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in Power Systems #2
Nonlinear System View
James D. McCalley
Harpole Professor of Electrical and Computer Engineering
Nonlinear System View
p p g g
Hugo Villegas
Iowa State University
Conference on Power System Oscillations
XM S.A. E.S.P., Medellin, Columbia
11
Wednesday July 14, 2010
Overview of this seminar
1 Th C l bi P S t O ill ti 1. The Columbian Power System Oscillation
2. Model building:
Governor
Actuator
Interconnected network
Hydro turbine
Multiple generators
Generator dynamics
3. Nonlinear effects
4. Model building: nonlinear effects
5. Model building:
Voltage regulators and e citation Voltage regulators and excitation
Load modeling
6. Simulation illustration
bl l h 7. Possible solution approaches
8. Summary and what’s next… 2
Case: The Colombian Power System
Observation Observation
Frequency oscillation in the Colombian Power System seen in August the 12th of 2008. Courtesy of XM Colombia.
3
Case: The Colombian Power System
Observation Observation
First Oscillation Sampled (green): 9*4=32s.
S d O ill ti S l d (T ) 8*4=32 Second Oscillation Sampled (Tan): 8*4=32s.
Third Oscillation Sampled (Light green): 5*4=20s.
In the plot the oscillation period of 20 sec is repeated often In the plot, the oscillation period of 20 sec is repeated often.
Yet, there are still excursions having a period of 32s. Thus, the
observed oscillation ranges from 0.03Hz to 0.05Hz approximately. g pp y
It is not fixed at 0.05Hz.
The signal is negatively damped at the beginning of the observation.
l d d f b l d It is positively damped after system stabilization process occurred.
The signal in the plot is bounded such that
A b d d ill i i i f li i l
59.1 ( ) 61.1 [ ] f t Hz < <
A bounded oscillation is suggestive of a limit cycle….
4
Limit Cycles:
“ l ll “For a linear timeinvariant system to oscillate, it must
have a pair of eigenvalues on the imaginary axis, which is
a non robust condition In real life stable oscillations a non robust condition…. In real life, stable oscillations
must be produced by nonlinear systems. There are
nonlinear systems that can go into an oscillation of fixed y g
amplitude and frequency, irrespective of the initial
state [*]. ” This is called a limit cycle.
Such a phenomena may be occurring in the governor
actuator loop, and if so, its observed effect in the power
h l ld h b ll system (as in the previous plot) could exhibit small
changes in frequency and amplitude.
5
[*] Khalil Hassan, “Nonlinear Systems,” Prentice Hall, 19962002
Some helpful references for the understanding of
low frequency oscillations q y
1. Anderson P., Fouad, A., “Power System Control and Stability,” IEEE series, 2003.
2. Merritt Herbert E., “Hydraulic Control Systems,” Wiley, 1967.
3. Krause Paul C., “Analysis of Electrical Machinery,” McGrawHill, 1986.
4. Khalil Hassan K., “Nonlinear Systems,” Prentince Hall, 2002.
5 Tohru Katayama “Subspace Methods for System Identification ” Springer 2005 5. Tohru Katayama, Subspace Methods for System Identification, Springer, 2005.
6. Tao Gang, “Adaptative control of Systems with Actuator and Sensor Nonlinearities,” Wiley, 1996.
7. Bevrani Hassan, “Robust Power System Frequency Control,” Springer, 2009.
8. Atsushi Izena, Hidemi Kihara, “Practical Hydraulic Turbine Model”, Toshikazu Shimojo, Kaiichirou Hirayama.
9. Taylor C., Lee K. Y., “Automatic Generation Control Analysis with governor Deadband Effects,” IEEE transactions, Vol. PAS98, 1979.
h h h “ l l l h h b d d d 10. Triparthy S.C., Bhatti T.S. Tha C.S., “Sample Data Automatic Generation Control Analysis with reheat Steam Turbines and Governor DeadBand
Effects,” IEEE Transactions, Vol. PAS103, 1984.
11. Kamwa I, Grondin R, Trudel G, “IEEE2B Versus PSSS4B: The Limits of Performance of Modern Power System Stabilizers,” IEEE Transactions, VOL.
20, May 2005.
12. Youzhong Miao, Tao Wu, Jiayang Guo, Qunju Li, Weimin Su and Yong Tang, “Mechanism Study of Large Power Oscillation of Interarea Lines
Caused by Local Mode,” 2006 International Conference on Power System Technology.
13. SeokYong Oh and DongJo Park, Member, “ Design of New Adaptive Fuzzy Logic Controller for Nonlinear Plants with Unknown or TimeVarying
Deadzones,” IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems, Vol. 6, No. 4, Nov. 1998.
14. Mahmut Erkut Cebeci, , Osman Bülent Tör, , Arif Ertaş, “The Effects of Hydro Power Plant’s Governor Settings on the stability of Turkish Power
System Frequency.”
15. P. Vuorenpää, T. Rauhala, P. Järventausta, “ Effect of Torsional Mode Coupling on TCSC Related Subsynchronous Resonance Studies.”
16 Li Zh Y Li Mi h l R I D l T B h St E k d M i L C “B lk P S t L F O ill ti 16. Li Zhang, Y. Liu, Michael R. Ingram, Dale T. Brashaw, Steve Eckroad, Mariesa L. Crow, “Bulk Power System Low Frequency Oscillation
Suppression By FACTS/ESS.”
17. Youzhong Miao, Tao Wu, Jiayang Guo, Qunju Li, Weimin Su and Yong Tang, “Mechanism Study of Large Power Oscillation of Interarea Lines
Caused by Local Mode.”
18. S.K.Soonee, Vineeta, Agrawal Suruchi Jain, “Reactive Power and System Frequency Relationship: A Case of Study,” at
http://www.nrldc.org/docs/Reactive%20Power%20&%20Freq_relationship_CBIP.pdf.
19. R. Grondin, (U) I. Kamwa, (M) L. Soulieres, (M) J. Potvin, (M) R. Champagne, “An Approach to PSS Design for Transient Stability Improvement
through Supplementary Damping of the Common LowFrequency,”
20. F. Schleif and A. Wilbor, “The coordination of hydraulic turbine governors for power system operation,”
21. IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems, Vol. PAS85, No. 7, July 1966.
6
Highlights from previous studies
(8) Model and parameters of a hydraulic system and turbine characteristics
strongly influence the power system frequency stability.
(13) Deadzone characteristics are included (typical characteristic) in many
practical plants such as electric servomotors and hydraulic servovalves. They
are usually unknown and, moreover, may vary with time.
(16) Generators from different dynamic groups swing against each other in the ( ) y g p g g
power system 0.1 2.5Hz.
(17) Mechanism of large power oscillations of interarea lines can be caused by
local mode. One generator oscillating in one area influences the rest of the
system. y
(18) Studies show that relation of the reactive power with respect to frequency is
negative.
(19) Damping through a supplementary governor control at a large hydro
generator unit. Fast valving  surge pressures. PSSs help the damping of low g g g p p p g
frequencies.
(20) Reports the phenomenon that oscillations can be caused by delay introduced
by governor dashpot action (backlash). They indicate that this problem is “most
sensitive to servosystemdelay” and that it “may be either aggravated or y y y gg
suppressed by adjustment of servosystem gain.”
7
Modeling: The Power Plant Overview g
Primary Loop Control: Speed Governor, actuators, turbinegenerator dynamics, local
sensors.
• Secondary Loop Control: Generation Control System (AGC), area
frequency sensing, telemetry.
8
Modeling: Swing Equation – Rotor Dynamics
T
Te, ωe
Power system
dynamics is largely
J
Tm, ωm
concerned with the
rotation of a mass.
J
From Newton’s second law for the rotation
( ) ( ) ( )
2H d
T t T t e =
From Newton s second law for the rotation
of a mass with inertia J we can derive:
( ) ( ) ( )
, , e m pu e pu
b
T t T t
dt
e
e
= ÷
Torque imbalances produce acceleration and deceleration.
9
We want to control this.
Modeling: Primary Control Loop Modeling: Primary Control Loop
The objective of the primary control is to maintain the speed of
the rotating mass close to its nominal value.
There are two main components to observe in the primary loop
l h ll d h control: the controller and the actuator.
Controller (governor): processes signals from the turbine
generator and sends back commands to maintain the speed within generator and sends back commands to maintain the speed within
the desired boundaries. If the speed deviates, the governor
repositions the valve or gate that injects steam or water. g
Actuator (power amplifier): Because the governor does not
have the necessary power to move large gates or valves, it requires
li f h l i l f h ll coupling to transform the low power signal of the controller to a
high power signal.
10
Modeling: The Controller – Speed Droop
P i C t l Primary Control:
 The Unit is operating at conditions (ωb,Y1)
With a load increase, the new steadystate
operating point is (ω, Y) ω<ωb and Y>Y1.
1
Y
R
e A = ÷ A
1
R
÷
p g p ( )
This is done by the governor action.
The new frequency ω is different than ωb.
Secondary Control:
' 0
r
r e e e A ~ A ¬ =
Yref is controlled till the error in
system frequency becomes zero.
Then the new operating point
(ωb Y2) is reached (ωb,Y2) is reached.
This is done by the AGC.
 Only when Steady State is
reached do we have ωr=ωb.
Note: Y can be Power or Gate Position
11 R is the droop characteristic.
Model building: adding governor
( )
i
PID d
k
C s k k s = + +
It is common to use PID controllers in the governor loop (C
PID
(s))
( )
PID p d
C s k k s
s
+ +
Water
/Steam
The objective of the controller
is to keep e=0. This
guarantees that Y is set in the
) (s C
PID
12
guarantees that Y is set in the
desired position.
Modeling: Actuator
A l ll d fi l l d i ( l ) Actuator couples controller and final control device (gates or valves).
The actuator usually uses hydraulic energy. The most basic actuator is the
double effect cylinder operated by a servo valve. y p y .
Basic idea: A small energy “input” displacement v(t) results in a large
energy “output” displacement y(t).
Give a small linear displacement v(t) to the
right, then the spool moves to the right letting
flow at pressure P to be routed through inlet A
hich ca ses mass M to mo e (t) linear nits
spool
which causes mass M to move y(t) linear units.
Note: The force needed in v is small, but the
force obtained in y is big. More details are in [*].
13
[*] Merritt Herbert E., “Hydraulic Control Systems,” Wiley, 1967.
Modeling: Actuator
The p.u. closedloop representation of this actuator is below, which
enables it to position the output as indicated by reference input r(t) enables it to position the output as indicated by reference input r(t).
It is important to point out that the servo system has limits in both
speed and displacement. These are nonlinearities. p p
14
Modeling: Actuator intheloop g p
Water
Spraying
15
Note: The process is similar for other turbine
types.
Model building: Adding actuator & governor g g g
With the previous considerations, our
power plant in a reduced fashion is power plant in a reduced fashion is
modeled as below.
i
p d
k
k k s + +
p d
s
16
R is the speed droop.
Modeling: Net torques g q
Tm,1 Te Tm,2 Tm,3 …. Tm,n
For a network of N
generators and M
Hequ
g
buses, we conceive
of an aggregated
pu pu
P T ~
prime mover and
generator having
i ti H
Because ∆f is always relatively
small, we may approximate that
( ) ( ) ( )
, ,
2
N M
equ
e mi pu ei pu
H
d
P t P t
dt
e = ÷
¿ ¿
an inertia H
equ
( ) ( ) ( )
, ,
1 1
p p
i i
b
dt e
= =
¿ ¿
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2H
d
17
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
, , ,
2
equ
e M pu L pu tie pu
b
H
d
P t P t P t
dt
e
e
= ÷ ÷
Modeling: Net torques & load damping
Hequ
PM Ptie
ω
e
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2
equ
H
d
P t P t P t e
Hequ
PM Ptie
P
L
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
, , ,
q
e M pu L pu tie pu
b
P t P t P t
dt
e
e
= ÷ ÷
A t t f th l d i t i t A great percentage of the load in a power system is motors.
Thus, small excursions of frequency changes the electric load.
Accounting for this, and then linearizing for small excursions
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
2
d
H P t P t D P t e e A = A ÷ A + A ÷ A
and perunitizing the angular frequency, we obtain:
( )
( ) ( )
( )
( )
, , , , ,
2
equ e pu M pu L pu e pu tie pu
H P t P t D P t
dt
e e A A A + A A
18
Modeling: Net torques & frequency
f e A = A
• Using the fact that:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
2H s f s P s P s D f s P s A A A + A A
, , e pu e pu
f e A A
• And taking the Laplace transform:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
( )
, , , , ,
2
equ e pu M pu L pu e pu tie pu
H s f s P s P s D f s P s A = A ÷ A + A ÷ A
• Solving for Δf(s):
1
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
, , , ,
1
2
e pu M pu L pu tie pu
equ
f s P s P s P s
H s D
A = A ÷ A ÷ A
+
19
Modeling: Frequency control in an
interconnected network interconnected network
Control
A 1
Control
A 2
Ti Li 12
Active Power Flow
from Area 1 to Area
( )
1 2
,12 1 2
sin
tie
VV
P
X
u u = ÷
Area 1
[f
1
,θ
1
,V
1
]
Area 2
[f
2
,θ
2
,V
2
]
Tie Line 12
from Area 1 to Area
2 can be written as:
l f
12
X
Generalizing from
Area i to Area j :
In a multiple Area
Power System:
( )
sin
i j
VV
P u u = ÷
VV
A1
A2
Linearizing:
( )
,
sin
tie ij i j
ij
P
X
u u = ÷
( ) ( )
,
cos
i j
tie ij io jo i j
ij
VV
P
X
u u u u A = ÷ × A ÷ A
A3
A4
A5
Synchronizing Power
C ff
) cos(
0 0 j i
j i
sij
V V
T u u ÷ =
Coefficient
20
) cos(
0 0 j i
ij
sij
X
u u
) (
, j i sij ij tie
T P u u A ÷ A × = A
Modeling: Frequency Control in an
We know that: Taking the Laplace transform:
Interconnected Network
( )
( )
e
e
s
s
s
e
u
A
= A
g p
( )
e e
d
dt
e u A = A
C ti f d/ t H d iti i
) (
, j i sij ij tie
T P u u A ÷ A × = A
)) ( ) ( (
,
s s
s
T
P
j i
sij
ij tie
e e A ÷ A × = A
Converting from rad/sec to Hz, and perunitizing:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
,
, , , ,
2
b sij pu
tie ij pu i pu j pu
f T
P s f s f s
s
t × ×
A = × A ÷ A
s
21
Modeling: Frequency control in an
i d k interconnected network
Focusing on area j only, it can be shown by induction that: g j y, y
( ) ( ) ( )
(
(
(
¸
(
¸
A × ÷ A × ×
×
= A
¿ ¿
= =
N
i
N
i
pu j pu sij pu i pu sij
b
i pu tie
s f T s f T
s
f
s P
1 1
, , , , , ,
2t
Representing in block Diagram:
(
¸
¸
= = i j i j
22
Model building: Adding network
frequency control frequency control
This is our generator model.
We still need to consider
turbine dynamics.
23
Modeling: Hydroturbine Models g y
Impulse Turbines (high
head, low speed, H>260m):
PeltonTurbines
Reaction Turbines (low
head high speed H=6m head, high speed , H=6m –
244m):
Francis
 Kaplan
Deriaz (Modified Kaplan) p
http://electricalandelectronics.org/2008/09/24/constituentsofhydroelectricplant/\
http://www.tfd.chalmers.se/~hani/phdproject/francispicture.gif
24
Modeling: Hydroturbine Models
When water is not in
motion the pressure at
Surge Tank
Ho
h’’
Dam
motion the pressure at
A3 is constant (Ho).
However, when water is
Forebay
Penstock=L
Conduit A2
h
h’
A1
in motion the pressure
at A3 changes
dynamically (h h’ h’’);
Turbine
Conduit A2
Qo, A
dynamically (h, h ,h );
pressure surges!
Crosssectional area of
A3
From the conservation of energy for a small
element of mass travelling from A1 to A3:
the penstock may vary.
1 3 A A losses
E E E = +
¿ ¿
2
1
mgh mv =
2 v gh =
2 v C gh =
2
mgh mv =
2 v gh =
2 v C gh
C=Nozzle coefficient, typically 0.98
25
Modeling: Hydroturbine Models
Water flow Q and torque T
m
in any hydro turbine are functions of the head
(h), valve or gate position (y), and speed (ω). The effect of speed on the flow
i dl i lt t bi
( )
, ,
m m
T T h y e =
is regardless in pelton turbines.
( )
, , Q Q h y e =
Water hammer: It is the
travelling of pressure waves
along the penstock (>0 3Hz) It
Linearizing both equations:
Q Q Q
Q h y
h y
e
e
c c c
A = A + A + A
c c c
along the penstock (>0.3Hz). It
causes the head (pressure) to
be a function of the rate of
change of flow.
y
T T T
T h y
h y
e
e
c c c
A = A + A + A
c c c
When water hammer effects are considered, we have:
.
h h Q
 
=

\ .
When water hammer effects are considered, we have:
Linearizing the above, and taking the Laplace transform we obtain:
( ) ( ) ( )
H s WH s Q s A = A
where WH(s) is the linear water hammer effect in the s domain.
26
Modeling: Hydro turbine Models Modeling: Hydroturbine Models
T c
Q
h
c
c
T
y
c
c
Q
y
c
c
Δy
Water
Hammer
ΔH ΔQ
T
h
c
c
ΔT
y c
WH(s)
h c
Speed signal comes from swing
equation
Partial derivatives come from
Q
e
c
c
T c
Δω
Partial derivatives come from
field tests.
T
e
c
c
27
Modeling: Hydroturbine Models
Y is gate
position
Speed ω=1
∂Q/∂ω
Speed ω (pu)
This data is used to update the hydro turbine model as the speed and gate
position change.
Speed ω (pu)
[*] Atsushi Izena, Hidemi Kihara, Toshikazu Shimojo, Kaiichirou Hirayama, Nobuhiko
Furukawa, Takahisa Kageyama,Takashi Goto, and Chosei Okamura, “Practical Hydraulic Turbine Model”
28
Modeling: Hydro turbine Models Modeling: Hydroturbine Models
When neglecting speed deviations for small excursions, we have:
Q
h
c
c
T
y
c
c
ΔT=Torque small signal
ΔP=Power small signal
Q c
c
Δy
h c
Water
H
ΔH ΔQ
T
h
c
c
ΔT= ΔP in p.u.
+ +
y c
Hammer
h c
( )
H s
T s
A
Elastic and inelastic water hammer is represented by:
( )
H s A
Here:
Tw= water inertia time
+
( )
( )
2 2
1 0.1
w
e
H s
T s
Q s T s
A
=
A +
( )
( )
w
H s
T s
Q s
A
= ÷
A
Elastic water Hammer Inelastic water Hammer
Te= elastic time
(in seconds)
L Q
T
0
=
L
T =
Note: Detailed derivation of water hammer effects can be found at: P. Anderson
and A. Fouad, “Power System Control and Stability,” IEEE series, 2003.
29
A gH
T
w
0
c
T
e
=
L, A are penstock length & crosssectional
area, respectively. C is nozzle coefficient.
Modeling: Hydro turbine Models Modeling: Hydroturbine Models
From the previous slide, we use the inelastic form of water hammer with
1
Q
y
c
=
c
0.5
Q
h
c
=
c
1
T
y
c
=
c
1.5
T
h
c
=
c
( ) 1
T
T
A
which are typical constants as shown in [*]. Then we solve the closed loop transfer
function to obtain:
( )
( )
1
1 0.5
w
w
T s
T s
Y s T s
A
÷
=
A +
This is the very well known turbine model representation. However, this is not This is the very well known turbine model representation. However, this is not
valid for large excursions in speed. Thus, the former representation (three slides
previous) with dependence on speed variation should be used when considering
large speed excursions, which we are in analyzing the Colombian oscillation.
[*] Thorne D., H., Hill E.,F., “Field testing and simulation of hydraulic governor performance,”
IEEE transactions on power apparatus and systems, Pgs (93)4, July 1974.
30
Model building: adding hydro turbine
SERVO
31
Model building: Adding multiple generators
F lti hi t i i l ti h hi ’ For a multimachine system in a single area, representing each machine’s
individual controls but a single equivalent rotating mass, we have:
32
Modeling: Remaining issues to consider
Generator dynamics (nonlinear description & transient behavior)
Nonlinearities (discontinuities) in the control systems.
Effects of the voltage regulators and excitation.
Load models
33
Modeling: Generator Dynamics
There are various approaches for the modeling of generators, high pp g g , g
fidelity models and reduced models.
Reduced Models. Gives approximate dynamical models;
however, some dynamics are lost since these models are based on
i ti (th l i l d l i i thi t ) some approximations (the classical model is in this category).
High fidelity models Comprehensively models generator High fidelity models. Comprehensively models generator
states, but causes required simulation time to be very large.
34
Modeling: Various IEEE standard models
High
fidelity
models
35
Modeling: Classical Model Modeling: Classical Model
For very basic studies the generator can be modeled as a constant y g
voltage behind the transient reactance. The basis for this is that the
internal fluxes of the generator don’t change abruptly (within the first
second of a disturbance).
This model is sometimes designated model 0.0.
( )
sin
'
t
e
E V
P
X d
o
×
=
X d
36
Conceptual understanding of generator
action: classical model
How do our generators work in the power system?
action: classical model
Before synchronizing a machine to the system (breaker
closure) ωb=ωe, δ=0, Vbus=Vgen. In the transient:
( )
sin
t
E V
P o
×
=
( ) ( )
2
1 1
sin sin 2
t t
E V V
P o o
 
×
= + ÷


ωe ωb
• To load the machine, the rotor needs some
qaxis network
( )
sin
'
e
P
X d
o =
( ) ( )
sin sin 2
' 2
e
q d
P
X d X X
o o +


\ .
Round Rotor Salient Pole Rotor
acceleration. E and Vt are assumed constant in the
classical model. Then the qaxis of the generator
leads the qaxis of the system and desired load is
qaxis rotor
Δδ
ωe
δ
q y
delivered. We adjust that load by governor action.
• When reaching the desired position (load setting)
the q axis of the rotor oscillates
ωb
the qaxis of the rotor oscillates.
• If the system is stable, the desired angle δ is
reached until ωe=ωb. 37
Conceptual understanding of generator
action: classical model
From our swing equation we have the rotor dynamics:
action: classical model
( ) ( ) ( )
, ,
2
e m pu e pu
b
H d
T t T t
dt
e
e
= ÷
b
( )
sin
'
t
e
E V
P
X d
o
×
=
e
d
dt
e o =
, , e pu e pu
P T =
We know that generator obeys:
By combining rotor and generator dynamics:
' X d
dt
, , p p
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2
,
2
2
sin
'
t
m pu
E V H d d
T t D
dt X d dt
o o o
e
×
= ÷ ÷
b
dt X d dt e
38
Conceptual understanding of generator
action: classical model
The last equation shows that the rotor does not spin at a
t t d i th t i t (i h i l d)
action: classical model
constant speed in the transient (i.e., a change in load).
The dynamics of the rotor (acceleration – deacceleration)
depends on the Tm and Te depends on the Tm and Te.
The power system is never in steady state; thus, it is dynamically
changing and with this the rotors are oscillating. g g g
Wh hi k f l h i l ill i i When we think of electromechanical oscillations in power
systems we should think of rotors changing their qaxis
constantly (it means acceleration and deceleration in the
39
constantly (it means acceleration and deceleration in the
rotors) by effects of the external torques Tm and Te!!!!!!!!
Gen modeling: High Fidelity Model (2.2)
2.2 means two windings in the qaxis (field
winding and damper winding) and two winding and damper winding) and two
windings in the daxis (damper windings)
40
Gen modeling: High Fidelity Model (2.2)
The expression for the electrical torque is:
41
( ) ( ) ( )
, ,
2
e m pu e pu
b
H d
T t T t
dt
e
e
= ÷
Where are we?
We have developed a model of the power
t th t i l d h d system that includes enhanced
representation of the hydroturbine, the
governor/actuator controls and a high governor/actuator controls, and a high
fidelity model of the generator.
We now consider nonlinearities in the
control loops.
42
Nonlinear effects:
Li S V N li S Linear Systems Vs. Nonlinear Systems
The real power system (the real world) is a nonlinear system p y ( ) y
which most of the time for analysis purposes is approximated
with a linear description since it is simpler. However, the real
system is nonlinear
Linear System:
NonLinear System
system is nonlinear.
.
x Ax Bu
y Cx Du
= +
= +
y
Non Linear System
( )
( )
.
, , x f t x u =
y Cx Du +
( )
, , y g t x u =
Tools:
C t i l ti
Tools:
Transfer function.
Analysis in frequency domain
Computer simulation
Nonlinear analysis methods
Analysis in frequency domain.
43
( ) ( ) D B A sI C s G + ÷ =
÷1
Nonlinear effects: systems & nonlinearities
Nonlinearities are nonsmooth discontinuous characteristics of
systems.
They may be caused by imperfections of system components.
Th l h l d They are almost everywhere in control systems and are common
in actuators, such as servovalves, mechanical connections
(joints), and electrical servomotors. (j ), .
They can limit static and dynamic performance of feedback
control systems.
44
Nonlinear effects: types of nonlinearities
The most common nonlinearities found in systems are:
Dead Zone (Dead Band)
Backlash
Saturation
Viscous and Friction Forces
Static and Coulomb Friction, etc.
45
Nonlinear effects: Dead Zone
Dead zones are sometimes designed into components intentionally.
But they can bring about undesirable effects in control loops.
M l l
This type of nonlinearity is memoryless.
Memoryless: only
matters where you
are now, not where
you have been. y
46
Nonlinear effects: physical intuition
of dead zone effects of dead zone effects
Deadzones in the actuator can cause blinding (no response) of the final
ll h h h l i h actuator to small changes that the control system might request.
For example, consider
1 Steadystate valve opening is 70% but the controller (PID) requests the 1. Steady state valve opening is 70%, but the controller (PID) requests the
actuator to change it due to a variation in the system load conditions to
71%;
2 Under that request the actuator may not respond to the small change 2. Under that request the actuator may not respond to the small change
because of the presence of a deadzone at that operating point;
3. The error signal in the system increases;
4. The control signal out of the controller increases until it is large enough to
surpass the servo deadzone effect.
5. At this point, the servo operates, but because the controller signal is now p , p , g
very large, the servo overcompensates to 72%.
6. The controller now sends a correction signal and the process repeats.
47
Nonlinear effects: Observed dead
zone phenomena zone phenomena
From a commissioning
110 120
Prueba G6  Señales Actuador Hidráulico.
(Past Comissioning of unit G6 hydraulic servo system )
test, we see that the red
line is the set point of
the servo system and the
100 110
the servo system and the
blue line is the actual
position of the servo.
80
90
90
100
Observe the error
between the setpoint
d t l iti
70 80
Actual Servo Position Setpoint
and actual servo position
The output lags the
input, likely as a result
50
60
60
70
input, likely as a result
of dead zone.
48
4 9 14 19 24 29 34
Set Point Posición Posición Servomotor
Potencia Activa
Nonlinear effects: Backlash Nonlinear effects: Backlash
Backlash is typically found in mechanical joints. yp y j
Its effect can be harmful.
This nonlinearity has memory. y y
49
Nonlinear effects: Saturation Nonlinear effects: Saturation
Saturation represents limits in controls.
This limits can be in speed, position, control signal level, etc.
In servo systems, the hydraulic flow available is controlled by
fl l flow valves.
50
Nonlinear effects: Other nonlinearities
51
Nonlinear effects: Backlash as Result
of Dead zone of Dead zone
Dead zones in the forward path of a servoloop can bring about backlash in the
closed loop responses. To demonstrate this in a simple way, let’s compare the output
of the close loop servo system with dead zone (y1), and the output through the
backlash (y2), after applying a common input r(t) respectively.
52
Note: Saturation is also added in real systems. This is in practice done to
avoid water hammer due to fast action of water flow control valves (speed
limit). This is also a nonlinearity and may produce oscillatory effects.
Nonlinear effects: Backlash as result of
Dead zone Dead zone
When comparing y1(t) and y2(t), we see that both lags the input r(t). The blue signal
y1(t) is similar to the green signal y2(t) and both almost follow the same trajectory By y1(t) is similar to the green signal y2(t) and both almost follow the same trajectory. By
simulation it is demonstrated that dead zones in the forward path of a system can cause
backlash effects in the close loop behavior.
Setpoint and Output Signals Comparison
d f l
0.8
0.9
1
Red=Reference Signal r(t).
Blue=Servovalve loop Output
Signal y1(t).
0.5
0.6
0.7
[
b
l
u
e
]
,
y
2
(
t
)
[
g
r
e
e
n
]
Green=Backlash Output Signal
y2(t).
0 2
0.3
0.4
r
(
t
)
[
r
e
d
]
,
y
1
(
t
)
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
0
0.1
0.2
t(s)
53
Nonlinear effects: Backlash as result
of Dead zone of Dead zone
Thus, for large frequency control studies the dead zone , g q y
nonlinearity found in the servo systems control loop should be
modeled as backlash nonlinearity when using very reduced models.
y
speed
l i mi t
3.33
1
~
y y
y1(t)
r1(t)
0.07s+1
Servoval ve1
s
Integrator Dead Zone
d=0.02
~
y
y1(t) r1(t) d=0.02
Governor Turbine
Rotor
Dynamics
ωref ωr Δωref
Ylp Yhp
Actuator Reduced Model
54
Ylp= Gate low power signal.
Yhp= Gate high power signal.
Nonlinear effects: Backlash Effects
What are the effects of Backlash?
To describe effects of backlash, let’s see what happens to the output , pp p
of the backlash block when we apply a sine signal to the input.
0 8
Backlash Behavior
I t O t t B kl h Eff t
H/2
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
)
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
(
t
)
Input  Output Backlash Effect
u(t)
y(t)
H
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
y
(
t
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
u
(
t
)
,
y
(
H
55
1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
0.8
u(t)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
1
t(s)
Nonlinear effects: Backlash as result
of Dead zone
0.5
Load Step Change
of Dead zone
Let’s analyze the effect of
plugging the nonlinearity in
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
L
o
a
d
(
p
.
u
.
)
plugging the nonlinearity in
the system below. Only
Primary control.
60.1
Without Nonlinearity
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
0
Time (s)
The test without the
nonlinearity shows no limit
cycles.
59.95
60
60.05
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y
(
H
z
)
y
The one with the
nonlinearity shows limit
l f f
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
59.85
59.9
Time (s)
F
r
With Nonlinearity
cycles of constant frequency.
59 95
60
60.05
60.1
With Nonlinearity
u
e
n
c
y
(
H
z
)
System with Primary
loop control only
56
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
59.85
59.9
59.95
Time (s)
F
r
e
q
Nonlinear effects: Backlash as result of
Dead zone Dead zone
The addition of a The addition of a
secondary loop
control does not
Secondary Control without Nonlinearity
damp the limit
cycles contained in
the primary loop
60
60.02
60.04
60.06
y y
u
e
n
c
y
(
H
z
)
the primary loop
control. The step is
the same applied
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
59.94
59.96
59.98
Time (s)
F
r
e
q
u
Secondary Control with Nonlinearity
before.
60
60.05
60.1
60.15
Secondary Control with Nonlinearity
u
e
n
c
y
(
H
z
)
57
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
59.9
59.95
60
Time (s)
F
r
e
q
u
Model building: Inclusion of nonlinearities
Our control loop now looks interesting.
58
Model building: Voltage regulators & excitation
Voltage regulators play an important role in the system
stability. Besides controlling the terminal voltage of the
k i ib h l i l i generators as known, it contributes to the electrical torque in
the generators, and it can add or reduce damping to an
oscillation. We have seen this in the earlier presentation. And p
so we do represent a static excitation system in our model.
59
Model building: Load modeling Model building: Load modeling
The power consumed by loads varies with voltage, frequency, and many other p y g , q y, y
conditions.
( , , , , ,...) P P V z f t T =
( ) Q Q V z f t T = ( , , , , ,...) Q Q V z f t T =
where: z=load demand, V=voltage, f=frequency, t=time, T=temperature, etc.
We know that the load influences the Te of the synchronous machines; thus, loads
play a very important role in the analysis of electrical oscillations. The power
system controls are designed to follow the load variations and supply the
T t ilib t th T i th hi necessary Tm to equilibrate the Te in the machines.
Our model accounts for load effects only by adding the damping characteristic D in
the swing equation. It may be necessary to model load with greater fidelity. the swing equation. It may be necessary to model load with greater fidelity.
60
So summarize  why the power system
oscillates oscillates
The underlying phenomena is the torque imbalance between the Tm and
Te, accompanied with the dynamic response of the system.
The mechanical torque Tm is controlled by the prime movers and their
controls (turbine and governor/actuator) controls (turbine and governor/actuator)
The electrical torque Te is controlled by the generator dynamics (controller
AVR), and the interconnected power grid (loads). This dynamic torque of
the system can cause variation in the oscillation damping (negative or
positive).
Nonlinearities produce limit cycles If the controls oscillate the controlled Nonlinearities produce limit cycles. If the controls oscillate, the controlled
equipment will, too.
61
Simulation illustration: :description Simulation illustration: :description
The simulated system is composed of two hydro units supplying a single load The simulated system is composed of two hydro units supplying a single load
which are interconnected by the transmissions lines respectively.
The two generators are modeled using high fidelity generators models (2.2).
A 250MVA hydro unit is modeled with a practical turbine model from [*].
A 100MVA hydro –turbine unit is modeled with the IEEE standard
representation for dynamic studies as in [**]. p y [ ]
A nonlinearity type dead zone was added to the servo positioning system of the
250MVA hydro unit which is a function of the input, operating point and time.
A PSS 4B ll b dd d d h ll d b h dd f A PSS 4B will be added to damp out the oscillation mode seen by the addition of
the nonlinearity [***].
[*] Atsushi Izena, Hidemi Kihara, Toshikazu Shimojo, Kaiichirou Hirayama, Nobuhiko Furukawa, Takahisa Kageyama,Takashi Goto, and Chosei
Okamura, “Practical Hydraulic Turbine Model” y
[**] IEEE Working Group on Prime Mover and Energy Supply Models for System Dynamic Performance Studies, "Hydraulic Turbine and Turbine
Control Models for Dynamic Studies," IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol.7, No.1, February, 1992, pp. 167179.
[***] Kamwa I., Grondin R., “IEEE PSS2B Versus PSS4B: The Limits of Performance of Modern Power System Stabilizers,” Vol. 20, No. 2, 2005.
62
Simulation illustration:
0.05
1.0045 Speed Ref erence
Gate Drop Pos. Ref erence Tubine Output
<Stator v oltage v q (pu)>
<Stator v oltage v d (pu)>
250 MVA unit with
“highfidelity”
modeling
A
B
C
a
b
c
w
Vf _
m
A
B
Actual Power
HydroTurbi ne and Speed Governi ng System
A
B
C
A
B
C
A
B
C
A
B
C
<Output activ e power Peo (pu)>
<Rotor speed dev iation dw (pu)>
1.0 T1: 900MVA
20 kV230 kV
C
Synchronous Machi ne
250 MVA 20 kV
Swi tch
dw Vstab
MBPSS
v ref
v d
v q
v stab
Vf
Exci tati on
System
A B C
300MW
80MVAR
25km Area 1
10 km Area 1
Cl ock
<Stator v oltage v q (pu)>
<Stator v oltage v d (pu)>
<Rotor speed wm (pu)>
<Output activ e power Peo (pu)>
100 MVA unit
with “standard”
1.05
0.5
A a
Pm
m
A
wref
Pref
we
Pe0
dw
Pm
gate
HTG
A
B
A
B
<Rotor speed dev iation dw (pu)>
modeling
1.0
B
C
b
c
T2: 900MVA
20 kV/230 kV
Vf _
B
C
Synchronous Machi ne
100 MVA 20 kV1
HTG
v ref
v d
v q
v stab
Vf
Exci tati on
System1
B
C
B
C
25km Area 2
63
Simulation illustration Simulation illustration
Inside the Prime mover block of the 250MVA power plant which represents the hydro
turbine and speed governing system we have:
This block represents the
practical hydro turbine and
l its controls.
1
Gate Output
ka
Ta.s+1
val ve
P
u
y
Ti V i D d
Saturati on
1
s
Integrator
2
P
1
Gate Input
( ) , , u t P ¢
This block represents the
val ve
Ti me Varyi ng Deadzone
Satu at o teg ato
Gate Input
p
servo system (valve
positioning) and the addition
of a nonlinearity in it.
64
Simulation illustration:
P i l H d li T bi M d l Practical Hydraulic Turbine Model
The practical hydro turbine
d l i d b model is sonamed because
the model varies under
different load conditions [*].
The variations strongly
influence the power system
fre uenc stabilit frequency stability.
Improves design accuracy for
governor control constants. g
Note: The demonstration for this transfer function model for
an hydraulic turbine is very similar to the one we derived as
model for our hydro turbine.
[*] Atsushi Izena, Hidemi Kihara, Toshikazu Shimojo, Kaiichirou Hirayama, Nobuhiko Furukawa, Takahisa Kageyama,Takashi Goto, and Chosei
Okamura, “Practical Hydraulic Turbine Model”
65
model for our hydro turbine.
Simulation illustration Simulation illustration
The simulation was run three times. Each time the system is disturbed using a 10%
load shift from 350 MVA machine to the 100 MVA machine.
The first one without adding the nonlinearity (deadzone).
The second one with adding the nonlinearity (deadzone).
A third one to illustrate the use of PSS (to be discussed later)
[*] Atsushi Izena, Hidemi Kihara, Toshikazu Shimojo, Kaiichirou Hirayama, Nobuhiko Furukawa, Takahisa Kageyama,Takashi Goto, and Chosei
Okamura, “Practical Hydraulic Turbine Model”
[**] IEEE Working Group on Prime Mover and Energy Supply Models for System Dynamic Performance Studies, "Hydraulic Turbine and Turbine
Control Models for Dynamic Studies," IEEE Transactions on Power Systems, Vol.7, No.1, February, 1992, pp. 167179.
66
Simulation illustration
With no Nonlinearity in the System
The simulation without the nonlinearity is stable throughout the
simulation time. This indicates that the hydraulic turbine does not
contribute an oscillatory mode.
System oscillates at
beginning but scale of
plot does not enable it to plot does not enable it to
be well observed here.
67
Simulation illustration
With N li it i th S t With Nonlinearity in the System
By adding the nonlinearity the systems oscillates continuously.
68
Simulation illustration
With Nonlinearity in the System
69
Simulation illustration
With Nonlinearity in the System
The addition of a dead
b d b kl h
OSCILACIÓN DE POTENCIA EN EL SIN
band (backlash) to our
study lead to continuous
oscillation in our model
systems
Periodo 10, Agosto 12 de 2008
60
80
100
120
60.6
60.8
61
61.2
systems.
The behavior is similar to
that of the Colombian
power system.
40
20
0
20
40
59.6
59.8
60
60.2
60.4
P
o
t
e
n
c
i
a
(
M
W
)
F
r
e
c
u
e
n
c
i
a
(
H
z
)
power system.
100
80
60
9
:
1
7
:
0
0
9
:
1
7
:
3
2
9
:
1
8
:
0
4
9
:
1
8
:
3
6
9
:
1
9
:
0
8
9
:
1
9
:
4
0
9
:
2
0
:
1
2
9
:
2
0
:
4
4
9
:
2
1
:
1
6
9
:
2
1
:
4
8
9
:
2
2
:
2
0
9
:
2
2
:
5
2
9
:
2
3
:
2
4
9
:
2
3
:
5
6
9
:
2
4
:
2
8
9
:
2
5
:
0
0
9
:
2
5
:
3
2
9
:
2
6
:
0
4
9
:
2
6
:
3
6
9
:
2
7
:
0
8
9
:
2
7
:
4
0
9
:
2
8
:
1
2
9
:
2
8
:
4
4
9
:
2
9
:
1
6
9
:
2
9
:
4
8
9
:
3
0
:
2
0
9
:
3
0
:
5
2
9
:
3
1
:
2
4
9
:
3
1
:
5
6
9
:
3
2
:
2
8
9
:
3
3
:
0
0
9
:
3
3
:
3
2
9
:
3
4
:
0
4
9
:
3
4
:
3
6
9
:
3
5
:
0
8
9
:
3
5
:
4
0
9
:
3
6
:
1
2
9
:
3
6
:
4
4
9
:
3
7
:
1
6
9
:
3
7
:
4
8
9
:
3
8
:
2
0
9
:
3
8
:
5
2
9
:
3
9
:
2
4
9
:
3
9
:
5
6
59
59.2
59.4
BETANI/13.8/Gen3/P/ JAMOND/230/POMASQ1/P/
JAMOND/230/POMASQ2/P/ TEBSA/230/TrfGn011/P/
TEBSA/230/TrfGn012/P/ FRECUENC/MEDELLIN//Frequ/
70
Simulation illustration
With Nonlinearity in the System
It is possible to see a variety of frequencies of the
71
It is possible to see a variety of frequencies of the
oscillation ranging from 0.03 to 0.09 Hz.
Simulation illustration
Explanation
To validate our simulation model let’s think of the following:
V
( ) ( ) ( )
, ,
2
e m pu e pu
b
H d
T t T t
dt
e
e
= ÷
T
I
Power System
Exfd
V
( ) sin Pm K t c e = +
R t
Te
ωr
t
( )
Pe
Te K =
Turbine
Rotor
Dynamics
Tm
We know that the output power of the turbine oscillates The preceding We know that the output power of the turbine oscillates. The preceding
work suggests that the origin of the oscillation may be a poor
performance of the control systems and nonlinearities in it.
72
Simulation illustration
Explanation
Assume that the limit cycle causes prime mover torque to
oscillate sinusoidally. Then:
( ) ( )
2
sin
e c
b
H d
K t K
dt
e c e
e
= + ÷
( )
0
sin
2
t
b
e c b
t dt
H
e
e c e e = × +
}
b
dt e
0
( ) ( )
1 cos
2
b
e c b
c
t
H
e
e c e e
e
= × ÷ +
This result express that the rotor of the equivalent machine will spin at a This result express that the rotor of the equivalent machine will spin at a
constant component ωb=377rad/s (60Hz) + an oscillatory
component, oscillating at ωc. Additionally, if the prime mover torque
oscillates with a sine function the frequency + oscillatory component will be oscillates with a sine function, the frequency + oscillatory component will be
seen as a ‐cosine function. This validates that oscillations in the prime mover
output will lead oscillations in the system frequency and that they will be in
counter‐phase.
73
Possible solution approaches
Special controls can cancel out the nonlinearities. This stops the
oscillation on the prime mover due to the nonlinearities. If we
maintain the Tm of the prime mover smooth and non
oscillatory the speed of the rotor (related to frequency) will be oscillatory, the speed of the rotor (related to frequency) will be
smooth and nonoscillatory also.
According to what we said before in the case of the dead band g
(backlash), we could also find ways to avoid the high frequencies
in the controls.
l h h l b h h h Controls which equilibrate the torques in the synchronous
machine and add damping. The voltage regulator controls the Te
and adds damping. Can we excite the generator with a signal such and adds damping. Can we excite the generator with a signal such
that the Te equilibrates Tm and damps any oscillation?
74
Possible solution approaches:
Cancelation of nonlinearities Cancelation of nonlinearities
Nonlinearities are present in all systems and can be drawn as the system shown below.
Nonlinearities are a drawback for feedback systems to position the controlled variable y p
in the desired value.
It is possible to find a function that can cancel out those nonlinearities.
In the block below v=IN(u) In the block below v=IN(u)
ud=N(v)=N(IN(u))=u → ud=u.
If we can find it, the system below would work as if it did not have the nonlinearity.
System
y
IN(.) N(.) G(s)
u v ud
y
System
G(s)
System
u
y
Now we have an
approximation to an ideal
system!!!!!!
75
Possible solution approaches:
Cancelation of nonlinearities Cancelation of nonlinearities
Nonlinearities can be canceled very easily when they are non Nonlinearities can be canceled very easily when they are non
time varying and known since they remain the same for all
time t and all conditions.
The problem becomes complicated if the nonlinearities are
time varying and dependant of operating conditions, or
diffi lt t difficult to measure.
N(.) G(s)
System
u ud r
+

How do I access to measure here?????
76
Possible solution approaches: damping
with PSS with PSS
As we have seen, PSS detects power oscillations (rotor and power oscillations) and
gives an extra signal to the voltage regulators to damp the oscillation. Generally
speaking, it acts over the excitation control to modify the electrical torque and gives
the extra signal to equilibrate the Tm with the Te.
www.meppi.com/Products/Generator%20Excitation%20Products%20Documents/Power%20System%20Stabilizer.pdf 77
Possible solution approaches: damping
with a multiband PSS with a multiband PSS
Low band for 0.05 Hz
Medium band for 0.21.0 Hz
PSS4B multimode damping.
High band for 0.84.0 Hz
•We have tuned each stage using the conventional tuning We have tuned each stage using the conventional tuning
approach as described yesterday.
•We think it feasible and beneficial to adopt an online
d ti t i th d i h t [*]
78
adaptive tuning method using phasor measurements [*].
[*]R. Grondin, (U) I. Kamwa, (M) L. Soulieres, (M) J. Potvin, (M) R. Champagne, “An Approach to PSS Design for Transient Stability Improvement
through Supplementary Damping of the Common LowFrequency”
Simulation results with PSS IEEE4B Simulation results with PSS IEEE4B
PSS4B is turned on at 200 [s].
The 0.05 Hz oscillation is
stabilized.
79
Summary Summary
Power system oscillations can be the result of the introductions of y
nonlinearities in the control systems, which under certain operating
conditions can bring about limit cycles.
These limit cycles cannot be observed from simulation studies
unless the model represents the nonlinearities.
W id th d l h d l d f t b We consider the model we have developed so far to be a
“demonstration model,” intended only to provide evidence that the
0.05 Hz oscillation could be caused by these nonlinearities. y
Advanced PSS along with AVRs may be good tools for mitigating
oscillations in power units in a selected range of frequency. This
80
effect is seen when they add controlled damping.
What next?
A. Maintain “open mind” to all possible explanations, including
1. The linearized model is deficient (excludes an important attribute)
or has erroneous data or has erroneous data.
2. There are one or more units having nonlinear elements which create
limit cycles that are manifested in the system as slowly varying (in
frequency and amplitude) oscillations.
3. Both #1 and #2 are true.
4 The 0 05 Hz mode is caused by interactions between modes “Th 4. The 0.05 Hz mode is caused by interactions between modes, “The
results of the numerical simulations show that lowfrequency modes may interact
nonlinearly producing intermodulation components at the sum and/or difference frequency
of the fundamental modes of oscillation.” A. Messina, V. Vittal, “Assessment of nonlinear , ,
interaction between nonlinearly coupled modes using higher order spectra,” IEEE
Transactions on Power Systems, Feb. 2005.
5. There are other explanations of which we have not yet considered.
81
p y
What next?
B D l l h l f l B. Develop ways to explore each explanation, for example:
1. The linearized model is deficient (excludes an important attribute)
or has erroneous data. or has erroneous data.
a. Test each major unit and associated controls with smallsignal probes and
compare frequency response to that of the models. Adjust model as necessary.
This is what Psymetrics is doing. This is what Psymetrics is doing.
b. Improve modeling of the interconnection external to Colombia.
c. Improve load models.
2 Th it h i li l t hi h t 2. There are one or more units having nonlinear elements which create
limit cycles that are manifested in the system as slowly varying (in
frequency and amplitude) oscillations.
a. Place “mechanical PMUs” (sensors with timestamps) on the servo mechanisms
of each major unit to monitor its behavior during oscillations.
b. Obtain the process diagrams of all major power plants, and build a simulation
82
p g j p p
model of the Colombian power system that contains the nonlinear elements.
Gen modeling: 2.2 Vs. 1.1
This exemplification is to
show how we may lose
valuable information when valuable information when
we neglect some transient
effects via reduced models.
Dynamic Performance of an hydro turbine generator during a 3phase fault at
the terminals
Krause P., Wasynczuk O., Sudhoff S., “Analysis of Electrical Machines and drive Systems,” Wiley, 2002.
83
Questions? Questions?
84
Overview of this seminar
1. 1 2.
The C l bi Power S t O ill ti Th Columbian P System Oscillation Model building:
Governor Actuator Interconnected network Hydro turbine Multiple generators Generator dynamics
3. 4. 5.
Nonlinear effects Model building: nonlinear effects Model building:
Voltage regulators and excitation e citation Load modeling
2
6. 7. 8.
Simulation illustration Possible solution approaches bl l h Summary and what’s next…
Case: The Colombian Power System Observation
Frequency oscillation in the Colombian Power System seen in August the 12th of 2008. Courtesy of XM Colombia. 3
Case: The Colombian Power System Observation
First Oscillation Sampled (green): 9*4=32s. S Second Oscillation S d O ill ti Sampled (T ) 8*4=32 l d (Tan): 8*4=32s. Third Oscillation Sampled (Light green): 5*4=20s.
In the plot, the oscillation period of 20 sec is repeated often. plot often Yet, there are still excursions having a period of 32s. Thus, the observed oscillation ranges from 0.03Hz to 0.05Hz approximately. g pp y It is not fixed at 0.05Hz. The signal is negatively damped at the beginning of the observation. It is positively d l damped after system stabilization process occurred. d f bl d The signal in the plot is bounded such that 59.1 f (t ) 61.1 [ Hz ] A bounded oscillation is suggestive of a limit cycle…. b d d ill i i i f li i l
4
which is a non robust condition In real life stable oscillations condition…. 19962002 . There are nonlinear systems that can go into an oscillation of fixed y g amplitude and frequency. must be produced by nonlinear systems.Limit Cycles: “ “For a l linear timeinvariant system to oscillate. its observed effect in the power system (as in the previous plot) could exhibit small h l ld h b ll changes in frequency and amplitude. life. “Nonlinear Systems. Such a phenomena may be occurring in the governoractuator loop. it must ll have a pair of eigenvalues on the imaginary axis. ” This is called a limit cycle.” Prentice Hall. 5 [*] Khalil Hassan. and if so. irrespective of the initial state [*].
6 . Rauhala.” Springer.org/docs/Reactive%20Power%20&%20Freq_relationship_CBIP. Wilbor. 7. Ingram. VOL. 5 6. 1967. St E k d M i L Crow. 6. Vol. PAS103. “ Effect of Torsional Mode Coupling on TCSC Related Subsynchronous Resonance Studies. “The Effects of Hydro Power Plant’s Governor Settings on the stability of Turkish Power System Frequency. 1996. 2009. R. Lee K. Arif Ertaş.pdf. . May 2005. 7.. 12. Atsushi Izena. “ Design of New Adaptive Fuzzy Logic Controller for Nonlinear Plants with Unknown or TimeVarying Deadzones. “Hydraulic Control Systems. Nov.. (U) I. Taylor C. C “Bulk Power S t L F System Low Frequency O ill ti Oscillation Suppression By FACTS/ESS. Katayama. 11.” Prentince Hall. Toshikazu Shimojo. 2005 Tao Gang. Vineeta. Krause Paul C. P.” at http://www. Grondin. 3. 1984. “Practical Hydraulic Turbine Model”. No. 1986. Potvin. Khalil Hassan K. Member. Osman Bülent Tör. SeokYong Oh and DongJo Park.” IEEE transactions. A. 1998. 16 17.” IEEE series.” P. (M) R. Kaiichirou Hirayama. Vuorenpää. Y. 5.” 2006 International Conference on Power System Technology. “An Approach to PSS Design for Transient Stability Improvement through Supplementary Damping of the Common LowFrequency. Youzhong Miao. “Analysis of Electrical Machinery. Dale T. July 1966. 2003.S. .C. Bevrani Hassan.. Hidemi Kihara. Tao Wu. Jiayang Guo. Grondin R.. Agrawal Suruchi Jain. PAS85. Mariesa L.” IEEE Transactions.Some helpful references for the understanding of q y low frequency oscillations 1. 2002. “Mechanism Study of Large Power Oscillation of Interarea Lines Caused by Local Mode. Järventausta. Trudel G.” S. Merritt Herbert E. 4. “Robust Power System Frequency Control. Tha C. “Automatic Generation Control Analysis with governor Deadband Effects. Vol. 10. 8. Kamwa I. Tohru Katayama “Subspace Methods for System Identification. Soulieres. PAS98. 1979. 16. 15.” IEEE Transactions on Power Apparatus and Systems. Qunju Li. 18.” F. 20. “The coordination of hydraulic turbine governors for power system operation. “B lk P Steve Eckroad. 4. (M) L..” IEEE Transactions. Tao Wu. Vol. 13. Weimin Su and Yong Tang. Bhatti T. Fouad. Jiayang Guo. B h Zh Y Li Michael R I D l T Brashaw.K. Mahmut Erkut Cebeci. Anderson P.Soonee.” Wiley. No.nrldc.S.” IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems. Subspace Identification Springer. T.. (M) J. Schleif and A.” McGrawHill. Mi h l R. 21.” Li Zhang.. 19. “ h h h “Sample Data Automatic Generation Control Analysis with reheat Steam Turbines and Governor DeadBand l l l h h b d d d Effects. “Power System Control and Stability. Liu.. Weimin Su and Yong Tang. 14.” Youzhong Miao.. 2. 9.” Wiley. Triparthy S. Vol. “Reactive Power and System Frequency Relationship: A Case of Study.” Springer 2005. Y. “Nonlinear Systems. Champagne. 20. “IEEE2B Versus PSSS4B: The Limits of Performance of Modern Power System Stabilizers. Kamwa. “Mechanism Study of Large Power Oscillation of Interarea Lines Caused by Local Mode. “Adaptative control of Systems with Actuator and Sensor Nonlinearities. Qunju Li.
surge pressures. may vary with time. ( ) (16) Generators from different dynamic g y groups swing against each other in the p g g power system 0. They are usually unknown and.5Hz. They indicate that this problem is “most y y y gg sensitive to servosystem delay” and that it “may be either aggravated or suppressed by adjustment of servosystem gain. Fast valving . (20) Reports the phenomenon that oscillations can be caused by delay introduced by governor dashpot action (backlash). (17) Mechanism of large power oscillations of interarea lines can be caused by local mode. PSSs help the damping of low g g p p p g frequencies. (13) Deadzone characteristics are included (typical characteristic) in many practical plants such as electric servomotors and hydraulic servovalves. y (18) Studies show that relation of the reactive power with respect to frequency is negative. One generator oscillating in one area influences the rest of the system.Highlights from previous studies (8) Model and parameters of a hydraulic system and turbine characteristics strongly influence the power system frequency stability. moreover.” 7 .1 2. (19) Damping through a supplementary governor control at a large hydrog generator unit.
turbinegenerator dynamics. area frequency sensing. telemetry. actuators. .Modeling: The Power Plant Overview g Primary Loop Control: Speed Governor. local sensors. • 8 Secondary Loop Control: Generation Control System (AGC).
Modeling: Swing Equation – Rotor Dynamics Te. pu t b dt Torque imbalances produce acceleration and deceleration. ωe Tm. pu t Te . 9 . T ωm J Power system dynamics is largely concerned with the rotation of a mass. From Newton’s second law for the rotation Newton s of a mass with inertia J we can derive: 2H d e Tm . We want to control this.
l h ll d h Controller (governor): processes signals from the turbine 10 generator and sends back commands to maintain the speed within the desired boundaries. If the speed deviates. g Actuator (power amplifier): Because the governor does not have the necessary power to move large gates or valves. .Modeling: Primary Control Loop The objective of the primary control is to maintain the speed of the rotating mass close to its nominal value. it requires coupling to transform the low power signal of the controller to a li f h l i l f h ll high power signal. the governor repositions the valve or gate that injects steam or water. There are two main components to observe in the primary loop control: the controller and the actuator.
Then the new operating point (ωb. the new steadystate operating point is ( Y) ω<ωb and Y>Y1. . . (ωb Y2) is reached This is done by the AGC. The new frequency ω is different than ωb. Note:Y can be Power or Gate Position 1 R Y 1 R r ' r e 0 11 R is the droop characteristic.Only when Steady State is reached do we have ωr=ωb. p gp (ω.Y2) reached. ) This is done by the governor action.Y1) With a load increase. Secondary Control: Yref is controlled till the error in system frequency becomes zero.Modeling: The Controller – Speed Droop Primary Control: P i C t l The Unit is operating at conditions (ωb.
C PID (s ) 12 .Model building: adding governor It is common to use PID controllers in the governor loop (CPID(s)) ki CPID s k p kd s s Water /Steam The objective of the controller is to keep e=0. This guarantees that Y is set in the desired position.
” Wiley. The most basic actuator is the y p y . Basic idea: A small energy “input” displacement v(t) results in a large energy “output” displacement y(t).Modeling: Actuator A Actuator couples controller and fi l control d i ( l ll d final l device (gates or valves). hich causes move (t) nits Note: The force needed in v is small. Give a small linear displacement v(t) to the right. “Hydraulic Control Systems. 13 [*] Merritt Herbert E. 1967. . but the force obtained in y is big. then the spool moves to the right letting flow at pressure P to be routed through inlet A spool which ca ses mass M to mo e y(t) linear units. More details are in [*]. l ) The actuator usually uses hydraulic energy. double effect cylinder operated by a servo valve..
It is important to point out that the servo system has limits in both speed and displacement.u. These are nonlinearities. closedloop representation of this actuator is below. which enables it to position the output as indicated by reference input r(t) r(t). p p 14 .Modeling: Actuator The p.
.Modeling: Actuator intheloop g p Water Spraying 15 Note: The process is similar for other turbine types.
kp ki kd s s R is the speed droop. 16 . our power plant in a reduced fashion is modeled as below.Model building: Adding actuator & g g g governor With the previous considerations.
pu t Ptie. p t p pu b dt i 1 i 1 H 17 2H 2H equ d e PM . we conceive equ of an aggregated prime mover and generator having Because ∆f is always relatively Ppu Tpu small. pu t PL. pu t b dt .2 Tm. we may approximate that an i ti Hequ inertia N M 2 H equ d e Pmi .Modeling: Net torques g q Te Tm.n For a network of N g generators and M buses. pu t Pei .3 ….1 Tm. Tm.
we obtain: 2 H equ 18 d e. t t f the load in t is t Thus. Accounting for this. and then linearizing for small excursions and perunitizing the angular frequency. pu PM .Modeling: Net torques & load damping ωe PM Hequ PL Ptie 2 H equ d q e PM . pu t Ptie. pu t PL. pu Ptie. pu t PL. pu t De. pu t dt . small excursions of frequency changes the electric load. pu t b dt A great percentage of th l d i a power system i motors.
pu s Df e. pu f e. pu s PL. pu • And taking the Laplace transform: 2H 2H equ sf e. pu s PM . pu s 2 H equ s D 19 .Modeling: Net torques & frequency • Using the fact that: e. pu s PL . pu s Ptie . pu s PM . pu s Ptie. pu s • Solving for Δf(s): 1 f e.
θ2.V2] In a multiple Area Power System: A1 A2 Generalizing f l from Area i to Area j : Ptie.ij VV j i Active Power Flow from Area 1 to Area 2 can be written as: VV Ptie.ij Tsij ( i j ) .θ1.12 1 2 sin 1 2 X 12 X ij VV j i X ij sin i j Linearizing: A3 A4 A5 Ptie.V1] Tie Line Ti Li 12 Control Area A 2 [f2.ij cos io jo i j Synchronizing Power Coefficient C ff Tsij ViV j X ij cos( i 0 j 0 ) 20 Ptie.Modeling: Frequency control in an interconnected network Control Area A 1 [f1.
pu s 2 fb Tsij . pu s f j .ij .ij (i ( s ) j ( s )) Converting f C ti from rad/sec t H and perunitizing: d/ to Hz. d iti i Ptie.Modeling: Frequency Control in an Interconnected Network We know that: d e e dt Taking the Laplace transform: g p e s e s s Tsij s Ptie. pu s 21 . pu s fi .ij Tsij ( i j ) Ptie.
Modeling: Frequency control in an interconnected network i d k Focusing on area j only.i s Tsij . pu f j . pu s i 1 s i 1 j i j i Representing in block Diagram: 22 . pu s Tsij . it can be shown by induction that: g y. y N 2 f b N Ptie . pu f i . pu .
We still need to consider turbine dynamics. 23 .Model building: Adding network frequency control This is our generator model.
org/2008/09/24/constituentsofhydroelectricplant/\ http://www.tfd. low speed.chalmers. H=6m – 244m): Francis . H>260m): Pelton Turbines Reaction Turbines (low head. head high speed .gif 24 .se/~hani/phdproject/francispicture.Kaplan p Deriaz (Modified Kaplan) http://electricalandelectronics.Modeling: Hydroturbine Models g y Impulse Turbines (high head.
98 . h’. A Turbine A3 From the conservation of energy for a small element of mass travelling from A1 to A3: Surge Tank Ho h’’ h’ h motion the pressure at A3 is constant (Ho). E mgh A1 E A3 Elosses 25 1 2 v C 2 gh v 2 gh mv 2 C=Nozzle coefficient. pressure surges! Crosssectional area of the penstock may vary. typically 0. (h h h’’).Modeling: Hydroturbine Models When water is not in Dam Forebay A1 Conduit A2 Penstock=L Qo. when water is in motion the pressure at A3 changes dynamically (h.h ). However.
along the penstock (>0 3Hz) It (>0. Water hammer: It is the travelling of pressure waves Tm Tm h. The effect of speed on the flow is i regardless i pelton t bi dl in lt turbines. y. and speed (ω). h y T T T h y h y When water hammer effects are considered. Linearizing both equations: causes the head (pressure) to Q Q Q be a function of the rate of Q h y change of flow.3Hz). Q Q h. valve or gate position (y). we have: . and taking the Laplace transform we obtain: T H s WH s Q s 26 where WH(s) is the linear water hammer effect in the s domain. h hQ Linearizing the above. y. .Modeling: Hydroturbine Models Water flow Q and torque Tm in any hydro turbine are functions of the head (h).
Δω Q T 27 .Modeling: Hydroturbine Models Hydro turbine Q h Q y ΔQ Water Hammer WH(s) ΔH T y Δy T h ΔT Speed signal comes from swing equation Partial derivatives come from field tests.
Toshikazu Shimojo. Nobuhiko Furukawa. and Chosei Okamura.Takashi Goto. Takahisa Kageyama. 28 [*] Atsushi Izena. Kaiichirou Hirayama.Modeling: Hydroturbine Models Y is gate position Speed ω=1 ∂Q/∂ω Speed ω (pu) This data is used to update the hydro turbine model as the speed and gate position change. “Practical Hydraulic Turbine Model” . Hidemi Kihara.
Anderson and A. 2003. respectively. L. Q0 L gH 0 A Te L c . we have: Q h Q y + + ΔQ Water Hammer H ΔH T y ΔT=Torque small signal ΔP=Power small signal + ΔT= ΔP in p. “Power System Control and Stability.” IEEE series.1Te2 s 2 Elastic water Hammer 29 H s Tw s Q s Inelastic water Hammer Tw Note: Detailed derivation of water hammer effects can be found at: P. Fouad.Modeling: Hydroturbine Models Hydro turbine When neglecting speed deviations for small excursions. C is nozzle coefficient.u. A are penstock length & crosssectional area. Here: Tw= water inertia time Te= elastic time (in seconds) Δy T h Elastic and inelastic water hammer is represented by: H s Tw s Q s 1 0.
.. Then we solve the closed loop transfer function to obtain: T s 1Tws Y s 1 0.5 h T 1 y T 1.” IEEE transactions on power apparatus and systems. Pgs (93)4. “Field testing and simulation of hydraulic governor performance. July 1974. the former representation (three slides previous) with dependence on speed variation should be used when considering large speed excursions. this is not valid for large excursions in speed.F.5 h which are typical constants as shown in [*]. However... we use the inelastic form of water hammer with Q 1 y Q 0. which we are in analyzing the Colombian oscillation. .Modeling: Hydroturbine Models Hydro turbine From the previous slide. H. 30 [*] Thorne D. Thus. Hill E.5Tws This is the very well known turbine model representation.
Model building: adding hydro turbine SERVO 31 .
we have: 32 . representing each machine’s lti hi t in i l ti h hi ’ individual controls but a single equivalent rotating mass.Model building: Adding multiple generators For F a multimachine system i a single area.
Effects of the voltage regulators and excitation.Modeling: Remaining issues to consider Generator dynamics (nonlinear description & transient behavior) Nonlinearities (discontinuities) in the control systems. Load models 33 .
but causes required simulation time to be very large. Reduced Models. some dynamics are lost since these models are based on some approximations (th classical model i i thi category). Gives approximate dynamical models. however. 34 . states. i ti (the l i l d l is in this t ) High fidelity models Comprehensively models generator models. g fidelity models and reduced models. high pp g g .Modeling: Generator Dynamics There are various approaches for the modeling of generators.
Modeling: Various IEEE standard models High fidelity models 35 .
The basis for this is that the internal fluxes of the generator don’t change abruptly (within the first second of a disturbance).0.Modeling: Classical Model For very basic studies the g y generator can be modeled as a constant voltage behind the transient reactance. This model is sometimes designated model 0. E Vt sin P e X 'd 36 .
• If the system is stable. • When reaching the desired position (load setting) the q axis of the rotor oscillates qaxis oscillates. In the transient: E Vt P sin e X 'd ωe qaxis network qaxis rotor ωb Round Rotor 1 E Vt 1 Vt 2 P sin sin 2 e X X 2 X 'd d q Salient Pole Rotor Δδ ωe δ ωb 37 • To load the machine. Then the qaxis of the generator leads the qaxis of the system and desired load is q y delivered. . δ=0. E and Vt are assumed constant in the classical model. the rotor needs some acceleration. Vbus=Vgen.Conceptual understanding of generator action: classical model How do our generators work in the power system? Before synchronizing a machine to the system (breaker closure) ωb=ωe. We adjust that load by governor action. the desired angle δ is reached until ωe=ωb.
pu t b dt Te . p pu d e dt By combining rotor and generator dynamics: E Vt d 2H d 2 sin D Tm . pu t 2 b dt X 'd dt 38 . pu t Te .Conceptual understanding of generator action: classical model From our swing equation we have the rotor dynamics: We know that generator obeys: E Vt Pe . pu sin Pe p X 'd 2H d e Tm .
h i load).Conceptual understanding of generator action: classical model The last equation shows that the rotor does not spin at a constant speed in th transient (i a change in l d) t t d i the t i t (i. thus. The dynamics of the rotor (acceleration – deacceleration) depends on the Tm and Te Te. g g g 39 When Wh we think of electromechanical oscillations i power hi k f l h i l ill i in systems we should think of rotors changing their qaxis constantly (it means acceleration and deceleration in the rotors) by effects of the external torques Tm and Te!!!!!!!! .e. The power system is never in steady state.. it is dynamically changing and with this the rotors are oscillating.
2 means two windings in the qaxis (field winding and damper winding) and two windings in the daxis (damper windings) 40 .Gen modeling: High Fidelity Model (2.2) 2.
pu t b dt e . pu t Te .2) 41 The expression for the electrical torque is: 2H d Tm .Gen modeling: High Fidelity Model (2.
42 . fidelity model of the generator. We now consider nonlinearities in the control loops. the governor/actuator controls and a highcontrols.Where are we? We have developed a model of the power system that includes enhanced t th t i l d h d representation of the hydroturbine.
u Tools: Computer simulation C t i l ti Nonlinear analysis methods . 43 . x. x. Analysis in frequency domain domain. However. G s C sI A B D 1 . u y g t . Nonlinear S Systems The real power system ( p y (the real world) is a nonlinear system ) y which most of the time for analysis purposes is approximated with a linear description since it is simpler. Linear System: y Non Linear NonLinear System x Ax Bu y Cx Du Tools: Transfer function. the real system is nonlinear nonlinear. x f t .Nonlinear effects: Linear S Li Systems V N li Vs.
. and electrical servomotors. ). Th are almost everywhere in control systems and are common They l h l d in actuators. 44 . They may be caused by imperfections of system components. mechanical connections (j (joints). They can limit static and dynamic performance of feedback control systems.Nonlinear effects: systems & nonlinearities Nonlinearities are nonsmooth discontinuous characteristics of systems. such as servovalves.
Nonlinear effects: types of nonlinearities The most common nonlinearities found in systems are: Dead Zone (Dead Band) Backlash Saturation Viscous and Friction Forces Static and Coulomb Friction. 45 . etc.
Nonlinear effects: Dead Zone Dead zones are sometimes designed into components intentionally. Memoryless: only M l l matters where you are now. This type of nonlinearity is memoryless. But they can bring about undesirable effects in control loops. not where y you have been. 46 .
Nonlinear effects: physical intuition of dead zone effects
Deadzones in the actuator can cause blinding (no response) of the final
actuator to small changes that the control system might request. ll h h h l i h For example, consider
1. Steady state 1 Steadystate valve opening is 70%, but the controller (PID) requests the 70% actuator to change it due to a variation in the system load conditions to 71%; 2. 2 Under that request the actuator may not respond to the small change because of the presence of a deadzone at that operating point; 3. The error signal in the system increases; 4. The control signal out of the controller increases until it is large enough to surpass the servo deadzone effect. p , p , g 5. At this point, the servo operates, but because the controller signal is now very large, the servo overcompensates to 72%. 6. The controller now sends a correction signal and the process repeats.
47
Nonlinear effects: Observed dead zone phenomena
From a commissioning
Prueba G6  Señales Actuador Hidráulico. (Past Comissioning of unit G6 hydraulic servo system )
110
48
test, we see that the red line is the set point of the servo system and the blue line is the actual position of the servo. Observe the error between the setpoint and actual servo position d t l iti The output lags the input, likely as a result of dead zone.
120
110
100
100
90
90
80
Setpoint
80
Actual Servo Position
70
70
60
60 4 9 14 19 Set Point Posición Potencia Activa 24 29 Posición Servomotor 34
50
Nonlinear effects: Backlash
Backlash is typically found in mechanical joints. yp y j Its effect can be harmful. This nonlinearity has memory. y y
49
Nonlinear effects: Saturation
Saturation represents limits in controls. This limits can be in speed, position, control signal level, etc. In servo systems, the hydraulic flow available is controlled by
flow l fl valves.
50
Nonlinear effects: Other nonlinearities 51 .
This is also a nonlinearity and may produce oscillatory effects.Nonlinear effects: Backlash as Result of Dead zone Dead zones in the forward path of a servoloop can bring about backlash in the closed loop responses. after applying a common input r(t) respectively. . 52 Note: Saturation is also added in real systems. let’s compare the output of the close loop servo system with dead zone (y1). This is in practice done to avoid water hammer due to fast action of water flow control valves (speed limit). To demonstrate this in a simple way. and the output through the backlash (y2).
8 r(t) [re ].9 0. we see that both lags the input r(t).2 0 2 0. Green=Backlash Output Signal y2(t). (t) re n 0.3 0. simulation it is demonstrated that dead zones in the forward path of a system can cause backlash effects in the close loop behavior. 0. Setpoint and Output Signals Comparison 1 0.5 0. d f l Blue=Servovalve loop Output Signal y1(t).4 0.1 53 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 t(s) 60 70 80 90 100 .7 Red=Reference Signal r(t).6 0.Nonlinear effects: Backlash as result of Dead zone When comparing y1(t) and y2(t). y1 [b e y2 [g e ] d (t) lu ]. The blue signal y1(t) is similar to the green signal y2(t) and both almost follow the same trajectory By trajectory.
02 1 s Integrator y y1(t) Turbine y r1(t) d=0.Nonlinear effects: Backlash as result of Dead zone Thus.07s+1 Dead Zone Servovalve1 d=0. g q y nonlinearity found in the servo systems control loop should be modeled as backlash nonlinearity when using very reduced models.33 r1(t) 0. for large frequency control studies the dead zone . speed limit 3. Yhp= Gate high power signal.02 y1(t) Actuator Reduced Model ωref Δωref Governor Ylp Yhp Rotor Dynamics ωr 54 Ylp= Gate low power signal. .
2 0 0.8 1 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 t(s) 6 7 8 9 10 55 .2 0.4 0.4 0.Nonlinear effects: Backlash Effects What are the effects of Backlash? To describe effects of backlash.8 1 0.6 0.2 0 u(t) 0.6 y(t) 0.6 0.2 0.6 0.8 0.8 0.2 0. pp p of the backlash block when we apply a sine signal to the input.6 0. Backlash Behavior 0.2 0 0. let’s see what happens to the output .4 0.Output Backlash Effect I t O t t B kl h Eff t 1 0.4 y(t) u(t) u(t).8 08 H/2 Input .4 0.6 0.8 0.4 0.y( (t) H 0.
1 F requenc y (H z) r 60.95 59.Load (p.1 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 Time (s) 30 35 40 45 50 Let’s analyze the effect of plugging the nonlinearity in the system below.9 59.9 59. Without Nonlinearity 60.5 0.2 0.05 60 59.1 Freq uency (Hz) 60.) Nonlinear effects: Backlash as result of Dead zone Load Step Change 0. The one with the nonlinearity shows limit cycles of constant f l f frequency. Only Primary control.4 0.u.95 59 95 59. The test without the nonlinearity shows no limit y cycles.05 60 59.85 0 5 10 15 20 25 Time (s) 30 35 40 45 50 With Nonlinearity 60.85 0 5 10 15 20 25 Time (s) 30 35 40 45 50 56 System with Primary loop control only .3 0.
15 Frequ uency (Hz) 60.96 59.95 59.94 0 5 10 25 30 35 Time (s) Secondary Control with Nonlinearity 15 20 40 45 50 60.Nonlinear effects: Backlash as result of Dead zone The addition of a secondary loop control does not damp the limit cycles contained in the primary loop control. Secondary Control without Nonlinearity y y 60.04 Frequ uency (Hz) 60. The step is the same applied before.9 0 5 10 15 20 25 Time (s) 30 35 40 45 50 57 .98 59.05 60 59.1 60.06 60.02 60 59.
Model building: Inclusion of nonlinearities Our control loop now looks interesting. 58 .
We have seen this in the earlier presentation. and it can add or reduce damping to an oscillation. i contributes to the electrical torque i k it ib h l i l in the generators. Besides controlling the terminal voltage of the generators as known. 59 .Model building: Voltage regulators & excitation Voltage regulators play an important role in the system stability. And p so we do represent a static excitation system in our model.
f .. thus. It may be necessary to model load with greater fidelity. z . V=voltage. f . loads play a very important role in the analysis of electrical oscillations.. 60 .. t=time. y conditions.. Tm t ilib t the Te i th hi Our model accounts for load effects only by adding the damping characteristic D in the swing equation. and many other p y g . The power system controls are designed to follow the load variations and supply the necessary T to equilibrate th T in the machines. T=temperature. T . t .. frequency. P P (V . f=frequency. q y. T .) Q Q(V . etc..) ) where: z=load demand. We know that the load influences the Te of the synchronous machines. t . z .Model building: Load modeling The power consumed by loads varies with voltage.
accompanied with the dynamic response of the system. The mechanical torque Tm is controlled by the prime movers and their controls (turbine and governor/actuator) The electrical torque Te is controlled by the generator dynamics (controller AVR). 61 . and the interconnected power grid (loads). Nonlinearities produce limit cycles. This dynamic torque of the system can cause variation in the oscillation damping (negative or positive). If the controls oscillate the controlled cycles oscillate. too.So summarize . equipment will.why the power system oscillates The underlying phenomena is the torque imbalance between the Tm and Te.
A PSS 4B will b added to d ll be dd d damp out the oscillation mode seen b the addition of h ll d by h dd f the nonlinearity [***]. "Hydraulic Turbine and Turbine Control Models for Dynamic Studies. 20. Toshikazu Shimojo. Takahisa Kageyama." IEEE Transactions on Power Systems. No. pp. Vol. 1992. “IEEE PSS2B Versus PSS4B: The Limits of Performance of Modern Power System Stabilizers. operating point and time. 2. Hidemi Kihara. 167179. A 100MVA hydro –turbine unit is modeled with the IEEE standard representation for dynamic studies as in [**]. Kaiichirou Hirayama. 62 ..Simulation illustration: :description The simulated system is composed of two hydro units supplying a single load which are interconnected by the transmissions lines respectively. p y [ ] A nonlinearity type dead zone was added to the servo positioning system of the 250MVA hydro unit which is a function of the input.” Vol. [***] Kamwa I. No. Grondin R. “Practical Hydraulic Turbine Model” [**] IEEE Working Group on Prime Mover and Energy Supply Models for System Dynamic Performance Studies. 2005.1. February.Takashi Goto. Nobuhiko Furukawa. The two generators are modeled using high fidelity generators models (2.7.2).. [*] Atsushi Izena. A 250MVA hydro unit is modeled with a practical turbine model from [*]. and Chosei y Okamura.
0045 Speed Ref erence 0. Ref erence Tubine Output <Stator v oltage v q (pu)> <Stator v oltage v d (pu)> 250 MVA unit with “highfidelity” modeling m Actual Power <Output activ e power Peo (pu)> <Rotor speed dev iation dw (pu)> HydroTurbine and Speed Governing System w A A B Vf _ C B C a b c A A A B C A B C 1.0 v ref vd Vf vq Synchronous Machine 250 MVA 20 kV T1: 900MVA 20 kV230 kV B B C C 25km Area 1 10 km Area 1 dw Vstab v stab 300MW 80MVAR Clock <Stator v oltage v q (pu)> <Stator v oltage v d (pu)> <Rotor speed wm (pu)> <Output activ e power Peo (pu)> <Rotor speed dev iation dw (pu)> 1.0 v ref vd Vf vq v stab Synchronous Machine 100 MVA 20 kV1 T2: 900MVA 20 kV/230 kV 25km Area 2 63 Excitation System1 A B C MBPSS Switch Excitation System .05 Gate Drop Pos.Simulation illustration: 1.5 wref Pref we Pe0 gate dw Pm A m Pm 100 MVA unit with “standard” modeling A B C A B C A a b c HTG Vf _ B C B C 1.05 0.
s+1 valve Satu at o Saturation 1 s teg ato Integrator 1 Gate Output Time Varying D d Ti V i Deadzone . 64 1 Gate Input u.Simulation illustration Inside the Prime mover block of the 250MVA power plant which represents the hydro turbine and speed governing system we have: This block represents the practical hydro turbine and its controls. t . P y ka Ta. l 2 P P u p This block represents the servo system (valve positioning) and the addition of a nonlinearity in it.
Simulation illustration: Practical H d li T bi M d l P i l Hydraulic Turbine Model The practical hydro turbine model is sonamed b d li d because the model varies under different load conditions [*]. Toshikazu Shimojo. Improves design accuracy for g governor control constants. “Practical Hydraulic Turbine Model” .Takashi Goto. and Chosei Okamura. Nobuhiko Furukawa. The variations strongly influence the power system frequency stabilit fre uenc stability. Takahisa Kageyama. Hidemi Kihara. Note: The demonstration for this transfer function model for an hydraulic turbine is very similar to the one we derived as model for our hydro turbine. 65 [*] Atsushi Izena. Kaiichirou Hirayama.
1992." IEEE Transactions on Power Systems. Toshikazu Shimojo. Kaiichirou Hirayama. The first one without adding the nonlinearity (deadzone).1. The second one with adding the nonlinearity (deadzone).7. and Chosei Okamura. 167179.Simulation illustration The simulation was run three times. pp. A third one to illustrate the use of PSS (to be discussed later) 66 [*] Atsushi Izena. Nobuhiko Furukawa. February. No. Vol. . "Hydraulic Turbine and Turbine Control Models for Dynamic Studies. Takahisa Kageyama. “Practical Hydraulic Turbine Model” [**] IEEE Working Group on Prime Mover and Energy Supply Models for System Dynamic Performance Studies. Each time the system is disturbed using a 10% load shift from 350 MVA machine to the 100 MVA machine.Takashi Goto. Hidemi Kihara.
System oscillates at beginning but scale of plot does not enable it to be well observed here. 67 .Simulation illustration With no Nonlinearity in the System The simulation without the nonlinearity is stable throughout the simulation time. This indicates that the hydraulic turbine does not contribute an oscillatory mode.
Simulation illustration With N li Nonlinearity i th S t it in the System By adding the nonlinearity the systems oscillates continuously. 68 .
Simulation illustration With Nonlinearity in the System 69 .
2 60 5 9 . A g o s to 1 2 d e 2 0 0 8 120 100 80 60 40 20 6 1 .2 59 1 0 0 .8 /G e n 3 /P / JA M O N D /2 3 0 /P O M A S Q 2 /P / TE B S A /2 3 0 /T rfG n 0 1 2 /P / JA M O N D /2 3 0 /P O M A S Q 1 /P / T E B S A /2 3 0 /T rfG n 0 1 1 /P / F R E C U E N C /M E D E LLIN //F re q u / 5 9 .6 5 9 .8 6 0 .4 6 0 .8 5 9 . Frecuencia (Hz) Potencia (MW) 0 2 0 4 0 6 0 8 0 9:17:00 9:17:32 9:18:04 9:18:36 9:19:08 9:19:40 9:20:12 9:20:44 9:21:16 9:21:48 9:22:20 9:22:52 9:23:24 9:23:56 9:24:28 9:25:00 9:25:32 9:26:04 9:26:36 9:27:08 9:27:40 9:28:12 9:28:44 9:29:16 9:29:48 9:30:20 9:30:52 9:31:24 9:31:56 9:32:28 9:33:00 9:33:32 9:34:04 9:34:36 9:35:08 9:35:40 9:36:12 9:36:44 9:37:16 9:37:48 9:38:20 9:38:52 9:39:24 9:39:56 70 B E T A N I/1 3 . systems The behavior is similar to that of the Colombian power system.2 61 6 0 .6 6 0 .4 The addition of a dead band b kl h b d (backlash) to our study lead to continuous oscillation in our model systems.Simulation illustration With Nonlinearity in the System O S C IL A C IÓ N D E P O T E N C IA E N E L S IN P e rio d o 1 0 .
09 Hz.Simulation illustration With Nonlinearity in the System 71 It is possible to see a variety of frequencies of the oscillation ranging from 0. .03 to 0.
. pu t b dt Exfd Pm K sin t V Power System I Te T ωr Pe Te K t Tm Turbine Rotor R t Dynamics 72 We know that the output power of the turbine oscillates The preceding oscillates.Simulation illustration Explanation To validate our simulation model let’s think of the following: 2H d e Tm . pu t Te . work suggests that the origin of the oscillation may be a poor performance of the control systems and nonlinearities in it.
This validates that oscillations in the prime mover output will lead oscillations in the system frequency and that they will be in counter‐phase.Simulation illustration Explanation Assume that the limit cycle causes prime mover torque to oscillate sinusoidally. . if the prime mover torque oscillates with a sine function. the frequency + oscillatory component will be oscillates with a sine function the frequency + oscillatory component will be seen as a ‐cosine function. oscillating at ωc. Additionally. Then: 2H d e K sin c t K b dt b t e sin c t dt b 2H 0 b e 1 cos c t b 2 c H This result express that the rotor of the equivalent machine will spin at a This result express that the rotor of the equivalent machine will spin at a 73 constant component ωb=377rad/s (60Hz) + an oscillatory component.
This stops the 74 oscillation on the prime mover due to the nonlinearities.Possible solution approaches Special controls can cancel out the nonlinearities. Can we excite the generator with a signal such that the Te equilibrates Tm and damps any oscillation? . oscillatory the speed of the rotor (related to frequency) will be smooth and nonoscillatory also. If we maintain the Tm of the prime mover smooth and non oscillatory. we could also find ways to avoid the high frequencies in the controls. According to what we said before in the case of the dead band g (backlash). Controls which equilibrate the torques in the synchronous l h h lb h h h machine and add damping. The voltage regulator controls the Te and adds damping.
In the block below v=IN(u) ud=N(v)=N(IN(u))=u → ud=u.Possible solution approaches: Cancelation of nonlinearities Nonlinearities are present in all systems and can be drawn as the system shown below. Nonlinearities are a drawback for feedback systems to position the controlled variable y p in the desired value. If we can find it.) ud G(s) y System 75 u G(s) y Now we have an approximation to an ideal system!!!!!! . It is possible to find a function that can cancel out those nonlinearities. the system below would work as if it did not have the nonlinearity.) v N(. System u IN(.
The problem becomes complicated if the nonlinearities are time varying and dependant of operating conditions. or difficult to diffi lt t measure. System r + 76 u  N(.Possible solution approaches: Cancelation of nonlinearities Nonlinearities can be canceled very easily when they are nonnon time varying and known since they remain the same for all time t and all conditions.) ud G(s) How do I access to measure here????? .
com/Products/Generator%20Excitation%20Products%20Documents/Power%20System%20Stabilizer. it acts over the excitation control to modify the electrical torque and gives the extra signal to equilibrate the Tm with the Te.Possible solution approaches: damping with PSS As we have seen.meppi. PSS detects power oscillations (rotor and power oscillations) and gives an extra signal to the voltage regulators to damp the oscillation. 77 www.pdf . Generally speaking.
(M) J.05 Hz Medium band for 0.0 Hz PSS4B multimode damping. Champagne. (M) R. “An Approach to PSS Design for Transient Stability Improvement through Supplementary Damping of the Common LowFrequency” . •We have tuned each stage using the conventional tuning We approach as described yesterday. Grondin.0 Hz High band for 0. Potvin.21. (M) L. Soulieres. •We think it feasible and beneficial to adopt an online adaptive t i method using phasor measurements [*]. (U) I.Possible solution approaches: damping with a multiband PSS Low band for 0.84. d ti tuning th d i h t [*] 78 [*]R. Kamwa.
79 .Simulation results with PSS IEEE4B PSS4B is turned on at 200 [s].05 Hz oscillation is stabilized. The 0.
y Advanced PSS along with AVRs may be good tools for mitigating oscillations in power units in a selected range of frequency. 80 . W consider th model we have developed so far to b a We id the d l h d l d f t be “demonstration model.Summary Power system oscillations can be the result of the introductions of y nonlinearities in the control systems. This effect is seen when they add controlled damping. These limit cycles cannot be observed from simulation studies unless the model represents the nonlinearities.05 Hz oscillation could be caused by these nonlinearities.” intended only to provide evidence that the 0. which under certain operating conditions can bring about limit cycles.
4 The 0. 4. p yet 81 .” A.” IEEE Transactions on Power Systems. 5. Maintain “open mind” to all possible explanations. 2. V. “The results of the numerical simulations show that lowfrequency modes may interact nonlinearly producing intermodulation components at the sum and/or difference frequency of the fundamental modes of oscillation.05 Hz mode is caused by interactions between modes “Th 0 05 modes. The linearized model is deficient (excludes an important attribute) or has erroneous data data. There are other explanations of which we have not y considered. Messina.What next? A. . 2005. “Assessment of nonlinear . Feb. There are one or more units having nonlinear elements which create limit cycles that are manifested in the system as slowly varying (in frequency and amplitude) oscillations. 3. interaction between nonlinearly coupled modes using higher order spectra. including 1. Vittal. Both #1 and #2 are true.
2. c. The linearized model is deficient (excludes an important attribute) or has erroneous data. 82 . b. Improve modeling of the interconnection external to Colombia. a. This is what Psymetrics is doing. Place “mechanical PMUs” (sensors with timestamps) on the servo mechanisms of each major unit to monitor its behavior during oscillations. Test each major unit and associated controls with smallsignal probes and compare frequency response to that of the models. Adjust model as necessary. f example: l h l for l 1. p g j power p plants. and build a simulation b. Obtain the process diagrams of all major p model of the Colombian power system that contains the nonlinear elements. There 2 Th are one or more units h i nonlinear elements which create it having li l t hi h t limit cycles that are manifested in the system as slowly varying (in frequency and amplitude) oscillations.What next? B. Improve load models. a. D l B Develop ways to explore each explanation.
1 This exemplification is to show how we may lose valuable information when we neglect some transient effects via reduced models. “Analysis of Electrical Machines and drive Systems. 83 .2 Vs.” Wiley.. Dynamic Performance of an hydro turbine generator during a 3phase fault at the terminals Krause P. 1.. Sudhoff S. Wasynczuk O.Gen modeling: 2. 2002..
Questions? 84 .