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Suresh G. Mishra

For your eyes only, not for circulation

I. THERMODYNAMIC POTENTIAL

• In a perturbation theory those problems of many particle systems can be handled where the Hamiltonian is of

the form H = H

0

+ λH

1

, the parameter λ measures the strength of perturbation. A perturbation expansion

of physical properties of the system in power of λ is developed, that may help if we want to know about the

system beyond the available information from property of the system given by H

0

. For this procedure is to be

successful the physical property “A” must be analytic function of λ and secondly the series must be convergent.

• To begin with, we write H = H

0

+H

′

and deﬁne S(τ) such that

e

−τ(H−µN)

= e

−τ(H0−µN)

S(τ) and diﬀerentiate (1.1)

−(H −µN)e

−τ(H−µN)

= e

−τ(H0−µN)

∂S(τ)

∂τ

− (H

0

−µN)e

−τ(H0−µN)

S(τ)

or

∂S(τ)

∂τ

= e

τ(H0−µN)

(H

0

−µN)e

−τ(H0−µN)

S(τ) −e

τ(H0−µN)

(H −µN)e

−τ(H0−µN)

S(τ)

or

∂S(τ)

∂τ

= −H

′

I

(τ)S(τ) with S(0) = 1 ⇒ S(τ) = 1 −

_

τ

0

dτ

1

H

′

I

(τ

1

)S(τ

1

). (1.2)

The iterative solution to this equation is

S(τ) = 1 −

_

τ

0

dτ

1

H

′

I

(τ

1

) +

_

τ

0

_

τ1

0

dτ

1

dτ

2

H

′

I

(τ

1

)H

′

I

(τ

2

) + · · ·

(−1)

n

_

τ

0

dτ

1

_

τ1

0

dτ

2

· · ·

_

τn−1

0

dτ

n

(H

′

I

(τ

1

)H

′

I

(τ

2

) · · · H

′

I

(τ

n

)) + · · · . (1.3)

This is the perturbation expansion. It looks complicated.

• We write the expansion in a more symmetric form,

S(τ) = 1 +

∞

n=1

(−1)

n

n!

_

τ

0

dτ

1

_

τ

0

dτ

2

· · ·

_

τ

0

dτ

n

T

τ

[H

′

I

(τ

1

)H

′

I

(τ

2

) · · · H

′

I

(τ

n

)] = T

τ

exp

_

−

_

τ

0

H

′

I

(τ

′

)dτ

′

_

.(1.4)

We expand the exponent and then apply the ordering operator to integrand of each term.

• To prove the result, consider the second order term in 1.4

1

2

_

τ

0

dτ

1

_

τ

0

dτ

2

P[H

′

I

(τ

1

)H

′

I

(τ

2

)] =

1

2

_

τ

0

dτ

1

_

τ1

0

dτ

2

H

′

I

(τ

1

)H

′

I

(τ

2

) +

1

2

_

τ

0

dτ

2

_

τ

0

dτ

1

H

′

I

(τ

2

)H

′

I

(τ

1

)

=

_

τ

0

dτ

1

_

τ1

0

dτ

2

H

′

I

(τ

1

)H

′

I

(τ

2

),

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸ P(A

τ

B

τ

′ ) =

_

A

τ

B

τ

′ for τ > τ

′

B

τ

′ A

τ

for τ < τ

′

The second line is written after interchanging the dummy variables. This matches with second order term in

1.3. We assume that H

1

contains even number of Fermion operators. Hence the symmetric product P can be

interchanged with time ordered product. Similar arguments to hold for nth term.

• The ﬁnal result is,

Z

G

= e

−βΩ

= tr e

−β(H−µN)

= tr e

−β(H0−µN)

S(β) = S(β)

0

e

−βΩ0

(1.5)

⇒ e

−β(Ω−Ω0)

= S(β)

0

=

_

T

τ

exp

_

−

_

β

0

H

′

I

(τ

′

)dτ

′

__

0

(1.6)

2

II. DIAGRAMS FOR PARTITION FUNCTION

• We begin with the expression for the partition function,

e

−β(Ω−Ω0)

=

_

T

_

exp

_

−

_

β

0

H

′

I

(τ)dτ

___

0

=

_

1 −

_

β

0

H

′

I

(τ)dτ + · · ·

_

0

(2.1)

and let H

′

be a two body interaction,

H

′

=

1

2

k1,k2,k3,k4

v

k1,k2,k3,k4

a

†

k1

a

†

k2

a

k4

a

k3

(2.2)

• To ﬁrst order in v,

e

−β(Ω−Ω0)

¸

¸

¸

I

= −

1

2

k1,k2,k3,k4

v

k1,k2,k3,k4

_

T

_

−

_

β

0

a

†

k1

(τ)a

†

k2

(τ)a

k4

(τ)a

k3

(τ)dτ

__

0

= −

1

2

k1,k2,k3,k4

v

k1,k2,k3,k4

_

−s

_

β

0

_

a

†

k1

(τ)a

k4

(τ)

_

0

_

a

†

k2

(τ)a

k3

(τ)

_

0

dτ

_

−

1

2

k1,k2,k3,k4

v

k1,k2,k3,k4

_

_

β

0

_

a

†

k1

(τ)a

k3

(τ)

_

0

_

a

†

k2

(τ)a

k4

(τ)

_

0

dτ

_

= −

1

2

β

k1,k2,k3,k4

v

k1,k2,k3,k4

(−s n

k1

n

k2

δ

k1,k4

δ

k2,k3

+n

k1

n

k2

δ

k1,k3

δ

k2,k4

)

= −

1

2

β

k1,k2,k3,k4

v

k1,k2,k3,k4

n

k1

n

k2

(δ

k1,k3

δ

k2,k4

−s δ

k1,k4

δ

k2,k3

)

A. Rules for drawing diagrams

– 1 Represent the interaction at τ

1

by a horizontal or verticle dotted or wiggle line, with creation operator

by ingoing lines and annihilation by outgoing in the order directed.

– 2. Represent each interaction (vertex) by −(1/2)v

k1,k2,k3,k4

(τ).

– 3. Represent each particle line from τ

1

to τ

2

by g

0

k1,k2

(τ

1

−τ

2

)

– 4. If τ

1

= τ

2

close the particle line, the order is chosen such that it is always g

0

k1,k2

(−0)

• Now for the ﬁrst order correction

– k

1

combines with k

3

and k

2

with k

4

, the contribution is

−

1

2

_

β

0

dτ

1

k

1

k

2

|v|k

1

k

2

G

0

−

k1

G

0

−

k2

= −

1

2

β k

1

k

2

|v|k

1

k

2

n

k1

n

k2

(2.3)

– k

1

combines with k

4

and k

2

with k

3

, the contribution is

−

1

2

_

β

0

dτ

1

k

1

k

2

|v|k

2

k

1

G

0

−

k1

G

0

−

k2

= −

1

2

β k

1

k

2

|v|k

2

k

1

n

k1

n

k2

(2.4)

– We see that (−s) factor is missing. Hence

3

B. Rules continue

– 5. Introduce a factor (−s)

λ

where λ is number of closed loops. In the ﬁrst term above there are two loops

and in the second term only one hencea relative −s factor is needed.

– 6. Sum over all inner quantum numbers and integration over all times from 0 to β.

– 7. A factor 1/n! where n is number of interaction lines (vertices).

• The ﬁrst order terms can be written as a Hartree Fock result.

e

−β(Ω−Ω0)

= 1 −

1

2

β

k1,k2

n

k1

n

k2

(k

1

k

2

|v|k

1

k

2

−s k

1

k

2

|v|k

2

k

1

) (2.5)

The second term is Fock (exchange) term while the ﬁrst term is Hartree term. The result for the thermodynamic

potential is

Ω = Ω

0

+

1

2

k1,k2

n

k1

n

k2

(k

1

k

2

|v|k

1

k

2

−s k

1

k

2

|v|k

2

k

1

) . (2.6)

• Second order

e

−β(Ω−Ω0)

¸

¸

¸

II

=

(−1)

2

2!

_

β

0

_

β

0

T(H

′

I

(τ

1

)H

′

I

(τ

2

)

0

dτ

1

dτ

2

. (2.7)

There are 4! = 24 terms each of which corresponds to a diagram obtained by combining each creation with each

annihilation operator.

• In order to calculate the contribution of nth order diagram all that remains to be done is the integrals over τ

i

.

But one needs g(τ) on +ve and -ve τ in higher order diagrams, it is inconvenient to work with it. It is better

to work with the energy representation.

g

0

k

(τ) =

1

β

n

G

k,n

e

−ıωτ

(2.8)

One can now calculate τ integral in general. The only place τ appears in is from those interactions leaving and

entering ‘vectors’ at τ Thus we have a factor

_

β

0

dτg

0

k1

(τ

1

−τ)g

0

k2

(τ

2

−τ)g

0

k3

(τ −τ

3

)g

0

k4

(τ −τ

4

)

=

1

β

4

n1,n2,n3,n4

G

0

k1,n1

G

0

k2,n2

G

0

k3,n3

G

0

k4,n4

_

β

0

e

−ıωn

1

(τ1−τ)

e

−ıωn

2

(τ2−τ)

e

−ıωn

3

(τ−τ3)

e

−ıωn

4

(τ−τ4)

=

1

β

4

n1,n2,n3,n4

G

0

k1,n1

G

0

k2,n2

G

0

k3,n3

G

0

k4,n4

e

−ı(ωn

1

τ1+ωn

2

τ2−ωn

3

τ3−ωn

4

τ4)

_

β

0

dτe

ı(ωn

1

+ωn

2

−ωn

3

−ωn

4

)τ

(2.9)

Now consider,

_

β

0

dτe

ı(ωn

1

+ωn

2

−ωn

3

−ωn

4

)τ

=

_

β

0

dτe

ı2πmτ

β

=

e

ı2πmβ

β

− 1

ı2πmβ

β

=

_

0 for m = 0

β for m = 0

= βδ

m,0

(2.10)

Hence the result is

1

β

4

β

n1,n2,n3,n4

G

0

k1,n1

G

0

k2,n2

G

0

k3,n3

G

0

k4,n4

e

−ı(ωn

1

τ1+ωn

2

τ2−ωn

3

τ3−ωn

4

τ4)

δ

n1+n2−n3−n4

. (2.11)

C. Rules continue

– 8. To each line assign an “energy” and at each vertex energy is conserved: δ

n1+n2−n3−n4

. The line is now

given by G

0

k,n

= 1/(ıω

n

−ǫ

k

). When lines originate at a vertex and end there (i.e. when G

0

k

(−0) appears)

introduce a factor e

−ıωn(−0)

/(ıω

n

−ǫ

k

).

– 9. Sum over all internal energies.

4

III. DIAGRAMS FOR THERMODYMANIC POTENTIAL

• A great simpliﬁcation takes place when one wants to calculate Ω instead of Z

G

.

• To see this we need to distinguish between connected and disconnected diagrams (those which have at least two

separate pieces).

• For calculation of thermodynamic potential only connected diagrams need to be considered.

−β(Ω − Ω

0

) =

i

Γ

i

(contribution of all connected diagrams). (3.1)

This is known as Linked cluster theorem. It was ﬁrst conjectured by Bruckner (for T = 0) and proved by

Goldstone. We ﬁrst write the rules for thermodynamic potential (diagrams) and then prove the theorem.

• Rules for thermodynamic potential: −β(Ω − Ω

0

)

– 1. Draw all nth order connected diagrams.

– 2. With each diagram associate a factor

(−s)

nL

_

−

1

2

_

n

1

β

n

1

n!

n

i=1

¸

k

i

1

k

i

2

|v|k

i

3

k

i

4

_

If one draws topologically distinct diagrams there is a factor 1/n because there are (n−1)! ways of arranging

H

′

(τ).

– 3. Label each line with k, ω

n

and add a factor

G

0

k

(ω

n

) =

1

ıω

n

−ǫ

k

.

– 4. At each vertex add a δ-function to express conservation of energy (ω

n

).

– 5. For line entering and leaving the same vertex, the factor is

e

−ıωn(−0)

ıω

n

−ǫ

k

.

– 6. Sum over all k

i

1,2,3,4

’s and all n.

• From now on when we speak of diagrams we mean connected diagrams.

• Now we give the proof which is essentially a combinatorial one.

5

Linked Cluster Theorem

Let us call all connected diagrams C

1

, C

2

, · · · . Consider an arbitrary diagram. Since in disconneted parts all sum-

mation variables are independent of each other the contribution of a disconnect diagram is just the product of the

contribution of its connected parts. In an arbitrary diagram let C

1

comes n

1

times, C

2

comes n

2

times etc.. Call Γ

i

the contribution of C

i

(including all signs, factorials etc. as if it were alone). Let C

i

be of order O

i

. Then an arbitrary

deﬁnite disconnected diagram of nth order must have n = n

1

O

1

+n

2

O

2

+ · · · . The contribution of this diagram will

be (1/n!)(Γ

1

O

1

!)

n1

(Γ

2

O

2

!)

n2

· · · . The total contribution is

∞

n=1

1

n!

∞

n1,n2,···=0

W

n

n1,n2,···

(O

1

!)

n1

(O

2

!)

n2

· · · Γ

n1

1

Γ

n2

2

· · · where W

n

n1,n2,···

=

n!

n

1

!n

2

! · · · (O

1

!)

n1

(O

2

!)

n2

· · ·

is number of distinct nth order diagram which are composed of n

1

C

1

s, n

2

C

2

s, · · · etc. The value of W written above

can be assertained as follows,

n!

(O

1

!O

1

!O

1

! · · · )(O

2

!O

2

!O

2

! · · · ) · · ·

(3.2)

gives the no. of ways one can select O

1

vertices n

1

times, O

2

vertices n

2

times, from the total of n. This overcounts,

however, because just interchanging the whole group of vertices in one C

i

with those in another C

i

does not give a

new diagram. There are n

i

! such permutations. Thus we must divide by n

1

! n

2

! · · · , which gives the desired result.

Hence the total contribution is

∞

n=1

1

n!

∞

ni=0,

P

i

niOi=n

n!

n

1

!n

2

! · · · (O

1

!)

n1

(O

2

!)

n2

· · ·

(O

1

!)

n1

(O

2

!)

n2

· · · Γ

n1

1

Γ

n2

2

· · ·

=

∞

n=1

∞

ni=0,

P

i

niOi=n

(Γ

1

)

n1

n

1

!

(Γ

2

)

n2

n

2

!

· · · (3.3)

The thermodynamic potential is therfore

e

−β(Ω−Ω0)

= 1 +

∞

n=1

∞

ni=0,

P

i

niOi=n

(Γ

1

)

n1

n

1

!

(Γ

2

)

n2

n

2

!

· · ·

=

∞

n=0

∞

ni=0,

P

i

niOi=n

i

(Γ

i

)

ni

n

i

!

=

i

∞

ni=0

(Γ

i

)

ni

n

i

=

i

e

Γi

Hence −β(Ω − Ω

0

) =

i

Γ

i

(3.4)

6

IV. GREEN’S FUNCTION

• To calculate Green’s functions we ﬁrst deﬁne,

S(τ, τ

′

) = e

H0τ

e

−H(τ−τ

′

)

e

−H0τ

′

0 ≤ τ

′

≤ τ ≤ β, (4.1)

It is clear that τ

′

= 0 gives S(τ).

– S(τ, τ

′

) is transitive

S(τ, τ

′

)S(τ

′

, τ

′′

) = S(τ, τ

′′

) (4.2)

– It obeys the diﬀerential equation,

∂

∂τ

S(τ, τ

′

) = −H

′

I

(τ)S(τ, τ

′

) with S(τ, τ) = 1 (4.3)

• This leads to the result,

S(τ, τ

′

) = 1 −

_

τ

τ

′

dτ

(1)

H

′

I

(τ

(1)

)S(τ

(1)

, τ

′

) =

∞

n=0

(−1)

n

_

τ

′

<τ

(n)

<···τ

(1)

<τ

H

′

I

(τ

(1)

)H

′

I

(τ

(2)

) · · · H

′

I

(τ

(n)

). (4.4)

• Now consider

e

−βH

A

τ1

B

τ2

= e

−(β−τ1)H

Ae

−(τ1−τ2)H

Be

−τ2H

= e

−βH0

S(β, τ

1

)A

I

(τ

1

)S(τ

1

, τ

2

)B

I

(τ

2

)S(τ

2

, 0) (4.5)

One can now expand S in H

′

where ever S appears and collect terms of order n (without time ordering). One

can always write the integral as,

(−1)

n

T

τ

(A

I

(τ

1

)B

I

(τ

2

)H

′

I

(τ

(1)

)H

′

I

(τ

(2)

) · · · H

′

I

(τ

(n)

). (4.6)

Since H

′

contains even number of Fermion operators, there is no minus sign when H

′

I

interchange. Now collect

the integration variable τ

(1)

τ

(2)

τ

(3)

· · · τ

(n)

together,

e

−βH

T

τ

(A

I

(τ

1

)B

I

(τ

2

))

= e

−βH0

∞

n=0

(−1)

n

_

0<τ

(n)

<···τ

(1)

<β

dτ

(1)

· · · dτ

(n)

T

τ

(A

I

(τ

1

)B

I

(τ

2

)H

′

I

(τ

(1)

)H

′

I

(τ

(2)

) · · · H

′

I

(τ

(n)

)).

= e

−βH0

∞

n=0

(−1)

n

n!

_

β

0

dτ

(1)

· · · dτ

(n)

T

τ

(A

I

(τ

1

)B

I

(τ

2

)H

′

I

(τ

(1)

)H

′

I

(τ

(2)

) · · · H

′

I

(τ

(n)

)). (4.7)

Symbolically one can write this as S(β, 0)T

τ

(A

I

(τ

1

)B

I

(τ

2

)) = T

τ

(S(β, 0)A

I

(τ

1

)B

I

(τ

2

)). The right hand side

should be understood as follows: one has substituted the perturbation series for S(β, 0) and then the corre-

sponding time order has been taken.

• Finally,

g

A,B

(τ −τ

′

) = −

tre

−βH

T

τ

(· · · )

tre

−βH

= −

tre

−βH0

S(β, 0)T

τ

(· · · )

tre

−βH0

S(β, 0)

= −

T

τ

(S(β, 0)A

I

(τ

1

)B

I

(τ

2

))

H0

S(β, 0)

H0

. (4.8)

7

V. DIAGRAMS FOR SINGLE PARTICLE GREEN’S FUNCTION

• Diagrams for Green’s function have two external lines, one of these lines begins at k

1

, τ

1

while the other termi-

nates at k

2

, τ

2

, they correspond to a

k1,τ1

and a

†

k2,τ2

respectively.

• The diagrams for Green’s function can also be divided into two groups, i.e. connected diagrams and disconnected

diagrams. In general case where we are dealing with some term or other of the perturbation series, the connected

diagrams are those in which a

k1,τ1

is paired with a

†

in H

′

(τ

p1

), an a in H

′

(τ

p1

) is paired with a

†

in H

′

(τ

p2

), and

so on untill ﬁnally we arrive in this way at a

†

k2,τ2

without omitting a single H

′

. The remaining diagrams in which

one or several operators H

′

are not connected by any pairings to a

k1,τ1

and a

†

k2,τ2

are said to be disconnected.

• Now consider the correction to the Green’s function corresponding to an unconnected diagram. It is obviously

made up of two factors, the ﬁrst includes all the H

′

s conneceted with a

k1,τ1

and a

†

k2,τ2

, in other words, it includes

the expression corresponding to the connected block which contains the end points. The second factor describes

the remaining part of the diagram. The expression for the correction is therefore

−

(−1)

n

n!

_

· · ·

_

dτ

1

· · · dτ

m

_

T(a

k

(τ)a

†

k

′ (τ

′

)H

′

(τ

1

) · · · H

′

(τ

m

)

_

c

_

· · ·

_

dτ

m+1

· · · dτ

n

T(H

′

(τ

m+1

) · · · H

′

(τ

n

)

· · ·

c

means that the pairing is carried out so that a connected diagram is obtained.

• The diagrams will include ones that give precisely the same contribution. Indeed, if we change the pairing in

such a way that it is simply a question of rearranging the diﬀerent H

′

between the brackets · · ·

c

and · · ·,

this will correspond simply to a transformationof the variables of integrationand does not alter the value of the

approximation to g(τ). The number of such diagrams is evidently equal to the number of ways of splitting of n

operators H

′

into groups of m and n −m operators, that is, n!/m!(n −m)!. The total contribution of all these

diagrams will be

−

_

(−1)

m

m!

_

· · ·

_

dτ

1

· · · dτ

m

_

T(a

k

(τ)a

†

k

′ (τ

′

)H

′

(τ

1

) · · · H

′

(τ

m

)

_

c

_

_

(−1)

n−m

(n −m)!

_

· · ·

_

dτ

m+1

· · · dτ

n

T(H

′

(τ

m+1

) · · · H

′

(τ

n

)

_

• Now if we sum the contribution of all the diagrams, of any order, containing a deﬁnite connected part and

arbitrary unconnected parts, we obtain

−

(−1)

m

m!

_

· · ·

_

dτ

1

· · · dτ

m

_

T(a

k

(τ)a

†

k

′

(τ

′

)H

′

(τ

1

) · · · H

′

(τ

m

)

_

c

{1 −

_

dτ

m+1

H

′

(τ

m+1

) −

1

2

_

dτ

m+1

dτ

m+2

H

′

(τ

m+1

)H

′

(τ

m+2

) + · · ·

(−1)

k

k!

_

· · ·

_

dτ

m+1

· · · dτ

m+k

T(H

′

(τ

m+1

) · · · H

′

(τ

m+k

) + · · · }

• Now we return to the formula for g

kk

′ (τ −τ

′

)

g

kk

′ (τ −τ

′

) = −

_

T

τ

(S(β, 0)a

k

(τ)a

†

k

′

(τ

′

))

_

0

S(β, 0)

0

. (5.1)

If we expand the denominator S(β, 0)

0

in powers of H

′

, precisely the same expansion is obtained as in the

curly brackets in the last formula. Hence,

_

T

τ

(S(β, 0)a

k

(τ)a

†

k

′ (τ

′

))

_

=

_

T

τ

(S(β, 0)a

k

(τ)a

†

k

′ (τ

′

))

_

c

S(β, 0) (5.2)

Hence,

g

kk

′ (τ −τ

′

) = −

_

T

τ

(S(β, 0)a

k

(τ)a

†

k

′ (τ

′

))

_

c

. (5.3)

8

• A further simpliﬁcation arises from the fact that all the types of pairing in the expression

−

(−1)

m

m!

_

· · ·

_

dτ

1

· · · dτ

m

_

T(a

k

(τ)a

†

k

′ (τ

′

)H

′

(τ

1

) · · · H

′

(τ

m

)

_

c

(5.4)

diﬀering only in commutations of H

′

give the same contribution. In view of this fact one can omit the factor

1/m! and only take into account those pairings that lead to topologically non-equivalent diagrams, i.e. those

that can not be obtained from one another by a commutation of the operators H

′

• Now rules.

A. Rules for Green’s function diagrams

– 1. Draw all connected, topologically distinct, diagrams with two external lines.

– 2. Label source point etc. and lines with k, ω

n

. At each vertex conserve the energy.

– 3. For each vertex associate a factor −(1/2β)v

k1k2k3k4

. The symmetry of the interaction reduces number

of graphs as v

k1k2k3k4

= v

k2k1k4k3

(in general) one has or each particle line G

0

k1,k2

(ıω

n

), if both ends meed

at a vertex add e

−ıωn(−0)

.

– 4. Sum over all internal quantum numbers and energies.

– 5. Add(−s)

nL

for closed loop.

9

VI. SELF ENERGY

• one of the greatest advantage of the energy (ω

n

) representation, as we call it, is that it enables us to make a

very important further summation of diagrams.

• Consider the diagrams like A below. The line 4 is characterised by k, σ, ω

n

and line 4

′

is characterised by

k

′

, σ

′

, ω

n

′ . The conservation of energy gives ω

n

= ω

n

′ . For homogeneous system and for spin independent forces

k = k

′

and σ

′

= σ. That means line 4 is same as 4

′

(a more general case can also be considered). Therefore in

A instead of factor

1

ıω

n

−ǫ

k,σ

we get

1

ıω

n

−ǫ

k,σ

_

(−s)

1

_

−

1

2

_

k

′′

kk

′′

|v|kk

′′

e

−ıωn(−0)

ıω

n

−ǫ

k

′′

_

1

ıω

n

−ǫ

k,σ

(6.1)

just what we get if we ignore rest of the diagram, which is of the form (1/(ıω

n

−ǫ

k

)

2

)A

k

(ω

n

).

• An explanation of factorial is needed. ‘A’ is a third order diagram, hence there should be a factor 1/3!. However,

there are three diagrams with identical structure obtained by using any of the vertices. Hence one gets 3/3!

that is 1/2! which is the result we used. In general if insert is of p order the factorials are (1/n!)(n!/p!(n −p)!)

which is just what we need to make contribution independent of diagrams into which we insert it.

• A

k

(ω

n

) is independent of what diagram it is inserted in. similarly any insertion in a line gives something

independent of diagram insert in line. Such insertions are called self energy parts (SEP).

• We call class of all diagrams which have no self energy parts, skeleton diagrams. The lines will now be modiﬁed

by self energy insertions.

• Let us now consider the general structure of such a modiﬁed line. The bubble means self energy insertions which

can not be cut into two parts by cutting an (k, n) line (proper self energy). The quantity which replaces the

unperturbed energy propagator is called the true propagator.

G

k

(ω

n

) = G

0

k

(ω

n

) +G

0

k

(ω

n

)Σ

k

(ω

n

)G

0

k

(ω

n

) + · · · = G

0

k

(ω

n

) +G

0

k

(ω

n

)Σ

k

(ω

n

)G

k

(ω

n

)

= G

0

k

(ω

n

)[1 + Σ

k

(ω

n

)G

0

k

(ω

n

) + · · · ] = G

0

k

(ω

n

)

1

1 − Σ

k

(ω

n

)G

0

k

(ω

n

)

= (G

0

−1

k

(ω

n

) − Σ

k

(ω

n

))

−1

= (ıω

n

−ǫ

k

− Σ

k

(ω

n

))

−1

(6.2)

This equation is called Dyson equation. The self energy Σ

k

(ω

n

) is also called mass operator. It is called self

energy because it is an addition to ǫ

k

arising from interaction with other particles.

• First order diagrams for proper self energy parts are,

Σ

1

k,n

=

1

2

k

′

(kk

′

|v|kk

′

+ k

′

k|v|k

′

k −s kk

′

|v|k

′

k −s k

′

k|v|kk

′

)n

k

′ (6.3)

• Clearly all the self energy parts of a given order can be obtained by opening any of the 2n lines of an nth order

diagram.

• One can generate a self consistent equation for the self energy. Call the contribution to Σ

k,n

of all proper skeleton

diagrams F

k,n

(G

0

k1,n1

, · · · ) where it is regarded as a function of unperturbed propagators which enter it. Then

clearly Σ

k,n

= F

k,n

(G

k1,n1

, · · · ). This really a very complicated nonlinear integral equation for Σ

k,n

.The lowest

order skeleton graph for the proper self energy give Hartee Fock theory.

DIAGRAMS FOR PARTITION FUNCTION • We begin with the expression for the partition function.k4 k1 . – 2.k4 k1 .k3 .k2 (−0) • Now for the ﬁrst order correction – k1 combines with k3 and k2 with k4 .k2 .k2 .k2 .k3 δk2 .k4 vk1 .k2 .k4 (−s nk1 nk2 δk1 .k2 .k3 δk2 .k3 .k2 (τ1 − τ2 ) 0 – 4. If τ1 = τ2 close the particle line. β β ′ HI (τ )dτ 0 e−β(Ω−Ω0 ) = T exp − 0 = 1− 0 ′ HI (τ )dτ + · · · 0 (2.k2 .k4 0 a† 1 (τ )ak3 (τ ) k 0 a† 2 (τ )ak4 (τ ) k 0 1 = − β 2 1 = − β 2 vk1 . H′ = 1 2 vk1 .1) and let H ′ be a two body interaction.k2 .k2 .k4 k1 .k3 .2) • To ﬁrst order in v. the contribution is − 1 2 β 0 − 1 0− dτ1 k1 k2 |v|k1 k2 G01 Gk2 = − β k1 k2 |v|k1 k2 nk1 nk2 k 2 (2.4) – We see that (−s) factor is missing.k3 .k2 .k3 .k4 δk2 .k4 −s 0 β a† 1 (τ )ak4 (τ ) k 0 a† 2 (τ )ak3 (τ ) k dτ 0 dτ − vk1 .k3 .k3 .k3 . Represent each interaction (vertex) by −(1/2)vk1 .k3 .k4 − s δk1 . Hence .k3 .k4 ) k1 .3) – k1 combines with k4 and k2 with k3 .k3 ) k1 . the contribution is − 1 2 β 0 − 1 0− dτ1 k1 k2 |v|k2 k1 G01 Gk2 = − β k1 k2 |v|k2 k1 nk1 nk2 k 2 (2.k2 . Rules for drawing diagrams – 1 Represent the interaction at τ1 by a horizontal or verticle dotted or wiggle line. 0 – 3.2 II.k4 nk1 nk2 (δk1 .k4 δk2 .k2 .k2 .k3 + nk1 nk2 δk1 . the order is chosen such that it is always gk1 .k4 (τ ).k2 .k3 .k4 a† 1 a† 2 ak4 ak3 k k k1 .k4 A. e−β(Ω−Ω0 ) = − 1 2 1 2 1 2 β I vk1 .k3 . with creation operator by ingoing lines and annihilation by outgoing in the order directed.k4 (2. Represent each particle line from τ1 to τ2 by gk1 .k3 .k4 T − 0 β a† 1 (τ )a† 2 (τ )ak4 (τ )ak3 (τ )dτ k k 0 = − vk1 .

7) There are 4! = 24 terms each of which corresponds to a diagram obtained by combining each creation with each annihilation operator. β β dτ e 0 ı(ωn1 +ωn2 −ωn3 −ωn4 )τ = 0 dτ e ı2πmτ β = e ı2πmβ β −1 ı2πmβ β = 0 β for m = 0 = βδm.9) 0 Now consider.n4 C. • The ﬁrst order terms can be written as a Hartree Fock result.n4 e−ı(ωn1 τ1 +ωn2 τ2 −ωn3 τ3 −ωn4 τ4 ) k k k k n1 . A factor 1/n! where n is number of interaction lines (vertices). To each line assign an “energy” and at each vertex energy is conserved: δn1 +n2 −n3 −n4 .n1 G02 .n2 G03 .n3 G04 .e. when G0 (−0) appears) k.0 for m = 0 (2.n1 G02 .k2 (2. – 6.n e−ıωτ (2.6) nk1 nk2 ( k1 k2 |v|k1 k2 − s k1 k2 |v|k2 k1 ) . Sum over all internal energies. When lines originate at a vertex and end there (i. Rules continue – 5.n k introduce a factor e−ıωn (−0) /(ıωn − ǫk ). 2 k1 . The line is now given by G0 = 1/(ıωn − ǫk ).n3 G04 .5) The second term is Fock (exchange) term while the ﬁrst term is Hartree term. Introduce a factor (−s)λ where λ is number of closed loops. In the ﬁrst term above there are two loops and in the second term only one hencea relative −s factor is needed.n4 e−ı(ωn1 τ1 +ωn2 τ2 −ωn3 τ3 −ωn4 τ4 ) δn1 +n2 −n3 −n4 .n1 G02 . It is better to work with the energy representation. (2.8) gk (τ ) = β n One can now calculate τ integral in general.n2 . – 9. 1 e−β(Ω−Ω0 ) = 1 − β nk1 nk2 ( k1 k2 |v|k1 k2 − s k1 k2 |v|k2 k1 ) 2 k1 . k k k k (2.n4 dτ eı(ωn1 +ωn2 −ωn3 −ωn4 )τ (2.k2 • Second order e−β(Ω−Ω0 ) II = (−1)2 2! β 0 0 β ′ ′ T (HI (τ1 )HI (τ2 ) 0 dτ1 dτ2 .n4 k k k k n1 .n2 .n4 e−ıωn1 (τ1 −τ ) e−ıωn2 (τ2 −τ ) e−ıωn3 (τ −τ3 ) e−ıωn4 (τ −τ4 ) 0 β G01 . The result for the thermodynamic potential is 1 Ω = Ω0 + (2.n2 G03 .10) Hence the result is 1 β β4 n G01 . Rules continue – 8. • In order to calculate the contribution of nth order diagram all that remains to be done is the integrals over τi .n3 G04 .n2 G03 .n3 . it is inconvenient to work with it.n3 .3 B.n3 . 1 0 Gk. Sum over all inner quantum numbers and integration over all times from 0 to β.11) 1 .n2 . – 7. The only place τ appears in is from those interactions leaving and entering ‘vectors’ at τ Thus we have a factor β 0 0 0 0 0 dτ gk1 (τ1 − τ )gk2 (τ2 − τ )gk3 (τ − τ3 )gk4 (τ − τ4 ) β = = 1 β4 1 β4 G01 . . But one needs g(τ ) on +ve and -ve τ in higher order diagrams.

ωn and add a factor G0 (ωn ) = k 1 . At each vertex add a δ-function to express conservation of energy (ωn ). Label each line with k. DIAGRAMS FOR THERMODYMANIC POTENTIAL • A great simpliﬁcation takes place when one wants to calculate Ω instead of ZG . −β(Ω − Ω0 ) = i Γi (contribution of all connected diagrams). – 2. With each diagram associate a factor (−s) nL − 1 2 n 1 1 i i k i k i |v|k3 k4 β n n! i=1 1 2 n If one draws topologically distinct diagrams there is a factor 1/n because there are (n−1)! ways of arranging H ′ (τ ). We ﬁrst write the rules for thermodynamic potential (diagrams) and then prove the theorem.3.2. the factor is e−ıωn (−0) . (3. • For calculation of thermodynamic potential only connected diagrams need to be considered. – 3. • From now on when we speak of diagrams we mean connected diagrams. • Now we give the proof which is essentially a combinatorial one.1) This is known as Linked cluster theorem. • Rules for thermodynamic potential: −β(Ω − Ω0 ) – 1. ıωn − ǫk – 4.4 ’s and all n.4 III. It was ﬁrst conjectured by Bruckner (for T = 0) and proved by Goldstone. Draw all nth order connected diagrams. . ıωn − ǫk i – 6. Sum over all k1. – 5. For line entering and leaving the same vertex. • To see this we need to distinguish between connected and disconnected diagrams (those which have at least two separate pieces).

··· = 1 2 1 . Since in disconneted parts all summation variables are independent of each other the contribution of a disconnect diagram is just the product of the contribution of its connected parts.. The contribution of this diagram will be (1/n!)(Γ1 O1 !)n1 (Γ2 O2 !)n2 · · · . n! (O1 !O1 !O1 ! · · · )(O2 !O2 !O2 ! · · · ) · · · (3.2) gives the no. which gives the desired result. however.3) ∞ = n=1 ni =0.n2 . There are ni ! such permutations. ∞ P i ni Oi =n i = i ni (Γi )ni = ni =0 eΓi i Hence − β(Ω − Ω0 ) = i Γi (3. because just interchanging the whole group of vertices in one Ci with those in another Ci does not give a new diagram. Let Ci be of order Oi . P i ni Oi =n n! (O1 !)n1 (O2 !)n2 · · · Γn1 Γn2 · · · 2 1 n1 !n2 ! · · · (O1 !)n1 (O2 !)n2 · · · (3. P i ni Oi =n (Γ1 )n1 (Γ2 )n2 ··· n1 ! n2 ! The thermodynamic potential is therfore ∞ ∞ e−β(Ω−Ω0 ) = 1 + n=1 ni =0.··· (O1 !)n1 (O2 !)n2 · · · Γn1 Γn2 · · · where Wn1 . C2 .n2 .n2 . factorials etc. C2 comes n2 times etc. Hence the total contribution is 1 n! n=1 ∞ ∞ ∞ ni =0. from the total of n. · · · .···=0 n! n1 !n2 ! · · · (O1 !)n1 (O2 !)n2 · · · is number of distinct nth order diagram which are composed of n1 C1 s. n2 C2 s. Thus we must divide by n1 ! n2 ! · · · . This overcounts. The total contribution is 1 n! n n=1 ∞ ∞ n n Wn1 . ∞ ∞ P i ni Oi =n (Γ1 )n1 (Γ2 )n2 ··· n1 ! n2 ! (Γi )ni ni ! = n=0 ni =0. of ways one can select O1 vertices n1 times. In an arbitrary diagram let C1 comes n1 times. Then an arbitrary deﬁnite disconnected diagram of nth order must have n = n1 O1 + n2 O2 + · · · .5 Linked Cluster Theorem Let us call all connected diagrams C1 . Call Γi the contribution of Ci (including all signs. Consider an arbitrary diagram. O2 vertices n2 times. as if it were alone). The value of W written above can be assertained as follows. · · · etc.4) .

1) (4. τ2 )BI (τ2 )S(τ2 . ′ ′ ′ (−1)n Tτ (AI (τ1 )BI (τ2 )HI (τ (1) )HI (τ (2) ) · · · HI (τ (n) ). e−βH Tτ (AI (τ1 )BI (τ2 )) ∞ = e−βH0 n=0 ∞ (−1)n 0<τ (n) <···τ (1) <β β 0 ′ ′ ′ dτ (1) · · · dτ (n) Tτ (AI (τ1 )BI (τ2 )HI (τ (1) )HI (τ (2) ) · · · HI (τ (n) )). – S(τ. τ ′′ ) – It obeys the diﬀerential equation. (4.6) ′ Since H ′ contains even number of Fermion operators. 0) and then the corresponding time order has been taken. 0)Tτ (· · · ) tre−βH Tτ (· · · ) =− =− tre−βH tre−βH0 S(β. 0)AI (τ1 )BI (τ2 )) tre−βH0 S(β.2) (4. τ ′ ) = eH0 τ e−H(τ −τ ) e−H0 τ It is clear that τ ′ = 0 gives S(τ ). τ ′ ) = τ′ n=0 ′ ′ 0 ≤ τ ′ ≤ τ ≤ β. (4. τ ∞ ′ dτ (1) HI (τ (1) )S(τ (1) . 0)Tτ (AI (τ1 )BI (τ2 )) = Tτ (S(β. One can always write the integral as. 0) (4. S(τ.8) . τ1 )AI (τ1 )S(τ1 .3) S(τ. • Finally. ∂ ′ S(τ.4) e−βH Aτ1 Bτ2 = e−(β−τ1 )H Ae−(τ1 −τ2 )H Be−τ2 H = e−βH0 S(β.B (τ − τ ′ ) = − Tτ (S(β. 0) S(β. = e−βH0 (−1)n n! n=0 ′ ′ ′ dτ (1) · · · dτ (n) Tτ (AI (τ1 )BI (τ2 )HI (τ (1) )HI (τ (2) ) · · · HI (τ (n) )). τ ′ ) = −HI (τ )S(τ. gA. there is no minus sign when HI interchange. τ ′ )S(τ ′ .5) One can now expand S in H ′ where ever S appears and collect terms of order n (without time ordering). 0)AI (τ1 )BI (τ2 )). The right hand side should be understood as follows: one has substituted the perturbation series for S(β.6 IV. τ ′ ) with S(τ. Now collect (1) (2) (3) (n) the integration variable τ τ τ · · · τ together. τ ′ ) = 1 − • Now consider (−1)n τ ′ <τ (n) <···τ (1) <τ ′ ′ ′ HI (τ (1) )HI (τ (2) ) · · · HI (τ (n) ).7) Symbolically one can write this as S(β. (4. GREEN’S FUNCTION • To calculate Green’s functions we ﬁrst deﬁne. τ ) = 1 ∂τ • This leads to the result. τ ′ ) is transitive S(τ. (4. (4. 0) H0 H0 . τ ′′ ) = S(τ.

containing a deﬁnite connected part and arbitrary unconnected parts. k • The diagrams for Green’s function can also be divided into two groups. that is. and so on untill ﬁnally we arrive in this way at a† 2 . It is obviously made up of two factors.τ1 and a† 2 .τ2 .3) . the ﬁrst includes all the H ′ s conneceted with ak1 . The total contribution of all these diagrams will be − (−1)m · · · dτ1 · · · dτm T (ak (τ )a† ′ (τ ′ )H ′ (τ1 ) · · · H ′ (τm ) k m! (−1)n−m · · · dτm+1 · · · dτn T (H ′ (τm+1 ) · · · H ′ (τn ) (n − m)! c • Now if we sum the contribution of all the diagrams. 0) 0 0 . if we change the pairing in such a way that it is simply a question of rearranging the diﬀerent H ′ between the brackets · · · c and · · · . 0) 0 in powers of H ′ . 0)ak (τ )a† ′ (τ ′ )) = Tτ (S(β. τ1 while the other terminates at k2 . precisely the same expansion is obtained as in the curly brackets in the last formula. of any order. Tτ (S(β.τ1 and a† 2 . τ2 .τ1 and a† 2 . the connected diagrams are those in which ak1 .τ2 without omitting a single H ′ .1) If we expand the denominator S(β. The remaining diagrams in which k one or several operators H ′ are not connected by any pairings to ak1 . this will correspond simply to a transformationof the variables of integrationand does not alter the value of the approximation to g(τ ).2) . it includes k the expression corresponding to the connected block which contains the end points.e. in other words. • The diagrams will include ones that give precisely the same contribution. 0)ak (τ )a† ′ (τ ′ )) k S(β. In general case where we are dealing with some term or other of the perturbation series. one of these lines begins at k1 . (5.τ2 respectively. The second factor describes the remaining part of the diagram. k • Now consider the correction to the Green’s function corresponding to an unconnected diagram. Hence. 0)ak (τ )a† ′ (τ ′ )) k k Hence. The expression for the correction is therefore − (−1)n n! c ··· dτ1 · · · dτm T (ak (τ )a† ′ (τ ′ )H ′ (τ1 ) · · · H ′ (τm ) k c ··· dτm+1 · · · dτn T (H ′ (τm+1 ) · · · H ′ (τn ) ··· means that the pairing is carried out so that a connected diagram is obtained. we obtain − (−1)m m! {1 − (−1)k k! ··· dτm+1 ··· dτ1 · · · dτm T (ak (τ )a† ′ (τ ′ )H ′ (τ1 ) · · · H ′ (τm ) k 1 H (τm+1 ) − 2 ′ ′ ′ c dτm+1 dτm+2 H (τm+1 )H (τm+2 ) + · · · dτm+1 · · · dτm+k T (H ′ (τm+1 ) · · · H ′ (τm+k ) + · · · } • Now we return to the formula for gkk′ (τ − τ ′ ) gkk′ (τ − τ ) = − ′ Tτ (S(β.τ2 are said to be disconnected.7 V. n!/m!(n − m)!. Indeed. The number of such diagrams is evidently equal to the number of ways of splitting of n operators H ′ into groups of m and n − m operators. 0)ak (τ )a† ′ (τ ′ )) k c c S(β. (5. they correspond to ak1 . i. 0) (5. DIAGRAMS FOR SINGLE PARTICLE GREEN’S FUNCTION • Diagrams for Green’s function have two external lines. gkk′ (τ − τ ′ ) = − Tτ (S(β. connected diagrams and disconnected diagrams. an a in H ′ (τp1 ) is paired with a† in H ′ (τp2 ).τ1 is paired with a† in H ′ (τp1 ).

those that can not be obtained from one another by a commutation of the operators H ′ • Now rules.8 • A further simpliﬁcation arises from the fact that all the types of pairing in the expression − (−1)m m! ··· dτ1 · · · dτm T (ak (τ )a† ′ (τ ′ )H ′ (τ1 ) · · · H ′ (τm ) k (5. Draw all connected.4) c diﬀering only in commutations of H ′ give the same contribution.e. – 2. i. diagrams with two external lines. Label source point etc. Add(−s)nL for closed loop.k2 (ıωn ). and lines with k. For each vertex associate a factor −(1/2β)vk1 k2 k3 k4 . – 3. if both ends meed k at a vertex add e−ıωn (−0) . – 4. – 5. topologically distinct. Sum over all internal quantum numbers and energies. . A. ωn . In view of this fact one can omit the factor 1/m! and only take into account those pairings that lead to topologically non-equivalent diagrams. At each vertex conserve the energy. The symmetry of the interaction reduces number of graphs as vk1 k2 k3 k4 = vk2 k1 k4 k3 (in general) one has or each particle line G01 . Rules for Green’s function diagrams – 1.

n 1 2 ( kk ′ |v|kk ′ + k ′ k|v|k ′ k − s kk ′ |v|k ′ k − s k ′ k|v|kk ′ )nk′ k′ (6. Call the contribution to Σk. That means line 4 is same as 4′ (a more general case can also be considered).σ (−s)1 − 1 2 kk ′′ |v|kk ′′ k′′ e−ıωn (−0) ıωn − ǫk′′ 1 ıωn − ǫk. • Consider the diagrams like A below.9 VI. σ ′ . In general if insert is of p order the factorials are (1/n!)(n!/p!(n − p)!) which is just what we need to make contribution independent of diagrams into which we insert it. n) line (proper self energy). The conservation of energy gives ωn = ωn′ . • First order diagrams for proper self energy parts are. • Let us now consider the general structure of such a modiﬁed line. • Ak (ωn ) is independent of what diagram it is inserted in. Therefore in A instead of factor 1 1 we get ıωn − ǫk. The lines will now be modiﬁed by self energy insertions. • An explanation of factorial is needed. The quantity which replaces the unperturbed energy propagator is called the true propagator. hence there should be a factor 1/3!.n . Hence one gets 3/3! that is 1/2! which is the result we used. • We call class of all diagrams which have no self energy parts.n1 . skeleton diagrams. It is called self energy because it is an addition to ǫk arising from interaction with other particles. Σ1 = k. as we call it. σ. SELF ENERGY • one of the greatest advantage of the energy (ωn ) representation. which is of the form (1/(ıωn − ǫk )2 )Ak (ωn ).n (Gk1 . ‘A’ is a third order diagram.3) • Clearly all the self energy parts of a given order can be obtained by opening any of the 2n lines of an nth order diagram.n (G01 .The lowest order skeleton graph for the proper self energy give Hartee Fock theory. ωn′ . • One can generate a self consistent equation for the self energy.n of all proper skeleton diagrams Fk.2) This equation is called Dyson equation. This really a very complicated nonlinear integral equation for Σk. similarly any insertion in a line gives something independent of diagram insert in line. However. The bubble means self energy insertions which can not be cut into two parts by cutting an (k. · · · ). . ωn and line 4′ is characterised by k ′ .σ ıωn − ǫk. For homogeneous system and for spin independent forces k = k ′ and σ ′ = σ. The self energy Σk (ωn ) is also called mass operator.n1 .σ (6. Gk (ωn ) = G0 (ωn ) + G0 (ωn )Σk (ωn )G0 (ωn ) + · · · = G0 (ωn ) + G0 (ωn )Σk (ωn )Gk (ωn ) k k k k k 1 −1 0 0 0 = Gk (ωn )[1 + Σk (ωn )Gk (ωn ) + · · · ] = Gk (ωn ) = (G0 k (ωn ) − Σk (ωn ))−1 1 − Σk (ωn )G0 (ωn ) k = (ıωn − ǫk − Σk (ωn ))−1 (6. is that it enables us to make a very important further summation of diagrams. · · · ) where it is regarded as a function of unperturbed propagators which enter it. Such insertions are called self energy parts (SEP). Then k clearly Σk. there are three diagrams with identical structure obtained by using any of the vertices. The line 4 is characterised by k.n = Fk.1) just what we get if we ignore rest of the diagram.

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