This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Make-to-Order: •MRP with firm orders on MPS is make-to-order. •But it does not limit WIP and is therefore a push system. Make-to-Stock: •Pull systems do replenish inventory voids. •But jobs can be associated with customer orders. Forecast Free: •Toyota’s classic system made cars to forecasts. •Use of takt times or production smoothing often involves production without firm orders (and hence forecasts).
Advantages of Pull Systems
Low Unit Cost: •low inventory •reduced space • little rework Good Customer Service: High External Quality: Flexibility:
•short cycle times •steady, predictable output Stream
•high internal quality •pressure for good quality •promotion of good quality (e.g., defect detection)
•avoids committing jobs tooearly •encourages floating capacity
Eliminate disruptions. Kanban is the associated manual information and . Minimize inventories. 4. The Goals of JIT The ultimate goal of JIT is a balanced. Eliminate waste. 5. JIT cannot be reduced to a "formula". JIT and Kanban System The term "kanban" has sometimes been used as equivalent to JIT.Pull Benefits Achieved by WIP Cap Reduces Costs •prevents WIP explosions •reduces average WIP •reduces engineering changes •reduces cycle time variability •pressure to reduce sources of process variability •promotes shorter lead times and better on-time performance Improves Customer Service: Improves Quality: •pressure for higher quality •improved defect detection • improved communication Maintains Flexibility: • avoids early release (like air traffic control) • less direct congestion • less reliance on forecasts • promotes floating capacity Just-in-Time JIT is a philosophy of management extending from suppliers through production to distribution systems. which certainly is not the truth. every firm may apply the philosophy differently . Hence. 3. This can be achieved by approaching the following supporting goals first: 1. 2. Reduce set-up times and lead times. smooth and rapid flow of materials through the system. Make the system flexible.
Through the use of this system. The idea behind the kanban system is to authorize material for production only if there is a need for them. instead of "pushed" out before if is needed and then stored. production is "pulled" through the production system. Figure (1) Kanban Process . to JIT philosophy.controlling system. Kanban is a Japanese word for "card". They often use cards to signal the need for more material. hence the name kanban.
. Produce with minimum lead time. 2. Produce with perfect quality 3. Produce products with only those features the customer wants . 4.Figure (2) kanban system Figure (3) Sample of canban system Objective of JIT 1. Produce only the products the customer wants .
every movement must have a purpose so that there is zero idle inventory . Produce with methods that allow for the development of people Just in time success factors Advantages or Benefits of Just in Time or JIT • Continuous improvement in quality • Cost is reduced . material or equipment .5. 6. Produce with no waste of labor.
JIT is a very responsive method of production .• Elimination of waste • Manufacturing time is cut down • Better productivity • Lower Work in progress • Better supplier relationships • Cost efficient production • Defect free output Drawbacks or Disadvantages of Just in Time or JIT • JIT system may not be able to manage sudden variations in demand • There is little room for mistakes as minimal stock is kept for re-working faulty product • Production is very reliant on suppliers and if stock is not delivered on time. because all product is made to meet actual orders – however. the whole production schedule can be delayed • There is no spare finished product available to meet unexpected orders.
Over Processing 5. Over-Production 2.The relationship between JIT. Defective Products . Transportation 4. Motion 7. Waiting Time 3. Inventory 6. The Seven Deadly Waste We can identify seven types of losses in the traditional manufacturing system and the Lean manufacturing system must be fight it and uprooting of the foundations: 1. TPS & Lean Manufacturing Systems Lean Manufacturing System definition Provide clients and customers of products or services they like when they want it and in the most effective and least loss in or missing.
Cellular Manufacturing 6.Total Productive Maintenance 5.Setup Time Reduction 2.The principles of lean manufcaturing system 1. that comprises its management philosophy and practices. including interaction with suppliers and customers. Principles or Toyota way .Kanban system 3.Organization of the workplace (5S) as shown in figure below : Toyota Production System (TPS) The Toyota Production System (TPS) is an integrated socio-technical system. developed by Toyota.Value Stream Mapping 4. The TPS organizes manufacturing and logistics for the automobile manufacturer.
) Respect for People • Respect (We respect others. Continuous Improvement • Challenge (We form a long-term vision. take responsibility and do our best to build mutual trust.) • GenchiGenbutsu (Go to the source to find the facts to make correct decisions. always driving for innovation and evolution.) The right process will produce the right results • Create continuous process flow to bring problems to the surface • Use the "pull" system to avoid overproduction • Build a culture of stopping to fix problems.) • Kaizen (We improve our business operations continuously.) • Teamwork (We stimulate personal and professional growth. meeting challenges with courage and creativity to realize our dreams. share the opportunities of development and maximize individual and team performance. to get quality right from the first • Standardized tasks are the foundation for continuous improvement and employee empowerment • Use visual control so no problems are hidden . make every effort to understand each other.
live the philosophy. Continuously solving root problems drives organizational learning • Go and see for yourself to thoroughly understand the situation . Add value to the organization by developing your people and partners • Grow leaders who thoroughly understand the work. • Develop exceptional people and teams who follow your company's philosophy. .• Use only reliable. thoroughly considering all options . thoroughly tested technology that serves your people and processes. • Respect your extended network of partners and suppliers by challenging them and helping them improve. implement decisions rapidly. • Make decisions slowly by consensus. and teach it to others.
5 C= 25 bottles Round up to 4 (to allow some slack) or down to 3 (to force improvement) .5) = 7.10(150 x 0. of Kanbans = average demand during lead time + safety stock container size N = dL + S C where N= number of kanbans or containers d= average demand over some time period L= lead time to replenish an order S= safety stock C= container size Example d = 150 bottles per hour L = 30 minutes = 0.5 hours S = 0.Determining Number of Kanbans No.
KatsundoHitomi. "Operation Management" .Anil Kumar.Refrences: 1. S. Albert Porter.Suresh. "Manufacturing Systems Engineering" 2. " Operations Management " 3. N.