0. 1993).600 lx) (Partonen. & Lönnqvist. etc. however. although they were unable to demonstrate a clear causal link (Espiritu et al. Daurat et al. and can perform well over a broad range.4000 lx). people do not uniformly self-select it. 1994. & Gifford. (1997) found that contrasts between low (average 70 lx) and medium (average 486 lx) illuminance levels did not produce significant effects on task performance. Stidl. total daily light exposure (from all sources) is low (Espiritu et al. people believe strongly that natural daylight is more conducive to good health (Veitch & Gifford.3 Mood and comfort In the industrialised world. Kizer. so that very sensitive experimental designs are required to detect an effect of lighting beyond simple visual performance effects. Zidek. 1991). few researchers combine a set of physiological measures with subjective and objective behavioural measures. the literature does not support this prediction (Veitch.25 between illuminance and task performance. In addition. and more than 50% of the time in illuminance levels from 0. The meta-analysis was limited by the quality of the published reports on this topic: many investigations that were candidates could not be included because they included too few statistical details to allow effect sizes to be calculated (only 11 studies were found that provided all necessary information). 1999) and others finding that lower levels. with some investigators finding higher levels (1000 lx and greater) being more desirable (Begemann et al. Collins et al. Thus. and that lower illuminances would be favoured for more complex tasks. In addition. Integrating the literature
. and Veitch (1997) applied this technique to the literature on illuminance effects on office task performance. 2001). consistent with sleeping. the range of illuminances has varied widely from one study to another. 1994. Workplace use of a light box to increase light exposure for two hours in either the morning or evening successfully improved mood. consistent with codes and standards. Closer analysis revealed that this relationship might be moderated by the adaptation time.). If higher illuminance does improve mood. Kripke et al. Leppämäki. Studies that allowed more than 15 minutes to adapt to the new lighting level showed a smaller relationship between illuminance and task performance. 2001). Overall. & Haider. meta-analytic techniques are a recent statistical development that allow the results of several independent research studies to be quantitatively and systematically combined to reach a general conclusion about a specific hypothesis. Bolte. 4. If arousal is the intervening mechanism. Their results suggested that inadequate light exposure is associated with depressed mood. Partonen and Lönnqvist (2000) enrolled healthy Finnish volunteers in a test of bright light exposure (using light boxes commonly used for therapy) during the winter months. Gifford. Espiritu et al. Veitch. 1998). and observed increases in vitality and mood.. Vitality and mood also increased when people participated in an exercise programme (1 hr 2-3 times per week.1 lx. The use of different measures of arousal in each study adds to the interpretative difficulty of this pattern of results. for 8 weeks) under bright light (2500 .2. Hine. it is likely that any relationship between these variables is transitory. are preferred (Veitch & Newsham. a topic we discuss below. Overall.
as appears likely. individual differences moderate the effects of light on human behaviour and physiology (Bailey & Heitkemper. and increased self-reported alertness (or decreased self-reported sleepiness) (Bernecker et al. 1990). but not on simple tasks. (1993) found that participants in a 24-hr constant routine of bright (2000 lx) or dim light (300 lx) performed better on both simple and complex cognitive tasks.. Eklund. 1991). but no improvements in clerical task performance associated with light exposure (Dollins et al. 1997. healthy young male volunteers stayed awake and worked continuously at a computer for 30 hours. alternatively.CIE 15x:2003
in this area is difficult because illuminance preferences are linked to tasks. if one accepts arousal theory. Similarly. Strobel. Performance effects of night-time bright light exposure are. perhaps bright light exposure shifts arousal past the optimal level for simple tasks. In two experiments.. 2001. Eklund. One study systematically examined task complexity.
.. the optimal degree of light exposures for various jobs and their specific tasks remains unknown. One reason for these null findings on task performance could be that the tasks were too easy to be sufficiently affected by a short period of sleep deprivation. Beckstead. in studies simulating night work settings. 1993.. Boecker and Culpepper (1991) observed that bright light exposure overnight could improve performance on psychomotor and simple cognitive tasks in comparison to dim light (5000 vs 50 lx). 1997. Perhaps simple tasks can be performed adequately despite overnight sleepiness (without bright light exposure). male participants showed improved performance on complex cognitive tasks. with light exposure during times when people are normally asleep. Daurat et al. Boyce. Myers. this might explain the variability in findings. 1993). (simulating midday to dusk changes over 8 hours). particularly melatonin secretion. French et al. complex problem solving) compared to their own performance on a separate occasion under 100 lux. Strobel. difficult to detect. however. 1997).1 Alertness Overnight protocols. & Rea. Küller & Laike.2 Performance Several investigations have found that bright light during overnight simulated work sessions can improve performance in comparison to dim light. and these are the basis for much of what is known about melatonin's effects on activation. have been the predominant tool to study the effects of light on circadian rhythms. When the skylight was either at a constant 2800 lx and 4050 K correlated colour temperature. is at the same level under either bright or dim light. 4. 4. additionally.3 Effects of night-time light exposure 4. male participants have shown melatonin suppression in response to bright light exposure. requiring careful attention to research design and statistical analysis. In one study. 1994. mathematical ability. There were also significant differences in the body temperatures and blood hormone levels in these volunteers under the bright versus dim light condition (Brainard. 2000. Beckstead. Further investigation of this question is required. in a procedure designed to mimic the fast-rotating 3-night shift cycle used in industry. Badia. or followed a slow ramp from 2800 lx to 200 lx and 4050 K to 2800 K.. Boyce. Similarly. If.. Carrier & Monk.3. 1998). at night. These findings have implications for the design of settings where night work is a necessity. When working under 3000 lux of white fluorescent light during 18:00 to 06:00 hours (6:00 PM to 6:00 AM) the volunteers exhibited significantly improved behavioural and mental performance (reaction time. which differ widely across studies and historical time.3. so that performance on these tasks. or improved by light exposure during the sleepless night. Daurat et al.. discussed above. and Rea (1997) examined the effects of using a daylight-simulating skylight in a mock office over the night shift. Begemann et al. Leproult et al. bright light exposure at night acutely suppressed melatonin secretion. taking only short breaks to eat or go to the bathroom (French et al. but it will make the determination of optimal general lighting solutions more difficult. Photobiologists often use multiple measures to study the effects of light exposure.
1999. Boulos. or while waiting to board the aircraft). but some guidelines have emerged... Fewer investigators have included mood measures among their dependent measures. 1995). & Moore-Ede. While readjusting the biological clock to a new geophysical time zone. which might be achieved by bright light exposure in the morning at the destination after eastward travel (Chesson et al. (1993) observed that the effect of a higher overall light dose on the circadian rhythm in mood differed for day. the report did not discuss the absolute levels of the mood scores in either group. 1987). Depending on the direction of travel (eastward or westward) and the number of time zones crossed (5 to 11). There are no set recommendations concerning how best to use light for this modern malady (Society for Light Treatment and Biological Rhythms. Winget. during stopovers. 1996). These initial findings suggest that light can be a useful tool for quickly resetting the traveller’s biological clock and overcoming some of the problems associated with jet travel.. 1999. 1995. Jet travel over 5 or more time zones appears to cause greater problems than shorter flights.. 1985). instead of early in the morning (a positive correlation). but in these instances there were no immediate benefits of bright light overnight on mood ratings of pleasantness or positive affect (Boyce et al. More seriously. For day-shift workers.. He accomplished this feat in an eight day eastward flight (Winfree. which might conflict with the requirements of the itinerary (e.and night-shift workers. the typical human circadian system re-adjusts to such a challenge within three to twelve days (Boulos et al. 1991).4. gastrointestinal distress.CIE 15x:2003
4. & Holley. 1999). night-time insomnia. He was also the first to describe a phenomenon now familiar to many modern transcontinental travellers: jet lag. Koller et al.. 1999). for night-shift workers. However. 1999). Advancing the circadian rhythm can be accomplished by bright light exposure during the hours after the minimum body temperature and by avoiding light in the hours before the temperature minimum (Czeisler & Klerman. Daan & Lewy. Studies indicate that properly timed bright light exposure (and bright light avoidance) may prevent or ameliorate jet lag (Boulos et al. bright light overnight does not appear to have the same effect on mood as during the day. 4.2 Mood Interestingly. Adjusting the circadian rhythm to a new time zone requires either an advance (after an eastward flight) or a delay (after a westward flight.3.. using bright light treatment in the evening at the destination following westward travel (Chesson et al.. 1999). jet lag is understood as a condition which results from rapid transport over several time zones. 1993). many people experience uncomfortable symptoms such as daytime sleepiness. being in a regimented routine overnight has its own effects on mood that are unlikely to be altered by a short-term light exposure. Eastman & Martin. Delay in the circadian rhythm requires bright light exposure in the hours before the temperature minimum. a pioneer named Wiley Post was the first to fly an airplane around the planet. Because the circadian clock is more easily delayed than advanced (Eastman & Martin. DeRoshia. From a practical standpoint these general guidelines are difficult to implement: Travellers generally have little control over the availability of light or darkness at the critical times.g. irritability. 1999. Waterhouse. 1984). Wever. Eastman & Martin. Markley. 1997.1 Jet lag In 1931. 1984. Today. 1995. it
. Houpt. mild depression and confusion (Boulos et al. One team has investigated the effects of light dose on mood in permanent night shift workers. Waterhouse. Daurat et al. 1999). and software to facilitate the timing of light exposure has been developed (Boulos et al. Such symptoms can pose serious problems for the business traveller and can certainly limit the enjoyment of a vacation for the leisure traveller.. 1999). 1999. higher light doses were associated with peak mood in the late afternoon instead of the late evening (a negative correlation).4 Circadian phase shifting 4. those with higher light doses showed a peak in mood later in the morning. and light avoidance in the hours after the minimum body temperature (Czeisler & Klerman. most people find it easier to adapt after a westward flight than an eastward one. or after an eastward flight of more than 9 hours) of the cycle (Waterhouse. 1995. It is possible that in these experimental settings.
Wolfe. Eastman et al. Researchers believe that poor chronobiological adjustment to a permanent night shift or a rotating schedule may contribute to some of these ailments (Arendt.. To participate in the global marketplace. It is clear that some industries such as telecommunications. to 04:00 through 12:00). 1998a. 1984. then sleep from 08:00 to 15:00.Office of Technology Assessment. 1991). As with treating jet lag. as it is in the case of jet-lag. 1993. Reeth. Folkard & Monk. Arendt et al. like intercontinental travellers. using nightly three-hour exposures to approximately 1200 lx white light starting at day 1 at 00:00 and advancing in start time one hour for five days. 1995. the schedule assumes that there will be no night-time light exposure. The worker should wear dark glasses and minimise time outdoors on the way home. they must consider adding some shift work to their company schedule or move towards continuous operation.. there is little data concerning possible side effects or adverse interactions with other medications. MooreEde. usually orally. On days off. 1993).Office of Technology Assessment. 1999). (1999) reviewed the trials where this had been attempted and reported that melatonin can successfully shift circadian rhythms.. 1992. and the worker should delay sleep as late as possible (ideally... many companies are discovering that to stay competitive. which is possible when sleep is within the window of +/.4. it has been observed that shift workers have higher risk of cardiovascular disease and gastro-intestinal distress.. Eastman and Martin (1999) have proposed a weekly schedule for permanent night shift workers (11:00 – 07:00 shifts). 1991. 1999. also suddenly change their sleep and waking times. Simple clinical recommendations for its use await advances in our understanding of its many physiological functions and its pharmacokinetics. 1990. but because circadian phase shifting is slow it may be impossible to keep sleep and wake in the proper relation to this minimum (Eastman & Martin. it is estimated that approximately 20% of the workers in industrialised nations are shift workers (Eastman et al. Not all of the problems associated with shift work are solely the consequence of a maladapted biological clock.CIE 15x:2003
is difficult to assess circadian phase (Arendt. 1991.. United States Congress . United States Congress . Alfredsson. Eastman & Martin. Another approach to modifying circadian rhythms is the administration of exogenous melatonin. 1993. While strong economic incentives encourage businesses to adopt shift work. Currently. 1995.. 2001. Eastman et al. Moore-Ede. 1995. Eastman et al. 1999). United States Congress . police. Minors et al. Horowitz. moreover. A permanent night shift schedule. the worker should maintain an adequate phase shift to maintain alertness at work. making it difficult for an individual to correctly identify the appropriate times for light and dark exposure. must operate on a continuous twenty-four hour day. Hence. The principles of timing of light and dark relative to minimum body temperature hold.6 hours around the temperature minimum. so that it is impossible at present to recommend an optimal dose. United States Congress . 1991). With health issues alone. and should also be able to achieve sufficient sleep. For workers on varying shifts. On this schedule. but that there are many unanswered questions. Dawson & Campbell. seven day week schedule.Office of Technology Assessment. as well as cognitive and emotional problems (Akerstedt. in that the state of the circadian phase depends on the history of shift rotations so that the calculation of appropriate light and dark exposures is more difficult. the problem is more complex. Moore-Ede. for example. 4. Eastman. there is no single solution to the problems associated with shift work. increased accidents and increased health problems (Eastman et al.2 Shift work Shift workers. Shift workers generally have a tendency to be chronically sleepdeprived and experience domestic stresses that are independent of circadian adaptation (Eastman et al. Knuttson. 1995. Cade. might result in better circadian phase-shifting but will not resolve the problems of domestic life
. studies have indicated that properly timed exposure to bright light exposure together with avoidance of bright light at the proper time can enhance the adaptation of the circadian system to changing shift schedules (Czeisler et al. & Czeisler. 1990a. health care. military and transportation. its use has drawbacks such as decreased production. 1998). 1987. 1995. 1991) . Lewy et al.Office of Technology Assessment. 1995. Individual responses differ widely. 1991). Eastman. & Theorell. 1985..
such as bright light on the drive home. similarly. people having high CFF values. with its 50 Hz supply.
. 1993). Bailey. Veitch and McColl (1995) found. Clear. Veitch and Newsham (1998) observed that participants working under magnetic ballasts (120 Hz) performed more poorly on creative writing and psychomotor performance tasks than those working under electronic ballasts (40 kHz). Kuller and Laike (1998) found that for individuals showing a high critical flicker fusion (CFF. avoid conflicting light. This is its rate of luminous modulation. 2000). 1999. so that flicker rates changed without the participants' knowledge. at least for some people.. The effects of such modulation on neuroendocrine function. effectively making them continuous sources to the human nervous system. strictly use a regular daytime dark period for sleeping (Eastman et al. For example. Eastman & Martin. in comparison to 40 kHz. we can expect practical recommendations to become more precise.. and. 1989). Although not perceived as variable light sources. Taken overall. As we learn more about the response of the circadian system to night-time light exposures of varying durations. the experimental results regarding the effects of low-frequency luminous modulation add to the arguments for the adoption of energy-efficient electronic ballasts for fluorescent lighting systems. although general guidance exists for shift workers: Use brighter light during the night shift. with its 60 Hz supply). a characteristic of some electric lighting systems might also influence health and performance. & Bedocs. Flicker is a characteristic of discharge lamps (e. Low-frequency flicker might constitute a stressor. Dijk et al. Wilkins (1986) found that low-frequency (100 Hz) flicker detrimentally affected saccadic eye movements in reading. 1991). The application of light treatment for shift work problems remains in an experimental stage (Society for Light Treatment and Biological Rhythms. and times. the human nervous system appears to operate in phase with this modulation. remain unknown. fluorescent lamps.g. & Raasch. In a field study in which ballasts in fluorescent luminaires were changed out overnight. have found that flicker rates affect task performance. and of course to the timing of the exposure. the knowledge that the circadian pacemaker is more sensitive to light exposure early in the biological night than was previously thought might change illuminance recommendations for circadian phase shifting (Zeitzer.. or flicker. Horowitz et al. 1995.5 Luminous modulation The effects discussed above relate primarily to the spectral properties and intensity of light exposure. Several investigators. 100 Hz in Europe. HID lamps) when run on conventional. although flicker rate did not affect beta activity.CIE 15x:2003
with people who are on a day shift schedule (Reeth.e. 120 Hz in North America. In general. while all other lighting conditions were constant. intensities. rates of headache and eyestrain were lower when high-frequency electronic ballasts were used (Wilkins. 4. up to approximately 145 Hz (Berman. magnetic core-coil ballasts. the rate at which a flickering light is perceived as continuous). using a variety of methods. such lamps oscillate at a rate of twice the AC supply rate (i. these effects might be moderated by individual differences in sensitivity: Küller and Laike (1998) found flicker effects on proofreading task performance only for a subset of their participants. Separately from these variables. Moore-Ede. if any.. 1998). Electronic ballasts operate at 40 kHz. Nimmo-Smith. However.. that low-frequency flicker reduced visual performance. heart rate or cardiac arrhythmia. Luminous modulation also appears to influence physical comfort and possibly health. 2001. Greenhouse. Slater. 1991). fluorescent lamps run on conventional ballasts reduced EEG alpha activity in comparison to electronic ballasts.
Indeed. but not in the warmer. a desire to withdraw socially. or who are taking photosensitizing medications including antidepressant prescription or herbal medications (Lam & Levitt.8% and 9. Kern. and cravings for carbohydrates and sweets (Lam & Levitt. 1998. Laike.g. & Rosenthal. & Levitt. Beersma. Middendorp. winter depression. Lewy. Jacobsen. with women more likely to suffer from SAD than men (Lam & Levitt. These are an increased need for sleep. Newsome. In the summer. Among those diagnosed with SAD. 1999a). and additional cluster of symptoms that are not typical of nonseasonal depression. Rosenthal. 1999). & Mikellides. 1999. Terman et al. 1992. Since the early 1980s. unacceptable weight gain. 1999b). Consistent with this hypothesis is evidence that seasonally breeding animals have seasonal rhythms of immunological competence (Nelson. in addition. 1989). 1999). Bouhuys. these patients were asymptomatic and showed the same levels of this protein as did healthy people. 1999). Lam. there is stronger evidence for cultural or social differences between North America and Europe than for latitudinal differences (Mersch. Consensus has emerged in favour of 10000 lx for 30-45 minutes in the early morning as the standard treatment (Lam & Levitt. 1973). also known as seasonal depression. Lewy et al. 1999. 1995. others have argued that improved research designs eliminate these apparent latitude effects (Lam & Levitt. Vriend & Lauber. often show reduced immune system activity. Seasonal Affective Disorder patients were successfully treated with light therapy and also displayed a return to normal levels of a blood protein linked to white blood cell activity (Avissar et al. 1998. and there is a general consensus that this therapy is effective (Lam & Levitt. 1991). usually during the fall and winter months. Rosenthal & Blehar. Demas. and a drop in physical energy. 1994). Patients with depression. patients with existing ophthalmological disorders.. Küller. & Kriegsfeld. 1999). Ballal. & Wehr.. (1981) sparked interest with their dramatic report of patient who experienced depression annually during the fall and winter months who was observed to improve from daily treatment with bright light exposure (Kern & Lewy.. increased appetite. summer months (Egashira & Abe. 1999). Demas. Wehr. particularly during the winter months. 1988. Rosenthal et al. There are few side-effects. Rosenthal. in comparison to more equatorial locations (Hill. & van den Hoofdakker. 1982) Individuals who suffer from SAD experience recurrent episodes.1. 1984). Estimates of the occurrence of the syndrome range from 0. The most common of these is Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD).. Tam. THERAPEUTIC EFFECTS OF LIGHT 5. 1995. Middendorp. 1999) (e.
. and few patients for whom it is contraindicated (Lam & Levitt. Society for Light Treatment and Biological Rhythms. Bouhuys. 1990.7% in North America. 1999). 1993. 1981. but a consensus has formed that the true incidence lies between 1 and 3 % of the population. Nelson. & Klein. In one study.1 Mood disorders 5. or major depression with a seasonal pattern (Lam & Levitt. when electric lighting became prevalent. & van den Hoofdakker. the medical community has recognised the existence of mood disorders that recur seasonally (Lewy. seasonality of suicide rates in developed countries dropped during the 20th century. Beersma. Skwerer. Goodwin. 1989. with typical depressive symptoms such as emotional depression. The authors suggested that this pattern of immune system activity might be a biological marker for SAD. both seasonal and non-seasonal. an estimated 65% respond favourably to daily light treatment. & Wehr. Approximately 8-9 % of the population might experience a milder form of mood disturbance. called sub-syndromal SAD (Mersch. Sack. Some surveys have found that people at northerly latitudes report a higher incidence of depressive symptoms. Rosenthal. Considerable controlled research has examined the specific lighting parameters and exposure techniques for light treatment of winter depression (Lam. Klein.1 Seasonal mood disorders Suicide rates in the winter months are predicted by the hours of sunshine in the previous month. 1999).CIE 15x:2003
2000)). green light was significantly stronger than the red light for treating winter depression. Other hypotheses that have attracted considerable attention include the photoperiod hypothesis (that decreased day length in winter triggers the abnormal response. 1991).. 1990. Much research attention is focused on the
. 2001. Considered together. 1993. the photon count hypothesis (that decreased day length in winter results in too low a light dose for sustained mental health). light therapy appears to require exposure of the patients’ eyes versus their skin (Koorengevel et al. Terman et al. Corral.. although evidence for the feasibility of determining an action spectrum for light treatment exists of SAD exists. 1993). 2000). light therapy is thought to simulate increased day length). 1987). placed on a table top in front of the seated patient.3 x 1015 photons/cm2/sec for treating winter depression (Oren et al. 1992). and should be avoided because of its other harmful effects (Lam & Levitt.CIE 15x:2003
Roberts. Roberts. Terman et al. 1997). Schey et al. Fluorescent lamps are most often used because they are energy-efficient and because they do not produce as much unwanted heat as incandescent lamps.. a photon density equivalent to a dosage of white light known to be therapeutically effective (Rosenthal et al. however. 1989). Recurrence of the symptoms occurs rapidly if the patient stops daily light therapy sessions during the winter months. A 30% reduction in HDRS scores for the red-light group was not statistically significant. the circadian phase-shifting hypothesis (that SAD sufferers have an abnormal circadian rhythm. Partonen & Lönnqvist. Initially. Paterson. at this photon density. shining closer to the eye. this hypothesis has been rejected (Lam & Levitt. Lam. Dillon.. Currently. 1999). particularly because of advances in genetics that allow for more precise understanding of how circadian rhythms are regulated (Bunney & Bunney. Lee. The colour properties of the white light are not important to the treatment effect (Lee. are a promising treatment modality that would allow the patient more mobility and reduced energy costs (Rosenthal et al. None of these fully accounts for the antidepressant effects of light therapy nor for the physiological functions observed in SAD patients (Lam & Levitan. (1990) treated patients with an equal photon dose (2. That result implied that light sources for SAD light therapy could not be improved by substituting narrower bandwidths of blue or red light in place of broadband white light. particularly if the patient cannot or will not comply with the light treatment regimen (Lam & Levitt. 1999). The origins and mechanisms underlying SAD and related seasonal mood disorders remain unknown. The traditional approach to defining a complete action spectrum. particularly the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.. Clark. Head-mounted visor systems. Wehr et al. 1999. Blashko et al. & Terman. Lee. and sometimes are the treatment of choice.. Blashko. The patient may read. & Blashko. which light therapy corrects) (Lewy et al. Lam & Levitt. the results of these two experiments suggest that broad spectrum white light and narrower band green light are equivalent in their capacity to reduce symptoms of SAD and form the basis for determining an action spectrum for light therapy of winter depression.. 1999. The dominant form is a light box containing several fluorescent lamps. & Remick. The photon density emitted from the white light source elicited a significantly stronger clinical response as compared to the results obtained from an equal photon density from the blue and red light. 1999. or do other sedentary activities. As with neuroendocrine and circadian regulation by light in healthy humans. 1998). Reme. Drug treatments. blue or red appearing light for one week. One week of light treatment with green light produced a statistically-significant improvement of 51% lower mean Hamilton Depression Rating Scores (HDRS) scores. a variety of portable and semiportable light devices are available for SAD therapy (Avery et al.. Chan. Janzen. Brainard et al. 1997). Janzen. are also effective. knit. Brainard & Bernecker. Buchanan. & Remick. Buchanan.3 x 1015 photons/cm2/sec) of white. Mador. 1997.. it appeared to involved a disruption in melatonin metabolism because of the known melatonin-suppressing effects of bright light. 2000. 1993. and. 1987). 1991.. Lam & Levitt. however. A second study was then done to compare restricted bandwidths of green light to red light at 2. & Chan. interest in the circadian phase-shifting hypothesis remains keen. 1988. 1996. Stewart et al. 1991.. The action spectrum for light therapy is unknown as yet. However.. 1990). requires testing with narrower bandwidth light stimuli and more tightly controlled light exposures than is feasible in outpatient clinical trials. 1999). Paterson. 1992. Rosenthal et al. while glancing up at the light every few moments (Lam & Levitt. Ultraviolet radiation is not necessary to the treatment effect (Lam.. Therefore.
although not a circadian pattern). & Gillin. & Kasper. which should also be addressed either before or during treatment for it (Wagner.. Kripke. as they are not disease states. Stastny. and wakens before dawn. 1999. so that it is difficult to maintain a regular schedule of sleeping at night irregular sleep-wake cycles – in which the individual sleeps in several episodes each day. have also seen successful light therapy treatment (Lam & Goldner. 1999): • • • delayed sleep phase syndrome – in which the individual cannot sleep before 2-3 a. Mullaney. & Remick. 1998a. 1999. Advanced sleep phase syndrome is very rare. These include cluster headache (Costa.. 1999). temporal pattern. Major depression. 1993). 1998). 1993. Delayed sleep phase syndrome can be successfully treated with bright morning light (e. 1994). Leston. 2000. it is unsurprising that the therapeutic mechanism underlying successful light therapy also remains unknown.. 2000). extending beyond SAD. and has difficulty waking before late morning advanced sleep phase syndrome – in which the individual falls asleep very early. particularly related to melatonin. Praschak-Rieder. and obsessive-compulsive disorder (Wetterberg. Willeit. with little predictability in timing from one day to the next
Delayed sleep phase syndrome can result in chronic sleep deprivation. 1995. depending on the individual need for sleep and the need to rise early for scheduled activities.. Rosenthal et al. although catecholamines may also play a role (Neumeister. (Circadian rhythm disruptions related to jet lag and shift work were discussed above. 1999. 1998.2 Other mood disorders The treatment of specific illnesses with light is a rapidly developing frontier. 1989. 1999. Lam.CIE 15x:2003
neurotransmitter serotonin as a source of seasonal mood problems (Lam et al. light therapy for certain sleep disorders is an obvious application.2 Sleep disorders Given the potential for the use of light exposure to shift circadian rhythms. 1990).) Recognised circadian rhythm sleep disorders include the following (Wagner. 1998). Investigators have had some success in treating non-seasonal depression with light therapy (Kripke. Given the incomplete understanding of the etiology of these disorders. The disorder can be co-existent with other medical or psychiatric problems. either in symptoms.m. 1998. Solyom. such as bulimia nervosa and anorexia nervosa. without seasonal pattern. Lam & Levitt. schizophrenia. 5. Terman et al. Stain-Malmgren. and has also been successfully treated with light therapy (Kripke. Lam et al.. Premenstrual dysphoria (depressed mood associated with the menstrual cycle) shows similarities to seasonal affective disorder (being a temporal pattern of depressed mood. particularly in combination with behavioural schedules (Arendt.. Eating disorders. however this evidence is limited by the infrequency of the disorder (Arendt. 1998a. Because non-24-hour-sleep-wake cycle is rare in sighted people.1. Parry et al. Other disorders associated with disrupted circadian rhythms. 1998). Wagner. although this possibility remains at the level of speculation. Parry et al. & Nappi. Savides.. 5. 1998. Neumeister et al. Goldner. 1999).g. & Åberg-Wistedt.. Arendt (1998a) cautioned that there is as yet no clear evidence for a circadian clock malfunction in psychiatric disorders. was among the first disorders studied. Among the first targets have been disorders bearing similarities to SAD.. or neurohormonal changes. 1993). might also be good candidates for light therapy.. Evening administration of bright light can delay the circadian phase and increase the sleeping time (Lack & Wright. this corresponds to a circadian clock in its free-running state. and rarely in sighted people. 1999). Chesson et al. SAD might be a heterogeneous condition rather than a simple instance of one type of biological abnormality (Lam & Levitan. 1989). Chesson et al. Cavallini. 1999). there have been still
. Partonen & Lönnqvist. this condition is very rare non-24-hour-sleep-wake cycle – found in the blind.. Kjellman.
1993). 2000). Manning. and of Alzheimer Disease (Someren et al. 1997. Depending on the mechanism of action..g. and found that patients (who had a variety of diagnoses) exhibited less night-time restlessness during the week of light treatment than either before or after. Kripke. Harper. Wagner. 1997). Kessler. however. She pointed out that past research into drug efficacy and safety intended to protect day-active humans has largely used the nocturnally active rat. 5.4 Neurological disorders: Alzheimer and related dementias People with Alzheimer Disease and other dementias show circadian phase delays and sleep more both at night and during the day. no treatment). 1999). Dawson. There have been reports of success in using morning light to improve night-time sleep for agitated patients with dementia (Haffmans. 1998). and that it can be corrected with evening administration of bright light (Wagner. & Steele. & van Gelder. improving the stability of the rest-activity rhythm. Thus. of patients with vascular dementia (Mishima. 5. making this another hypothesis for the circadian rhythm malfunctions (Stopa et al. 1998a. including gastrointestinal functions and the immune system (Arendt. Chesson et al. but intended for use during our day. and one clinical trial showing that evening light reduced night-time activity in Alzheimer patients with sundowning (increased confusion and agitation in early evening) (Satlin. Baker. One reason for their disturbed circadian rhythms could be that severely demented people spend less time exposed to bright light.. This practice is known as chronotherapy or chronopharmacology. Although evening light treatment can benefit elderly people who experience earlywakening insomnia (Arendt. & Klauber. Sival. 1998a). than healthy elderly people (Ancoli-Israel et al. 1999). Campbell. the optimal treatment times could be at night [e. & Satlin. This practice has unknown implications for the efficacy and safety of current medical practice. 1997).CIE 15x:2003
fewer opportunities to study the use of light therapy for this disorder. Morning light treatment has been used successfully to treat irregular sleep-wake cycles in otherwise healthy individuals. one possibility would be its use to synchronise circadian rhythms to ensure that treatments are administered in their appropriate phase. Volicer.g. Cats. comprising both phase advances and delays (Youngstedt. There remains debate about the mechanism of the therapeutic effect.. Similarly. or during the day [e.3 Circadian rhythms and medical treatment Circadian rhythms exist in many physiological systems. together with a lower amplitude of circadian melatonin rhythms (Arendt. the effect of the timing of administration in relation to the circadian phase state of the individual can influence the effect of medications and treatments (Arendt. Elliott. & Hishikawa. Lissoni et al. Volicer. and about its generalizability from one form of dementia to another (Mishima. cancer treatments (Levi. 2001). Some authors argue that age-related insomnia resembles advanced sleep-phase syndrome. but reviewers have concluded that it holds promise as a nonpharmacological treatment
. with the result that the drugs were usually given during the rat’s night. 1998a. have found that the circadian malsynchronization of older people who report sleep disturbances is variable. 1998a). & Okawa. 1992).. together with strict behavioural schedules (Chesson et al. Pathological examination has found SCN abnormalities in patients who had severe dementia. Hozumi. it appears that the timing of treatments in relation to infradian rhythms such as the menstrual cycle can influence treatment outcomes (Arendt. 2000. 1992)]. Plytycz & Seljelid. administration of beta-blockers for hypertension (Arendt. & Anderson. Lyketsos.. 1999). Goldstein.. 2001. light treatment. Okawa. which could lead to disrupted patterns of melatonin release and suppression (Ancoli-Israel et al. Sleep disturbances tend to increase with aging. Herz. Lucius. 1998a.. 1999). Someren. 35). Arendt (1998a) has observed that the little that is known as yet represents "the tip of the iceberg" (p. 1999. Ross.. & Campbell. Mirmiran and Swaab (1997) increased the general illumination during daytime hours in the living rooms of patients on a psychogeriatric ward in an ABA design (no treatment. Others. 1999). 1998a)]. Although the role of light therapy in chronotherapy is unknown. it probably is not a generic solution for all age-related sleep disorders (Chesson et al. 2001).. Hishikawa. 1999). Lindell Veiel.. 1999).
and the optical properties of the luminaire. 1995.. three cone. This technical report cannot cover all of the research methods issues in all of these fields. 1995. its intensity. Czeisler et al. and medicine.1 Stimulus specification Complete specification of all aspects of the light stimulus is a requirement for research in this area. 2001b. 2001a. Similarly. subject to further study with improved research design controls (Chesson et al. Although the exact curve is not yet known. Opie.. Photopic photometry is based on the internationally accepted "standard observer" which has a normal three cone visual system adapted to daytime light levels (CIE. "Protocols for Describing Lighting" (currently in preparation) will provide guidance on this topic and should be consulted for details.) shows how the spectral sensitivity curve for nonvisual responding might differ from both the photopic and scotopic sensitivity curves for vision. RESEARCH METHODS IN LIGHTING The studies reviewed here cover many disciplines. 1987). we have chosen to highlight a few important issues that are not always adequately addressed by researchers in this field to draw attention to them by future researchers. it is possible that as information improves it will be possible to develop a new weighting scheme for lighting measurement.. Stimulus specification is also important for architectural applications. 6.1. For example. visual system is not the photoreceptor system through which light information is transduced for other physiological systems. treatment durations. 6. Designers also must make their clients aware of the effects that changes in the setting (particularly of reflectances) could have on the lighting experienced by occupants. as is suggested by the studies discussed above (Brainard et al. and requiring knowledge of physics. and V’(λ).. otherwise designers will not know if the proposed installation will have the intended consequences. even the best-designed system to deliver high illuminance will be ruined if the walls subsequently are painted a dark colour... especially if intended to have therapeutic effects. or treatment timing. Figure 6 (p. The research has not yet resulted in guidelines for light intensities.. However. Ruberg et al. Moore et al. Rosewarne. & O’Connor. but its use implies that the three cone. Mishima et al. the elements of photopic lux and exposure time were the principal ingredients in formulating the intended dose of light. The final report of CIE Technical Committee 3-34. Consequently. If the normal. Test subjects or patients were given light treatment at a specified illuminance (in lux or footcandles) for a specific length of time. Thapan et al. Detailed information concerning the viewer (particularly the state of the visual and circadian systems at the time of testing) is also required for complete stimulus specification (see below).1 Measuring light 6. 1999). the various light therapy devices are characterised as providing illuminances at a given distance or upon a given surface. 2001). 2000. its position relative to the viewer. photopic visual system is responsible for mediating the biological and therapeutic effects of light. neuroendocrine and therapeutic effects of light in humans have predominantly used photopic illuminance as their standard light measurement. 1999. 1996. statistics.. 6.2 Photometric measurement Most scientists and clinicians working on the circadian. from biochemistry through physiology to psychology. This includes a detailed description of the reflectances and surface characteristics of the setting as well as the spectral properties of the source. then the use of photopic photometric measures for nonvisual effects of light becomes questionable.1. This measurement system provides a serviceable nomenclature and technique for describing light therapy. Brainard et al. 12. for which in any case there are textbooks.
for behavioural and sleep-wake disturbances in this population. a third sensitivity curve to complement V(λ).
without specifying the characteristics of the surfaces that surround the subject. if the distribution of light is uneven.. could obscure dose-response relationships. & Brainard. in a therapeutic context or a physiological experiment. violet. and eye closure can all influence the amount of light that is received. 1984.. Photometric measurement errors also require greater attention than has been common. accurate specification of the light dose is nearly impossible. and the subject looks into shadowy areas. ideally requires the following specifications:
.. in many studies the investigator reports the horizontal illuminance at the working plane (e.g. both the head and the eye are in constant motion relative to light sources.2 Light exposure and light dose Both for experimental research and therapeutic efficacy.. The easiest solutions to this problem are to calibrate the photometer to a standard illuminant of the same type as the target. is the light measurement that is most meaningful. Ouellette found relative photometric errors between 1 and 11% for measurements of triphosphor fluorescent lamps using various mid-priced broad band photometers . This loss of light in the ultraviolet. Podolin et al. fluorescent or compact fluorescent) the error rate can be much higher than one would expect from manufacturer’s specifications. Brainard et al. an intense light stimulus will cause pupil constriction. but when the light source is not incandescent (e. Both the quantity and the spectral qualities of the light reaching the retina depend on the state of the lens and other ocular structures. on the desk where the subjects work. as received by the research subject. corneal irradiance (or better.CIE 15x:2003
Until that time. Most common broad-band photometers (illuminance or luminance meters) are calibrated to an incandescent standard. the quantity of light received is further reduced. retinal irradiance). Eye blink. one can calculate if necessary the photopic (or scotopic) illuminance. one must specify the quantity of light reaching the observer . The adaptation luminance determines the pupillary diameter: the wider the pupil. Precision in research and treatment. if pupils are left to dilate or constrict in response to the experimental or therapeutic stimulus. then the illuminance on the surface bears little relation to the light received at the eye. Thus. Thapan et al. a complete specification of the light stimulus should be reported in all research reports. 1997) (see Figure 7. 13. For example. Pupillary dilation influences the non-visual action of a given light stimulus (Gaddy. p. the transmission properties of the lens change with age. indigo and blue-green portions of the spectrum coincides with what is believed to be an important spectral region for some nonvisual light effects (Brainard et al. if the surfaces are dark.. 2001a.. Rollag. the quantity and spectral properties of light reaching the cornea does not guarantee an accurate specification of the light stimulus for each subject. This fact probably accounts for the difficulty in observing consistent dose-response relationships between illuminance and melatonin secretion at room illuminances (Brainard et al. 1993).).that is. the final effect will be modified accordingly. Takahashi et al. 1997). the greater the quantity of light reaching the retina. This would combine a detailed description of the spectral properties of the stimulus and the total irradiance. Moreover. The amount of light that reaches the eye of the subject depends on the reflectances of the illuminated surfaces. In experiments (or treatments) in which the individual is permitted to move freely within a space. 1987. as in Dollins et al. From this information. 2001). or to use a spectroradiometric photometer. 6. a yellow pigmentation develops that restricts the ability of shortwavelength radiation to reach the retina (Brainard et al. because of the difference between the calibration spectrum and the target spectrum (Ouellette. The state of the eye further influences the light dose. or could use other weighting functions that might be developed as the spectral sensitivities for nonvisual processes become better-understood.. 1993). head motion.g.. 2001b. which will reduce the efficacy of the stimulus. In particular. Thus. Dawson and Campbell (1990) found that up to 80% of putative corneal illuminance can be lost if participants are free to alter their gaze and distance from the light source.. This is a challenging task because the eye is dynamic.errors which. eye motion. therefore. 1993). Moreover.
The classic report cited as an example of this problem is the classic Hawthorne effect (Roethlisberger & Dickson. use of head restraints and gaze instructions. 1979. or
. 1992) and by Byrne et al. or what they believe to be the experimenters’ expectancies. This determination.
For architectural applications where nonvisual effects are to be triggered . researchers concerned with the effects of lighting in classrooms rarely are permitted to randomly assign participants to classes with varying lighting conditions. Kerlinger & Lee. to ensure that the intended light dose is what will be delivered. For example. It is well known in the lighting community as the series of experiments in which regardless of the change in lighting level. 1990b. what were the participant’s views about the experiment and about the influences on their responses (Adair. and specifically should determine the illuminance that will be obtained at the most likely locations and direction of gaze of occupants’ eyes. Field studies of all kinds in particular require close attention and thought because strict control is usually impossible. pupil diameter during the stimulus. measurement at the eye.2 Eliminating alternative explanations Biological and psychological research methods aim to provide causal inferences. body temperature. whereas objective biological variables such as hormone levels. particularly the social context in which the experiments were conducted. 1927). and the like might be less likely to be directly influenced by a placebo response. 1939. Subjective mood states and behavioural variables may be quite susceptible to the volunteers’ mental preconceptions. at the conclusion of data collection.practitioners should examine the design from the perspective of the location of occupants. of spectral irradiance (see section 5.1). A complete exposition of research methods is beyond the scope of this technical report. pre-existing differences between students. Some authors have suggested that this finding set back the development of environmental psychology (the study of the physical environment on behaviour) by more than 30 years (Gifford. Gifford.3 Research design issues 6. in the direction of gaze.1 Placebo effects When using light experimentally on humans for either therapeutic purposes or in work and travel applications. Moreover. 1997. the scientist runs the risk of finding a placebo reaction to the specific light treatments. Within the field of light therapy. this issue has been studied and discussed most insightfully by Eastman (Eastman. 1992). This means that it is difficult to rule out differences in teacher behaviour. but many excellent textbooks review the area (Cook & Campbell. One means to avoid placebo problems in lighting studies is to collect both behavioural and biological data. Another tactic is to carefully determine. contagion within classes.for example. 2000). 1979). 1984. & Young . Placebo issues are a concern for psychology. Watell. 1984). and do so by eliminating competing explanations for the observed phenomena (Cook & Campbell. where feasible.CIE 15x:2003
• • • • •
the age and visual state of each subject. workers’ performance improved. explains the contradictory results (Adair. must take into account the visual system state of the most likely occupants and the spectral characteristics of the light source. Snow. 1979). of course. This is called internal validity. (2000). in night shift work (see below) .3. the adaptation (background) luminance when the stimulus is given. the use of multiple measures provides better insight into complex processes and protects against measurement errors (Cook & Campbell. Jones. 6. 1997). medicine and industrial research. in which participants’ behaviour fulfils either their own expectations for likely treatment effects. Eastman. Good. 6. Modern interpretations of the meaning of these experiments suggest that poor research design.3. using this information to determine whether or not individuals with beliefs about what was expected of them show unduly biased results. Lahmeyer.
settings. given the variability of melatonin rhythm amplitude between subjects. 1998.. have potentially grave consequences. 2000. 1998). Sleep
. Fitzpatrick. 2001. Reports of projects that have failed to find statistically significant effects should be carefully scrutinised both for the adequacy of the sample size and for the possibility that the research design failed to control for all the possible variables that might have confounded or obscured the findings. Stevens & Rea.1 General principles 7. the findings of a study of lighting effects on mood. such as neurohormonal processes. This is a common practice. Small samples also place statistical conclusions at risk by reducing the statistical power of the experiment (Cohen. ARCHITECTURAL AND LIFE-STYLE APPLICATIONS 7. This would have the added benefit of providing adequate time each day for sleep. so the results obtained by one small subset might not be typical of another. Other risks that might be associated with our low daily light dose. and examining the pattern of results for similarities and differences (Argamaso et al.CIE 15x:2003
group social effects as alternative explanations for differences between classes at the end of the investigation. as has been recommended by policy-making bodies (Baird. 1997).3.. 1999. Humans are highly variable in their response to stimuli. Espiritu et al. however.g. particularly taking into consideration the mood states and personality traits that the participants would carry into the experiment. as yet no agreement about the optimal daily light dose. the practice limits our knowledge (Legato. 1994. Statistical power is the probability that an effect will be found that is in fact present. Partonen & Lönnqvist. studying a cohort of only four individuals could lead to misleading conclusions.such as not overextending day length -. Wehr. Dunnell. Koller et al. Small samples sizes also pose an external validity threat because they risk not adequately representing the population to which one wishes to make inferences. such as increased breast cancer risk or reduced immune function (Roberts. However. One of these is the heavy reliance on samples made up of only one sex (male or female).would seem also to be required to take full advantage of the powerful effects of light on physiology and psychology. whereas large effects can be detected even with small sample sizes. 1999). Biological research addresses this question in part by studying a range of species. 1994).. a dose low enough to possibly be detrimental to our well-being (e. 7.
Maintaining circadian rhythms requires periods of darkness in addition to periods of light (Eastman & Martin. particularly for studying processes. 1999).3 Size and composition of research samples External validity concerns the applicability of research findings to populations. if there were only 4 participants. Changes to our habits -. Similarly.. 6. 1999. 2000). 1988). both animal and human. Exposure to bright light. Small effects are most vulnerable to low statistical power. & Bunting. For example.1 Principles for healthy lighting Some general principles are beginning to emerge: • The daily light dose received by people in Western countries might be too low. might improve mood and health in people with very low daily light exposure (Partonen et al.. that could interact with reproductive cycles in women. other external validity problems remain. either in light boxes or architecturally. 1995). • Healthy light is inextricably linked to healthy darkness. and times other than the one that was studied. 1995). and interpreting results as applicable to both (Bird & Rieker. the evidence suggests that current practice in Western countries provides for a very low daily light exposure (Espiritu et al.. 1993). which some argue that we do not do (Bonnet & Arand. however. would probably not capture the range of human emotional responses. The only way to be certain that the processes work similarly in women to men is to systematically study women.
Overall. There is. Wehr. 1998).1.
there is good evidence that it peaks in the blue-green region of the spectrum (Brainard et al. Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers (CIBSE). 1991. 2001). 2000). might disrupt melatonin rhythms. Recommendations for the daily dark dose are perhaps as important as those for a daily light dose. but do not yet exist. 1986). (CIE.1. recommendations for practical applications need to be specific to the time of day and might need to take into account the pattern of exposures over time. 1994. perhaps. 1998. the effects of light exposure depend on prior exposures (Wehr. • The timing of light exposure influences the effects of the dose. provided that glare is controlled (Collins et al. 1999. 1999). in parallel with meeting the other needs of people who will occupy the lit space (Figure 1). 1995).. Leproult. rather than the light emitted from or falling on any other surface. 2000. Lighting systems for biological action need to be assessed for the light they deliver to the eye. needed .2 Fundamentals of lighting quality Good-quality lighting includes lighting for health (Veitch et al. • Light for biological action should be rich in the regions of the spectrum to which the nonvisual system is most sensitive.. These principles include energy-efficiency and environmental considerations that should not be forgotten. Some of the principles that have special relevance for providing biologically active lighting are the following: • The colours and reflectances of room surfaces are part of the lighting system. 1999). Controlled use of daylighting. we can expect that these might be amended as our knowledge about what constitutes healthy light improves. Healthy light in the broadest sense must also be ecologically sound. 1999. Veitch & Newsham. is an energy-efficient strategy for providing more light where it is wanted and.. Recommended practice and standards documents articulate current consensus about good-quality lighting (e.. Bright vertical room surfaces are generally preferred over dark ones.. Dauchy et al. Furthermore. Veitch & Newsham. & Van Cauter. 1998). but this knowledge might allow the design of light sources for optimal health effects without unnecessary increases in intensity. Lockley et al.CIE 15x:2003
deprivation in itself disrupts neuroendocrine function (Spiegel.. both directly from the light source and reflected off surrounding surfaces. Wehr et al. Hebert et al. as has been demonstrated in rats (Dauchy et al. Perhaps the most advanced statement to date about lighting quality is the 9th edition of the IESNA Lighting Handbook. to satisfy all of the purposes of the lighting system. 2001a.. must maintain a balance between the needs of the visual and nonvisual systems in all of their dimensions. Thapan et al.
It is clear that the sensitivity of the circadian system to light exposure varies significantly over the 24-hour day (Gillette & Tischkau.. limiting glare and solar heat gain to avoid compromising comfort. 2001.g. 1997). The daily requirement for exposure to light of this wavelength range is not yet known. however. 7. Koorengevel et al. Thus. Such a solution could be more energy-efficient than a broad-band source that does not influence the nonvisual system as efficiently. Dark surfaces will negate the benefits of providing additional luminaires. It is also possible that very low light levels overnight..
Although the exact action spectrum is under debate. • The important consideration in determining light dose is the light received at the eye. and are likely to result in an unsatisfactory luminous environment in which there is little indirect or reflected light. Light sources for general application...
There is ample evidence that the nonvisual neuroendocrine effects of light are mediated by retinal photoreceptors (Eastman et al.. with its Lighting Design Guide that identifies the relative importance of various luminous conditions for various settings and tasks (Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA). while sleeping. 2000). 1998). Principles of good lighting practice should be the starting point for lighting design. it is not a light source available for night shift lighting. 1999. of course.
1996). In another study.
Figure 8. Higher illuminances all day are unlikely to be necessary to the biological effect given the lower sensitivity of the circadian system at certain points in the rhythm. There might be beneficial effects on mental health associated with increasing the daily light dose. while avoiding the creation of uncomfortable glare. 2001). Photo © Fraunhofer ISE. 2001). in winter at a high latitude (in Finland). the gymnasium. 1997. and perhaps additional health benefits. At present. The daylight group were exposed to approximately 1000 lx (early morning winter in Europe. we do now know what the optimal daily light exposure might be. people with SAD were successfully treated with a 1-hr walk outside each morning. It might be the case that an adequate light dose could be obtained by a daytime walk outdoors. the exercise
. This suggests that for employers there is no immediate benefit to increased light levels for the day shift.
Healthy light for people on day shifts is also a matter of healthy habits.). not throughout the space. as discussed above. Rather than providing increased illuminance throughout interiors.2 Lighting for daytime activity Detailed instructions for daytime lighting based on current knowledge are problematic. (1998) obtained striking results with increased light exposure amounting to three hours a week.. Partonen et al. high-intensity task lamps in areas of lower general illumination might achieve this goal. For example. 2001. Veitch. Increasing illuminance levels does not appear to have lasting effects on cognitive work performance (Gifford et al. making full use of architectural opportunities to provide energy-efficient. nor when (in relation to the circadian rhythm) it should be timed. They also are likely to be the only means to tailor lighting to individual needs and desires (Newsham & Veitch. often overcast). Controls will allow light to be delivered when needed. which allow the occupant to prevent direct glare through the lower section (shown closed) while lighting the office with daylight through the upper section (shown partly closed). and energy to be saved when it is not. This use of non-uniform light distribution will help to avoid conflict between the need to be energy-efficient and the delivery of higher illuminances for at least some of the time. and particularly where daylight is available. This pattern of findings suggests the following.CIE 15x:2003
7.. in a specific setting. • Provide biologically-active light where the eye is. suggestions for ways to achieve healthy light exposure by modifying good existing lighting practices: • Provide opportunities for increased light exposure by good use of daylight. increase light exposure by providing areas of higher illuminance where they will be frequently viewed. whereas the comparison group were less successfully treated with 2800 lx of electric light for half an hour each morning (Wirz-Justice et al. however. high-intensity light with a spectral balance for the visual and nonvisual systems (see Figure 8. very tentative. Use local control where feasible. This daylit office features split exterior blinds.
would provide an added health benefit. Light avoidance during some portion of the night appears to be a necessary behavioural component of the system. 7.3 Lighting for night shifts One setting where the potential application is clear is night shift work. Bright light exposure during the night shift can have immediate, acute effects on complex task performance (e.g., Badia et al., 1991; Boyce et al., 1997; Daurat et al., 1993; French et al., 1990) and can aid in successful circadian phase-shifting (Eastman & Martin, 1999). The optimal dose, duration, and timing are not yet known (Zeitzer, Dijk et al., 2000). The bright light might not be needed constantly throughout the shift, but with additional luminaires and appropriate switching (elaborate automated controls are available but would not be necessary to the purpose), biologically effective lighting could be provided to those who must work overnight. Potential benefits of doing so include improved employee performance, improved health and decreased accidents during shift work, and these outweigh the costs of providing appropriate night-shift lighting (Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), 1986). Suggestions for how this might be achieved include the following: • Design delivery schedules that are appropriate to the shift pattern (cf. Eastman & Martin, 1999). Circadian phase-shifting might not be desirable (for instance, in a rapidly-rotating shift schedule). Ensure that when bright light exposure is needed, it is delivered to the worker’s eye (as above, it need not be uniform in the space in order to achieve this goal) (see Figure 9).
Figure 9. One way to deliver bright light to where it will be seen is to use a task-ambient combination, with areas of high illuminance provided locally by task lighting. Photo © 1996, National Research Council Canada. As noted above, this would not be the entire solution to the problems of adapting to shift work, but the contribution would be significant. Behavioural routines faithfully practised by the worker are a necessary component of maintaining a healthy pattern of light-dark cycles when working the night shift. 8. CONCLUSION Exploring the behaviour of light and the mechanisms of vision has been a passion for philosophers and scientists for two millennia or more (Zajonc, 1995). As a result we have welldeveloped recommendations for lighting practice based largely on visual system requirements (CIE, 2001b; Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IESNA), 2000; Stevens & Rea, 2001). In contrast, the empirical study of the nonvisual, systemic effects of light is relatively new, spanning only a few decades. These decades have seen rapid advances in which
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106/6 Malignant melanoma and fluorescent lighting 106/7 On the quantification of environmental exposures: limitations of the concept of risk-to-benefit ratio 106/8 Terminology for photosynthetically active radiation for plants. Lighting education (1983-1989). Report on a colour difference research meeting. 1992. CIE Collection in Photobiology and Photochemistry. CIE Collection in colour and vision. 1988.Lighting needs for the partially sighted. 1992. 1990. 1992. Spectral luminous efficiency functions based upon brightness matching for monochromatic point sources. Contrast and visibility. Guide for the lighting of sports events for colour television and film systems. 1992. Variable message signs. Discomfort glare in interior lighting.B). 1988. Technical Collection 1993: 103/1 Colour appearance analysis 103/2 Industrial lighting and safety at work 103/3 Reference action spectra for ultraviolet induced erythema and pigmentation of different human skin types 103/4 Biologically effective emissions and hazard potential of desk-top luminaires incorporating tungsten halogen lamps 103/5 The economics of interior lighting maintenance 103/6 Clarification of maintained illuminance and associated terms. 1997. Industrial colour-difference evaluation. Guide for floodlighting. 1988. 1991. 1990. Fundamentals of the visual task of night driving. Spectroradiometry of pulsed optical radiation sources.and area lighting. Spatial distribution of daylight . CIE History 1913 . 1992. Technical Collection 1990: 89/1 Results of a CIE detector response intercomparison 89/2 Photobiological effects of sunlamps 89/3 On the deterioration of exhibited museum objects by optical radiation 89/4 Guide for the measurement of underground mine lighting. Glare evaluation system for use within outdoor sports. Colorimetry of self-luminous displays . 2° and 10° fields.1988. 1990. 1989. CIE 1988 2° spectral luminous efficiency function for photopic vision. 1994.
3-1995). x006 Japan CIE Session at PRAKASH 91. 135/1 Disability Glare 135/2 Colour rendering. 13. x005 Proceedings of the CIE Seminar '92 on Computer programs for light and lighting. large and complex sources. 1995. Late papers.
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Vienna (Vol. 149 The use of tungsten filament lamps as secondary standard sources. D002 Disc version of CIE Colorimetric and Colour Rendering Data (Publ. D007 A computer program implementing the "Method of predicting corresponding colours under different chromatic and illuminance adaptation" (described in CIE 109-1994). 130 Practical methods for the measurement of reflectance and transmittance. 1994.C.CIE 15x:2003
127 Measurement of LEDs. x010 Proceedings of the CIE Expert Symposium '96 Colour Standards for Image Technology. 148 Action spectroscopy of skin with tunable lasers. 1998. 2002. D005 A method for assessing the quality of D65 daylight simulators for colorimetry (based on CIE 51-1981) 1994. A. 140 Road lighting calculations. 2002. x014 Proceedings of the CIE Expert Symposium ’97 on Colour Standards for Imaging Technology.2 and 15. 150 Guide on the limitation of the effects of obtrusive light from outdoor lighting installations. 2001. CIECAM97s. 129 Guide for lighting exterior work areas. 1998. 134 CIE Collection in Photobiology and Photochemistry. 138/1 Blue-light photochemical retinal hazard 138/2 Action spectrum for photocarcino-genesis (non-melanoma skin cancers) 138/3 Standardized protocols for photocarcinogenesis safety testing 138/4 A proposed global UV index. Proceedings of the Sessions: 1921 1924 1927 1928 1931 1935 1939 1948 1951 1955 1959 4-7 Paris Genèva Bellagio Saranac Cambridge Berlin Scheweningen Paris Stockholm Zürich Bruxelles (Vol. 1994.B. 1997. 2000.C) London Kyoto Amsterdam Venice. 1988. 143 International recommendations for colour vision requirements for transport. x011 Special volume. 1-2 Warsaw. 1994. x012 NPL — CIE-UK Visual Scales Conference. physical measurement of light and radiation. Vol. 139 The influence of daylight and artificial light on diurnal and seasonal variations in humans. D003 CIE Roster. 23rd Session. 1998. 145 The correlation of models for vision and visual performance. x007 Proceedings of the CIE Symposium '93 on Advanced Colorimetry. 144 Road surface and road marking reflection characteristics. 2001. 2002. 1-2
Discs and other publications D001 Disc version of CIE Colorimetric Data (S001 and S002 Tables). 1998. 2003. 1998. Vol. x013 Proceedings of the CIE LED Symposium ’97 on Standard Methods for Specifying and Measuring LED Characteristics. x015 Proceedings of the First CIE Symposium on Lighting Quality. Vol. x009 Proceedings of the CIE Symposium '94 on Advances in Photometry. 137 The conspicuity of traffic signs in complex background.B. Vol. 2001.B. 1999. A.2 Tables). 141 Testing of supplementary systems of photometry.
. A review of standards 135 CIE Collection 1999: Vision and colour. 2000. 132 Design methods for lighting of roads.C. 134/1 CIE TC 6-26 Report: Standardization of the terms UV-A1.B) Barcelona (Vol. 146 CIE equations for disability glare 147 Glare from small. 2003.D) Washington (Vol.1-2 New Delhi. A. A bibliography. 146/147 Collection on Glare. 128 Guide to the lighting for open-cast mines. 1999. 131 The CIE 1997 interim colour appearance model (simple version). New Dehli ’95. 1998. 2002. 2000. closing remarks 135/3 Virtual metamers for assessing the quality of simulators of CIE illuminant D50 (Supplement 1-1999 to CIE 511981) 135/4 Some recent developments in colourdifference evaluation 135/5 Visual adaptation to complex luminance distribution 135/6 45°/0° Spectral reflectance factors of pressed polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) power (Reprint of NIST Technical Note 1413) 136 Guide to the lighting of urban areas. D008 Computer program to calculate CRIs (according to CIE 13. 1991. 2001.Software for IDMP stations (computer program to CIE 108-1994).1-2 Melbourne. x008 Urban sky glow . 142 Improvement to industrial colour-diffence evaluation. D006 Automatic quality control of daylight measurement . A. 1998. 151 Spatial weighting of solar ultraviolet radiation. 2001.D)
CIE Collection 2000: Photobiology and Photochemistry. UV-A2 and UV-B 134/2 CIE TC 6-30 Report: UV protection of the eye 134/3 CIE TC 6-38 Report: Recommendation on photobiological safety of lamps.a worry for astronomy (Proceedings of a Symposium of CIE TC 4-21).
For latest information on CIE publications see the CIE Home Page on the World Wide Web: http://www. 2001. 2001.co.1 . 1 . 2002. 66 1986 .cie.at/cie/
. 15 Inverness Way East. Colorado 80112-5776 USA. CIE NEWS No. x019 Proceedings of three CIE workshops on Criteria for Road Lighting. x023 Proceedings of two CIE Workshops on photometric measurement systems for road lighting installations.1989. 24th Session. x017 Special volume. 2002. 2003.CIE 15x:2003
x016 Proceedings of the CIE/ICNIRP Conference on Measurements of Optical Radiation Hazards. x025 Proceedings of the CIE Symposium 2002 on "Temporal and Spatial Aspects of Light and Colour Perception and Measurement.
CIE publications on CD-ROM A CD-ROM with all current CIE Technical Reports and Standards is available from IHS. x021 Proceedings of the CIE Expert Symposium 2000 "Extended range colour spaces". 2000. 2001.8 1982 . x018 Proceedings of the CIE Symposium ’99 “75 Years of CIE Photometry”.Vol. x024 Proceedings of the CIE/ARUP Symposium on Visual Environment. CIE-Journal Vol. M/S B203 Englewood. x020 Proceedings of the CIE Symposium 2001 “Uncertainty Evaluation. 2000. Methods for Analysis of Uncertainties in Optical Radiation Measurement”.2003.
x022 Proceedings of the 2nd CIE Expert Symposium on LED measurement ”Standard methods for specifying and measuring LED and LED cluster characteristics. 1998. Warsaw ’99. 2001. Information Handling Services.