TO2020 : maritime technology uptake


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marine fuel cells. and environmental performance. will be implemented on specialised ships. model-based techniques for assessing technical and economic performance of a ship from a lifecycle perspective enable better management of the complexity and uncertainties related to design. But what about wind and nuclear as possible energy sources for shipping? The electric ship Hybrid electric ship concepts. How can these be achieved? 30 32 34 36 38 40 . Which novel systems and software. Will cold ironing. not to mention new types of vessels. economy. will Arctic shipping demand? The virtual ship Advanced.CONTENTS The low energy ship Which technological developments in materials science. and high temperature superconductors also take off? The digital ship E-navigation solutions will be widely used to enhance safety and to optimise operations with respect to security. incorporating many types of renewable energy sources. ship traffic in that region is set to increase. But which are the key technologies? The Arctic ship With the prospect of ice-free summers in the Arctic. and propulsion will contribute towards the development of new low energy ship concepts needed in 2020? The green-fuelled ship Environmental regulations and rising bunker oil prices could make natural gas and biofuel blends viable solutions. drag reduction.

Multifunctional ship types and/or technological advances in drag reduction. safety considerations. along with stricter regulations regarding emissions and ballast water. Friction drag is reduced due to the lower friction forces associated with laminar flow. Technological developments in materials science. propulsion. Negative side-effects include the generation of a destabilizing free surface under the hull. will result in radical changes in ships. friction drag is more important for large. Source: DNV Illustration of the P-MAXair cavity ship by STENA. it has to be continuously replaced. AIR CAVITY SYSTEMS The injection of air beneath a ship’s hull can have an alternative embodiment. market uncertainties. and energy efficiency. new concepts needs to be considered for each ship type. new market realities. The applicability of different. based on technical and economic assessment. In particular. As air will inevitably escape from the cavity. AIR BUBBLE LUBRICATION Although the wave-making resistance of ships can be minimised by careful hull design. rising fuel prices. The steel-seawater interface is thus replaced by a more slippery air-seawater interface. and speed or cargo flexibility. need to be solved by 2020. Presently. Energy will be lost. strength. Novel technologies and demanding objectives regarding emissions. slow speed. These are not necessarily new ship types. Air bubble lubrication systems are based on the powered injection of air beneath the ship.30 TECHNOLOGY UPTAKE MARITIME the low energy ship – attacking energy losses HIGH BUNKER COSTS. climate change. intense competition. but offer innovative solutions to “newly posed” problems in ship design. and regulatory changes. Source: STENA . which typically occurs around the hull. Uncertainties in the physical mechanisms. technological advances. the transition to the highly dissipative turbulent flow regime. efficiency. both by the formation of gravity waves on this free surface and by dispersion of bubbles into the propeller inflow. model-based techniques. large indentations are opened on the hull’s bottom. and the scaling and technical feasibility of this system. and materials herald new ship concepts. necessitate holistic designs and use of risk-based methods. compared with turbulent flow. propulsion. Compressed air is pumped in to fill the void space and establish a continuous air cavity. By interfering with the generation of vortices. drag reduction. large-scale demonstrators are needed. In order to manage the complexity and risk inherent in new solutions. as well as advanced. In air cavity systems. INTRODUCTION The main triggers for innovation are market forces. and societal pressures for greening are driving the introduction of new technologies and concepts into the world fleet towards 2020. commercial ships. effectively reducing the hull’s wetted surface and thereby the friction forces. Several small holes on the hull’s bottom are used for injection of micro air bubbles into the flow stream. but one that also results in friction drag forces being decreased. the potentially negative interactions of the dispersed bubbles with the propeller must be eliminated. New concepts could play important roles for all vessel types. 10-20% drag reduction is possible with air injection systems by 2020. is delayed. will provide the basis for the key specifications of new ship concepts. AIR BUBBLE LUBRICATION AIR CAVITY SYSTEMS Visualisation of an installed air-bubble injection system. the crossindustrial focus on the environment. A decrease in fuel consumption of around 10 % is possible.

depending on utilisation and ship types. e. Even after 2020. the breadth and length are increased. and titanium. and stability when ships sail unloaded. with two small ballast tanks to aid the adjustment of trim. manufacturing and recycling challenges. In order to achieve the displacement of standard designs. line propeller with steerable side pods. widespread adoption by 2020 is unlikely. The bow and stern are now critical for regulating trim under all load states. while also extending the range of efficient operation by utilising the optimum engine load. ships that do not use ballast water will be more expensive to build and have various construction challenges.31 HIGH MEDIUM LOW S AT ER IA L SO RS PU L A SY IR C ST A EM VIT S Y HY BR GREEN WEALTH LOCAL FIRST FUELLED BY CARBON TECHNOLOGY UPTAKE IN EACH SCENARIO HYBRID MATERIALS Reducing the weight of a ship’s hull can decrease emissions and save fuel. good resistance to fatigue and corrosion). HYBRID PROPULSORS The high efficiency of the screw propeller is restricted to one design speed. such as pre. the marine ecosystem may be threatened with the introduction of invasive species contained in the ballast water. Fibre-metal laminates combine the qualities of metals (high impact resistance. Although design and manufacture of hybrid propulsors are expensive. Hybrid materials can be formed from multiple layers of metal sheets and piles of polymer composite laminates. fibre reinforced plastics.g. e.and post-swirl fins. However. A trapezoidal hull with a transversely raked bottom can maintain sufficient stability and draft when unloaded. Competing solutions include onboard treatment of ballast water and in-port receiving facilities. Lightweight materials are used in smaller vessels and secondary structures. and direct drive propulsion. container or multipurpose ships. this technology is expected to provide fuel savings up to 10 %. Source: NASA A multi-component Azipod installation. The main obstacles include high costs. flexible manufacturing) with those of composites (high strength and stiffness to weight ratio. and fire resistance issues. 2-stroke diesel engines. Source: ABB HY BR GLOBAL DIVERSITY B FR ALL EE AS SH T W IP A S T A L U IR B BR U IC BB AT LE IO N ID ID PR M O ER . when ballast water is discharged untreated. Hydrodynamic optimisation can enable efficient arrangements of a contra-rotating pod propeller behind a main controllable pitch propeller. Hybrids. durability. Such ships incorporate more steel. seem preferable. BALLAST WATER FREE SHIPS Ballast water ensures sufficient draft. without requiring ballast water. Hybrid propulsion concepts consist of combinations of shaft propellers. However. aluminium. and efficiency enhancing devices. hybrid materials HYBRID PROPULSORS HYBRID MATERIALS Composite sandwich construction made of GLARE-skins and honeycomb core. The application of these materials in the aeronautical industry and in specialised ships provides an opening for introducing these materials into shipping. whereas the polymer core can be reinforced with carbon or glass fibres. These systems capitalise on the hydrodynamic advantages of their components. pods. large blades. and of a feathering centre- Learning from the aviation industry - will save weight and energy. The metal layers can be of either aluminium or steel plates. strength. both due to their larger size and also to obtain sufficient strength under partial load conditions.g.

Methane is 21 times more potent greenhouse gas (GHG) than CO2. as well as model studies. Source: EIA . these storage tanks are also more expensive. Large-scale demonstration projects. Since natural gas must be stored either liquefied or compressed. some ships are retrofitted to run on LNG. LNG. will drive the uptake of gas as a marine fuel. It is anticipated that within 10 years a considerable share of new ships will have natural gas fuelling. like wind or nuclear. especially in Emissions Control Areas (ECAs). It might also be expected that. It is anticipated that a considerable share of new ships will have natural gas fuelling. emissions of unburned methane represent a problem. especially within ECAs. are needed to evaluate performance. lean-burn. The implementation of these new technologies could face significant technical and economic challenges. are pushing the maritime industry towards using cleaner energy sources. can meet some of these regulations. SHIP EMISSIONS within 10 years FUEL PRICES Indicative emission reduction potential from the use of natural gas in the fleet (Baltic). or more radical energy sources like wind or nuclear. the new-build cost of LNG-fuelled ships is about 10–20 % higher than for equivalent diesel-fuelled ships.32 TECHNOLOGY UPTAKE MARITIME the green-fuelled ship – the beginning of the end of traditional fuel WITH SEA-TRANSPORT facing increasingly strict environmental regulations. particulates are reduced. INTRODUCTION Impending stricter environmental regulations that require that the emission levels of SOx. and to ease implementation into the fleet. Engines fuelled by natural gas are widely used for power generation and transport on land. biofuel blends. NOx. LNG. particularly in short-sea shipping. Abatement technologies. combined with a more competitive gas price. Such engines are suitable for cruise ships. and NOx emissions could be reduced by 90 % in gas-fuelled. a significant increase in the number of bunkering terminals is expected by 2020. to decades for nuclear. could be exploited. Depending on engine type. scrubbers. and renewables are being considered as alternative energy sources. smaller cargo and service ships. Based on recent experience. or more radical energy sources. 4-stroke engines. NATURAL GAS A switch to natural gas could virtually eliminate emissions of SOx and particulate matter. and probably CO2 also. Alternatively. or catalytic reduction. Increases in bunker oil prices will probably accelerate this transition. biofuel blends. NOx reductions are more modest. Strict regulations on NOx and SOx emissions. Source: IEA Projected natural gas and crude oil prices in US$ (2008) per million Btu. Although natural gas combustion can reduce CO2 emissions by up to 25 % compared with bunker oil. and the time frame ranges from a few years for LNG. the change in CO2equivalent emissions range from a reduction of 20 % up to a net increase. for slow speed. such as exhaust gas recirculation. Although LNG bunkering infrastructure is currently very limited. in the coming years. However. and also for auxiliary power. natural gas. One challenge for shipping is that LNG tanks typically require 2 to 3 times more space than a diesel tank. 2-stroke engines that are typical of larger commercial ships. but typically CO2 emissions are increased. all have the potential to be exploited. Adoption of LNG fuelling by a considerable share of ships in short-sea shipping is expected over the next decade. and with rising bunker oil prices.

Commercial nuclear ships would have to run on low enriched uranium.Fuel lifetime of around 10+ years at a price of US$ 2 mil/MW is indicated. Commercial kites currently range from 160 to more than 300 m² and can substitute a propulsion power of up to 2000 kW depending on the wind conditions and ship's speed.33 HIGH MEDIUM LOW G AS RA NA TU KI TE S BI O GREEN WEALTH LOCAL FIRST FUELLED BY CARBON TECHNOLOGY UPTAKE IN EACH SCENARIO KITES Kites are smaller installations and provide a thrust force directly from the wind. a winch. The automatic control system actively steers and stabilizes the kite. few nuclear-powered merchant ships have been built. In principle. BIOFUELS Biofuel is a renewable energy source with the potential of considerable decrease in lifecycle CO2 emissions. decommissioning and storage of radioactive waste. The most promising biofuels for ships are biodiesel and crude plant oil.spills into the marine environment may have less impact. The extensive requirements for testing and qualifying this technology suggest that it will not be commercially available for civilian shipping by 2020. however. NUCLEAR biodegradable KITES SkySails™ installation on a cargo ship. susceptibility to microbial growth. Biodiesel is most suitable for replacing marine distillate. existing diesel engines can run on biofuel blends. Biofuels are . and availability in sufficient volumes. Conflicts with cargo handling equipment could arise. and plant oil is suitable for replacing residual fuels. with power output in the range of 25 MW. various unresolved problems. These include fuel instability. Kite operation entails few additional tasks for the crew. and poor cold flow properties. The system consists of the kite. Compact nuclear power plant design also useable for maritime propulsion. corrosion. adverse effects on piping and instrumentation. Source: Hyperion Power™ NU CL GLOBAL DIVERSITY FU EA R L EL S . NUCLEAR Nuclear power plants have no GHG emissions during operation and are especially well suited for ships with slowly varying power demands. widespread use of biofuel in shipping will depend on price. Although these technical challenges could be resolved by 2020. Land-based prototypes offer a compact reactor (comparable to large marine diesel engines). The relative ease of kite installation for wind propulsion may result in ship retrofits within the next 10 years. control lines with a control node. They fly at between 100 and 420m high. Although several hundred nuclear-powered navy vessels exist. a Hawser connection to the forecastle. In operation. Breakthroughs in production methods and new regulations could have a significant impact. Government involvement could however accelerate the uptake process. the significant investment costs and societal acceptance. at wind speeds of 3 to 8 Beaufort scale. SOx and particulate matter emissions are also reduced. and the bridge control system. optimising its performance. There are. while NOx emissions slightly increase. other incentives. The main barriers to nuclear shipping relate to uncontrolled proliferation of nuclear material.

Initially. LNG fuel cells emit up to 50 % less CO2 per kW than diesel engines. even more than it does today. a marine fuel cell prototype delivers power in the range of 0. Currently. For large cargo ships. and weight minimisation. alternatives to combustion have to be considered. The ship machinery will evolve into a more complex system. The hybrid electric ship of 2020 might contain a mix of conventional and superconducting motors and generators. A 20 kW solid oxide fuel cell running on methanol. with a wide range of different energy conversion and storage sub-systems. solar panels or retractable wind turbines. The high complexity of such a system will require maintenance strategies. and small cargo ships by 2020. battery packages. HYBRID SHIPS Power generation works best when operating at a single. bio-gas. a hybrid electric ship could contain dieselelectric configurations. and conversion in an integrated manner. Supply vessels and ferries with high fluctuations in power demand are the most suitable candidates for hybrid powering systems. Source: Wärtsilä . The equipment constellation will depend upon the operational profile of each ship. diesel. e. fuel cells. During the next decade fully commercial marine fuel cells will become available. and model-based assessment techniques are important for evaluating both technical and economic performance. weight. The implementation of these new technologies could face significant challenges. and for ensuring safe operation. improved space utilisation. or hydrogen. These powering systems require design. passenger. methanol. performance monitoring and power management. as multiple power sources can be included. Battery power: 400 kW at 1 hr or 4MW at 6 min. Ultimately they will provide supplementary propulsion power in hybrid electric ships.3 MW. solar panels or retractable wind turbines.g. control of grid stability. size. and require carefully design. INTRODUCTION The use of hybrid powering systems in marine applications has the potential to offer more efficient and environmentally friendly ship power plants. and batteries. fuel cells will provide auxiliary power. Performance monitoring. The main barriers against uptake are cost. These concepts will be applied to service. Introducing the electric ship concepts can improve the ship’s overall efficiency and enable incorporation of many types of renewable energy sources. The large number of embedded components will increase system complexity. power management. They can be fuelled by natural gas. operation. hotel loads.g. and compact superconducting motors. defined condition. ethanol. Due to the establishment of Emissions Control Areas (ECAs). and redundancy will be key elements. either HYBRID SHIP Fuel cells convert chemical energy directly to electricity. lifetime. marine fuel cells. at a theoretical efficiency of up to 80 % (hydrogen). and slow response to load variations. Hybrid concepts will be introduced first into specialised ship segments. through a series of electrochemical reactions. of LNG fuel cells will be favoured. This concept easily integrates power from alternative renewable sources. they may only be used in auxiliary power generation. MARINE FUEL CELLS In order to increase efficiency in power production. e.34 TECHNOLOGY UPTAKE MARITIME the electric ship – the Prius of the seas BY 2020. Switching to electric propulsion and powering will offer more flexibility at higher efficiency. and control of energy production. such as offshore supply vessels and ferries. and fluctuations in power demand or supply reduce efficiency. installation MARINE FUEL CELLS Layout of a hybrid engine room.

Hybrid systems will competence for crew. a battery pack of 0. liquid nitrogen. and special thermal shielding. and transmission lines. performance degradation. for example. both for existing ships and for new-builds. a standardised plug-in-connection. This connection will convert electricity to the appropriate voltage and frequency for the ship. Battery storage enables dual-fuel generators to run closer to optimal loads. Source: Pawanexh Kohli In 2009.35 HIGH MEDIUM LOW HY BR AR GREEN WEALTH LOCAL FIRST FUELLED BY CARBON TECHNOLOGY UPTAKE IN EACH SCENARIO BATTERIES The use of multiple electrical power sources in vessels with frequent load changes. will become available. and provide supply at peak demands. For instance. NOX and particles are reduced. CO2 emissions might also be decreased. motors. for use between ships and the shore electrical grid. As ports are often located in highly populated areas. battery power can compensate when fuel cells cannot fulfil fast load changes. Batteries are one way to address network power disturbances and overall balancing. cold ironing. requires appropriate power storage. Limited availability of rare earth metals. Batteries can store surplus energy when available. The main challenge will be availability of sufficient grid capacity in larger ports and the lack of infrastructure in smaller ones. and the requirement to operate at optimum efficiency.4 MWh. HIGH-TEMPERATURE SUPERCONDUCTORS Electrical resistance results in energy losses from components such as generators. e. CO M LD GLOBAL DIVERSITY H SU IGH PE T RC EM O PE ND R UC ATU TO RE RS CE LL S SH IP S EL FU IE S IN E ID BA TT ER IR O NI NG .5 MW HTS ship propulsion motor was successfully tested for the US army. using these materials requires cryogenic cooling. transformers. However. Furthermore. COLD IRONING About 5 % of the world fleet’s annual fuel oil is consumed in ports. resulting in smooth and uninterrupted operation. depending on the availability of cleaner onshore power plants. by. Redundancy will be a major issue in designing ships that use HTS technology. resulting in loss of super conductivity. High-temperature superconductors (HTS) have zero electrical resistance (at -160 °C) and could enable significant reductions in the size of motors and generators as HTS wires allow 150 times more current than similar-sized copper wires. Li. By replacing onboard generated electricity with shore electricity supply. could weigh 2-4 tonnes and occupy approximately 1 m³. Storage of energy in HTS coils is another application.g. It is expected that nano-technology may play an important role achieving a break-through in battery storage. the detrimental health and environmental effects from emissions of SOX. Towards 2020. avoiding fast load changes and additional ship emissions. and prolonged charging times are the main barriers against widespread adoption. the world´s first 36. In 2020. emissions from ships contribute to local environmental and health problems. the main risk is failure of cryogenic cooling. 4 MW peak load. require increased focus on safety and COLD IRONING HIGH-TEMPERATURE SUPERCONDUCTORS Conceptual layout of ship to shore power connection.

and even fatalities and harmful oil spills. and currents. and variations in wind. piracy detection. and response models. and floating objects alerts. condition monitoring (e. Most e-Navigation development is focussed towards onboard applications. will enable global monitoring and tracking capabilities. weather and surveillance data. electronic charts. by coupling to non-navigation systems. which can complement and augment onboard systems. Response models for sea-keeping and resistance in waves will be customised to individual ships and routes. economic. such as advanced weather routing. ELECTRONIC CHARTS NAVIGATIONAL CONSOLE Electronic Charts charts will act as a platform for additional geographical information sevices. hull stress sensors). for example. e-Navigation refers to the ability to access. who also require support tools. process. port entry. and other satellite services. ADVANCED WEATHER ROUTING Traditionally.36 TECHNOLOGY UPTAKE MARITIME the digital ship – navigation made easy E-NAVIGATION TECHNOLOGIES are being adopted by the front runners in shipping. LRIT. onshore facilities can provide more computing power and additional expertise. However. weather routing could also optimise fuel consumption (about 10 % savings). Key technologies relate to navigation (e. are needed. LRIT). or hull fatigue. its potential benefits could extend well beyond safe navigation. Full benefits may require high data transmission rates. . Harmonised data are processed by computer models and presented in an integrated format useful for decision-making. ship specific characteristics. reduces grounding probability by about 30 %. and also consideration of the effects of climate change. Towards 2020.g. Thus a wide range of stakeholders are able to benefit. sea ice awareness. AIS. e-Navigation encompasses all aspects of ship operation. including avoiding extreme weather events. Competence in mastering the new technology will be essential. In sum. While some e-Navigation technologies are presently in use by front runners in shipping. including rogue waves. for effective monitoring of fleets. The preferred route will be provided by a risk-based approach and will depend on the selected optimisation objective. to minimising fuel consumption and emissions and reducing maintenance costs. as well as effective ship-port communication for optimised port entry and cargo handling. the ship master. integrating and visualising information from other applications related to areas such as security and navigation risks. Thus ECDIS is a key e-Navigation technology. along with data collection from remote and onboard sensors. to items such as port scheduling and customs clearance systems. and computer software. possibly limiting use in remote areas. weather routing has mainly focussed on safe navigation. The Electronic Chart Display and Information System (ECDIS). and users must be conscious of the dangers of information overload and alarm blindness. these elements provide decision support to. They combine accurate position data. satellite imagery and communications. sonar). However. crew and passenger comfort. time of arrival. from safe navigation. by 2020 the majority of the fleet will have followed. systems based on AIS. and by 2020 the majority of the fleet will have followed.g. This could serve as a basis for a range of support applications. ECDIS integrated into the bridge navigation systems will become standard for all larger ships. radar.g. ECDIS will function as a platform for other support systems. Warning criteria for extreme weather events. However. such as the ship owner or port authorities. and present locally and remotely acquired maritime information onboard. avoiding bad weather. the accuracy and spatial-temporal resolution of metocean real-time and forecast data is expected to have improved. integrate. and to transmit key sensor information to shore or to other ships. e. E-Navigation technologies could prevent accidents and optimise secure. New IMO regulations require that ECDIS is implemented throughout most of the fleet by 2020. This will be achieved by utilizing real-time and historical data with self-learning algorithms. INTRODUCTION From a ship perspective. and weather routing. ship characteristics. Such systems can also provide support to decision makers onshore. Onboard electronic charts will become the unifying platform on the digital ship.g. onboard and onshore. vessel tracking (e. By 2020. ECDIS Ship grounding accidents are recurring events that cause considerable material damages. waves. and environmental performance. using Electronic Navigation Charts (ENC). onboard and remote sensor data.

They can detect dingy-sized objects over a distance of up to 4 nm (nautical miles).37 HIGH MEDIUM LOW W EA TH ER P AN IRA D CY DE D TE ETE RR C EN TIO CE N GREEN WEALTH LOCAL FIRST FUELLED BY CARBON EC PIRACY DETECTION AND DETERRENCE High insurance premiums reflect the likelihood of armed robbery. AIS: Automatic Identification System LRIT: Long Range Identification and Tracking PIRACY DETECTION AND DETERRENCE SHIP DELAYS Global number of attempted and committed piracy attacks. reduced time in port will also enhance ship safety and security. between ports. This leads to unnecessarily high fuel consumption and emissions. and cameras. at top speed. Successful threat mitigation requires early detection and effective. In response. together with long-range satellite data. and this will have increased to 10 nm by 2020. high performance radars already have 4 times the range of standard navigational radars. pirates will try to adapt their attack strategy. using satellite tracking and weather routing. will be processed by an onboard warning system. These threats are not expected to subside over the next decade. as vessels rush to their destination only to have to lie at anchor for days. while minimising vessels’ dwelling and fuel consumption. berth planning algorithms. and terrorism to seafarers and ships. By 2020. remotely-controlled deterrents (e.g. regardless of the availability of berths at the destination port. will be integrated into ship-port communication systems. This will facilitate synchronisation and generate berthing schedules that maximise the terminals’ throughput at minimal transhipment cost. and contributes to port congestion. water. it is expected that private service providers will offer piracy warnings via satellite. DI GLOBAL DIVERSITY TECHNOLOGY UPTAKE IN EACH SCENARIO SHIP-PORT SYNCHRONISATION TECHNOLOGY Shipping contracts typically require vessels to steam at “utmost despatch”. Realtime data from radars. sonars. which are integrated with the onboard system. Source: Globalports. A RO DV UT AN IN CE G D S TE HIP CH -PO NO R T LO SY G NC Y H S RO NI SA TI O N . As ships tend to be more vulnerable in waiting situations close to shore. piracy. Source: IMO Port congestion in average days of delay. Commercial. During the next decade. electric shock).

This will lead to faster development of Arctic-related technologies. based on the vessel-specific. The signals measured will then be benchmarked against the known safety limits SHIP SPEED SIMULATION OBLIQUE ICE BREAKER Variation of the simulated ship speed in floe ice field. will result in an increase in Arctic ship traffic. Increased demand for seaborne trade in the Arctic will lead to the introduction of larger vessels that require novel icebreaking services. which to date require two traditional icebreakers. NOVEL ICEBREAKERS The bow shoulder areas of an escorted vessel that is wider than the icebreaker. Source: Arctic Technology Inc. hull load monitoring systems. Crews with little experience in Arctic navigation need support systems for decision making. Over the next decade. finite-element model. INTRODUCTION Climate models predict a significant decrease in Arctic summer ice cover over the next ten years. are exposed to unbroken ice. this novel icebreaking concept is expected to be widely adopted for Arctic operations. This would enable a single icebreaker to escort wider vessels. the captain must be able to judge when the ice load has reached a level that exceeds the local strength of the ship’s hull. and require training to be able to navigate safely and effectively in Arctic waters. It is expected that over the next decade. and the quality of the benchmarking. shrinking amounts of summer sea ice. such as conventional lifeboats may not work in the Arctic environment. along with higher prices of hydrocarbons and greater exploitation of raw materials. Ice loading is continuously measured by a couple of 100s of strain gauges that are affixed to selected frames in the bow region of the vessel. Less ice provides new opportunities for shipping. Inexperienced crews will be prepared for ice navigation by using ice training simulators. The Arctic ocean could be largely ice free in summer within a decade. leading to more intense and rapid development of Arctic-related technologies. Such an icebreaker would operate bow first when escorting smaller vessels. of the frames. Wider channels can be broken by icebreakers with an oblique hull form that is especially designed for sideways icebreaking. The ice load monitoring system on the bridge should indicate when extreme loading occurs. This design would allow an icebreaker with a 20 m beam to open a channel up to 40 m wide. and introduction of new icebreaking concepts. new amphibious types of evacuation vessels will be brought into service. Many technologies that are commonly used in more temperate areas. the speed is less than half the normal speed. Sideways operation is achieved by using several 360° rotating azimuthing propulsors. . such as ice route optimisation software. This system relies on correct sensor positioning. such systems will be deployed on many Arctic vessels providing advice on when to slow down or when to select another route in order to avoid ship damage.38 TECHNOLOGY UPTAKE MARITIME the arctic ship – exploiting new opportunities in the north OVER THE NEXT decade. ICE LOAD MONITORING When navigating in ice-covered waters. calibration and detection of malfunctioning sensors. As conventional lifeboats or liferafts are not designed for safe evacuation in Arctic ice conditions. Tests indicate that when in oblique operation mode. leading to increased ice resistance. Increased demand for seaborne trade in the Arctic will lead to the introduction of larger vessels that require novel icebreaking services. Source: ICETRANS Sideways advancing breaks a wider channel than a traditional ice breaker of same size. and sideways for wider vessels. The safety limits have been calculated.

and weather and ice model forecasts. fog. transit time. Photo: Sveinung Løset. By 2020. weather observations. brash ice channel. The challenge will be to model ship behaviour realistically for all different types of ice conditions. can be performed in the simulator. Training for specific ship operations. screw-like. Maneoeuvring simulator can provide realistic training experience for ice navigators. darkness. speed. Source: Ship Manouever Simulator in Trondheim IC SI E N M A UL V AT IGA O TI R O BR O E AD VE L LO NO E AR IC IC E RO UT IC IN G M N TR A RI IN I NG . based on the ship–ice interaction and propulsion models. Effective training methods for mastering navigation in ice are needed. as they will have to tolerate high impact loads at extreme temperatures. like ice ridges. Position Paper 04-2010 NOVEL EVACUATION VESSELS IN ICE ICE MANOEUVRING SIMULATOR Evacuation vessels advances in water and on ice using Archimedes´ screw for propulsion. The navigator will set the preferred optimization criteria. such as level ice. will be simulated stochastically for the area of the route selected initially. Design challenges include the material of the pontoons and their connections. ICE NAVIGATION TRAINING SIMULATOR A growing number of ships in Arctic areas will have navigators with little or no ice experience. Ice strengthened and winterized lifeboats are needed to travel over ice formations. Ice routing may also suggest the safer routes through ice. such as ice ridges and multi-year ice. or emissions. e. 480 container transit voyages across the Arctic around 2030? Source: DNV. Evacuation vessels on board Arctic ships will have to be included in the general winterization of the ship. The ship response to navigator’s actions is computed in real-time. By 2020. also taking into account the ship characteristics. and transit time. such as station keeping in ice or ice management. and ice ridge field. ICE ROUTING SOFTWARE Ships without icebreaker escort will have to find their own routes through the ice that will keep their fuel consumption and travel time to a minimum. floe ice field. The navigators will learn to recognize different ice types and to avoid heavy ice features.39 HIGH MEDIUM LOW NG E EA KE RS FT W AR N UA TI O NI TO SO VE C SS TIC EL E VA C GLOBAL DIVERSITY GREEN WEALTH LOCAL FIRST FUELLED BY CARBON TECHNOLOGY UPTAKE IN EACH SCENARIO ARCTIC EVACUATION VESSELS Conventional lifeboats or liferafts are not designed for safe evacuation under Arctic ice conditions. such as speed. for best route selection. Training simulators offer an environment in which the navigator can train for ship operations in varying conditions of simulated ice. together with the effects from chosen weather conditions.g. based on satellite images. ice routing software will take into account information on prevailing ice conditions. such vessels will use the Archimedes’ screw concept for movement. Ice conditions. floating pontoons will be located along either side of the vessel. and to transit in open water. ice charts. and icing. fuel economy. Two large. The model will then compute the resulting ice resistance. snow. protected from icing and with preheating of their engines.

and anticipated climate change. Advanced modelling methods and tools for the development and assessment of new hull zero cost. and extreme weather conditions all contribute to the complexity of future designs. The calculations involved will utilise module-based tools for each subsystem of the ship. INTEGRATED SHIP DESIGN TOOLS The complexity of future designs and the risks involved will accelerate the adoption of advanced modelling methods and tools. In order to manage the complexity and risk inherent in innovative solutions. Advanced modeling methods are emerging in response to the new design challenges. fuel efficiency. specialised. and communication. for the machinery components or the hull shape. objectives. there is a drive towards use of advanced. including multi-objective optimisation algorithms. Additional risks. market specificities. Source: DNV Coupling of CAD and CFD for ship design. existing and upcoming regulations. governing areas such as ballast water. and machinery systems. and large-scale testing. Source: DNV. .53 bill tons/year. the software will devise multi-scale. Position Paper 05-2010 The right design COST BENEFIT OF ABATEMENT MEASURES MODEL BASED HULL DESIGN Average marginal abatement cost and CO2 reduction potential for the world fleet in 2030. and classification societies will be essential. model-based techniques for assessing novel concepts and technologies with respect to technical and economic performance from a lifecycle perspective. and analysis suites will be entirely controlled by the designer on a case-specific basis. related to software integration.40 TECHNOLOGY UPTAKE MARITIME the virtual ship – new ways of designing ships MODERN SHIP DESIGN requires careful consideration of technical uncertainties. Tighter interactions between ship-owners. propulsors. INTRODUCTION Ship designers always strive to combine different objectives. and new emission control areas. business concerns over market uncertainty. The definition of performance will be multi-dimensional. and coordinated execution of the various design tasks by taking full advantage of multi-processor architectures and the internet infrastructure. while also being constrained by rules and regulations. performance. may save up to 20% fuel expenses . This design approach will be based on versatile software environments. Baseline: 1. and multi-resolution models of the pertinent physics. and complex machinery systems are an enabling technology for addressing these risks. can also be expected. air emissions. propulsors.g. New designs face further challenges from an increasing number of new and upcoming regulations. such as cargo capacity. e. and cost of the different technology options. component manufacturers. parallelised. Mathematical methods. data management. The integrated design tools in place by 2020 will support the distributed. Volatility in energy prices. constraints. and costly ships. One crucial factor is access to reliable data on design. and safety. The major risks that will be faced in the use of integrated design tools towards 2020 will be their considerable complexity and the need for expert users. such as passenger and service vessels. The uptake in the design and optimisation of more complex. will be higher. future energy prices. model-based approaches. These factors pose greater challenges for handling uncertainty and for managing risk. optimal speed. yards. In order to ensure timely evaluations. multi-physics. Most of these data may be collected from end-user applications. thereby enabling the development and assessment of new hull designs. The different modules will be linked through an integrated design platform.

and optimise the operation of machinery systems under realistic operational profiles.41 HIGH MEDIUM LOW IN D E TE SI GR G A N TE TO D O SH LS IP G HU M DE OD SI EL G -B N A SE D N LL GLOBAL DIVERSITY GREEN WEALTH LOCAL FIRST FUELLED BY CARBON TECHNOLOGY UPTAKE IN EACH SCENARIO MODEL-BASED SHIP MACHINERY DESIGN Emerging powering systems. etc. manoeuverability. LARGE-SCALE DEMONSTRATORS In order to remain abreast of the complexities and risks in shipping in 2020. Ongoing large scale demonstration for marine fuel cells (Viking Lady). CAD: Computer Aided Design CFD: Computational Fluid Dynamics FEM: Finite Element Method VIRTUAL ENGINE ROOM LARGE SCALE DEMONSTRATORS Model based ship machinery design. ships will be designed with realistic operation profiles to produce robust hulls that perform adequately under a wide range of external conditions. Traditional designs focus on improving efficiency via the optimisation of individual components. and eliminate perception biases. In 2020. The lack of experts and data reliability are the major risks that these tools will face towards 2020. the same tools will be used to perform optimal design. & FEM. Sharing the investment and risks among the major stakeholders will accelerate innovation and technology adoption. MODEL-BASED HULL DESIGN Traditional hull design optimisation is usually limited to still-water conditions. The inclusion of drag reducing or propulsive efficiency enhancing devices increases the need for computational tools of high predictive power. The use of advanced modelling tools will be the first step. The major challenge is to implement these tools in a way that is both flexible and computationally efficient. qualify technologies. This approach can result in ships being built that have poor performance under off-design conditions. as well as safety and reliability analyses. i. sea-keeping. with multi-objective optimisation. identify and address safety challenges. and performance optimisation. like fuel cell. Modelling tools and experimental projects will complement each other by defining the specifications for testing and scale-up with greater accuracy. and design speed conditions. hull design tools will seamlessly integrate computer-aided engineering components. a faster and safer path from idea creation to the actual launch of novel products is required. and renewable auxiliary sources. efficiency. design cargo loads. condition monitoring. Large-scale demonstrators can only be established jointly. The definition of performance will be generalised to include resistance. batteries. laboratory tests and large-scale demonstration projects are necessary. To gain confidence and bring innovative technologies forwards to commercialisation. With today’s maturity of equipment technology. new approaches will need to be adopted that consider machinery and energy conversion from an integrated systems’ perspective. Showcase projects have the ability to validate theoretical models. By building a system from libraries of equipment models.e. By 2020. CFD. CAD. strength. M M OD AC E H I L -B NE AS RY ED DE SI L DE ARG M EO SC NS A T R LE AT O RS . will result in more complex configurations. In 2020. between developing organisations and end-user shipping companies. modular computer tools will be available to model. simulate.

g of glob ene nerg Global energy consum ion increa s by 19 % over the Gl rgy consumptio increases crea next decade. driven primar y by n -OECD countries.TECHNOLOGY UPTAKE: T Oil. and coal will continu to dom nd coa con nue ominate the energy mix. covering 79 % of global energy supply by 2020. both to extraction nd acti . gas. nonNew techn ogies wi therefo ew technologies will therefo herefore be concentrated on impr improving efficiency and reducing environmental impact. rive primarily next decade. g efficiency and reducing duci in relation both t extraction and to power generation.

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