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+1 NH4+ Cu+ H+ Li+ K+ Ag+ Na+ GAS

Charges on some ions +2 Ba2+ Ca2+ Cu2+ Fe2+ Pb2+ Mg2+ Zn2+ Test on gases

+3 Al3+ Fe3+


-2 CO32O2SO42S2-

-3 N3PO43-

Hydrogen Oxygen Carbon Dioxide Chlorine Hydrogen Chloride Gas

Moist red/blue litmus Blue to Reddish Blue to Reddish then bleaches Blue to Red

Ammonia Sulphur Dioxide

Red to Blue Blue to Red

Test -Pop test-explodes with a burning splint -Relights with glowing splint -Lime water turns milky -Bleaching action with indicator paper -Fumes in moist air -White smoke with ammonia -White smoke with HCl gas -Acidifed dichromate changes from Orange to Green -Acidified potassium manganate (VII) changes from purple to colourless

Atomic Particle Electron Proton Neutron

Properties of the atomic particles Relative Mass Of Particle Negligible 1 1 Relative Charge of particle -1 +1 0

Potassium Sodium Lithium Calcium Magnesium Aluminium Manganese Zinc Iron Lead (Hydrogen) Copper

Reactivity Series

Summary of the Reactivity Series Metal Cold Air Cold Water Potassium Burns easily Fast Sodium Burns easily Fast Lithium Burns easily Slower than Sodium, still fast Calcium Burns easily Fast Magnesium Burns easily Steam needed Aluminium Slow, Heat needed Steam needed Zinc Slow, Heat needed Steam needed Iron Slow, Heat needed Steam needed/revesible Lead Slow, Heat needed No reaction Copper Slow, Heat needed No reaction Gold No reaction No reaction

Dilute acid (HCL) Violent Violent Violent Violent Fast Reacts well Reacts well Reacts well No reaction No reaction No reaction

Dilute acid(Nitric) Violent Violent Violent Violent Fast Reacts well Reacts well Reacts well Slow reaction Slow reaction No reaction

Indicators Colour in acid Red Red Colourless Red Colour in alkali Blue Yellow Red Purple

Indicators Litmus Methyl Orange Phenolphthalein Universal

Acids and their salts that are formed in reaction Parent Acid Salts Sulphuric acid Sulphates Hydrochloric acid Chlorides Nitric acid Nitrates Phosphuric acid Phosphates Ethanoic acid Ethanoates (acetates) Carbonic acid Carbonates

Alloy Duralumin Hypoeutectic

Uses of Aluminium Uses Aircraft structures Car cylinders Marine castings(resists corrosion) Cladding for buildings

Aluminium-Magnesium Alclad

Useful Properties Low density, strong Withstands high temperature, hard Resists salt water corrosion Low density, resists corrosion

Uses of Steel Types of steel Some Uses Mild steel Nails, car bodies, ship building, girders High carbon steel Cutting tools, Masonry nails Stainless steel Cutlery, Cooking Utensils, Kitchen sinks Manganese Steel Rock-Breaking machinery, military helmets Alloy Brass Casting alloys Zinc metals Uses of Zinc Some Uses Plumbing Castings for machines and toys Galvanising(zinc coated steel) Coding the chain length

Useful Proprties Strong, malleable Very hard Resists corrosion, strong Very hard and strong

Useful Proprties Resists corrosion Easy to form complicated shapes Protects steel from corrosion

Code letters Meth Eth Prop But Pent Hex

No. of carbons in chain 1, e.g methane 2, e.g ethane 3, e.g propane 4, e.g butane 5, e.g pentane 6, e.g hexane

Coding for the type of compounds(Alkanes) No. of Carbons Molecular Name formula 1 CH4 Methane 2 C2H6 Ethane 3 C3H8 Propane 4 C4H8 Butane 5 C5H12 Pentane 6 C6H14 Hexane 7 C7H16 Heptane 8 C8H18 Octane 9 C9H20 Nonane 10 C10H22 Decane Coding for the type of compounds(Alkenes) Formula Name CH2=CHCH2CH3 But-1-ene A 4-carbon chain with a double bond starting on the first carbon. CH3=CHCH3 But-2-ene A 4-carbon chain with a double bond starting on the second carbon. CH3CH2CH=CHCH2CH3 Hex-3-ene A 6-carbon chain with a double bond starting on the third carbon. Side Chains CH3CH3CH2- or C2H5 Uses of Fractions Name of fraction No. of Carbons Gas C1 to C4 Coding for branched chains Coded Methyl Ethyl

Petrol(Gasoline) Naphtha Paraffin(Kerosene) Diesel Fuel Oil Lubricating Fraction Bitumen

C5 to C6 C6 to C10 C10 to C15 C15 to C20 C20 to C30 C30 to C50 C50 upwards

Uses Separated into the fuels methane, ethane, propane and butane Fuel for cars Starting point for many chemicals and plastics Fuel for aircraft, oil stoves and lamps Fuel for diesel engines Fuel for power stations and ships Oil for car engines and machines For road surfaces and roofs