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INFORMETRIC5 89/90 L. Egghe and R. Rousseau (Editors) 0 Elsevier Science Publishers B.V.

, 1990

BIBLIO-, SCIENTO-, INFOR-METRICS??? W A ARE W TALKING ABOUT? HT E B.C. BROOKES

Abstract This paper traces the o r i g i n s o f informatics, scientometrics and informetrics i n the USSR and Hungary; the o r i g i n s of information science, information studies and b i b l i o m e t r i c s i n B r i t a i n and the USA, and t h e i r i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h l i b r a r y studies. Finaqly, three d i f f e r e n t contexts are suggested i n which the three '-metrics' have d i s t i n c t i v e and important rules.

1. THE MEDIATE ISSUE
Two years ago, when Leo Egghe i n v i t e d us t o Diepenbeek t o give papers on bibliometrics, we thought we knew what was meant by t h a t term. On a r r i v i n g there we met, from Eastern Europe, well-known contributors t o scientometrics. W were, o f course, pleased t o meet each other and found no d i f f i c u l t y i n e understanding each o t h e r ' s papers. When the Proceedings o f the Conference [ll were published, the Belgian e d i t o r s surprised us w i t h i t s t i t l e Informetrics. I n c a l l i n g t h i s second Conference, Jean Tague wisely took no chances : she i n v i t e d contributions on a l l three topics. But, as I had raised the terminolog i c a l issue a t Diepenbeek, Jean asked me t o comnent on these three terms and t o c l a r i f y them i f I could.

I welcome the opportunity t o do so. I hope t h i s series o f conferences, i n i t i a t e d by Leo Egghe and seconded by Jean Tague, w i l l continue a t regular i n t e r v a l s i n t o the future, making d i s c e r n i b l e progress from one conference t o the next. For t h i s dream t o be realized, however, we must f i r s t c l a r i f y the terms we use. That could be done simply by t r a c i n g t h e i r o r i g i n s , n o t i n g t h e i r contexts and connotations and then comparing them i n t h e i r present usage. But we should also take note of the f a c t t h a t the information world i n which m these terms f i r s t arose has been changing r a p i d l y i n recent years. IfI a r i g h t t o assme t h a t our c e n t r a l i n t e r e s t i s the measurement o f information processes r e l a t e d t o the use o f books and journals, then we have t o note t h a t these sources are l i k e l y t o become increasingly e l e c t r o n i c . Applications o f information science are also moving away from l i b r a r i e s i n t o the design o f information systems f o r business and a l l areas o f s o c i a l l i f e . Do we t r y t o f o l l o w t h i s t r e n d w i t h our measures? I f so, we may need new a n a l y t i c a l techniques and new i n s t i t u t i o n s , academic o r otherwise, t o t a c k l e the new problems. Can we peer through the commercial hype i n which the present developnent o f computer systems i s now enveloped t o see what new measures may be needed t o check t h e i r information effectiveness?
When, w i t h such issues i n mind, I began t o re-trace the h i s t o r y of the uncertainties t h a t now beset us, I found t h a t I had t o go back t o the years when l i b r a r y studies were f i r s t formalized, t o note t h e issues t h a t have arisen since, some not y e t f u l l y resolved, which may impede the f r e e play of thought which some o f the problems must comand f o r t h e i r solution. m My o u t l i n e h i s t o r y begins only from the l a t e 19th century, not because I a unaware o f the t r a d i t i o n s t h a t l i b r a r i a n s cherish and which reach back t o

however. l e g a l f i l e s and many kinds o f items t h a t l i b r a r i a n s regarded as ephemera o r t r i v i a . however. professional l i b r a r i a n s were well-organized. Though they imnediately diverged and went t h e i r separate ways for almost 50 m years w i t h l i t t l e i n t e r a c t i o n . These Associations i n i t i a t e d t h e formal t r a i n i n g of l i b r a r i a n s . Both t h e Western and the Eastern l i n e s o f developnent share the same roots. photo-copied t h e high-technology o f the 1900's and so be made r e a d i l y i n microform accessible t o the public a t large. and therefore c l o s e r t o relevant events i n Europe. such as p u b l i c records o f a l l kinds. two Belgians. t h a t o f America i n 1876 and t h a t o f B r i t a i n i n 1877. indexed. So I attempt only an o u t l i n e of the events which mark s i g n i f i c a n t steps i n the developnent o f what the English-speaking countries of the West c a l l Information Science and what the countries of Eastern Europe c a l l Informatics. over recent years. there has been a new convergence of mutual i n t e r e s t . b u t because I have t o focus on t h e roots o f our present uncertainties.C. I a pleased t o say. f i l e d . Here was the f i r s t impact between professional l i b r a r i a n s and i n t r u s i v e external forces. business and p u b l i c l i f e should be collected systematically and then be sorted. r a t h e r than i n London. such as p i c t u r e post cards. England.both Canada and the USA were domestically heavily engaged i n s e t t l i n g the m i l l i o n s of imnigrants a r r i v i n g a t t h e i r p o r t s from a l l parts of the world and e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e i r own economic and s o c i a l systems. had they n o t demanded t h a t t h e i r plans be imnediately operated on an i n t e r n a t i o n a l scale through a network o f i n t e r a c t i n g national l i b r a r i e s . 2. Paul O t l e t and Henri La Fontaine. had they n o t c r i t i c i z e d l i b r a r i a n s f o r being inward-looking and parochial. t h e professionalization o f l i b r a r i a n s h i p began w i t h the founding of the two L i b r a r y Associations. a new term which was soon elevated i n t o what some l i b r a r i a n s regarded as an all-embracing mystical e n t i t y . This term bibZiography. As the central concern o f both Associations was the b i b l i o g r a p h i c c o n t r o l of t h e i r comnon heritage o f the English-language l i t e r a t u r e s t o which both countries contributed. they shared s i m i l a r i n t e r e s t s and problems o f l i b r a r y organization. P a r t i c u l a r l y i n the vast open spaces of North America a t t h a t time the e a r l y 1900's . Ontario. By 1900. so t h i s c a l l f r o m B e l g i m f o r a much closer i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t docmentary system must have - . Brookes much e a r l i e r centuries. eonfident about t h e i r own objectives and working s t e a d i l y t o achieve them. they argued t h a t the t o t a l docunentary paraphernalia o f modern government. - - Librarians would have taken l i t t l e note o f these ideas .had O t l e t and La Fontaine not demanded t h a t established l i b r a r i e s become t h e operating centres f o r t h e i r plans. My account i s t h a t o f an observer o f t h e scene who i s based i n London. I n short.32 B.described some years l a t e r as 50 years i n advance o f t h e i r time . I also have t o take note o f the two world wars which i n t e r r u p t e d our m e t r i c studies but which also modified them too. Then. s t a t i s t i c a l data. LIBRARIANS v. DOCUMENTATION PRE-1914 I n the English-speaking countries. So they regarded the Belgian plans as a f r o n t a l a t t a c k on t h e i r profession and responded c o l d l y .as all-embracing and mystical as t h e term i n f o m a t i o n has become today. i n 1895. I n scanning the past 100 years. founded the I n t e r n a t i o n a l I n s t i t u t e of Bibliography i n Brussels. They kept themselves well-informed about each o t h e r ' s progress.1. As both O t l e t and La Fontaine were lawyers and senators i n the Belgian Government. Librarians have retained a cautious defensive a t t i t u d e t o a l l such i n t r u s i o n s ever since. was misleading i n the Anglo-American context and i t was subsequently changed t o D o c m n t a t i o n . they were i n t e r e s t e d i n many kinds o f documents professional l i b r a r i a n s had taken l i t t l e note of.

. was concerned t o ensure t h a t the'new s t a t e would n o t become. a t r e a t y was signed i n London which assigned roughly equal numbers o f French-speaking and o f Flemishspeaking peoples t o g e t h e r . Belgian n e u t r a l i t y was again v i o l a t e d . he had followed i n t h e steps o f Karl Marx by working assiduously on h i s socio-economic t h e o r i e s i n t h e l i b r a r i e s of Brussels.i n Belgiun. who has given so h i g h a p r i o r i t y t o t h e needs o f education and t r a i n i n g . French was made t h e o f f i c i a l language and so Belgium was created "an independent and p e r p e t u a l l y n e u t r a l country" guaranteed by t h e European powers. Perhaps one can appreciate t h e problems t h a t O t l e t and La Fontaine met when t r y i n g t o e s t a b l i s h a Belgian documentary system and n a t i o n a l archive. wherever they may be. La Fontaine was awarded a Nobel Peace P r i z e f o r h i s work i n founding t h e League o f Nations. of O t l e t ' s case f o r Documentation. thev achieied a-~uronean r e s o e c t a b i l i t v r o o t s l a y m a i n l y outside i t s boundaries i n t h e countries which surrounded i t on i t s landward s i d e France. While an e x i l e i n Western Europe. was appointed king. t h e USSR has been i t s most a c t i v e and f a i t h f u l supporter. I n f a c t . The B r i t i s h orime m i n i s t e r o f t h a t time. Brussels i s now occupied once more . I t s misfortune i s t o l i e on one of t h e main cross-roads of Europe. Holland. of course. BELGIAN INTERNATIONALISM Belgiun i s one o f t h e smallest b u t most densely populated countries o f Europe. Since t h e founding o f t h e Federation I n t e r n a t i o n a l e de Documentation (FID) i n 1937. The s p i r i t s of Paul O t l e t and Henri La Fontaine. Germany. t h e widower of an E n g l i s h princess. SCIENTOMETRICS. can now. I t i s therefore n o t s u r p r i s i n g if Belgium took t h e lead i n pranoting t h e several steps which have now culminated i n t h e Economic European Community. r e v o l u t i o n a r y o r otherwise. Paris. INFORMETRICS I can t h i n k o f no o t h e r head o f s t a t e . o f course. r e s t i n peace. I t was s e t up by t h e European powers a f t e r they had f i n a l l y defeated Napoleon i n 1815 a t t h e b a t t l e of Waterloo . But. Kaiser Wilhelm's German armies v i o l a t e d Belgian n e u t r a l i t y and occupied most o f Belgium d u r i n g t h e f o u r years o f t h e World War I and so Belgium again became a b a t t l e f i e l d as t h e A l l i e s . 3.f a l l e n on very deaf ears. t h e i n d u s t r i o u s and law-abidina Belaians d i d nothina t o d i s t u r b t h e oeace o f Eurooe.w i t h a smaller group o f German-speakers by careful drawing o f i t s new f r o n t i e r s . I t h i n k i t h e l p f u l t o o u t l i n e t h e short but t r o u b l e d h i s t o r y of Belgi um. A f t h e r the War. A German prince. i n 1839. But i n 1940. r e i n f o r c e d by American forces. Having a t l a s t been freed from French occupation.another focus of. Again Belgiun was occupied by German forces and again became a b a t t l e f i e l d as again Pmerican and o t h e r A l l i e d forces pushed t h e Germans back. 2.t h i s time by t h e bureaucrats of t h e EEG and also by t h e headquarters s t a f f of NATO. t o t h e assembling of a l l t h e p r i n t i n g and p u b l i s h i n g hardware and t h e b i b l i o g r a p h i c apparatus needed by a modern s t a t e than Lenin. t o appreciate the need as t h e Belgians then saw it. Lord Palmerston. t h i s time by t h e Nazi b l i t z k r i e g which broke through t o Paris.2. London and Geneva and he knew. I guess. t h e Belgians found themselves handed over t o t h e Dutch. I n 1914. They imnediately r e b e l l e d against t h e Dutch and t h e powers had t o meet again.ardent nationalism t o d i s t u r b t h e peace o f Europe once again. Though t h e new s t a t e experienced i n t e r n a l stresses and s t r a i n s as i t t r i e d t o e s t a b l i s h i t s e l f . t o t h e organizing o f l i b r a r i e s and reading rooms. B r i t i s h i n f o r m a t i o n systems o f a l l kinds are now having t o be i n t e g r a t e d i n t o those o f t h e Comnunity. INFORMATICS. - Belgian i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m had l a t e r manifestations. gradually pushed t h e Germans back. So.

I n Russian. A f t e r one such procedure. To exemplify it. e s p e c i a l l y i n World War 11. When t h e Russians seek a new technical term. f i n a l l y . s t a t i s t i c s . i. 20 o r more o f them. Whenever Russian s c i e n t i s t s v i s i t e d London. I much enjoyed three v i s i t s t o VINITI t o meetings o f the FID Comnittee on Theoretical Informatics. the term science has the wider connotation of the German Wissanschaft. He had counted the t o t a l s of research papers. Thev defined Infomatznm as ' t h a t s c i e n t i f i c d i s c i ~ l i n et h a t studies the s t r u c t u r e and d r o o e r t i -~i o f s c i e n t i f i c information bnd t h e laws o f the e ~.you see . The All-Union I n s t i t u t e f o r S c i e n t i f i c and Technical I n f o m a t i o n (VINITI) was s e t up i n Moscow i n 1951. by superior Russian technology h a s t i l y developed a t a safe distance from German bombers behind the ramparts of t h e Urals. He defined the new term as the measurement o f informatics processes.o r the preventing of i t .C. The task assigned t o i t by the Russian National Academy o f Sciences i s t o organize and maintain the science information systems o f the USSR : i t s duties are p a r t l y operational. I t was a v i c t o r y won fiiM by Russian stubbornness and. a f t e r being taken by surprise. Ph. I n the 1970's. from 1917 onwards. mathematics. French and German before they make t h e i r decision. but whv should t h e averaoe oerformance decline so s t e a d i l v as the nmber o f worker. prevalent. we found then as well-informed about Western research as we were and able t o discuss i t c r i t i c a l l y w i t h us w h i l e we remained miserably ignorant o f t h e i r s u n t i l t h e t r a n s l a t i o n s came through. p a r t l y educational and are p a r t l y directed t o research on s c i e n t i f i c i n f o n a t i o n processes. increased? He r e p l i i d . Moscow and Stalingrad during a Russian w i n t e r and then pushed them s t e a d i l y back t o B e r l i n . i t embraces a l l forms o f organized knowledge. G. . they adopted the term they had noted was i n use i n East Germany and re-defined i t f o r t h e i r own purposes. I a afraid. They saw i t as a s o c i a l science. I could see t h a t a nucleus o f some minimum s i z e could w e l l be helpful i n s t i m u l a t i n g c r e a t i v i t y .e.M. he t o l d me t h a t he had r e c e n t l y been measuring the performance of mathematical research i n s t i t u t e s i n the Ukraine. M f o u r t h v i s i t . philosophy and others . the USSR set out on a l i n e of development somewhat d i f f e r e n t from t h a t o f the West i n re-establishing t h e i r l i b r a r y and information systems. The USSR learned t h a t basic science and technology are c r u c i a l t o the making o f war . patents and so on for each i n s t i t u t e and then divided the duly weighted t o t a l s by the numbers o f workers i n each. I n B r i t a i n and t h e USA. somewhat r u e f u l l y : 'Well . l i n g u i s t i c s .34 B. we soon s t a r t adrrinistrating ourselves'. As Russian remains a m i n o r i t y language i n world science.when we Russians get together. They do so.D's. I assured him t h a t recourse t o administration as a r e l i e f from the hard work o f t h i n k i n g was n o t unknwrn elsewhere.l o g i c . they always look c r i t i c a l l y a t the nearest equivalent they can f i n d i n English. i t has a status i n Russia not y e t achieved by information science i n t h e West. B w k e s So.~ . when. As a d i s c i p l i n e recognised by the Russian Academy o f Sciences. processes of s c i e n t i f i c comnunication' [21. ~~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ The term scientanetrics f i r s t came t o my n o t i c e i n one o f VINITI's FID e publications i n 1969 131 and one o f i t s authors. t h e Russians eventually fought the Germans t o a s t a n d s t i l l before Leningrad. i t i s necessary for Russian s c i e n t i s t s t o acquire a working knowledge of a t l e a s t one other f o r e i g n language.. were a l l s i m i l a r i n s t r u c t u r e but d i f f e r e d i n t h e numbers o f s c i e n t i s t s employed because some were longer-established than others.t h a t was brought t o beat on the c r i t i c a l discussions t h a t followed y the reading of papers and by t h e i r i n t e l l e c t u a l q u a l i t y . Dobrov. I was impressed by t h e v a r i e t y of d i s c i p l i n e s . The graph he then drew on my blackboard ruse s t e a d i l y from i t s s t a r t t o a maximm f o r i n s t i t u t e s w i t h about 15 working s c i e n t i s t s but t h e r e a f t e r i t s t e a d i l y declined as the i n s t i t u t i o n s increased i n size. It has served t h e USSR w e l l . t h a t complacent view of m foreign languages i s s t i l l . These i n s t i t u t e s . v i s i t e d m i n London.

was timed unfortunately t o occur i n a period of p o l i t i c a l tension i n Moscow and i n the discussion following my paper I offended Marxist-Leninist p r i n c i p l e s i n some way I never f u l l y understood. f o r policy-making and planning. however. i t has gradually won recognition i n the English-speaking world. the performance of which has won f o r him t h e Derek de S o l l a Price Medal. Gorkova i s able t o derive a r i g i d nuclear group plus a sequence of s t e a d i l y more relaxed sub-groups whose key parameters are shown t o be r e l a t e d t o t h e sequence o f Fibonacci numbers. Meanwhile.as my experience t e s t i f i e s . VINITI published a book edited by the mathematician Valentina Gorkova. East and West have been able t o i n t e r a c t w i t h increasing f r e e d m by means o f t h e journal S c i e n t m e t r i c s . But he soon resigned and was succeeded by t h e Indian. - The term i n f o m e t r i c s was proposed by Otto Nacke o f West Germany i n 1979. So Braun has now l e d scientometrics out of i t s formative phase i n t o a productive r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e wider f i e l d of social and economic studies. He has a l s o established a Department o f Scientometrics w i t h i n the Information Science and Scientometric Research U n i t i n the L i b r a r y o f t h e Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Though I have n o t returned t o Moscow since. Rajan of INSDOC. By using t h e Weibull d i s t r i b u t i o n together w i t h systems theory. founded by Tibor Braun. I n 1988. and f o r t h e management of i n s t i t u t i o n s . Braun has now established strong l i n k s w i t h research groups i n Holland and elsewhere which have seized on h i s techniques f o r exploring Science Policy issues. VINITI set up an FID Committee w i t h t h i s name and persuaded Nacke t o be i t s chairman. AS defined. Though the journal Scientometrics i s s t i l l edited i n Budapest. w i t h t h e t i t l e i n f o m e t r i c s [ 5 1 . i t i s t h e widest and deepest of the three metric terms we are concerned with. I again have amicable r e l a t i o n s w i t h members of VINITI. But such a l t e r n a t i o n s o f warmth. E6tvos U n i v e r s i t y i n Budapest. I assume t h a t I had been reprieved. I t i s an up-to-date compendium o f r e s u l t s achieved i n informatics. therefore. i t i s now published i n Pmsterdam i n Enalish. I was i n v i t e d t o t h e VINITI h o s p i t a l i t y room nearby. a professor of Analytical Chemistry a t the L. A c r i t i c a l examination o f the a p p l i c a b i l i t y of c i t a t i o n analysis t o these wider f i e l d s i s now i n progress since t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f i t s r e s u l t s becanes of increasing i n t e r e s t t o national science development planning. toasted i n vodka and presented w i t h Tchai kowsky records. coldness and warmth again . projects. But two years l a t e r I gave much the same paper t o an FID Conference i n Edingburgh where. That completes my sumnary of the work on the metrics i n t h e USSR and the countries of Eastern Europe and I now t u r n t o the more complex development o f our studies i n the West. duly inscribed w i t h complimentary CamIentS. programnes and a c t i v i t i e s . he has devised a s u i t e of programs for the analysis o f IS1 c i t a t i o n data. At t h i s base i n Budapest.made i t d i f f i c u l t for the two l i n e s of development of our m e t r i c studies t o enjoy continuous and confident i n t e r a c t i o n . some f a m i l i a r t o Western readers. . It i s also said t o be concernedwiththe o r i g i n s and development o f concepts 141. I look forward t o a canplete and competent t r a n s l a t i o n o f the new book which i s a t present a v a i l a b l e only i n Russian.however. who re-formulated the objectives o f informetrics t o be t h e provision of r e l i a b l e data f o r research and development. I n 1984. imnediately a f t e r g i v i n g the paper. As Braun has nurtured t h i s journal over t h e years. I was promptly put on the next Aeroflot plane t o London.

INFORMATION THEORY. Bradford. CYBERNETICS. was slower t o r e a c t t o them. The fact t h a t serious work on an i n t e r national c l a s s i f i c a t i o n system was only beginning some 40 years a f t e r t h e campaign had begun. of University College London. as O t l e t gradually withdrew frm a c t i v e work.. But a more d i r e c t l i n k w i t h O t l e t ' s ideas was marked by t h e founding of t h e B r i t i s h Society f o r I n t e r n a t i o n a l Bibliography as t h e B r i t i s h branch o f O t l e t ' s I n t e r n a t i o n a l Society i n B ~ u s s ~ ~ s . . p o i n t s t o a weakness i n O t l e t ' s plan which may w e l l account f o r the doubts expressed by l i b r a r i a n s . learned s o c i e t i e s and government agencies. The centre o f a c t i v i t y moved from Brussels t o The Ha ue w i t h t h e s e t t i n g up o f the Federation I n t e r n a t i o n a l e de Documentation ( I B i n 1937 t o FD which O t l e t and La Fontaine were elected Vice-Presidents. ' became he mathematical theory This book had a great impact i n B r i t a i n .C. 5. f i r s t published i n the BeZL System Technical J o m a l i n 1948. A more immediate impact was made by Claude Shannon's paper on A mathematica2 theory of commmication. COMPUTERS As those parts o f the world involved i n World War I 1 returned t o re-construction and normal l i f e . on t h e Continent. war-time inventions and discoveries not publicized during the War . Serious work on t h i s p r o j e c t began. more remote from these events. The t i t l e of t h i s book changed Shannon's i n d e f i n i t e '.36 B. - These events suggest t h a t t h e more extravagant aims of t h e O t l e t plan had been considerably modified by t h i s time.1. . B m k a 4. a r t i c l e so t h a t 'A mathematical theory.k n i t group o f l i b r a r i e s . o f One the founder members o f t h a t Society was S. - One was t h e computer. The AD1 d i d not become i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y v i s i b l e u n t i l a f t e r World War I 1 when i t founded i t s own journal. D i r e c t o r o f t h e Science Museum L i b r a r y i n London. The l a s t two synposia. But. Three of these impinged f o r c i b l y on our studies... together w i t h an over-enthusiastic popularization by Warren Weaver. as a book [61. i n 1937. extended the . By t h i s time I was l e c t u r i n g i n the E l e c t r i c a l Engineering Dept. t h e American Documentation I n s t i t u t e was set up among a l o o s e l y . the Association o f Special L i b r a r i e s and Information Bureaux (ASLIB) was founded i n 1924. and then. One of t h e major tasks the FID set i t s e l f was t o develop a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n designed f o r i n t e r the UDC. a f t e r wide discussion. our studies were again i n t e r r u p t e d by war. DOCUMENTATION BETWEEN THE T O W R D W R W OL AS I n B r i t a i n . but i n 1937. AFTER W R D WR I 1 OL A 5. My academic i n t e r e s t i n Shannon theory was reinforced by four i n t e r n a t i o n a l symposia organised by t h e E l e c t r i c a l Engineers of Imperial College London over the period 1950 t o 1961. h i s campaign was taken over by a new generation l e d by Donker Duyvis of t h e Netherlands. Meanwhile. whose well-known paper formulating h i s empirical law o f bibliography was published under t h e aegis of t h a t Society. then Reader i n Telecommunications a t Imperial. notably i n national use Germany.C. I n 1939. organized by C o l i n Cherry. The USA. the B r i t i s h Society f o r Bibliography was absorbed i n t o ASLIB.as were the atom bombs which ended i t gradually emerged i n t o p u b l i c view. prototypes o f which were used f o r code-breaking and for computation. But i t took some years t o develop them on a comnercial scale and adapt them t o perform c l e r i c a l operations on documentary f i l e s useful t o 1ib r a r i ans.

raged over the same period. an i n t e r . the e l e c t r i c a l engineer. The terminological confusions caused by assigning very precise technical d e f i n i t i o n s t o terms o f everyday discourse l i k e c m u n i c a t i o n and information made i n t e r . But I also remember papers by Robert Fairthorne. one p a r t o f t h e spectrun yielded a vague concept o f what we now c a l l information science t h a t could be seen by those who looked f o r it. was moved t o w r i t e a book On Xman Cmunication. when I was asked t o support a research a p p l i c a t i o n f o r funds t o rank the plays of Shakespeare i n descending order o f the number o f Shannon b i t s t h a t could be l a b o r i o u s l y counted i n t h e i r texts. I was frequently c a l l e d on t o discourage some o f the w i l d e r applications as.i n t o . mechanical t r a n s l a t i o n . This post-War eruption o f the ideas o f Shannon and Weaver and t h e i r extension t o a l l the academic d i s c i p l i n e s created intense i n t e r . So both sides learned from each other the basic physics o f making atomic bombs. So both sides read t h e papers r e p o r t i n g advances i n atomic physics. A l l t h a t was then needed was a q u i e t base where the technology could be assembled and tested beyond the reach o f - . both sides making c r u c i a l discoveries o f great i n t e r e s t t o the other . i t had some relevance t o l i b r a r i e s . l i n g u i s t i c s . But by t h i s time the computer had become generally a v a i l a b l e and the i n t e r . As i t r e l a t e d t o the use o f b i b l i o g r a p h i c a l resources. During the War i t s e l f . also published i n 1948. This theory explained the implications o f feed-back i n t h e automatic c o n t r o l o f machines but i t reached beyond the purely technical aspects of designing robots t o animals. The t h i r d post-War developnent which made an immediate impact was Norbert Wiener's Cybernetics [71. Calvin Mooers and Benoit Mandelbrot on aspects o f docunent and information r e t r i e v a l and t h e empirical laws of W i l l i s i n taxonomy respectively.d i s c i p l i n a r y debate subsided as sections of t h e spectrun of information sciences came t o be marked o f f i n t o areas o f s p e c i a l i s t i n t e r e s t and those concerned began t o program t h e i r computers. From t h i s complex of ideas. one might say. i n i t i a t e d by Shannon and Wiener.a t l e a s t u n t i l the A l l i e s bombed L e i p z i g where the German journals were printed. l o g i c and philosophy .reach of Shannon theory w e l l beyond i t s technical o r i g i n s i n t o physiology. Colin Cherry. semantics. the o v e r a l l p u b l i c a t i o n o f books and journals had declined somewhat. This may have arisen because the B r i t i s h had been closer t o Nazi ideology and f e l t less enthusiastic about Wiener's references t o the control o f human society I91. I began t o formulate a cybernetic model o f the growth o f s c i e n t i f i c knowledge which I saw as a system i n which s c i e n t i f i c discoveries were c o n t i n u a l l y c o n t r o l l e d and refined by c r i t i c a l feedback from o t h e r s c i e n t i s t s . The great mix of ideas thus generated around the fuzzy concept o f information gave r i s e t o what were then c a l l e d the information sciences. though t h e most important journals continued t o be published as normal. humans and human society. f o r example.d i s c i p l i n a r y ferment i n B r i t a i n but i n which the argument became g r e a t l y confused by the loose ambiguities o f t h e i r key terns information and cmunication. A s m a r y o f t h a t debate organized by F r i t z Machlup and reported i n the book completed by Una Mansfield a f t e r Machlup died i n 1983 [81 suggests t o m t h a t the Americans gave greater weight t o Wiener's ideas and e became more interested i n t h e i r a p p l i c a t i o n t o r o b o t i c s and a r t i f i c i a l i n t e l l i g e n c e than t h e B r i t i s h . It has r e c e n t l y been revealed t h a t German s c i e n t i s t s were able t o acquired read Western journals and Western s c i e n t i s t s t o read German journals by both sides i n microform from neutral sources. the deepest recesses of the academic mind.d i s c i p l i n a r y debate. As t h e l o c a l expert on Shannon theory i n U n i v e r s i t y College. A f t e r attending one of Wiener's enthusiastic lectures i n London.d i s c i p l i n a r y argunent i n v o l v i n g these technical terms very d i f f i c u l t as a l l possible meanings o f these terms become i n e x t r i c a b l y conflated. I n the USA. s i m i l a r t o t h a t i n B r i t a i n but even more i n t e n s i v e and wide-ranging. neurology.

He had experience as a research chemist i n i n d u s t r y and was keen t o e x p l o i t the new databases and t o t r a i n others t o use them. 2 . were suddenly t o l d t o make the necessary space by discarding t h e i r least-used items and sending them t o Boston Spa. again t o improve t h e i r regional services a t minimum t o t a l costs. i n 1963 he s t a r t e d a course i n Information Science i n a London College o f Advanced Technology. The p u b l i c l i b r a r i e s . These diverse r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n projects demanded new objectives o f l i b r a r y management. who became the Secretary of t h e new I n s t i t u t e . who i n pre-War days had c o n f i d e n t l y demanded new buildings when they had f i l l e d t h e i r e x i s t i n g shelf-space. LIBRARIES A D INFORMATION N A f t e r World War I 1 ended. 5 . a group o f the new k i n d o f s p e c i a l i s t s broke away from ASLIB. I n 1986. the USA economically strengthened. I n 1961. For t h i s . seemed t o be the agency most s u i t a b l e f o r promoting the new techniques required. they too found problems o f reducing t h e increased output o f documents t o b i b l i o g r a p h i c order and of speeding access t o documentary sources for the s p e c i a l i s t needs o f science and technology. But i n 1958. One member of t h i s rebel group was Jason Farradane. U n i v e r s i t y l i b r a r i a n s . l i b r a r i e s began t o form l o c a l i n t e r a c t i v e networks. The long-established ASLIB. The k e r i c a n s too were f a c i n g a great upsurge of publication. Bmokes enemy bombs. and increasingly f o r commercial reasons. At t h e same time. l i b r a r i a n s found increasing d i f f i c u l t i e s i n buying a l l t h e i r users sought from them. began t o implement regional documentation services very close t o those advocated by D t l e t . impatient a t t h e lack o f progress towards t h e i r own objectives. publishers o f the Journal of Docmentation. the Department was able t o celebrate 2 5 years of work i n t h i s new subject [ l o ] . users could c a l l Boston Spa w i t h t h e l i s t s of papers they needed and photocopies were posted back on t h a t same day.C. Though they were under less f i n a n c i a l pressure than the B r i t i s h t o r a t i o n a l i z e l i b r a r y services. There. as Belver G r i f f i t h has shown. One o f i t s o b j e t t i v e s was t o acquire a comprehensive c o l l e c t i o n o f the world's journals and another was t o s o r t the discarded books received and make them a v a i l a b l e t o other users. S t r i c t controls have since been imposed on t h e export o f ideas of possible m i l i t a r y i n t e r e s t . e s p e c i a l l y as they continued t o be on amicable terms w i t h t h e L i b r a r y Association. But governments have now learned t h a t lesson. 1 doubt whether journals now accurately r e f l e c t t h e growth o f s c i e n t i f i c knowledge. By 1966. he gave part-time evening courses i n C o l l e c t i n g and Communicating S c i e n t i f i c Knowledge. The new scheme worked well.38 B. B r i t a i n emerged from the War bankrupt. whether they are expressed on paper o r as hardware o r software. which i n 1966 became the C i t y U n i v e r s i t y (TCU). the world of science i s not as open as i t was i n 1939. the tempo o f p u b l i c a t i o n soon a t t a i n e d a much higher r a t e than before the War. I t seems i n c r e d i b l e t h a t the s e c u r i t y services o f both sides overlooked t h e s c i e n t i f i c journals t h a t revealed so much. Only t h e h e r i c a n s could provide t h a t base. The new A e r i c a n s p e c i a l i s t s i n t h i s work revealed themselves t o B r i t i s h readers i n t h e f i r s t issue of the AnnmZ R e v i m of Infomation Science and . a new National Lending L i b r a r y f o r Science and Technology was being set up. As the spate of publications was accompanied by an escalation o f costs. now g r e a t l y aided by t h e development of computer techniques for handling docunents. Jason was D i r e c t o r o f the Department of Information Science a t TCU and able t o r e c r u i t s t a f f and expand the courses f o r various academic l e v e l s as resources permitted. notably those o f Liverpool and Sheffield. the normal p u b l i c a t i o n of books and journals resmed but. t o form the i n s t i t u t e o f Information Scientists.

F i n a l l y . So my M. i n due course. f o r t h e higher degrees i n Information Science t h a t would be needed and. a Reader i s expected t o give p r i o r i t y t o t h e t h e o r e t i c a l advance o f h i s subject. i n such a context. and t h e L i b r a r y o f Medicine t o see how t h e MEDLARS database was operated. I looked t o graduates from t h i s group t o work. The Science Faculty proposal was t h a t I should o f f e r a third-year o p t i o n t o students who had successfully completed the f i r s t two years o f t h e i r Honours B. So I l e f t for Ann Arbor. was f i r s t published i n 1970. There I v i s i t e d the L i b r a r y o f Congress t o see the M R Project. At l a s t my M. Michigan.Sc. biology. proposal had t o win approval from a hierarchy of Science Faculty comnittees and I had t o argue t h e case for i t a t each l e v e l . f o r example. I was asked if I could see a way out. I could hope t o develop a science which would be respected by my s c i e n t i f i c colleagues. Iwas surprised t o be i n v i t e d t o abandon my post i n Engineering t o become Reader i n Information Science i n the L i b r a r y School o f U n i v e r s i t y College. mathematics. though Imet them i n London somewhat l a t e r . the M. But I had an i n s i g h t i n t o r e t r i e v a l problems a t the information centre o f t h e I n s t i t u t e o f Metals nearby and then moved on t o AC Washington. INFORMATION SCIENCE O INFORMATION STUDIES? A PERSONAL PROBLEM R I n 1966. t o become the research assistants I would need. course i n t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r science. Ispent a day w i t h Manfred Kochen and then moved t o Cleveland. 6.Technotogy i n 1965. as Iwas about t o make my annual v i s i t t o l e c t u r e t o t h e Engineering S m e r School a t Ann Arbor. I suggested t h a t my t i t l e be changed t o Reader i n Information Studiee but t h a t I also be allowed t o teach Information Science i n the Faculty of Science. My review has now reached t h e p o i n t a t which I unexpectedly became personally involved i n information work and I must report what happened. - These b r i g h t B. course f o r Information e Science as soon as I could. had t o be approved by the Faculty o f Science o f t h e federal U n i v e r s i t y of London. I n B r i t a i n . So the School became the School of Library.Sc. those who f o r t h i s option passed my third-year examination would be awarded an Honours degree i n . But the L i b r a r y School was a Department of the Faculty o f Arts and had played no r o l e i n t h e i n t e r . students came t o m already w i t h useful experience o f e computer programing and i n applying s t a t i s t i c a l techniques t o experimental data. intending t o use my v l s i t t o see as much as I could of American developments i n two weeks. I n Ann Arbor. They seized on an American program c a l l e d FAMULUS which provided a f l e x i b l e format f o r b i b l i o g r a p h i c a l data and which they modified and adapted f o r experimental purposes. There I hoped t o catch Jesse Shera and William Goffman a t Case Western but missed them both.Sc. Physics-with-Information Science. I went t o Boston t o look a t Project INTREX a t MIT before r e t u r n i n g t o London t o plan my new courses.Sc.Sc. French and German b i b l i o g r a p h i c descriptions. chemistry. Though the BSc. not l e a s t . The American Documentation I n s t i t u t e recognised the new trend by changing i t s name t o the h e r i c a n Society f o r Information Science i n 1968 and i t s new-named journal. temporalily held up by an appeal from London t o make theMARC format more accomnodating t o B r i t i s h . This proposal was agreed. could be set up w i t h i n the College. JASIS. I declined the i n v i t a t i o n . t h a t p a r t o f the i n v i t a t i o n was a t t r a c t i v e . reached the f i n a l comnittee which I attended i n the confident expectation t h a t my tough arguments w i t h c r i t i c a l s c i e n t i s t s of a l l persuasions were over and . So I could not see how.d i s c i p l i n a r y discussions o f the information sciences w i t h i n the College. So I was soon i n t e r v i e w i n g candidates from physics. Archive and Information Studies (which they l i k e d ) and the Science Faculty i n v i t e d m t o plan a BSc.

The techniques o f measuring these matters could be s i m i l a r . were e x p l o r i n g t h e growth o f s c i e n t i f i c knowledge as revealed by i t s l i t e r a t u r e s . gradually i n t e g r a t e them i n t o an updated l i b r a r y science and t h a t information science would continue t o go i t s own way. Ranganathan.e. Without f u r t h e r argument. I could argue t h a t any r e s u l t s I found could be checked by anyone who cared t o dispute them.40 B. It must be already evident t h a t a t t h i s time I saw information science as an emergent science which had no need t o l i n k i t s e l f t o l i b r a r i a n s h i p but which o f f e r e d l i b r a r i a n s an array o f techniques which could help them t o come t o terms w i t h computers. o f course. proposed t h e t e n EbZiometrics f o r the measurement o f data delated t o books and journals as an a l t e r n a t i v e t o the ambiguous s t a t i s t i c a t bibtiogruphy [Ill. As an information s c i e n t i s t . l a t e r i n t h e same year.Sc.C. With these and other differences 1 f e l t between the studies and the science. But I was stunned t o see t h a t a r i v a l proposal f o r an M. was on the agenda. checked and collected. I assumed t h a t . but the r e s u l t s f o r each l i b r a r y o r l i b r a r y system would be d i f f e r e n t . William Gaffman and others who. To d i g out the data I needed. from E l e c t r i c a l Engineering. i n t h e i r various ways. As I was preparing for another tough argment. When these p r i v a t e c o l l e c t i o n s f a i l e d them. The measures I needed f o r t h i s purpose had t o r e l y on usage of the docunents as recorded by the l i b r a r i e s concerned. This proposal was imnediately seen by Western eyes and was adopted forthwith. w i t h i n a few years. had i t s own c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p a t t e r n o f usage. Bmokes t h a t my proposal would be approved 'on t h e nod'. Belver G r i f f i t h . the Indian l i b r a r i a n S. Iwas i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e work o f Manfred Kochen. b u s i l y e x p l o i t i n g computer techniques t o update s c i e n t i f i c bibliographies. As a teacher of information studies. So my personal i n t e r e s t was t o explore t h e l i t e r a t u r e s o f the sciences t o t e s t Popper's theory t h a t the growth o f s c i e n t i f i c knowledge was a s o c i a l process i n which new ideas emerged i n dramatic form i n the current journals w h i l e the ideas they superseded q u i e t l y faded away t o be except by h i s t o r i a n s of the sciences. And every l i b r a r y . t h e problems o f information r e t r i e v a l . Unfortunately. the design o f e f f e c t i v e networks.Sc. l i b r a r i a n s would absorb what ideas they needed from information science. I n 1969. someone noticed t h a t my k i n d o f Information Science was already being taught a t the B. the keen bibliographer Alan Pritchard.R. I won on t h i s technical point. I began my teaching. proposed t h e term Librmetrics f o r the measurement o f a l l q u a n t i t a t i v e data d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o Libraries [41. Derek de S o l l a Price.i. I needed techniques t o help l i b r a r i a n s set up h i e r a r c h i c a l networks of l i b r a r i e s as e f f e c t i v e and costreducing as possible. I t had reached t h i s f i n a l l e v e l by a d i f f e r e n t administrative route and came from Colin Cherry's group a t Imperial College . t h e databases. aware of t h e l i b r a r y r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n problems o f t h a t time. and so on which had caught them unprepared f o r the information r e v o l u t i o n t h a t had broken out around them. i t takes time f o r Indian publications t o reach Western eyes and. however. reference works and standard t e x t s on which they mainly r e l i e d i n t h e i r laboratories o r o f f i c e s and w i t h i n easy reach. I explored the back-runs o f the relevant journals and r e l i e d on the data I myself observed. . I had been Secretary o f the B r i t i s h Society f o r the Philosophy of Science over the period when Karl Popper had been i t s President. It e l l t h i s s t o r y t o i n d i c a t e t h a t there have been r i v a l bids f o r the a t t r a c t i v e name infomation science. they had t o make what they regarded as time-wasting v i s i t s t o a l i b r a r y . l e v e l whereas my r i v a l ' s was not. forgotten - I had noted t h a t my s c i e n t i f i c colleagues kept t h e i r own c o l l e c t i o n s of journals.

o f course. But I could never persuade them t h a t my problems i n information science were d i f f e r e n t from t h e i r s i n respect o f l i b r a r i e s . Line and Alexander Sandison who h o t l y defended t h e i r a r c h i v a l n a t i o n a l l i b r a r i e s against t h e imputation t h a t any of t h e i r precious stock might be obsolescent. And t h i s dispute. Sciento-. I would have adopted Librmnetrics for information studies and bibliometrics f o r i n f o r m a t i o n science. They have e i t h e r dropped t h e term ' i n f o r m a t i o n science' from t h e i r t i t l e s o r have modified i t t o 'information s t u d i e s ' . L i b r a r i a n s l i k e d b i b l i o m e t r i c s too. among them t h a t o f Jason Farradane who pioneered Information Science i n B r i t a i n .e. There are. as I have long hoped t o see. They repeated my measures. t h a t l i b r a r i a n s now f e e l t h a t they have absorbed from i n f o r m a t i o n science a l l t h e techniques they need and have made them t h e i r own. t h e i r purpose a f t e r studying t h e r e l e v a n t background. I f one seeks what philosophers now c a l l t h e ' i l l o c u t i o n a r y force' of these questions. are. But i t was too l a t e . Houser c l a s s i f i e s t h e t o p i c s reported i n t h a t j o u r n a l and ranks them i n order of t h e i r frequencies o f occurrence. p l u s 64 others o f t h e 95 t o p i c s he l i s t s . So i n f o r m a t i o n science too. i s f r e e t o go i t s own way. 41 Further evidence o f t h e possessiue a t t i t u d e o f l i b r a r i a n s t o b i b l i o m e t r i c s i s displayed by Lloyd Houser's content analysis o f t h e f i r s t 15 years o f JASIS 1121. I r e l i e d on c i t a t i o n counts t o y i e l d measures of what I c a l l e d obsolescence. d i d n o t agree w i t h mine. Sandison renews h i s a t t a c k i n t h e l a t e s t issue o f t h e J o w l of ~ocwnent&on i n which he dismisses c i t a t i o n studies based on IS1 data as useless. I do f u l l y accept h i s main conclusions. i. recorded i n t h e pages of various j o u r n a l s over several years has never been resolved. t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n science f a i l s t o m emerge as a coherent e n t i t y and t h a t i t t h e r e f o r e does n o t e x i s t . When I published papers on t h e h i s t o r i e s of t h e sciences o r of p a r t i c u l a r journals. Line does n o t admit t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t b i b l i o m e t r i c s i s a p p l i c a b l e t o wider contexts. some voices opposing any such change. n o t s u r p r i s i n g l y . Though I a n o t impressed by some o f Houser's a n a l y t i c a l techniques. Houser then asserts t h a t these t h r e e topics. For example. and always have been. I n short. Unfortunately. Znfor-metrics??? Had I known of Ranganathan's term i n time. t h e use o f b i b l i o m e t r i c s f o r both t h e science and t h e studies has l e d t o sane confusion. t h e one-time Post-graduate School o f L i b r a r i a n s h i p and Information Science a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y of S h e f f i e l d has now become t h e Department o f Information Studies. But these papers were imnediately attacked by t h e l i b r a r i a n s Maurice. The f i r s t t h r e e t o p i c s are bibtiometrics.L i n e suggests t h a t anyone proposing t o w r i t e a paper on b i b l i o m e t r i c s should f i r s t ask two questions : 'Who p r e c i s e l y wants t o know?' and 'For what precise purpose i s t h e information wanted?'. then i t i s a waste o f time. and t h e i r r e s u l t s . But I regard such opposition . The l i b r a r y schools i n B r i t a i n have come t o t h e same conclusion. I can o n l y conclude t h a t L i n e i s saying t h a t unless t h e proposed work r e l a t e s t o some problem o f l i b r a r y housekeeping o f which he approves. components of l i b r a r y science. though as a subject n o t r e l a t e d t o t h e needs o f l i b r a r i e s . The I n s t i t u t e o f Information S c i e n t i s t s i s also now considering how best t o change i t s name t o r e f l e c t t h e changing i n t e r e s t s o f i t s members towards Information Management o r Systems o r Technology and o t h e r developments. though i n a l e s s dramatic way. A t t h e Diepenbeek Conference I was reminded o f these disputes by a quotation from Maurice Line which Jean Tague published i n her paper 'What's t h e use o f b i b l i o m e t r i c s ? ' [ll. I n fact. indexing and i n f o m a t i o n r e t r i e v a t systems. They are confident t h a t they can now go t h e i r own way.Biblio. I i n t e r p r e t Houser's paper as demonstrating. i n terms of the usage o f t h e i r l i b r a r i e s . I f i n d t h i s a cheering conclusion because i t also frees i n f o r m a t i o n science from t h e r e s t r a i n t s t h a t l i b r a r i a n s have imposed on i t f o r more t h a t 20 years.

I t s techniques have been developed by small groups of s c i e n t i s t s working w i t h single-minded enthusiasm i n compact research u n i t s . SCIENTOMETRICS The term ecientometrics. THE ROLES OF THE THREE '-METRICS' 7. I believe. Leo Egghe has noted a d u a l i t y p r i n c i p l e t h a t has l e d him t o an attempt t o provide a complete mathematical framework f o r them and chose the t i t l e Infometrice t o describe t h i s t h e o r e t i c a l work 1151. i n developing and r e f i n i n g i t s techniques. And b i b l i o m e t r i c s i t s e l f needs t h e continued i n t e r e s t o f outside experts. s t a t i s t i c i a n s and others. . 7. t h e empirical laws remain empirical and so a t t r a c t theoreticians t o a r e s o l u t i o n o f the problems they present. automatically c o r r e c t i n g and upd a t i n g t h e i r contents as new issues are received. INFORMETRICS The term i n f o m e t r i c s was adopted by VINITI. They could also become a valuable e x p e r i m n t a l resource for studying t h e i n t e r a c t i o n s o f users i n a new k i n d o f c o g n i t i v e study. new forms o f database w i l l becolne feasible.2.and scientometrics.42 B. I have long been awaiting the a r r i v a l o f e l e c t r o n i c journals. t h e i r d i f f e r e n t r o l e s are distinguished by t h e i r very d i f f e r e n t contexts. But other research u n i t s i n Europe.C.3. There are some residual problems from b i b l i o m e t r i c s o f no great i n t e r e s t t o l i b r a r i a n s . Though t h e techniques o f scientometrics and b i b l i o m e t r i c s are c l o s e l y s i m i l a r . For example. The s t a t i s t i c i a n Sichel has been e x p l o r i n g t h e a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f t h e Inverse Gaussian d i s t r i b u t i o n t o them [161. are beginning t o make contributions t o scientometric studies. The tenn i n f o m e t r i c s seems t o be as appropriate f o r such t h e o r e t i c a l studies as any I can t h i n k of. The journal established by Tibor Braun has been invaluable i n promoting scientometrics : a s i m i l a r journal I n f o m e t r i e s i s needed t o focus i n t e r e s t on m e t r i c a l studies o f information processes i n general. A recent B r i t i s h study. BIBLIOMETRICS I have no doubt t h a t bibtiornetrice must now be conceded t o l i b r a r y studies only. When they a r r i v e . as a generic tenn t o embrace both b i b l i o . Applications have so f a r been r e s t r i c t e d t o e x p l o i t a t i o n of t h e c i t a t i o n data provided by IS1 but f u r t h e r refinements a r e now being c r i t i c a l l y examined 1131. New measures w i l l be needed f o r them. The t e n has now established a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n the s o c i a l sciences. 7. Gorkova's recent book w i t h t h a t t i t l e supports t h a t idea. has become f r u i t f u l i n science p o l i c y studies. I t s work i s n o t y e t ended as l i b r a r i e s continue t o adapt t o the changing world around them. I regard these t h e o r e t i c a l explorations as exemplifying the k i n d o f information science I hoped would emerge i n due course. 7. nurtured by Tibor Braun. attempting t o forecast the development o f computerized information systems i n t o a l l aspects o f s o c i a l l i f e over t h e next 25 years also stresses t h a t new measures w i l l be needed. East and West.Bmokes as sentimental r a t h e r than r e a l i s t i c . notably i n Budapest and Leiden. Haitun pointed t o the f a c t t h a t t h e Z i p f i a n d i s t r i b u t i o n s o f the s o c i a l sciences needed a new s t a t i s t i c a l approach [141.1.

1985. VINITI. Proceedings of the Diepenbeek Conference. A bibliometric distribution which really works.. L. . The mathematical theory of comunication. Informatics 10. 1969. C.. and Sen. 1988. N.. The informational basis of scientometrics. et al. A. A. New Delhi.K. I am indebted to B. V.These are my recornendations concerning the three '-metrics'. eds.. Shannon.. Trans. A conceptual analysis of information science. Cybernetics. Leydesdorff.. Informetrics.6).R. FID 435. London. DOCM.. Boston. Scientometrics 15(5. W.S.D.. thesis. 1982. Gorkova. et a1 Scientific communications and informatics. 3-34..I. 1989. Amsterdam. LISR 10. N. 1969. and Weaver. J. Sci. 1983. A. Urbana. Wiley. 1949. H. 3-13.D.I. R. eds. INSDOC for two Indian references : Ranganathan. . and Rousseau. Bangalore. U.. R. 1989. Arlington.. Rennie.. 89-104. Pritchard.S. Houghton Mifflin. Houser. 1949. Wiener.. Machlup. 5-25. Scientometrics 4. Mikhailov. I present them for your consideration. Stationary scientometrics distributions.. 314-21. An essay on informetrics : a study in growth and development. F. University of Illinois. DRTC 7 285-301. Statistical bibliography or bibliometrics? J . 348-9. 25.A.. Ph. and Karennoi. Burger.E. MIT and John Wiley.. and Mansfield. The h m a n use of human beings. The duality of informetric systems with application to the empirical laws. 181-194. 165-91.I. The study of information : interdisciplinary messages. Information Resources Press.. El sevier. Egghe? L.. New York. 1985. G. L. Inf. T. 1988. REFERENCES Egghe. Haitun. S.N.H. eds. 1988. Dobrov. New York. A history of the Department of Information Science of the City University. New York. In Mikhailov. IASLIC XV. Informetrics 87/88. cybernetics and society. 1969.. JASIS 36. Sen. A. Librametry and its scope. Rajan. 12.K. Wiener. The relations between qualitative theory and scientometric methods in science and technology studies. 1950. L. VINITI. 1984... 3. 1986. TCU. On theoretical problems of informatics. S. B.M. Moscow.. Sichel.