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4

Analysis of Statically

Indeterminate

Structures by the Direct

Stiffness Method

Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

Lesson

26

The Direct Stiffness

Method: Temperature

Changes and

Fabrication Errors in

Truss Analysis

Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

Instructional Objectives

After reading this chapter the student will be able to

1. Compute stresses developed in the truss members due to temperature

changes.

2. Compute stresses developed in truss members due to fabrication members.

3. Compute reactions in plane truss due to temperature changes and fabrication

errors.

26.1 Introduction

In the last four lessons, the direct stiffness method as applied to the truss

analysis was discussed. Assembly of member stiffness matrices, imposition of

boundary conditions, and the problem of inclined supports were discussed. Due

to the change in temperature the truss members either expand or shrink.

However, in the case of statically indeterminate trusses, the length of the

members is prevented from either expansion or contraction. Thus, the stresses

are developed in the members due to changes in temperature. Similarly the error

in fabricating truss members also produces additional stresses in the trusses.

Both these effects can be easily accounted for in the stiffness analysis.

26.2 Temperature Effects and Fabrication Errors

Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

**Consider truss member of length L, area of cross section A as shown in
**

Fig.26.1.The change in length Δl is given by

Δ l = αL Δ T

(26.1)

**where α is the coefficient of thermal expansion of the material considered. If the
**

member is not allowed to change its length (as in the case of statically

indeterminate truss) the change in temperature will induce additional forces in the

member. As the truss element is a one dimensional element in the local

coordinate system, the thermal load can be easily calculated in global coordinate system by

( p1′)t = AE ΔL

(26.2a)

( p2′ )t = − AE ΔL

(26.2b)

or

{(p ) }= AEΔL⎧⎨+− 11⎫⎬

'

t

⎩

(26.3)

⎭

**The equation (26.3) can also be used to calculate forces developed in the truss
**

member in the local coordinate system due to fabrication error. ΔL will be

considered positive if the member is too long. The forces in the local coordinate

system can be transformed to global coordinate system by using the equation,

⎧( p1 )t ⎫ ⎡cos θ

⎪ ⎢

⎪

⎪( p 2 )t ⎪ ⎢ sin θ

⎬=

⎨

⎪( p 3 )t ⎪ ⎢⎢ 0

⎪( p ) ⎪ ⎣ 0

⎩ 4 t⎭

0 ⎤

'

0 ⎥⎥ ⎧⎪ p1

⎨

cos θ ⎥ ⎪ p 2'

⎥⎩

sin θ ⎦

( ) ⎫⎪

( ) ⎬⎪⎭

t

(26.4a)

t

**where ( p1 )t , ( p 2 )t and ( p 3 )t , ( p 4 )t are the forces in the global coordinate system at
**

nodes 1 and 2 of the truss member respectively Using equation (26.3), the

equation (26.4a) may be written as,

⎧ ( p1 )t ⎫

⎧ cos θ ⎫

⎪( p ) ⎪

⎪

⎪

⎪ 2 t⎪

⎪ sin θ ⎪

⎨

⎬ = AE ΔL ⎨

⎬

⎪ ( p3 )t ⎪

⎪− cos θ ⎪

⎪⎩( p4 )t ⎪⎭

⎪⎩ − sin θ ⎪⎭

(26.4b)

Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

The force displacement equation for the entire truss may be written as,

{p} = [k ]{u} + {( p) t }

(26.5)

**where , {p} is the vector of external joint loads applied on the truss and {( p )t } is the
**

vector of joint loads developed in the truss due to change in

temperature/fabrication error of one or more members. As pointed out earlier. in

the truss analysis, some joint displacements are known due to boundary

conditions and some joint loads are known as they are applied

externally.Thus,one could partition the above equation as,

⎧ p k ⎫ ⎡[k11 ]

⎨ ⎬=⎢

⎩ p u ⎭ ⎣[k 21 ]

[k12 ]⎤ ⎧{u u }⎫ ⎧⎪( p k )t ⎫⎪

+

[k 22 ]⎥⎦ ⎨⎩{u k }⎬⎭ ⎨⎪⎩( pu )t ⎬⎪⎭

(26.6)

**where subscript u is used to denote unknown quantities and subscript k is used
**

to denote known quantities of forces and displacements. Expanding equation

(26.6),

{p k } = [k11 ]{u u }+ [k12 ]{u k }+ {( p k )t }

{ pu } = [ k21 ]{uu } + [ k22 ]{uk } + {( pu )t }

(26.7a)

(26.7b)

**If the known displacement vector {u k } = {0} then using equation (26.2a) the
**

unknown displacements can be calculated as

{u u } = [k11 ]−1 ({p k }− {( p k )t })

If {u k } ≠ 0 then

{u u } = [k u ]−1 ({p k }− [k12 ]{u k }− {( p k )t })

(26.8a)

(26.8b)

**After evaluating unknown displacements, the unknown force vectors are
**

calculated using equation (26.7b).After evaluating displacements, the member

forces in the local coordinate system for each member are evaluated by,

{p ′} = [k ′][T ]{u} + {p ′}t

(26.9a)

or

⎧⎪ p1' ⎫⎪

⎨ '⎬

⎪⎩ p 2 ⎪⎭

=

AE

L

⎡ 1 − 1⎤ ⎡cos θ

⎢− 1 1 ⎥ ⎢ 0

⎣

⎦⎣

sin θ

0

0

cos θ

⎧u1 ⎫

'

⎪ ⎪

0 ⎤ ⎪v1 ⎪ ⎧⎪ p1

⎨ ⎬+⎨

sin θ ⎥⎦ ⎪u 2 ⎪ ⎪ p 2'

⎩

⎪⎩v 2 ⎪⎭

( ) ⎫⎪

( ) ⎬⎪⎭

t

t

Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

Expanding the above equation, yields

{p1′} =

AE

{cosθ

L

sin θ

− cos θ

⎧u1 ⎫

⎪v ⎪

⎪ ⎪

− sin θ }⎨ 1 ⎬ + AEΔL

⎪u 2 ⎪

⎪⎩v 2 ⎪⎭

(26.10a)

⎧ u1 ⎫

⎪v ⎪

⎪ ⎪

sin θ } ⎨ 1 ⎬ − AE ΔL

⎪u2 ⎪

⎪⎩ v2 ⎪⎭

(26.10b)

And,

{ p2′ } =

AE

{− cos θ

L

− sin θ

cos θ

**Few problems are solved to illustrate the application of the above procedure to
**

calculate thermal effects /fabrication errors in the truss analysis:Example 26.1

Analyze the truss shown in Fig.26.2a, if the temperature of the member (2) is

o

raised by 40 C .The sectional areas of members in square centimeters are

5

2

o

shown in the figure. Assume E = 2 × 10 N / mm and α = 1/ 75, 000 per C .

Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

**The numbering of joints and members are shown in Fig.26.2b. The possible
**

global displacement degrees of freedom are also shown in the figure. Note that

lower numbers are used to indicate unconstrained degrees of freedom. From the

figure it is obvious that the displacements u 3 = u 4 = u 5 = u 6 = u 7 = u 8 = 0 due to

boundary conditions.

o

The temperature of the member (2) has been raised by 40 C . Thus,

ΔL = αLΔT

1

ΔL =

3 2 (40 ) = 2.2627 × 10 −3 m

75000

( )

(1)

**The forces in member (2) due to rise in temperature in global coordinate system
**

can be calculated using equation (26.4b).Thus,

⎧( p 5 ) t ⎫

⎧cos θ ⎫

⎪

⎪

⎪sin θ ⎪

⎪

⎪

⎪( p 6 )t ⎪

⎬

⎬ = AEΔL ⎨

⎨

⎪− cos θ ⎪

⎪( p1 )t ⎪

⎪⎩− sin θ ⎪⎭

⎪( p ) ⎪

⎩ 2 t⎭

(2)

For member (2),

A = 20cm 2 = 20 × 10 −4 m 2 and θ = 45 o

Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

⎧ 1 ⎫

⎪ 2 ⎪

⎪

⎪

⎧( p5 )t ⎫

1

⎪

⎪

⎪

⎪

⎪

⎪⎪

⎪( p6 )t ⎪

−4

−3

11

3⎪ 2

⎨

⎬ = 20 × 10 × 2 × 10 × 2.2627 × 10 /10 ⎨

⎬

1

p

(

)

⎪ 1 t⎪

⎪−

⎪

⎪ p ⎪

⎪ 2⎪

⎩( 2 )t ⎭

⎪

⎪

1

⎪−

⎪

⎪⎩ 2 ⎭⎪

⎧( p5 )t ⎫

⎧1 ⎫

⎪

⎪

⎪1 ⎪

⎪( p6 )t ⎪

⎪ ⎪

⎨

⎬ = 150.82 ⎨ ⎬ kN

⎪( p1 )t ⎪

⎪−1⎪

⎪ p ⎪

⎪⎩−1⎪⎭

⎩( 2 )t ⎭

(3)

(4)

**In the next step, write stiffness matrix of each member in global coordinate
**

system and assemble them to obtain global stiffness matrix

Element (1): θ = 0 0 , L = 3m, A = 15 × 10 −4 m 2 ,nodal points 4-1

⎡1

⎢

15 × 10−4 × 2 × 1011 ⎢ 0

'

⎡⎣ k ⎤⎦ =

⎢ −1

3 × 103

⎢

⎣0

0 −1 0 ⎤

0 0 0 ⎥⎥

0 1 0⎥

⎥

0 0 0⎦

(5)

Member (2): θ = 45 o , L = 3 2m, A = 20 × 10 −4 m 2 , nodal points 3-1

[k ] = 20 ×10

2

−4

× 2 × 10

3 2

11

0.5 − 0.5 − 0.5⎤

⎡ 0 .5

⎢ 0 .5

0.5 − 0.5 − 0.5⎥⎥

⎢

⎢− 0.5 − 0.5 0.5

0.5 ⎥

⎢

⎥

0.5 ⎦

⎣− 0.5 − 0.5 0.5

(6)

Member (3): θ = 90 o , A = 15 ×10 −4 m 2 , L = 30m, nodal points 2-1

Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

⎡0 0

⎢

15 ×10 × 2 × 10 ⎢0 1

⎡⎣ k 3 ⎤⎦ =

3 x 103 ×103 ⎢0 0

⎢

⎣0 −1

−4

11

0 0⎤

0 −1⎥⎥

0 0⎥

⎥

0 1⎦

(7)

**The global stiffness matrix is of the order 8× 8 ,assembling the three member
**

stiffness matrices, one gets

⎡ 147.14 47.14

⎢ 47.14 147.14

⎢

⎢ 0

0

⎢

0

− 100

[k ] = 10 3 ⎢⎢

− 47.14 − 47.14

⎢

⎢− 47.14 − 47.14

⎢ − 100

0

⎢

0

⎢⎣ 0

− 47.14 − 47.14 − 100

0

0

0

0 − 100 − 47.14 − 47.14

0

0

0

0

0

0 100

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

47.14

47.14

0

0

47.14

47.14

0

0

0

0

100

0

0⎤

0⎥⎥

0⎥

⎥

0⎥

0⎥

⎥

0⎥

0⎥

⎥

0⎥⎦

(8)

**Writing the load displacement equation for the truss
**

⎡ 147.14

⎧ p1 ⎫

⎢ 47.14

⎪ ⎪

⎢

⎪ p2 ⎪

⎢ 0

⎪ p3 ⎪

⎢

⎪ ⎪

0

3⎢

⎪ p4 ⎪

⎨ ⎬ = 10 ⎢

− 47.14

⎪ p5 ⎪

⎢

⎪ p6 ⎪

⎢− 47.14

⎪ ⎪

⎪ p7 ⎪

⎢ − 100

⎪p ⎪

⎢

⎩ 8⎭

⎣⎢

(9)

0

47.14

0

147.14

0

0

0

− 100

0

− 47.14 0

− 47.14 0

0

0

0

0

− 47.14 − 47.14 − 100 0⎤ ⎧u ⎫

1

⎧− 1⎫

− 100 − 47.14 − 47.14

0

0⎥⎥ ⎪u 2 ⎪

⎪− 1⎪

⎪ ⎪

⎪ ⎪

0

0

0

0

0⎥ ⎪u 3 ⎪

⎪0 ⎪

⎥ ⎪u ⎪

⎪ ⎪

100

0

0

0

0⎥ ⎪ 4 ⎪

⎪0 ⎪

⎨ ⎬ + 640 ⎨ ⎬

u

0

47.14

47.14

0

0⎥ ⎪ 5 ⎪

⎪1 ⎪

⎥ ⎪u 6 ⎪

⎪1 ⎪

0

47.14

47.14

0

0⎥ ⎪ ⎪

⎪ ⎪

⎪u 7 ⎪

⎪0 ⎪

⎥

0

0

0

100 0 ⎪ ⎪

⎪0 ⎪

⎥ ⎩u8 ⎭

⎩ ⎭

0

0

0

0

0⎦⎥

0

**In the present case, the displacements u1 and u 2 are not known. All other
**

displacements are zero. Also p1 = p 2 = 0 (as no joint loads are applied).Thus,

Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

⎧ p1 ⎫

− 47.14 − 47.14 − 100

0

⎡ 147.14 47.14 0

⎪ ⎪

⎢

0

⎪ p2 ⎪

⎢ 47.14 147.14 0 − 100 − 47.14 − 47.14

⎪ p3 ⎪

⎢ 0

0

0

0

0

0

0

⎪ ⎪

⎢

− 100 0 100

0

0

0

⎪ p4 ⎪

⎢ 0

⎨ ⎬== ⎢

p

−

−

47

.

14

47

.

14

0

0

47

.

14

47

.

14

0

⎪ 5⎪

⎢

⎪ p6 ⎪

0

47.14

47.14

0

⎢− 47.14 − 47.14 0

⎪ ⎪

⎢

− 100

0

0

0

0

0

100

⎪ p7 ⎪

⎢

⎪p ⎪

0

0

0

0

0

0

⎣⎢ 0

⎩ 8⎭

0⎤

0⎥⎥

0⎥

⎥

0⎥

0⎥

⎥

0⎥

0⎥

⎥

0⎦⎥

⎧u1 ⎫

⎧− 1⎫

⎪ ⎪

⎪− 1⎪

⎪u 2 ⎪

⎪ ⎪

⎪u 3 ⎪

⎪0 ⎪

⎪ ⎪

⎪ ⎪

⎪u 4 ⎪

⎪0 ⎪

⎨ ⎬ + 640⎨ ⎬

u

⎪ 5⎪

⎪1 ⎪

⎪u 6 ⎪

⎪1 ⎪

⎪ ⎪

⎪ ⎪

⎪u 7 ⎪

⎪0 ⎪

⎪u ⎪

⎪0 ⎪

⎩ ⎭

⎩ 8⎭

(10)

Thus unknown displacements are

⎧u1 ⎫ 1

⎨ ⎬= 3

⎩u2 ⎭ 10

−1

⎡147.14 47.14 ⎤ ⎧0 ⎫

⎧−1⎫

−

(

150.82

⎨

⎬

⎨ ⎬)

⎢ 47.14 147.14 ⎥

⎣

⎦ ⎩0 ⎭

⎩−1⎭

(11)

**u1 = 7.763 ×10−4 m
**

u2 = 7.763 × 10−4 m

Now reactions are calculated as

⎧ p3 ⎫

0 ⎤

0

0

0 0⎤ ⎧0⎫

⎧0⎫

⎡0 0

⎡ 0

⎪ ⎪

⎪0⎪

⎪

⎪

⎥

⎢

⎥

⎢

0

0

0 0⎥ ⎪0⎪

− 100 ⎥

⎪ p4 ⎪

⎪ ⎪

⎢0 100

⎢ 0

⎪⎪ p 5 ⎪⎪

⎪

⎪

⎥

⎢

⎥

⎢

u

47

.

14

47

.

14

0

0

47

.

14

47

.

14

0

0

0

−

−

⎧

⎫

⎪⎪1 ⎪⎪

⎪

⎪

1

3

⎥ ⎨ ⎬ + 640⎨ ⎬

⎥⎨ ⎬ + ⎢

⎨ ⎬ = 10 ⎢

⎢− 47.14 − 47.14⎥ ⎩u 2 ⎭ ⎢0 0 47.14 47.14 0 0⎥ ⎪0⎪

⎪1 ⎪

⎪ p6 ⎪

⎢0 0

⎢ − 100

⎪0⎪

⎪ p7 ⎪

0 ⎥

0

0

100 0⎥ ⎪0⎪

⎥⎪ ⎪

⎢

⎥

⎢

⎪ ⎪

⎪ ⎪

⎪⎩0⎪⎭

0 ⎥⎦

0

0

0 0⎥⎦ ⎪⎩0⎪⎭

⎪⎩ p 8 ⎪⎭

⎢⎣0 0

⎢⎣ 0

⎧ p3 ⎫ ⎧0

⎫

⎪p ⎪ ⎪

⎪

⎪ 4 ⎪ ⎪−77.63⎪

⎪⎪ p5 ⎪⎪ ⎪⎪77.63 ⎪⎪

⎨ ⎬=⎨

⎬ kN

⎪ p6 ⎪ ⎪77.63 ⎪

⎪ p7 ⎪ ⎪−77.63⎪

⎪ ⎪ ⎪

⎪

⎪⎭

⎩⎪ p8 ⎭⎪ ⎪⎩0

(12)

Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

**The support reactions are shown in Fig.26.2c.The member forces can be easily
**

calculated from reactions. The member end forces can also be calculated by

using equation (26.10a) and (26.10b). For example, for member (1),

θ = 0o

⎧0

⎫

⎪0

⎪

⎪

⎪

p 2' = 10 3 × 100 [− 1 0 1 0] ⎨7.763 × 10−4 ⎬

⎪

⎪

⎪7.763 × 10−4 ⎪

⎩

⎭

(13)

**= 77.763 kN. Thus the member (1) is in tension.
**

Member (2)

θ = 45 o

⎧0

⎫

⎪0

⎪

⎪

⎪

p 2' = 10 3 × 94.281 [-0.707 -0.707 0.707 0.707] ⎨

−3 ⎬

3

.

2942

10

×

⎪

⎪

⎪3.2942 × 10 −3 ⎪

⎩

⎭

p 2′ = −109.78 kN.

Thus member (2) is in compression

Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

Example 26.2

Analyze the truss shown in Fig.26.3a, if the member BC is made 0.01m too short

before placing it in the truss. Assume AE=300 kN for all members.

Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

Solution

A similar truss with different boundary conditions has already been solved in

example 25.1. For the sake of completeness the member of nodes and members

are shown in Fig.26.3b.The displacements u 3 , u 4 , u 5 , u 6 , u 7 and u 8 are zero due to

boundary conditions. For the present problem the unconstrained degrees of

freedom are u1 and u 2 .The assembled stiffness matrix is of the order 8× 8 and is

available in example 25.1.

In the given problem the member (2) is short by 0.01m.The forces developed in

member (2) in the global coordinate system due to fabrication error is

⎧( p 3 )0 ⎫

⎧cos θ ⎫

⎪

⎪

⎪

⎪

(

)

p

⎪ 4 0 ⎪ AE (− 0.01) ⎪sin θ ⎪

=

⎬

⎨

⎨

⎬

4

⎪− cos θ ⎪

⎪( p1 )0 ⎪

⎪⎩− sin θ ⎪⎭

⎪( p ) ⎪

⎩ 2 0⎭

⎧0

⎫

⎪− 0.75⎪

⎪

= ⎪⎨

⎬ kN

0

⎪

⎪

⎪⎩0.75 ⎪⎭

(1)

Now force-displacement relations for the truss are

Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

⎧ p1 ⎫

0

0

0

− 0.054 0.094 − 0.054 − 0.094⎤ ⎧u1 ⎫ ⎧0

⎫

⎡ 0.108

⎪ ⎪

⎥ ⎪u ⎪ ⎪0.75 ⎪

⎢

p

0

0

.

575

0

0

.

25

0

.

094

0

.

162

0

.

094

0

.

162

−

−

−

−

⎪ 2⎪

⎪

⎥⎪ 2 ⎪ ⎪

⎢

⎪ p3 ⎪

⎪

⎢ 0

0

0.866

0

0

0 ⎥ ⎪u 3 ⎪ ⎪0

− 0.433

− 0.433

⎪ ⎪

⎪

⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪

⎢

0

0

0.25

0

0

0

0 ⎥ ⎪u 4 ⎪ ⎪− 0.75⎪

− 0.25

⎪ p4 ⎪

⎢

⎨ ⎬ = AE ⎢

⎬

⎨ ⎬+⎨

0

0.487 − 0.094

0

0 ⎥ ⎪u 5 ⎪ ⎪0

− 0.054 0.094 − 0.433

⎪ p5 ⎪

⎪

⎥

⎢

⎪ p6 ⎪

⎪

⎪

⎪

⎪

0

0

.

094

0

.

162

0

0

0

.

094

0

.

162

0

0

−

−

u

⎥ 6

⎢

⎪ ⎪

⎪

⎪ ⎪ ⎪

⎥

⎢

0

0

0

0.487 0.0934 ⎪u 7 ⎪ ⎪0

− 0.054 − 0.094 − 0.433

⎪ p7 ⎪

⎪

⎥

⎢

⎪

⎪

⎪

⎪

⎪p ⎪

0

0

0

0

0.0934 0.162 ⎦⎥ ⎩u 8 ⎭ ⎩0

⎢⎣− 0.094 − 0.162

⎭

⎩ 8⎭

(2)

Note that u 3 = u 4 = u 5 = u 6 = u 7 = u 8 = 0

Thus, solving

0 ⎤

⎧u1 ⎫

1 ⎡0.108

⎨ ⎬=

⎢

0.575⎥⎦

⎩u 2 ⎭ AE ⎣ 0

−1

⎛ ⎧0⎫ ⎧0 ⎫ ⎞

⎜⎨ ⎬ − ⎨

⎬ ⎟⎟

⎜ 0

0

.

75

⎩

⎭

⎩

⎭⎠

⎝

(3)

u1 = 0

and, u 2 = −4.3478 ×10 −3 m

(4)

**Reactions are calculated as,
**

⎧ p3 ⎫

0 ⎤

⎧0

⎫

⎡ 0

⎪ ⎪

⎥

⎪

⎢ 0

⎪

p

− 0.25 ⎥

⎪ 4⎪

⎪− 0.75⎪

⎢

⎪⎪ p 5 ⎪⎪

⎢− 0.054 0.094 ⎥ ⎧u1 ⎫ ⎪⎪0

⎪⎪

⎥⎨ ⎬ + ⎨

⎬

⎨ ⎬ = AE ⎢

⎢ 0.094 − 0.162⎥ ⎩u 2 ⎭ ⎪0

⎪

⎪ p6 ⎪

⎢− 0.054 − 0.094⎥

⎪0

⎪

⎪ p7 ⎪

⎥

⎢

⎪

⎪

⎪ ⎪

⎩⎪0

⎣⎢− 0.094 − 0.162⎦⎥

⎭⎪

⎩⎪ p 8 ⎭⎪

⎧ p 3 ⎫ ⎧0

⎫

⎪ ⎪ ⎪

⎪

⎪ p 4 ⎪ ⎪− 0.424⎪

⎪⎪ p 5 ⎪⎪ ⎪⎪− 0.123⎪⎪

⎨ ⎬=⎨

⎬

⎪ p 6 ⎪ ⎪0.211 ⎪

⎪ p 7 ⎪ ⎪0.123 ⎪

⎪ ⎪ ⎪

⎪

⎪⎩ p 8 ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩0.211 ⎪⎭

(5)

(6)

**The reactions and member forces are shown in Fig.26.3c. The member forces
**

can also be calculated by equation (26.10a) and (26.10b). For example, for

member (2),

θ = 90 o

Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

⎧u 3 ⎫

⎪ ⎪

⎪u 4 ⎪ AEΔL

300

'

p2 =

[0 -1 0 1] ⎨u ⎬ − L

4

⎪ 1⎪

⎪⎩u 2 ⎪⎭

=

300(−0.01)

300

− 4.3478 × 10 −3 −

4

4

(

)

= 0.4239 ≅ 0.424 kN

(7)

Example 26.3

Evaluate the member forces of truss shown in Fig.26.4a.The temperature of the

member BC is raised by 40 o C and member BD is raised by 50 o C .Assume

AE=300KN for all members and α =

1

per

75000

o

C.

Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

Solution

For this problem assembled stiffness matrix is available in Fig.26.4b.The joints

and members are numbered as shown in Fig.26.4b. In the given problem

u1 , u 2 , u 3 , u 4 and u 5 represent unconstrained degrees of freedom. Due to support

conditions, u 6 = u 7 = u 8 = 0 .

The temperature of the member (2) is raised by 50 o C.Thus,

ΔL2 = αLΔT =

1

× 5 × 50 = 3.333 × 10 −3 m

75000

(1)

**The forces are developed in member (2), as it was prevented from expansion.
**

⎧( p 7 ) f

⎪

⎪( p 8 ) f

⎨

⎪( p1 ) f

⎪( p )

⎩ 2 f

⎫

⎧cos θ ⎫

⎪

⎪

⎪

⎪

−3 ⎪sin θ ⎪

⎬ = 300 × 3.333 × 10 ⎨

⎬

⎪

⎪− cos θ ⎪

⎪

⎪⎩− sin θ ⎪⎭

⎭

Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

⎧0 ⎫

⎪1 ⎪

⎪ ⎪

=⎨ ⎬

⎪0 ⎪

⎪⎩− 1⎪⎭

(2)

**The displacement of the member (5) was raised by 40 o C . Thus,
**

ΔL5 = αLΔT =

1

× 5 2 × 40 = 3.771×10 −3 m

75,000

**The forces developed in member (5) as it was not allowed to expand is
**

⎧( p 5 )t ⎫

⎧0.707 ⎫

⎪

⎪

⎪

⎪

⎪( p 6 )t ⎪

− 3 ⎪0.707 ⎪

⎬ = 300 × 3.771× 10 ⎨

⎨

⎬

⎪( p 7 )t ⎪

⎪− 0.707 ⎪

⎪( p ) ⎪

⎪⎩− 0.707 ⎪⎭

⎩ 8 t⎭

⎧1 ⎫

⎪1 ⎪

⎪ ⎪

= 0 .8 ⎨ ⎬

⎪− 1⎪

⎪⎩− 1⎪⎭

(3)

**The global force vector due to thermal load is
**

⎧( p1 )t ⎫ ⎧− 0.8⎫

⎪

⎪ ⎪

⎪

⎪( p 2 )t ⎪ ⎪− 1.8 ⎪

⎪( p ) ⎪ ⎪

⎪

⎪ 3 t ⎪ ⎪0 ⎪

⎪⎪( p 4 )t ⎪⎪ ⎪0 ⎪

⎨

⎬=⎨

⎬

p

(

)

5

t

⎪

⎪ ⎪0.8 ⎪

⎪( p ) ⎪ ⎪0.8 ⎪

⎪ 6 t⎪ ⎪

⎪

⎪( p 7 )t ⎪ ⎪0 ⎪

⎪

⎪ ⎪1

⎪

⎭

⎩⎪( p 8 )t ⎭⎪ ⎩

(4)

Writing the load-displacement relation for the entire truss is given below.

Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

⎧ p1 ⎫

0.071 − 0.20

0

0

0 ⎤ ⎧u1 ⎫ ⎧− 0.8⎫

− 0.071 − 0.071

⎡ 0.271

⎪ ⎪

⎪ ⎪

⎢

0.271

0

0

0

− 0.071 − 0.071

− 0.2 ⎥⎥ ⎪u 2 ⎪ ⎪⎪− 1.8 ⎪⎪

⎪ p2 ⎪

⎢ 0.071

⎪ p3 ⎪

⎢ − 0.20

0

0.271 − 0.071

0

0

− 0.071 0.071 ⎥ ⎪u 3 ⎪ ⎪0 ⎪

⎪ ⎪

⎪

⎥⎪ ⎪ ⎪

⎢

0

0

0

0.071

0.071 ⎥ ⎪u 4 ⎪ ⎪0 ⎪

− 0.071 0.129

− 0.2

⎪ p4 ⎪

⎢

⎬ (5)

⎨ ⎬ = AE ⎢

⎨ ⎬+⎨

0

0

0.271

0.071

0 ⎥ ⎪u 5 ⎪ ⎪0.8 ⎪

− 0.071 − 0.071

− 0.2

⎪ p5 ⎪

⎥

⎢

⎪ p6 ⎪

0

0.071

0.271

0

0 ⎥ ⎪u 6 ⎪ ⎪0.8 ⎪

− 0.2

⎢− 0.071 − 0.071

⎪

⎪ ⎪

⎪ ⎪ ⎪

⎢

0

0

0

0.271 − 0.071⎥ ⎪u 7 ⎪ ⎪0 ⎪

− 0.071 0.071

− 0.2

⎪ p7 ⎪

⎥

⎢

⎪

⎪p ⎪

0.071 − 0.071

0

0

− 0.2

− 0.071 0.271 ⎦⎥ ⎪⎩u 8 ⎪⎭ ⎪⎩1

⎢⎣ 0

⎭

⎩ 8⎭

In

the

above

u 6 = u 7 = u8 = 0 .

problem

p1 = p 2 = p 3 = p 4 = p 5 = p 6 = p 7 = p 8 = 0 and

**Thus solving for unknown displacements,
**

− 0.2

− 0.071⎤⎛ ⎧0⎫ ⎧− 0.8⎫ ⎞

0.071

0

⎧u1 ⎫

⎡ 0.271

⎪ ⎪

⎢ 0.071

⎥⎜ ⎪0⎪ ⎪− 1.8 ⎪ ⎟

u

−

0

.

271

0

0

0

.

071

⎪⎪ 2 ⎪⎪

⎪⎪ ⎟

⎥⎜ ⎪⎪ ⎪⎪ ⎪⎪

1 ⎢

⎜

⎟

⎢

⎥

0

=

−

u

0

−

−

0

.

20

0

0

.

271

0

.

071

0

⎨ 3⎬

⎬⎟

⎜⎨ ⎬ ⎨

AE

⎢

⎥

⎪u ⎪

− 0.071 0.129

0

0 ⎥⎜ ⎪0⎪ ⎪0 ⎪ ⎟

⎢ 0

⎪ 4⎪

⎪⎟

⎜⎪ ⎪ ⎪

⎢− 0.071 − 0.071

0

0

0.271 ⎥⎦⎜⎝ ⎩⎪0⎭⎪ ⎩⎪0.8 ⎭⎪ ⎟⎠

⎣

⎩⎪u 5 ⎭⎪

(5)

**Solving equation (5), the unknown displacements are calculated as
**

u1 = 0.0013m, u 2 = 0.0020 m, u 3 = −0.0005m, u 4 = 0

(6)

u 5 = −0.0013m

**Now, reactions are computed as,
**

⎧u1 ⎫

⎪ ⎪

− 0.2 0.071⎤ ⎪u 2 ⎪ ⎧0.8⎫

0

⎧ p 6 ⎫ ⎡− 0.071 − 0.071

⎪ ⎪ ⎢

⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪

− 0.071 0.071 − 0.2 ⎥⎥ ⎨u 3 ⎬ + ⎨0 ⎬

0

⎨ p7 ⎬ = ⎢ 0

⎪p ⎪ ⎢ 0

− 0.2

0.071 − 0.071

0 ⎥⎦ ⎪u 4 ⎪ ⎪⎩1 ⎪⎭

⎩ 8⎭ ⎣

⎪ ⎪

⎪⎩u 5 ⎪⎭

(7)

**All reactions are zero as truss is externally determinate and hence change in
**

temperature does not induce any reaction. Now member forces are calculated by

using equation (26.10b)

Member (1): L=5m, θ = 0 o

Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

⎧u 3 ⎫

⎪ ⎪

u

AE

[-1 0 1 0] ⎪⎨ 4 ⎪⎬

p 2' =

5

⎪u1 ⎪

⎪⎩u 2 ⎪⎭

(8)

p 2' = 0.1080 Kn

**Member 2: L=5m, θ = 90 o ,nodal points 4-1
**

⎧u 7 ⎫

⎪ ⎪

u

AE

[0 -1 0 1] ⎪⎨ 8 ⎪⎬ − 300 × 3.771×10 −5

p 2' =

5

⎪u1 ⎪

⎪⎩u 2 ⎪⎭

(9)

=0.1087 kN

Member (3): L=5m, θ = 0 o ,nodal points 3-4

⎧u 5 ⎫

⎪ ⎪

u

300

p 2' =

[-1 0 1 0] ⎪⎨ 6 ⎪⎬

5

⎪u 7 ⎪

⎪⎩u 8 ⎪⎭

(10)

=0.0780kN

Member (4): θ = 90 o , L = 5m, nodal points 3-2

⎧u 5 ⎫

⎪ ⎪

u

300

p 2' =

[0 -1 0 1] ⎪⎨ 6 ⎪⎬ =0

5

⎪u 3 ⎪

⎪⎩u 4 ⎪⎭

(11)

**Member (5): θ = 45 o , L = 5 2 ,nodal points 3-1
**

⎧u 5 ⎫

⎪ ⎪

u

300

p 2' =

[-0.707 -0.707 0.707 0.707] ⎪⎨ 6 ⎪⎬ − 300 × 3.333 ×10 −3

5 2

⎪u1 ⎪

⎪⎩u 2 ⎪⎭

(12)

=-0.8619 kN

Member (6) : θ = 135 o , L = 5 2 ,nodal points 4-2

Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

⎧u 7 ⎫

⎪ ⎪

u

300

p 2' =

[0.707 -0.707 -0.707 0.707] ⎪⎨ 8 ⎪⎬ = 0.0150 kN.

5 2

⎪u 3 ⎪

⎪⎩u 4 ⎪⎭

(13)

Summary

In the last four lessons, the direct stiffness method as applied to the truss

analysis was discussed. Assembly of member stiffness matrices, imposition of

boundary conditions, and the problem of inclined supports were discussed. Due

to the change in temperature the truss members either expand or shrink.

However, in the case of statically indeterminate trusses, the length of the

members is prevented from either expansion or contraction. Thus, the stresses

are developed in the members due to changes in temperature. Similarly the

errors in fabricating truss members also produce additional stresses in the

trusses. In this lesson, these effects are accounted for in the stiffness analysis. A

couple of problems are solved.

Version 2 CE IIT, Kharagpur

- m3l18 Lesson 18 The Moment- Distribution Method
- 3 moment eqn
- m1l4 SA-2
- ■Lesson 2 Principle of Superposition, Strain Energy
- Effect of Settlement
- Influence Line for Beam 1
- m3l17 Lesson 17 The Slope-Deflection Method
- truss4
- Trusses
- m3l15
- m2l11 Lesson 11 The Force Method of Analysis
- m2l10
- m4l29 Lesson 29 The Direct Stiffness Method
- m3l14 Lesson 14 The Slope-Deflection Method
- m4l27 Lesson 27 The Direct Stiffness Method
- Multi Storey Frames With Side Sway
- m2l7
- cable and arches
- Displacement Method
- m4l30 Lesson 30 The Direct Stiffness Method
- Direct Stiffness Part-1
- 6 - Engesser’s Theorem and Truss Deflections by Virtual Work Principles
- m2l8 The Force Method of Analysis Beams
- m7l37 Lesson 37 Moving Load and Its Effects on Structural Members
- m3l16 Lesson 16 The Slope-Deflection Method
- m5l34 Lesson 34 Symmetrical Hingeless Arch
- Moment Distribution Method With Side Sway
- Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures by the Direct Stiffness Method
- Moment Distribution Method
- Influence Lines for Truss

- m6l35 Lesson 35 Indeterminate Trusses and Industrial Frames
- m6l36 Lesson 36 Building Frames
- m5l31 Lesson 31 Cables
- Como se confessar
- TCC - Vitor Dias do Vale -Teorema de Castigliano.pdf
- Gerenciando Seus Projetos Com Planner
- m1|3 Lesson 3 Castigliano’s Theorems
- m5l33 Lesson 33 Two-Hinged Arch
- m1|5 Lesson 5 Virtual Work
- m7l38 Lesson 38 Influence Lines for Beams
- m7l39 Lesson 39 Influence Lines for Beams (Contd.)
- m7l37 Lesson 37 Moving Load and Its Effects on Structural Members
- m5l34 Lesson 34 Symmetrical Hingeless Arch
- m5l32 Lesson 32 Three Hinged Arch
- m7l40 Lesson 40 Influence Lines for Simple Trusses
- m4l24 Lesson 24 The Direct Stiffness Method
- m3l21 Lesson 21 The Moment- Distribution Method
- m3l22 Lesson 22 The Multistory Frames with Sidesway
- m3l17 Lesson 17 The Slope-Deflection Method
- m4l30 Lesson 30 The Direct Stiffness Method
- m4l23 Lesson 23 The Direct Stiffness Method
- m4l25 Lesson 25 The Direct Stiffness Method
- m3l20 Lesson 20 The Moment- Distribution Method
- m4l28 Lesson 28 The Direct Stiffness Method
- m3l19 LESSON 19 THE MOMENT- DISTRIBUTION METHOD
- m3l16 Lesson 16 The Slope-Deflection Method
- m4l29 Lesson 29 The Direct Stiffness Method
- m4l27 Lesson 27 The Direct Stiffness Method

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