In this final chapter, the researcher reflects on his findings to the general and specific questions that framed the research study. Recommendations from the impact of the study into training are made, along with suggestions about how such changes would be implemented. The researcher then makes some concluding comments that emerge from his personal reflection on the research process. Finally, some possible directions for future implementation are suggested.



ICT was provided an array of powerful tools that may help ILJTM (CIAST) in transforming the present isolated, trainer-centred and text-bound classrooms into rich, student focused, interactive knowledge environments. To meet these challenges, ILJTM (CIAST) must embrace the new technologies and appropriate ICT tools for training. The ILJTM (CIAST) must also move towards the goal of transforming the traditional paradigm of training.

Computer in the laboratory was the application of technology to assist, enhance, and extend trainees knowledge.

Newhouse (2002) in his paper ‘The Impact Of ICT On Learning And Teaching, A literature review’, for Western Australian Department of Education, the learning environment as having a physical as well as a relationship dimension has been described. Physically it may be in a room, full of particular furniture and equipment.


The using of ICT into lesson presentation consists into two parts; trainer-centered and trainee-centered we have an application of Dewey’s theory: “learning by doing”. Although people learn to use ICT by copying from competent users such as trainers, and colleagues, many people especially trainees described skill training to use the computer and it software through seeing, and simulation before the actual they are practicing.

In the trainer-centered part of the lesson, trainers are relying on the traditional method, with out the use of any supportive educational internet or intranet that teaches itself. Despite the trainers support to the use of eTraining for revision purposes by group of trainees collaboratively if it were available.

ICT facilities will help as well to improve the learning process as supported by the ILJTM (CIAST) and one of the aims of the ICT was responsibility.


Trainer’s role

The use of ICT facilities (eTraining) will affect the role of the trainers dramatically. Since there was a new presence in training centre provide a supply of knowledge and information, and manipulative skills thus reduced the dependency of trainees on trainers. Most of the trainers acknowledge that they were learned from their trainees most of the time. And their role was as a guider or a facilitator, but this was not the case every time. In some cases the trainers has to be an expert and purveyor of knowledge.


The Impact to the Trainers and Trainees Performance

ICT has the potential to reinforce in practices as ICT in itself offers the possibility to communicate content in many different ways and to challenge all trainers and trainees at different levels. By planning and carrying out teaching where trainers and trainees work individually or together using ICT, the trainers is given a great tool to differentiate the training processes for all trainees in ways that meet their special

learning styles and needs.

The results of this study show that all respondents (trainers and trainees), assess that the use of ICT has a positive impact on the ILJTM (CIAST) overall target – improving the trainee’s learning. For instance, the results show that ICT has a positive impact on skills.

The ICT revolution was not just about improvements in training process, but also about improvements in quality. Improvements in training quality were difficult to quantify and may result in mis-measurement.


Inquiring quality of ICT

The trustworthy, develop by expert matters, current information and clear & contrast benefited to the trainees. They use ICT in processes of inquiry and research. They also identify information and data needs and plan actions to locate access and retrieve information and data. The trainees organise, manipulate, structure and refine information to improve their interpretations and construct new understandings. They acknowledge and use information and data from a variety of sources and critically assess their quality.

The response to the question information presented according to the standard, contents were informative and overall satisfactions were counted. Meaning that the quality of learning does not improve by using computers if one does not know how to use them appropriately. (see Table 4.9)


The ICT tools

Strictly speaking, the ICT infrastructure such computer systems and non-interactive technology were part of the context of the curriculum but since ICT facilities were two-way interactive it was more helpful to highlight them by separation. The elements of the traditional classroom learning environment provide a complex

pattern of relationships. When ICT infrastructure likes computers were used within this environment, the complexity of this pattern of relationships increases, with all elements of the traditional classroom learning environment needing to interact with both the hardware and software.

Based on this relationships model (see Figure 4.3) on Chapter 4, in any discussion of the use of computers in classrooms, it was necessary to consider the relationship between humans (Trainers & Trainees) and computer systems as interactive machines. These relationships then assist in determining the respective roles of the computers systems, trainers and trainees.



Managerial behaviour has a key role in the support of learning and e-learning programs. As learners or trainees, managers and those in positions of greater responsibility in general, seemed to more well-disposed and motivated with regard to training.

In general, the attitude of management, especially in the smaller companies, was seen to be one of the key factors. The more focussed on innovation and development they were, the more likely there was to be a focus on training and ICT use.



From many sides it has been emphasised and proven that ICT can be used as a tool to change the way in which trainer teach, and the way in which trainees learn. But there seems to be a clash between theories on the one hand and the actual practice on the other.

The use of ICT for teaching and training purposes was not primarily motivated by the didactical advantages; the study shows that trainers and trainees experience a positive impact of the use of ICT that was related to the way in which the training

processes are planned.

The study has considered issues of ICT supported training with regard to enhance training programme in the teaching and learning process. The context of developing ICT methodologies and strategies which can be integrated into the teaching and learning process.



Information Communication and Technologies (ICTs) provide a window of opportunity for training institutions and other organizations to harness and use technology to complement and support the teaching and training process. eTraining was an example of the used of these ICT-supported teaching and training methods whose used in educational institutions was gained momentum with the passage of time.

Finally, the report outlines specific recommendations for actions at Manpower Department who was a level in the areas of policy, and training institutions. Webbased and online training has an important role in facilitating and improving the performance of ILJTM and organizations. Rapid growth of the tools and applications of the Internet and rapid access to data have provided a good foundation for developing interactive multimedia-based training software. However, in ILJTM (CIAST), comprehensive and fast access to the Internet is not feasible for all trainees. If the conditions required for expanding the implementation of information and communication technology in here, it could have a huge effect on the productivity of training through: increasing the quality of the information and courses; supporting to all trainees in ICT facilities; provision of online digital trainers access; cost savings related to expenditure on other physical infrastructure; and cost and time savings, especially for trainees who are eager to learn more than others.

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