BANCROFT

LIBRARY
THE LIBRARY OF THE UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA
Y
for
founding of a

the

College in this Cc/o/ty'4 lis

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Deposited by

Henry

R.

Wagner

1910
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Digitized by the Internet Archive
in

2011

http://www.archive.org/details/narrativeofadveOOIeon

NARRAT
OF THE

I

VE

ADVENTURES OF

ZE

.\

AS

f.

EO^AKD

.

A JSATIVE OF CLEJiRFlELD COUNTY, PA. iVIlO SPENT FIVE YEARS IN TRAPPING FOR FCRS, TRADING UTTH THE INDIANS, S,-c., ^c. OF 'THE

ROCKY MOUNTAINS:

WRITTEN BY HIMSELF:

PRINTED A^D PUBLISHED

BY

D.

W. MOORE,
TA,

CLEARFIELD,
1839.

7<

Entered according

to

Act of Congress,

in the

year 183i>,

BY

D.

W. MOORE.

In the Clerk's oHice of the Eastern District of Pennsylvania.

X

5-.

I

4-

PREFACE.
The
senting
title
it

of the follow

irig

work

sufficienUy explains

itself

;

iiowever, hefore preit

to the public, in its

present form, the publisher

deems

necessary

to

accom-

pany

it

with a few lemarks explanlory of the motives which induced the awthor to

commit his adventures to paper: Mr. Zenas Leonard (the author)
f)arent8

is

a native of Clearfield county^ Pa.,
it

where

his

and other relatives

still

reside; and

may

not be improper here to remark,

that they are well

known

as

among

the most respectable inhabitants of the county.

After receiving the advantages of a

common

English education, and bemg

joassess-

ed of strong mental faculties and a vigorous constitution,
tal

Mr. Leonard

left his

paren-

roof in the spring of 1830, and after spending the succeeding year
in Pittsburg, Pa.,

in

a mercantile

house

ventured to embark in an expedition across (he

Rocky Moun-

company. The last letter received by his parents, left him at the extreme white settlement, where they were blisily occupied in making preparations for the expeditian to the mountains from whence he promised to write at short inteavals but one misfortune after another happening the company, he was de|)fived of all sources of communication so that no tidings were received of hinfi
tains, in the capacity of Clerk to the

;

until

he unexpectedly returned
fall

to the

scenes of his childhood, to the house of his
!

fath^r, in the

of 1835

— after an absence of 5 years and 6 months

In the interval, and at various times, minors and answers to letter^ written by his
friends to different individuals on the route

up the Missouri, were received, which
Tl»e grief of his parents from that

represented the major part of the eompai^y he was with, as having perisshed, and that

he was not

among

the

number who survived.

time until his joyous return, can only be imagined.
as lost forever, and
all

They had

long mourned

hlHii

hope of again meeting him

this side the

grave ceased

to exist.

The

Scriptural phrase, that *'the dead's alive,

and

Ike lost is found,''' in a temporal
;

pointer view, was never more beaulifuily

illuetrated

r.or

was ever

grief and

mourn^

ing changed to inexpressible joy and gladness more unexpectedly and trinrnpliantly.
After again mingling with his former comrades and old acqtjaintances, so great
the curiosity manifested by
tinually beset
wfi.^

them

to

hear him relate his advontufes, that he was con'
lo be.

by crowds of anxious inquirers wherever he ha'p^penod
and finding that
it

Rut

few were
bark

satisfied with a partial account,

would coiisume too mucij

of the time he purposed spending
for the west, to repeat the

among

big former friends, ere he j^howld again
lie

cmto'

wlioie story on every occasion,

finally yielded

the importunities of his friends to cdopt Franklin's notion of "saying grace over the
"^hole bairel of beef at once, in order to save lime," and he prepared a narraUve ef

[ 'V ]
bis travels for publication in the

newspapers of the county,
for this purpose,
it

that all

might have an equal

opportunity

to

read

it.

It

was

and uudar these circumstances, that
entire, until

he wrote

it

out

— but from various causes
last

was never published
it

we

pro-

cured the manuscript

winter and gave

to

the

public through the colutnns of a
it,

public newspaper during the past season.

The

great interest the public took in
for tiie i>aper in

was

satisfactorily illustrated

by the increase and demand

which
from

it

was
the
to

published.

A number
From

of persons sent in their

names

as subscribeis

all

adjoining counties, besides others more distant

— many of
now
oiler

whom we
it

were unable

accommodate.
quarter,

this evidence, as well as
to re-print
it,

the repented solicitations from every
to the public in a

we have been induced
a

and

moie

convenient form.

Our author kept

minute journal of every incident that occuired, but unfortunately,

was stolen from him by hostile Indians; still, however, ho was enabled to replace the most important events, by having access to the journal kept by the commander of the expedition. His character for candour and truth,
a part of his narrative

among his acquaintances, we have never heard suspected many who iieard the narrative from his own lips, we have
;

and, indeed,

among

the

yet to hear the TtsI one
ill

say they disbelieve
improbabilities 1

it.

At

all

events, Im

its
:

perusal, the reader «
it

encounter no

much

less impossibilities

— hence

is

but reasonable to suppose
hard-

that in traversing such a wilderness as lays west of the

Rocky Mountains, such

ships, privations and dangers as those described

by Mr. Leonard, must necessarily^
returned to the west, and

be encountered.

He

remained

at

home

but a short time,

when he
is

now

resides in Jackson county, Mo.,

where he

surrounded with competence— being at

present engaged as a merchant and trader with the different companies employed in
the fur trade of the mountains.

THE PUBLISHEK,

NARRATIVE
Of
the adventures of a company of 70 men, tvho left St, Louis In the Spring of 1831, on an expedition to the Rocky Mountains, for the purpose of trapping for Furs, and trading ivith the Indians, by one of the company^ Mr. Zenas LronAUD, of CI eaifield county. Pa. comprising a ininute description of the incidetils of the adventure, and a valuable history oflhls immense territory— not froin maps and charts, but from personal observation.

The Company under

the

command

of low jvrass,

Capt's. Gant and B1acki<^, left St, Louis on tiie 24th of April, 1831. Each man was furnished with tiie necessary equipnients tor the expedition such as traps', guns, &c.; also horses and goods «fvatious descriptions, to trade wi(h (he Indiaiis for furs and Butlaloe robes. continued our journey in a western direction, in the stale of Missouri, on the south side of the Missouri river, throu2;h a country thinly inhabited by the whitef; and friendly Indians, until we arrived at Fort Osaji;e the extreme point of the white settle-

We

and decorated with beautiful flowers ul various colors; and some of tiiem are so extensive and clear of timber and brush that the eye might search in 1 liave vain for an object to rest upon. seen beautiful and enchanting sceneries depicted by the artist, but never any thing to equal the work ot rude nature in those
In the spring of the year when grass is green and the blossoms fresli^ they piesent an appearance, which for beauty atid cliarnas, is beyotid ihe art of man to depict.
prairies.
tlie

We continued on our journey westHere we remained several days ward, uj) the republican fork of Kanzas ment. and purchased and packed up a sutlicieii- river passing through these prairies, till cy of provision, as we then tho*ught, for the 20th ot June, when we happened on

from whom we obtained a quantity of sweet corn and some wild turnips; we also understood from this tribe that it was nnuch arrived at the mouth of the Kanzas river, farther to the ButFaloe country than wt where we again tarried two or three day?, had bcri)re anticipated, and, that game ii for the purpose ol trading some goods to that direction, was very scarce. Frou the Kanzas Indians for corn, moccasins, thence|vve|procecded in a N. W, direction, &r. up the Republican Branch— finding but This tribe of Indians live in small huts, very little game; and on the 21st of June built of poles, covered with straw & dirt, we killed our last beef, which was equally aniPin shape are similar to a potatoe hole, divided to e;ich mess. Here we began to They cultivate the soil quite extensively, feel somewhat alarmed starvation beg;)n and raise very good corn, pumpkins, beens to stare us in the face, and some of the and other veoetables. The principal chief company became refractory and were lewis called ^'l/Yzi/e P/oo?7i." The nation is turning back. Stimulated, however, by supposed to contain 800 warriors. the hope of reaching game in a few days, From thence we proceeded on our jour- we continued in the direction of the Bufney up the river. found the country laloe country. Hunters were eent out hei'e beautiful indeed abounding with the daily in quest of game, but as often returmost delightful prairies, with here & tlierc ned without any. We still continued to a small brook, winding its way to the riv- travel subsisting chieHy on muscles and er, the margins of which are adorned with small fish which we caught in the riverj the lotty Pine and Cedar tree. These finally the Captain ordered twoof the best prairies were completely covered with lino horses to be killed, to keep iht; company

what

our subsistance through the wilderness to IS called the Buft'aloe country; a distance of about 200 miles. From thence we proceeded up the Missouri until we

another tribe

of Indians,

called the Otoes,

We

[5
from siarving^ which was i'm mediately done, and the carcasses ecjuallj ttiatributed to each mess. proceedeil on our journey slowly sending out hunters as usual, but without success; game appear•'d to become scarcer and scarcer, and in a few days our provision (if I may call it such) again exhausted. Finding it impossible, ovving to the scarcity ol game, to continue any further up the IlepubTK we concluded to leave it and steer I'oc the head waters of the Missouri. Accordingly we changed our direction as well asour

We

meat we had obtained and animsted and encouraged with the hope of obtainin^ plenty more, we set out with unusual fine We continued to travel up the spirits. river Platte for several days passinj^

through extensive barren prairies, the soil being too poor even to produce grass; and game exceedingly scarce. Some of us ngain became alirmsd, and one morning
the roll was called it was discovereil two of the company had stolen two of the best horses and started back ti) the state of Missouri. This had a bid effect it impaiied that full- confidence which had heretofore existed betU'cen the metnbers of the coijjfcny, but we continued up the river and in a lew days arrived at the Buttaloe country. After encamping, on a pleasant evening, in the latter part of July, some of the company discovered two Budfaloe buUs feeding in the prairie, about Four or live of half a mile from canip. us immediately mounted our horses and started to take them; but retifrned in a sliort time without success— one of the men having; got his arm bi'oken, by fallini But the next day we from his horse. happened on a large drove of these animals, and killed six or seven ofthem. The
that

when

manner

of travelliiig.

Instead

of

travel-

ling in a close

mat

as

hcrotijfore,

we now

scattered over a considerable range of country for the purpose of hunting, leaving ten or twelve men only to bringon the pack-mules, and at night we would coliect together with our game, which generally consisted of wolves,
eles,

wild cats, nuis-

and some times an Antelope. In this way vv*i continued our journey slowly,

some

of the company being half starved to death, lor eight or ten days, eating at night what little game we cajght through the day; at last wo collected one evening, I think about the middle of July, in a barren prairie where we could not get wood enough to make a lire, much less any thing to cook on it-— not a nH)uthfull of game was returned that evening. This was a despondency & hortrying time indeed ?or was depicted in the countenance of e'^:/fivy man, and the enquiry, "what shall we do," was passing from every lip. In this condition, without fire or food, we spePit the knighto In the morning we held a consultation to decide whether to confitinue in that direction or turn. nally agreed to proceed straight ahead by night we arrived on the banks of the river Platte, a distance of about ten miles from where we iiad encamped the night C)efore, where we pitched our tents for the niglit. Most of our hunters had collected wiihout game, and pronounced it very scarce, and we were about to kill another of our horses, when we saw one of our hunters approaching us with unusual rapidity, without his gun or hat and his countenance indicating great excitement. I never wish to feel more pleasure than I did as he rushed into the lent exclaiming, "I have killed two big Buck Elk I" Early the next moining--refreshed with what

'

flesh of the Buftaloe

is

the

vvholesomest

We

&

and m.ost palatable of meat kind. The male mi these animals are much the largweighing from lOOO to 1500 pound^,-. est and may be seen in droves of hundreds We remained hera feeding in the plains. several days feasting upon Buffaloe meat, Ffom thence pioceeded up the river,* finding an abundance of game, such as Buffaloe, Elk, Deer and Antelope—-and killOn the first ing more or less every day. day of August we arrived at ths forks of the river Piatte; and by means ol boats

made

of bulialoe skins, crossed

the «?Duth

,

Fork and continued our journey up the Here the soil appeared to be vevalley. ry poor, producing but little grass; and in some places for three or four mdes we would travel over sand plains where there was scarcely a spear of grass to be seen. Immediately on the water courses the soil As we is better and produces good grass. travelled up the river, we occasionally came in contact with clitT^ of rocks and hard clay, Irom two to three hundred leet Oiie above the level of the plain. of these cliUs is very peculiar in its a^-

whites the west side of the Rocky mountains, was then on his way to St. Louis. Hei was an old hand at the business and we expected to obtain some useful information from him, but we were disappointed. The selfishness of mr.n is often disgraceful to human nature; and I never saw inorestriking evidence of this fact, than was presented in the conduct of this man F'itzpatrick. Notwithstanding we had treated him with great friendship and hospitality merely because we were to engage in the same business with hinij which he knew we never cou'd exhaust or even impair— he refused to give us any information whatever, and appeared disposed to treat us as On the 3d of Septentiber, Capintruders. tain Blackvvel', with two others, joined Fitzp^trick, and started back to the state; of Missouri, for an additional supply of merchandise, and were to return in the summer of 1832. I was one of 21 that composed the cornorders to make preparations for trapping, pany untler ihe command of Capt. A. K. Accordingly the company was divided in- Stephens, a man we!! calculated to pilot to parties of from 15 to 20 men in each or manage in caso of difllculty with the party, with their respective captair)S pla- Indians. He received a portion of the and directed by Captain profits arising from the naerchandize, sav red over them Gant in what direction to go. Captain S2 per pound fur Coffee, and the same for Washburn ascended the Timber Fork; Tea, Shugai, Lead, Powder, Tobacco, Capt. Stephens the Laramies; Capt, Gant Allspice, Pepper. &c., arid fer every yard all of which empty in- of coarse cloth glO, and for fine cloth $20; the Sweet Water !o the river Platte near the same place, this, however, is governed entirely by Each of these companies were directed to their value with the Indians. For twenty ascend these rivers until they found Bea- or thi: ty loacis of powder you can generver sufficiently plenty for trapping, or til! ally get from eight to twelve dollars woitli the snov/ and cold weather compelled of fur. them to stop; at which event they were to On the 4th of September, having every return to She mouth of the Laramies riv- thing in readmcss, after shaking hands ail er, to pass the winter together. While at round, we separated, each party to meanthis place, engaged in secreting our mer- der the rivers that had been respectively ehandi7.e, which we did by diggi!)g a hole allotted to them, with the intention, if noin the ground, sufficiently large to con- thing happened th.enj, of re assembling iii tain them, and cove, ing ti-.ein over so that the latter part of December, to spend the the Indians might not discover (hem winter toj^ether. four men (three whites and one Indian) Mi. Stephen's party commenced their Came to our lent. This astonish.ed Us not tour up ihe Laramies "'ri\er and continued U tittle, lor a white man was ihe last of several days without any important occurJiving beings that we expected to visit us rpuce. Found the prairies or plains irt in this vast wilderness where nothing this direction very extensive unobsfrucwash2ard Irom dark to day ii^^ht but the ted with timber or brush— handsomely sitfierce and terrifying growls ol wild beasts, uated, with here and there a «ma!l creek and the more shrill cries of the merciless passing through them, and in sonie places savages. 'Pise principal of these ri»en was literaitv covored vvith game, such as Bula Mr. Fitzpntrick, who h.ad been engaged faloe, White and Black tailed Dv'er,Griz-.trapping along the Columbia river, on zlv, Red, and White Bear, Elk, Prairie

pcarancp, nml

is

known among

ti^.e

&

'^Chimney clift," and ar.iong the natives as "Elk Peak." It is only about 150 yards in circumterance at its basis, and about 25 at the summit; and projects into the air to the heighth of SOO feet. Its towering summit may be seen at the distance of 15 or 20 miles— presenting the appearahce of some huge fabric that had been constructed by the art of man. We continued to travel in a western direction ^-found game plenty met with no difiiculty in getting along; and on the 27th of August we artived at the junctmn of tiie Laramies river wiilj^^river Platte about 12 or 1800 miies^^B the United States, and two or three hurffred from the Here we top of the Rocky Mountains. stopped for the purpose of reconrioitering. Several scouting piiriies were sent out in search of Beavfr signs, who returned in a few daysand reported that they had found Beaver signs, &c. Capt. Gant then gave
lis

,-

m

[4
wild Goit. Big horned mountaia Sheep, Antelope, <^-c. On the 20th of Sept. we stopped on the bank ot a small creek, to let our horses graze^ at the junction of which we seen signs ot beaver. Two hunters were sent up this stream with their traps and guns on search of beaver, who, ii they should be successful in finding game, were not to return till tik€ next day the mam body of the company to move on slowly. After travelling several miles, & hearing nothing of our hunters, we deemed it advisa-

]

Dog,

patched for the traps, who returned in the evening with seven or eight beaver. The Grizzly Bear is the most ferocious animal that inhabits these prairies, and are very numerous. They no sooner see you than they will make at you with open mouth. If you stand still, they will come within two or three yards of you, and stand upon their hind feet, and look you in the face, if you have fortitude enough to face them, they will turn and run off; but if you turn they will most assuredly tear you to pieces^ furnishing strong
that no wild beast,

proof of the fact,
fewill attack the

ble to
did.

encamp for the night, which we About midnight we were alarmed
rifles.

however daring and

rocious,

by the report of two
to be'hostile Indians,

Supposing

it

we put ourselves

in

face of Or. the

unl^^wounded, mat^Hj^

i^King

of the

22d Sept. we

a-

an attitude of defence, as soon as possible gain renewed our tour, travelling at the by throwing up a fort of logs and brush, rate of 8 or 10 miles a day; catching a and keeping up sentinels until morning. few Beaver, as we passed along nothing On the next morning, about sun rise the strange occurring until tlie SOih, when we two hunters came in, and informed us that arrived at the fdot of a great mountain,

it

guns that had ahad fired them off near the spot where they had expected to find the camp, with the hope of receiving some signal. They had meandered the creek till they came to beaver dams, where they set their traps and turned their horses out to pasture; and were busily engaged in
the report of their
us, as they

was

tb.rough

larmed

which the river Laramies passes. attempted to follow the river through the mountain, but we soon found this to be impossible, as the bluffs of huge rocks pro.-

We

constructing a camp to pass the night in, when they discovered, at a short distance
a tremendous large Grizzly Bear, rushing upon them at a furious rate.—They immediately sprang to their rif?es which vvere standing ajf^ainst a tree hardby, one ot which was single and the other double triggered; unfortunately in the hurry, the one that was accustomed to the single trigger, caught up the double trigj^ered gun, arid when tlie bear came upon him, not having set the trigger, he could not get his gun off"; and the animal approaching within a h\v feet of him, he was obliged to commence beating it over the head with his gun. Bruin, thinking this rather rough usage, turned his attention to the man with the single triggered gun, who, in trying to set the trigger (supposing he had the double triggeied gun) had
off,

jecting several hundred feet high, closed in to the very current. then turned down the side of the mountain, on search of a place to cross it. On the 1st day of Oct. we came to a Builaloe trail crossing the mountain, and after ascending to near the summit, we encamped for the night.

We

it commenced snowing, and continued to fall so fast that we vvere obliged to remain there until the morning of the 4th, when we again renewed our journey, and in the evening we arrived in

About midnight

the valley on the North or West side of Here, finding no snow the nvountain. Beaver signs plenty, we deemed it advi-

&

sable to remain a few days for the purpose of trapping, and the first night we

caught 20

Beaver.

We

remained

heros

until the 12th,

to fall to it off, and was also obliged beating the ferocious animal with his gun; finally, it left them without doing much miles long, and from 10 to 16 miles wide; injury, except tearing the sleeve off one and is enclosed on the one side by the of their coats and biting him through the main chain of the Rocky Mountains, and hand. Four men were immediately des- on the other by great Piney Hills, runniu^^

lired

eight or ten mile> fuither up the South fork of the river, and again encainpetl (or the purOn the 18th, finding pose of triipping. Beaver getting rather scarce, we proceeded a few miles further up the valley, and encamped again. This va\ley is supposed to be TO or 80

when we proceeded

put from the main body of the mountain, with the river Laramies passing through the centre of it, the banks of whicli are covered with timber, from | to 5 a mile
wide. Out side of this timber, the plain is completely smooth; and on a clear morning, by taking a view witJi a spyglass, you can s^e the different kinds of game ihat inhabit these plaints, such as Butlalue, Deer, Elk, Antelope, Bighorn, JJear, Woives, &c. These plains are poor, san-

which purpose f.aCyi pealed and collected a quantity of this bark, from the grove iu
lor

Cottonwood bark;

man turned out and

which we were encamped

for

liis

hoisesj;

but to our utter surprise and di^ocorsditure, on presenting it to them they would not eat it, and upon exainining it by tasting, we found it to be tlie bitter, instead of thu sweet Cottonwood. lmmediatelj|, upon finding we were d.»celved, men v*ere des-

dy and

level

— the grass thin and
The

patched up and down the valley, on searcli
of Sweet Cottonvvood, but returned without success. Several weeks were spent in fruitless exertion to obtain feed for oui* horses; finally we were coaipelled to give it up, and agreed that our horses must all starve to death. The great depth of the snow, and the extreme coldness of the weather, soon preventetl our iiorses from getting any thing to subsist upon, & they comnjenced dying. It seldom happened during all our dilEcjUies, that my sympathies were more sensibly touched, than on viewing these starving creatures. I would willingly have dividedlnj provision with* my horses, ii they would have eat it. On nevv'-yfear^day, notvvilhgtanding our horses were nearly all dead, as being fufly satisfied that the few that were yet liv»ng must die soon, Vv'e «oncluded to have a feast in our best style; for which purpose we made preparation by sending out four of our best hunters, to get a choice piece of meat for the occasion. Tiiese men killed tea Buflaloe, from whicIi they selected one of the fattest humps they could find and brought in, and after roasting ithandsomely before the lire, we all seated ourselves upon the ground, encircling, what we there called a splendid repast to dino

short.

Oct. 22d.

nights getting
falling moi e

some-

or less ev«ry day, we began to make preparations to return to our winter qUSirters, at the jmouth of La» amies river; and on the 25lh

what cold, and snow

^commenced our tour down the river. On the 28th we arrived at the mountain, that

we

crossed going up, but found

it

impossi-

enormous depth of the snow to pass over it. On the morning of the 30th we started a number of men up and down the valley, on search of a place
ble, ovving to the to cross the mountain, whj returned the next day and reported that they had touud no passing place over the mountain pvheR under these circumstances a majority of the company (fecided in favor of encanjp-

ing in this valley for the winter, and when ihe ice melted out of the river^ in the spring, commence trapping until such

times as the snow
tain;

when we

melted of! the v/ould return to the

mounmouth

ot the river, where v/e had secreted our goods, On the 1st day of November we commenced travelling up the valley, on search cf a suitable place to pass the winter, and on the evening of the 4th, we arrived at a large grove of Cottonwood liniber, wliich upon. Feasting sumptuously, cracking u we deemed suitable for encamping in.— fevv jokes, taking a few rounds v.-ith our Several weeks were spent in building hou- rifles, and wishing heartily for some lipes, stables, ^c. necessary for ourselves, quor, having oone at that place we spent and horses during the winter season.— the day. This being done, we commenced killing The glorious Sih a.'rived, the recollecBufTaloe, and hanging up the choice pie- tion of the achievements of which, aie calces to dry, so that if they should leave the culated to gladden th.e hearts of the Aniervalley we would have a suflicient quanti- ican j)eople; but it was not so glorious to us. ty of meat to last us until spring. found our horses on tiiat day, also killed Deer, Bighorn Sheep, Elk, An- like Pac.kenhan^'s forces, well nigh detelope, &c., and dressed the hides t^ make funct. Here we were in this valley, sur-

We

We

rounded on either side by insurmountuble finding our barriers of snow, with all our nierchamli/.e horses getting very poor, we thought it and nothing to pack it upo«, but, two necessary to commence 5'ecding them on mules~uli the rest of our horses being
inoccasins.

About the

1st of

December

-

[6]
^esd.
eat,

For ourselves we had i)!enty and were growing fat and uneasj;

to

es through these

row

in places

mountains i§ quite nar and ihe banks very steep,

but how we v\'ere to extricate ourselves In such places the beaver build their dams fiom this perilous situation, was a question from bank to bank; and when they become j^f deep and absorbing interest to each in- old the beaver leave thern, and they break dividtjal. i^bout the 10th we held a con- and overflow the ground, which then prosuUation, to decide what measures should duces a kind of flag grass. In the fall of be taken tor our relief. Mr. Stephens, the year, the ButTaloe collect in such plafuir p'tot, having been at Santafecin New ces to eat this grass, and when the snow Mexico, some 8 or 10'' years previous, in- fails too deep they retreat to the plains; lormed the company that horses in that and it was in these trails that we ascend f)lace, were Very cheap; and that he was ed the mountain. of the opinion he could take them to it, if VVe still continued our course along this they saw propei to follow him. It wasti- buRiiloe path, which led us to the top of nally agreed upon by the company, that a the mountain; nothing occurring more than ])art of them should start lor Santatee;but it continued to snow day and night. On not, however, without a good deal of con- the 25th v/e ai rived on the top of the fusion; as many were of the opinion that mountain, and wishing to take a view of the snow on the mountain in the di- the country, if it should cease §nowing. rection of Suntafee, would be found to be In the morning it still continued to -snow ?.s insurmountable, as in the direction of so rapidly that ^ve were obliged to remaitj tlieir merchandize, and also that the dis- in camp all day, and about the middle of tance was too great to attempt to travel the day, we eat the last of our jirk, and on foot, at that sc^^on of the year. It ap- that evening we were obliged to go to }S<id pearing from the maps to be little short of supperless. SOO niijss. On the 29th it still continued to snow, On the rnorning of the 14th, finding ev- and having nothitig to eat, we thought it ery thing in readiness for our Santafee high time to be making some n^ove, for frip, we set out, each man with his bed- our preservation, or we must perish in this ding, rifle and nine Beaver skins, packed lonely wilderness. The question then adpon his back; lcavini.>- four men only to rose, shall we return to the valley fron\ take care of our merchnndi?.e, and the two whence we cam'^-, or continue m the dijnules. The beaver skins v.e took lor the rection of Santalee. This question causpurpdse^of trailing to (he inliabitants of ed considerable disturbance. Those who Santafee for horses, mules, &c. VVe ap- were in favor of going ahead, argued that pointed fron the middle of April till the it was too far back to game that it would middle of may, as our time for returning; de impossible to return before starving to and if we did not return within that time, beath: while those who were for returning our four men were to wait no lunger, but contended that it was the highthof imprue'etarn to the nsouth. of the Laramies river, dence, to {)roceed in the direction of Santo meet the rest of the company'. con- tafee. Accordingly we made preparatravelled -actinued in the direction of Santafee, Wtth- rations, and started. out any extraordinary occurience, foi'^ 3- ross the summit of the mountain, where veral days— found game plenty and but we found a plain about a mile wide, which little snow, until we arrived at tiie foot of with great difficulty, owing to the fiercea great mountain, which appeared lo be ness of the wind, wc succeeded in crosssnow. totally covered with Here we ing; but when we attempted to go into the thought it advisable to kill and jirk some timber, on the opposite side from the bullaloe meat, to eat while crossing this mountain, we found it impossible, in cotin^ountain, aftei- which we, continued our sequence of the depth of the snow, and course; finding much difficulty in travel- were obliged to turn back and re-cross As we returned by the fire we ling, owing to the stormy weather & deep the plain. snow so much so indeed, that had it nut Isad made going over the plain the first been for a path made by the buflfaloe bulls time, we halted tor the purpose of mutual-ly deciding what to do; when it was d it would have been impossible to travel, The channel of the river where it pass« tcrmined by th.e company, that we wjuld,

We

We

e

L ?
3j

J

possible, return to our four

men

&

two mode

mules.
top of

We

then started on search of the

lowed to the owing to" the strong wind, li»at had blew for several days, and the increased depth of the snow,
butt'aloe path
tol

which we had
but

The first of travelling. started with our snow shoes led but three or lour miles and
we
for the night,

day after

we travelencamped

the mountuin;

our beaver skins, we continued our journey through the snow. In this way we continued to travel until the first day of February, in the afternoon, when we came to where the crust on the snow was sufficiently strong to carry us. Here we could travel somewhat faster, but at the best not much faster than a man could fore -it. Oh! how heartily I wished my- crawl on his hands and feet, as some of the self at home; but wishing, in such a cass^ men from hunger and cold were almost appeared useless action alone could save insensible of theit' situation, and so weak had not even leather to make that they could scarcely stand on their us. snow shoes, but as good fortune would feet, much less walk at speed. As we have it, some of the men had the front part approached the foot of the mountain the of Iheir pantaloons lined with deer skin, snow became softer and uould not carry and oUiers had great, coats of diilerent us. This caused tiie most resolute deskinds of skin, which v^e collected togeth- pair, as 't was obviously imj)ossibIe, owThis appeared ing to extreme weakness, for us to wade er to make snow shoes of. to present to us the only means of escape much further through the snow. As we from starvation and death. After o:ather- moved down the mountain plunging and mz up everv thiny; of leather kind that falling through the snow, Vv'e apprOached a could be f(jund, we ":ot >o makino; snow large spt uce or cedar tree, the diooping shoes, and by morning each man was fur- bianciies of which had prevented the snow nisiied with a pair. But what were we from falling to the ground about its trunk to subsist upon while crossing the mounhere v^e halteYi to rest. Vv'tiile collecttain, was a painful questioii that agitated ed under the sheltering bows of this tvQe^ every bosom, at;,d employed every tongue viewing, with hcuriOed feelings, the wayProvisiofj, we had none, of worn^ and despairing countenances ol eacii in company. any descrintionj having eaten every thing othcE-, a Mr. Carter, a Viiginian, who was we had that could be eat with the excep- probably the nighest exhausted ot any of tion of a few beaver skins, and, after hav- the conipany, burst into tears and said, ing fasted several days, to attempt to tra- ''here 1 must dio."' This made a great vel the distance of the valley, v.ithout any impression upon iiie remainder oflhe comthing to eat, appeared almost worse than pany, and they a!!, with the exception of useless. Thinkins;, hovvever, that we a Mr. Uockilay and mjself, despaired of might as ^vyJl perish one place as another, goii.g any further. Mr. Hockday, how. land that it was 4he best to make an exer- everj after some persuasion, telling them tion to save ourselves; and after eacii man th.it if they had strength to follow us v. had selected two of the best beaver skins would break the joad as far as possible, to eat as he travelled alony;, v,e hung the if not out to the valley, succeeded iu remainder upon a tree, and started to try getting them started once more. Mr.' our fortune with the snow shoes. Owing Hockday was a large muscular man, to the softness of the snow, and "the poor as hardy as a ioule and as resolute as a construction of our siuiw shoes, ve soon lion; yet kind and affectionate. He was found this to be a difficult and laburioiis then decidedly the stoutciit man hi the.
of

then attch^pted to path, but w^e found this equally as impossible, as in the direction of Santafee. Here ws were, in a desolate wilderness', uninhabited (at- that season of the year) tjy even the hardy savage or wild suiroanded on either side by hui^e beast mountains of snow, without one mouthiui to eat, save a few beaver skins our eyes almost destroyed bj the piercing wind, and our bodies at times almost buried by the flakes of snow which were driven beit

was

invisible.

We

,

travel in the

snow wilhout.the

which, for want of a good passed in the moi^t distressing Wood was plenty but we were manner. unable to get i<i, and it kept one or two of the men busy to keep what little Sre we bad from 2;oing out as it melted the
fire,

we

snow and sunk down.

On

the

morning

(30th Jan.) after roasting and eating

some

We

[B]
^ouipanj, and myself, probably, the next the men on this occasion. Before we had stoutest. As for our Captain, Mr. Ste- caught the buffaloe they appearet! scarcely phens, he was amongst the weakest of the able to speak but a moment after that, were able to hollow like Lilians at war. company. resumed our journey, and continu- I will not describe the scene that iollowcd ed to crawl along through the deep snow he>-e—-the reader may imagine it an acslpwly till the evening of thetourth, when count ot it would be repulsive and odenswe arrived in (he plain at the foot of the 've rather than agreeable. This was the inountain. Here wq iound the snow so ninth day since vi^e had eatsn any thing fehailow that we could dispense with the but dried beaver skins. remained at use of our snow shoes; and while in the this place four days faasting upon the caract of taking them ofi some of the men cass of this Bufifaloe, durin;; which time discovered, at the distance of 70 or 80 we recruited considerably in strength and yards; two animals feeding in the brush, spirits, and on the 8lh we resumed our Vvhich they supposed lobe bbtialoe. but from journey dov;n the river in search of our blindness, caused by weakness and pine f«ur men and two mules, and soon landed smoke, could not be positive. Mr. Hoc- '" the vall.ey where game was plenty, and day and I were selected to approach and but little snow to obstruct our inarch. kill one of the animals without regard to continued our journey, killing plenty of what Ihey might prove to be, v^hile there- game and living well, without anystians;e niainder of the company were to go to a occurrence until the 14th, when we haltneighboring gro^e ol timber and kindle a "^d within a short distance of our old camp, fire. Having used our guns as walking and sent two or three of our^v/orst looking vanes in the snow, we found them much men ahead to see whether they would b«^ out of order, and were obliged to draw out recognized by the tour men. They wera the old loads and put in new ones, before Hot known immediatel}' on r.rriving nt the attempting to shoot. After taking every camp, but no sooner engaged in conversapre<:aution we deemed necessary to insure tion than they were recognized by the foi;r success, we started and crawled along on i^cn, and licartily welcomed back. Here we remained at our old station unour haixls and knees, until we approached within ten or fifteen steps of thtj inimals, til the I4lh of ^Jarch, during which periwhen Mr. Hockday prepared to shoot; but od, having plenty of good buffaloe meat to upon finding that he could not see the cat, we regained our usual health and apsight ot the gun or hohlit at arras length, pearance. Anxious to be doing someforbore, and proposed to me to shoot. 1 thing, eight of us made preparations to accordingly nxed myself and puilcd trig- start agaip to Santefee lor horses. ger. My gun missed fire! I never was were to travel south, along the foot of the so wrecked with agitation as at that mo- m»untain till we carae to a certain river mento "There," said I, *'our game is Vt'hich heads in the mountain near v^here gone, and we are not able to follow it vve had hung the beaver skins on the pine much further^ but as good fortune had it, tree; alter finding this river we were to the Butfaloe, (for such we had discovered commence trapping, and also to endeavor them to be,) did not see nor smell u§, and to get the beaver fur off the mountain into alter raising their heads out of the snoyr, the valley. The balance of the company, and looking around for a lew moments for 13 in number, were to remain at the camp the cause of the noisf, again commenced and secrete the merchandise, and then feeding. to I then picked the Hint ol my follow us to this river, where we were gun, fired and broke the buck of one of the meet; and if we had succeeded in getting Butfaloe, my ball not takinji elfect within the beaver skinsoK the mountain, vve were to join togfjther and proceed in the direc18 inches of wiiere I thought I aimed. The men in the gr»ve of timber, on hear- tion of Santefee. With this understanding the report of my rifle came staggering ing we startetl, and pursued our course forth to learn the result, and when they slowly along the bc.L^e of the mountain met with no obstacle received the heart-c ieeringiatelligeiioe of found game plenty success they raised a shout of joy. It was to impetle our march, and on the 20th we After amusiu"; to witness the conduct ot some of J^riivedon the bank of the river.

We

We

We

We


[9]
remaining here a lew uajs
out of the cretksand
ilie

ice

meltud ses

vvillj

(.hem,

we

dctermiiied,

lil'tcr

sam^

we commenced and controversy,
a line

to rob

them of

their

horst-Sp
to out'

continued to trap for beaver until the 28ih or other

property commensurate

during which lime we caught
tity of {ur,

quan-

loss.

Accoidingly we made preparations
adventure
lire

and

built ourselves a

wigwam
and hay-

for our perilous

— we

eat suplittlti

after the

Indian tashion.

The

weather per, prepared our
after

arms,

and a

continuing

waim and
to

pleasant,

dark set out on search of the
clear.

enemy

ing a large quantity of dried meat on hand

— the night was calm and
aiid

We

tra-

we concluded

hide

our traps,

beaver versed the valley up

down
hill,

for several

§kins, baggage, &c., in our

wigwam and
get the beav/e

hours without making any discoveries;

we

pack aportion of the jirked meat
backs and make an eMort
ver skins
If It off

on our then ascended an adjacent

from the

to

the pine tree

where

them

in

January.

We

started,

summit of which we discovered at a coiisiderable distance a' number ofdirn fires. and A controversy here arose amongst the men
had
to the

after travelling

up the nver along the side as

of the mountain for two or three days,

we

dians.

It

expediency of attacking the Inwas finally decided, however,

caitie in contact with huge mountains of by a majority of the company; that we We snow and insurmountable icebergs, and should attack them at all hazards. were compelled to abandon our course & started in the directiofi of the fires, and return back again lo the plain. When after traveTimg' some distance, and having we had arrived within a short distance of lost sight of the lires, some of the men aand strongly <)ur wigwam, on our return, we discover- gain became .discouraged,

ed several

trails of

moccasin tracks

in the

urged the propriety
ject; but

ot

abandoning the pro\he Indians

snow.

Some

of

the

company

became

on callings vote a majority again
in favor of

somewhat alarmed ing them to.be the
ans

at these signs, suppcstrails

decided

attackiug

of hostile Itidiit

and

in a

few minutes afiei^-wg arrived on
hill,

— others appeared
the

rejoiced, and said
of

the top o?a
the enyniy-s

within 50 or

was

remainder

our coraj»any.for
it

camp.

60 yards of Here we halted for

The

dispute was soon decided,

on ar-

iha purp,o?e
the

of reconnoitering.
risiivg

At

thi§

riving at C/ur

wigwam,

-ve.

found

com- time

moon was jnst

aboye the

pietely robbed »f every thing

we had

It—'tr^.ps, blanket?, beaver skins

left in summit (>f the mountain, and casting it? and other glimmering rays o'er tl-.e valley beneath,

utensds were

all

gone

— nothing remained
of the
left to
little

but did not

shme on

t!ic

Indian

camp.—

but the naked frame

hut.
nri

There were

five fires,

and the Indians ap-

IVe had now nothing
Qpe old blanket had
Willi
all

sleep

save

peaiing more numerous than
to find thein,

for

each

man which we pected
these highly

we had exwe thought it ad visaAt
the
fout of
left

us on the m'^untnin, and had lost

ble to be as careful and judiciouQ about at-

nearly

our traps.

Under

tacking them as possible.
this hill,

aggravating circumstances some of the

men

near a large rock, we

our

became desperate,
For

(k^clared they

would

hats, coats

and every thing that was unnethiib

r^etake their property or die in the attempt,

cessary in action— we also designated
a^;

my

part,

I

viewed the matter calmly
to abide
ti

a poiut of r.eeting, in

cp.se

we should
hi'.d

and seriously and determined
dictates of prudence

e

get separated in the skirmish; and

an

only.

Seeirjg from

understanding that but two should
a time,

fire at

the

trail

of the Indians that Ihey were not

and

that

Cnpt. Stephens
I

was
were

to

very numerous, and had a number of hor~

command.

Mr. liocda; and

ne-

C
iecfefl io shoot firsf.

io ]

Wc

then

started

&

Indian warfare.)
for near

This scene was kept
without any

iiji

crawled silently a]ong on our hands and
knees until we got
within eight
or
steps of one of the fires,

an hour

damage

to

ten our
laid
little

company,

and as we supposed, but

where we
our heads

injury to the Indians.

The

savages

down
mode

in the brush, With

together to consult as
of

surprising

we were determined to defend ourto the most proper selv£s to the last gave way on the opposite the savages, whose side ot the hill from their camp, and we
close seeing

dusky forms were then extended in sleep around the dying embers. While in this position, some eager for the conflict, others trembling with fear, a large dog rose
from one of the
fires

niade our escape out of their circle, and

were glad
Indians.

to

get
o(

away

with

our

lives,

without any

our property or that of the
scenes of this
niglit will e-

The

and commenced grow- ver be indelibly impressed upon
the

my memmiles

ling and barking

in

most

terrifying ory.

tnanner.

The

spell of silence

was now
final skir-

After travelling

five

or six

we
flat

broken, and an immediate and

came

to a

deep ravine or hollow

— we carethe

mish with our enemy rendered unavoida- fully descended the precipice
blc.

to

much below, where we encamped lor the night; exposed to the fire of the Indians we re- but from fright, fatigue, cold and hunger, treated fifteen or twenty steps down the I could not sleep, and lay contemplating bank. Some of the Indians then came to on the strikinfj; contrast between a nio-ht the top of the bank and commenced shoot- in the villages of Pennsylvania and one on irg arrows at us, and yelling at the extent the Rocky Mountains. In the latter, the of their lungs. At this moment Mr. Ste- plough-boy's whistle, the gambols of tlid

Thmking

ourselves lalher too

phens was heard

to say

in a firm

tone children on the green, the
fight herds,
I
fi-

lowing of the

"now

is

the time

my

boys,

or die;" upon this Mi-.

we must Hocday and

bell,

and the deep tones of the evening are unheard; not a sound strikes up-

bank was on the ear, except perchance the distant seen to fall, and the remainder ran back howling of some wild beast, orwar-whoop On hearing the report of of the uncultivated savage all was silent to the camp.
red^ one of the Indians en the

our

rifies the

Indians,

to

the

number

of on this occasion

save the

muttering of a

two or three hunilred, rose out of the bush- small brook as it wound its way through es and literally covced the plain, while the deep cavities of the gulph down the mingled with an mountain, and the gentle whispering of their terrific war whoop occasional crack ot a rifle, renderad the the breeze, as it crept through the dark aspect of things more threatening than the pine or cedar forest, and sighed in melan-

most timid had before anticipated.
ran to our appointed place
before
to

We

choly accents^ nor

is it

the retiring of the
in the

meet,

but "god of day"

to his

couch

western

we had

time

to

gather our baggage, horizon" that brings on this desolate scene

we

found ourselves completely surround-

ed and

hemmed
flight,

in

on every

side by

the the

savages.

Finding that we could
but must
hill,

not es-

cape by

fight,

wc

ran to

east does not change gloomy aspect night and day are nearly the same in this respect. About midnight we were alarmed by a
his rising in the

the top of the

and having sheltered shrill whistle on the rocks above, &supwell as we could amongst the posing it to be the Indians on pursuit of ourselves as rocks, commenced yelling and firing in us we seized our guns and ran a few rods After waiting for some turn, (yelling is a very essential point in from our fires.

time, without hearing any

more

noise, one

inga

buftaloe, a goat, or a

bighorn, as

wc

and passed over the plains ami prairies which discovered that the object of our fears was were literally covered with these animals} a large drove of Elk. In the morning wb and on the morning of the 9th of April,
the precipice,

•^the men ascendeai

continued

to travel

down

this

ravine,

we

arrived «afe at our old camp,

&

were

and

I

was struck with the rough and
right

pic-

gratified to find our thirteen

men and two
good
health*

turesque appearance of the adjacent

hills,

mules

in the

enjoyment

of

On our

and
feet,

left,

arose like two per- with plenty \^ eat

and drink.

After ex-

all around, by a hearty two chains of mountains, shake of the hand, and taking some reNot a blade of grass, bush or plant was to freshment, which was immediately prepa-

perulicular ramparts, to the heigh th of near changing civilities

two hundred

be seen oh these hard slopes,

— huge rocks
falling,

red for us,

I

related

to

the

company

the

detached from the main

body, supported dismal tidings of the near approach of the
hostile Indians, and the circumstances of and being robbed by them, and being defeated

by

the

recumbent weight of other unseen
in the act of

rocks appeared

presented a frightful appearance— nothing in the attempt to retake our property. met the eye but an inexhaustible aValanch All were now satisfied of the imprudence of rocks—sombre, gray or black rocks. If of attempting to go to Santa Fee by this Dante had designed to picture in one of route, as well as of the necessity of devis* his circles, the Hell of Stones, he might ing some other method of saving our mer-

have taken

this

scene

for his

moddle.-— chandise.

We

finally

concludct'-to confur,

This

is

one scenery

in the

vicinity of the

ceal our merchandise, baggngpi

and
to

Rocky Mountains; and perhaps an
travel

hour-s every thing that
dif-

we could
winter

not pack on our

would present another of

a

very

backs or on the two mule^, and return
quarters,
at

ferent

character— one that the
to

artist

who our appointed

the

designed

depict a

beautiful and
select for

en- mouth of the Laramies River, with the exa pectation of meeting Capt. Gant, and ob-

chanting landscape
"^"<JtlIe.

\vould

taining

some assistance from him. On the
ol

After travelling some fifteen or twenf} morning of the 20th
miles,

April, having

made

where the main every necessary preparation, we set out body of tl-.e Indians v/ith whom we had the on our journey for the mouth of the Larskirmish the evening before, had passed a- amies river. After two days travel, we long. It was near half a mile wide, and came to the footof the mountain which we
to the trail

we came

the

earth.

literally trodden into the had endeavored in vain to cross in Nohave since understood from whites vember. The snow was still deep on the who had been in the habit of trading with top of il; but by aid of the bullaloe trails,
I

snow was

this nation, prior
hostilities against

to

their

declaration of
that

we were enabled

In

scale

it

without

much

the

whites,
to

they diHiculty, except that our mules

sulVered

numbeied from seven warriois. Alarmed at

hundred with hunger, having had nothing to cat formidable ap- but pine brush. At the foot of the mounpearanceof the hostile Indians, we mu- tain we found abundance of sweet cottoneight
this

tually declined the idea of going

to

Santa wood, and our mules
it,

bdng

very loud

of

Fee, and turned and travelled in
rcclion of the main

the di-

we detained two

or

three days

to let

We
with

continued
possible

to

body of our company, them recruit from their suaering in crostravel day after day. in<j; the mountaitis. This mountain and
kill-

all

^peel— occasionally

the one

we

left

our fur on,

are covered

[

12 J
Diiriog
tlieir

with the most splendid tiinber of dilTercnt disheartened.

travels ihey

kinds such as

fir,

cedar,

white pine, &c. had dlscnvgrcd, on smpe of
or

t!ie

creeks,

6^

On

the margin of the rivers and creeks in
is

70

U)iles

from our encampment,

many
se\eral

the plains, the only timber

cottor.vyood,

"signs

of

beaver—i-eiicounterei!

under growth, willow and rose bushes; Grizzly bears, and several times narrowout in the middle of the plains there is ly escaped tiie Indians; Mr. Stephens hanoneofany description. In the month vipg had several balls shot through his
of June, a person by taking
:.

view of the clothes.
plain

In this situation

country east of
extending from

this

mountain with a spy
of the

for five or six

glass, could see nothing but a level
tl>e

proposed that

we remained when Mr. Stephens each man should go on toot,
days,

mountain ^»th a trap or two on his back, his blankas far as the eye can penetrate, covered ets, together with what we could pack upwlth green grass, and bfjiutirul flowers of on the tvyo mules, and commence trapping
foot

various descriptions; and bv turning to the on these creeks.

This propjsition was obthe

northwest, the

eye meets

nothing but a jected to by some of

company who

rough and dismal

looking mountain, covall

were

in

favour of securmg some of Capt.

ered with snow, and presenting

tl.eap-

Gant's merchandise, find the Indians and

pearance of dreary winter.
extend to the state
ol

These

plains purchase horses of them.

So many

dif-

Missouri, with scarce Cerent propositions were here made, that nothing definite could be agreed upan.— ft hin or a grove of timber to. interrupt the sigh*, and literally covered with game of Mr. Smith, Mr. Fully and myself agreed to repair to the trapping ground and cornalmost every kind.

On

the 25ih

we

again resumed ourjour-

mence

operations, with the understanding

and continued ahead thatCapt. S., should receive a certain ney down without any difficulty— passing over near- share ot the profits, as a recompense for Accordingly ly the same gL'ound that we had travelled the discovery he had made.
the river,

over going up the
iy ol

fall

before; killing plen-

having every thing arranged, on the
vve started, leaving the

1 Itli

game— bufValoe,
mouth

deer, bear, bighorn,

remainder of the

antelope, &c., and on the
iandecT at the

20ih

May we company

to

pursue their o\yn course.

Mr. Stephens having a part of the men to our utter astonishment and discomfit- indebted to him for clothing, &c., and ure we discovered that not one of the j)ar- knowing that if they remained at camp he ties had returned according to agreement, vvbuld not be able to collect it, told them
of the Laramies; but

IHere
before.
loivs:']

is

the end of tvhat ivas published that

if

they would go and bring the beaver

Thz manuscript

continues as fol-

f"''

off the

mountain, where we had
last,

left if

in

January

he would ensure tiiem an

After remaining here until the 29th, our equal share

ot the

proceeds of our trapping

commander. Mr. Stephens, and another expedition— and they, v/ith this underman took the two mules, which by this standing sat out. This contract was made time had greatly recovered from their without any consultation having been had of any timished state, and started in search of with us; and the men. not aware the part of Stephens In vain they travelled thing but fairness on other parties.
the
for the up and down the l.a Platte and its tribu- in making this bargain, marched lost compan- fur, and succeeded in getting it oft the taries, but no tiaces of the without much dif-^ ions couldbe discovered, and on the 6th mountain into the plain, their mules, together of June they returned, much fatigued and ficulty, packed it on


C

13 ]

with what
ins,

we had

left in

our

winter cab-

They

then devised other nrieans to soc^ira

and brought the
^u'.ly,

(vhoie

to the

mouth

their sh.ire of

150 beaver skins,
caught.)
that he

(the

whole

of the Laramies river.

In the

Dieantime,

number we had
told the

Stephens then

Smith,

and myself were busily en-

men

would not be accoun-

gaged

in

t«appingon the tributary streams

table for
to

ol the river Platte^

We encountered much
m
this

any of the fur, and the only way obtain any of it, was to take it by force.
folly of fuithpr resistance
to

difiicuHy and

danger

excursion,

Seeing the
against 3

IS

from wild

beasts and

hostile Indians.---

— vve were obliged

surrender

One circumstance with
late:— On
the
a

a bear

I

must

re-

our earnings, which they took and divided
equally

pleasant

summer

when nothing seemed disposed
tranquility of our forest
built a fire

among themselves, we left this company at home, we whose hands we had received such illevenings
to disturb

The

next day

on the bank of a small creek,

treatment* and relumed to the i,i;iouth uf some the Laramies, with the expectation of buHaloe meat. After having cooked and meeting Capt. Gant but we were sadfy eat our evening repast, I was standing mistaken— on our arrival there no traces close to the rock, apart from the other of Capt. G's company could be discoverinen ten or twelve feet, all at once one ed. Next day Mr. Stephens & his party of them jumped up and ran off, exclaim* also returned. After remaining liere 3

under the

cliff

of a large rock,
to roast

ing*'the bear," "the
cast

bear!"
the

I

instantly
precipice,

days together, hunting, fishing, and indulging in other
rick

my

eyes

to the top of

amusements, Mr. Fitzpat-

where they encountered
ster seated on

this

hideous mon-

the rock

with his

and a company of 115 men, came to mouth our camp. He was on his way to join his

wide open, and
fire.

his eyes

sparklirrg like

company on

the west

side of the inoun-

My
I

whole frame shook

with agita- tains, on the Columbia river, and to sup-

would ply them with nrerchandize, ammunition, was standing horses, &c. This company informed us against a tree within my reach, and after that the firm of Gant & Blackivell had becalling for the aid of my companions, I come insolvent. At this news we aU beraised my rifle to my face and taking der came discouraged, and finally Mr. Steliberate aim at the most fatal spot, fired phens and the whole company agreed to which brought sir Bruin to the ground. join in with Fitzpatrick and go with him In the meantime Smith and Fully came to his rendezvous, where ive were to make to my assistance, and also discharged arrangements as to hiring, purchasing etion.
\)e

knew

that to attempt to run

certain death.

My

gun

contents of their riHes into his head. quipments, ^-c. Mr. Stephens took 120 In a few days afterwards we were join- beaver akins, which belonged to Captain ed by the rest of the company, who, hav- Gant, and sold them to Fitzpatrick, which
the
.

ing secreted the fur, &c., at the mouth of he secreted in the ground, with the intenthe Laramies river,
of us.

had come

on search tion
got a

We

now,

for the first time,

knowledge

of the conduct of Stephens rel«

ot raising thein when on his return to Missouri— in consideration of which, he was to furnish him with horses and such

ative to our fur.

The men informed

us

other equipments as he might want,

of the contract

between them and Ste-

phens.
to

We answered that we could agree

Having made this arrangeJuly 1st. ment with Mr. F., our camp was all confusion at an early hour
tiiis

no such contract
to us,

— that the

fur belongto

morning, pieriver.

?d

and that we intended

keep

it.

paring to depart

for the

Colnmbia

L

14 J
tribe to

Mr.

F., took

one of the
Iiis

fleetest

and most name of the
set out
in

which they belonged.
in the

Iiaidy horses in

train,

and
in

advance

of the

main body,

order todis-

morning we resumed our journey, but had not proceedEarly

July 8th.

cover (he disposition of the various Indian ed far until
tribes thtou^h
to travel,

we found

ourselves in

the

point on the head of the

in some places that several of our Columbia river, horses were completely swamped in it, & After packing upall our moveable proper- it was with great difficulty that we suc-

whose dominions we weie midst of and to meet us at a designated the sand

a

bed of quicksand. So deep was

ty,

we

started in the course which he had
of near
afraid of

ceeded

in getting

round

this

taken, with a force

150 strong, were,
nothing,

to

continue

our journey.

swamp, as it Having

many

of

whom were
to

&

surmounted

this difficulty,

one ofourmenj,

meet any danger. We this a Mr. White, who wandered from the day, travelled about twenty miles and en- company, came well nigh falling a victim
anxious

camped

fur the night.

serene and warm, and the
spirits, as

The weather was men all in high

to the fury of a

grizzly

bear— having

in

1

the encounter, had one

of his arrgs liter-

we had plenty of
Early
in the

July 2d.
of the day

sumed our journey
to

ally torn from his body, and had it not fresh meat morning we re- been for the tinv^ly assistance rendered by stopped in the heat some of his companions, who atterwardS

rest

our horses

quite beautiful

— conntry
for

killed the bear,

iiis

death would have been

soil

rather poor, abound-

the inevitable copsequence.
a higli

This

night
for

ing with

sand plains.

Travelled about we selected
the
to assail

piecS of
the

ground

our

15

or

20 miles and encaiiiped

encampment, where
us most

wind continued
during the
travelled

night.

violently

July 3d.

This day we made but
of rain

little

whole night.

The next day we
conseduence.

progress in travelling in consequence of a about twenty miles, without meeting,with

heavy

fall

— came
in

in

contact with

any thing
king but

ot

a large drove ot buiValoe, out ofwhich our

July 10th.
little

Finding that we were ma-

hunters succeeded
the
as

killing ten

— one of

headway

in

our travelling,

men

received a bite from a snake, but

we resolved

to increase

our speed,

&

ac-

was not of a very poisenous species, cordmgly the whole company was on the the wound soon healed, and the victim move at an early hour this morning. We
it

was more scared than hurt— but
July 5, 6

little

va-

found our route

beginning to grow
cliffs,

still
,

riation in the scenery of the country.

more obstructed by rocky
fair

which are

& 7. The
at the

weather was
of

dispersed over thii section of the mountain
for

— travelled

rate

25 miles per region
is

many
to the

miles, and present an ap-

day-^nothing

of interest

occurred.

The pearance
rath-

beholder similar
with

to a

mea-

country through which we passed
er rough, abounding with
description,

dovv

covered

hay-cocks.

and

is

game of every country continued to remarkable for the became scarce, and we began
I

As the grow rough, game
to kill

such

plcntitude ot wild goats.
plains

have seen the meat as

we

could,

and not such as we

we thought ourselves very when one of our hunters would them by hundreds. We also fell in with succeed in killing a goat or an antelope— a party of Indians, but on their seeing our species of meat which we would not fook forces, fled, without attempting to injure at, when in the vicinity of deer and buffaliterally covered with them.

Oc-

chose',

indeed

casionally the

men would

fall to

and

kill

fortunate

us.

We

were unable

to ascertain

the

loe.

This part

ol the

mountain

is

covered


L IS ]
Svith beautiful

timber

o( the

best quali(j,

taking ihe necessary precautions for dein

such as

fir,

pine, cedar,

&c.

We
day.

only fence,

case of

an attack.

But
to

it

was

travelled about ten the

miles this

On
af-

not long before
ciate the

we were enabled

appre-

following morning

we resumed our
day
long and

consequence of our negligence*

journey, and continued to travel
ter

or fancied security.

day, when, after a

toilsome were

About midnight we awoke from our slumbers by a furi-

the ous attack by a large party of Blackfeet. meet Mr. They tired into our tents before we were aFitzpatiick. Judge of our surprise, when ware of their apj)ioach. Immediately each on arriving here no traces of him could be ^i^an was on his I'eet, and on the look out. discovered. In vain we searched for some After a small skirmish of random shootclue to this, to us, melancholy circum- ing, which lasted an hour or so, the Indi-

voyage,

we

arrived

at the

point on

Columbia

river,

designated to

stance.

What
is

can detain him? was the ans, finding
us.

the strength
to retire

of our forces,
field,

question as1<ed by each of
pointmei>t

Disap-

thought

it

best

from the

with

heart-sickening under any the loss of three killed, and as
to

we suppo-

circumstance, but

be disappointed un- sed, 8 or 10 wounded.

der such circumstances,
place,

and

in

such a side was one

The loss on our man vvounded in the leg, 5
14 stolen.

was perplexing
to

in

the extreme.

horses killed, 3 wounded, and
1

One

scouting party after another were de-

he Blackfeet are a powerful nation, and
supplied

spatched

gather some tidmgs
all to

of

the lost are better

Fiztpatrick, but
Vie

no purpose.
the savages?

been destroyed by
brilliant

Had The

with implements of any other tribe of this region. They have always retained a most

war, than almost

former

success of the man's in-

inveterate hostility

lo

the

Flatheads, a-

tcrcourse with the Indians would not war- gainst
rant such a belief, as he had

whom

they wage a continual warat

many times
his trusty

fare,

having

ene time greatly

reduced

previously

passed ovei

these mountains

their strength,

and on

several occasions

with no other companion than
steed.

The most

natural
that

conclusroii at

came well nigh exterminating the entire tribe. Of late years the Flatheads have
for

which

to arrive, was,

the dull

and been better prepared
hostility

war, and

have

cloudy weather had caused him
his course,

to loose

bravely held their own.

This

undying

and

that he had

become bewil-

appears to be owing to the Blacklet the

dered, and was yet Wandering through the feet refusing to
wilderness.

Flatheads hunt buf-

faloe on the east side of the mountain.

After a fruitless search of several days,
\\e

The

following morning

we

took up our
river.

concluded

to

descend the river and march and continued down the
vvliich

As
fresh

search for the company
patiick had
left

Mr. Filz- we
before,

travelled along

we

seen

many

there the
a faint

summer

signs of Indians, and
frotn

apprehended

much
la-

wliere

we had
F.,

hope that we might danger

them, which caused us to
fear, lest

find

Mr.

m

safety.

The

first

day we hour under the most intense
for

we

travelled about

20 miles and encamped
the river.
in

should

fall

into

as\

ambush

of this

crafty

the night on the bank of

Al- tribe.

We

killed several fat deer, goats,

though

we knew
of

that

we were

the vi- and an antelope, and
hill^

encamped on

a high

cinity of the savage Blackfeet Indians, yet

view them had been discover- of the surrounding country; where we ed through the day, and we therefore re- could see the different kinds of gacne trabut few traces
tired to rest in our

from which we had a beautiful

encampment without versing

the plains

at

leisure,

contented.

C 16

~^

and undisturbetf, save when aroused from strings through the trough, and pressed their lair by tlie sudden onset of the IntU- ^ard upon the forepart of the head, which
an hunter.

This

nio;ht

we very prudent- causes

it

to

grow

flat.

In this painful poin

ly stationed a strong

guiud round oar en- sition ihey are kept a year, and
Thej'
to

some
very
tiled

cainpment, and were permitted to pass the instances over a year.
night. in peace,

are
are

which was quite warm and hospitable

straagers, and

pleasant.

In the

morning we resumed friends of
of the
in

the white

people.

On coming
re-

our journey, and about the middle

to their village

awhile person always
drink and

day found ourselves
their

the vicinity of ano-

ceives the best to eat,

smoke,

ther tribe ol Indians.

We
These

sent a fla^ to and are always ready to pilot the traveller
in

camp, which
tribe.

was received

the through
to

their country.

In

the

summer

most friendly manner.
the Flathead

This proved

be season this tribe live in the buffaloe counthe head
of the
fail

Indians are try on

more

pacific

and pleasing

in their

manners where they never
feet, wlio

to

Columbia river, come in contact
and un-

than any tribe

we had yet encountered, with
here

their cold hearted enemies^ the Black--

and reside mostly on the river of that

are the mos,t ferocious

name.
of this

quote the description sparing enemy of the white men, because tribe as given by Mr. Cox, a gen- the Flatheads have been supplied by the
I will

ileman
views:

well acquainted

with the Indian whites with munitions of war.

In the (all
the plains,

character, which

— *'The Flatheads
I

fully

embraces

my own
fail-

the Flatheads again return to

have fewer

and

in the

winter subsist on Salmon, roots

ings than any tribe

ever met with.

They and
in the

small game.

They

are

always

weli

are honest in their dealings
field

—^brave

supplied with horses, and

when provision

— quiet
and

and amiable

to their chiefs

fuild of cleanliness,

and are decided ene-

mies to falsehood of every

— description. —
fidelity
is

becomes scarce in one section, they pack they have upon the backs of their horses, and remove to another. Their housall

The women
ers,

are excellent wives and moth- es arc
sc

made

of slim

pme

poles

from 20 to
ihe

their character for

30

feet long,

12 or 15
joined

feet

apart at

well established that

we never heard

of bottom, and

together at

the top^

ful to

one single instance of one proving unfaith- forming a structure in the shape of the root her husband. They are remarkably of-a common dwelling house. These are
well

made

— rather
to the

tall

— slender, and nevmany

covered with dressed buftaloe skins sewed

er corpulent."

The Flatheads

are well together.
the cabin,

A

tire is built in the
its

middle of
of

accustomed

manners and customs of

and

shape forms a kind

the white race, and in

respects ap- five or draft for the

smoke— rendering this

pear ambitious to follow their example.— simple structure quite a comfortable habSome years ago, they were in the habst of itation at the most inclement season of

using

a

process to flatten the heads of their the year.

No

storm can eD'ect them, nor

children, which thay
sential addition to

deemed

a

very es- no coid

ci\n

reach their inmates.
these poles are taken

When
down

their

appearance; but moving

camp

&

since they have had

with the one end fastened to the sides of the mule whites they have abandoned this abomina- or horse and the other end dragging on the The process of flattening the gi'ound forming a sort of dray. The inble pratice.
intercourse

head

is

this:—-Soon after the birth
it is

of

the fants are put into a

sack or bag, made of on one
side

infant,

placed in a kind of trough and leather,
fastened by

which
this
is

closes

by

» piece

of bark

means

of

stingsj

fastened to a board near


17 ]

[

three feet

long&one wide, where

tbe^ are man, he

was

at length

found on the bjink^

kept constantly, with the exception of an of the Pieres river, which forms a juncoccasional dressing, &c., until a year old. tion with the Columbia, near the rendez-

To

the back of this board they have a cord vous

of

Fitzpatrick's company.

When
in

attached, by

which they hang the sack

to

found he was
so

completely exhausted, and
in flesh,

the saddle, whilst travelling,

much wasted
that,

and deformed

After remaining here two days
serve their manners, customs,
of living, and getting all

to ob-

dress,

under other circumstances,

the information ppor

and mode he would not have been recognized. The man was reduced to a skeleton, and
was almost senseless.
spoke
of

we

desired, wft resumed our journey, tato

When
to

his deliv-

king one of the Indians
station of

pilot us to the erers

Mr. Fitzpatrick's company.

taking him

scarcely seemed to

camg, he comprehend their mea-

After several days tedious and toilsome ning. After eating some dried buffaloe travelling, and no extraordinary ©ccurren- meat, and a little maize, he grew better, .ce, we joined the company on the 2nd of and placing him on a horse, he was safely

August.

It

was with

feelings of peculiar

conveyed

to

camp.

A

general rejoicing

we here beheld the visages of ensued, lor his appearance among us awhite men, who were no less pleased to gain, was like that of one risen from the give us a welcome reception. But a mel- dead. Although I was not much attachtlelight that

ancholy gloom was visible
tenance,
patrick

in

every coun- ed
that

to the

man,
the

for I

could not banish from

when we discovered
had not arnyed.

Fitz-

my mind

craftiness evinced

by

hira

Great excite- when we first met with him on the east ment prevailed, and yigorous measures side of the mountains, yet I can scarcely were immediately taken to rescue him, if describe my feelings of joy on beholding he had not before this, as many supposed, him safely returned. After resting a few
fallen a victim to the

enraged

fury of the days, and being nourished by the proven-

merciless savage, or the ravenous appetite der our

camp would

afford,

he became a-

of some ferocious beast of prey.

Small ble

to relate the

misfortunes

which befel
I

companies were despatched
rections on the tributary

in

various di- him in crossing the mountain, which
in his

will

streams of the giye

owniwoids,

as follows:

Columbia.
for

Diligent search was kept up some time without success, and our search was about to be abandoned as fruitJess; and indeed some of the parties had give up in despair, and returned to camp, when, a party, who had wandered into the
vicinity of the

^

Blackfeet Indians,

were
valley

reconnoitering their

movements

in a

from a high
recognized,

blul!,

saw,

and immediately
horse,

Fitzpatrick's

with

which the Indians were running races.

Was
was
er

this calculated

to inspire

hope.^ or

i

it

nut rather an

omen

that our

employ-

ilant search

was destroyed by these Indians. Vigwas made to make further disgreat joy
of evei v
,5

covcriesj and, to the


-

I IB J

gave chase.
horse and

I

thought

I

could reach
the

my

mount belore

bear could

reach me, but the approach of the bear
Irightened

mv

beast,

and just as
loose

I

was gobear
all

ing to

mount he sprang

and threw

me

on the broad of
at

my
I

back.

The

AdTeiltiires of Filspatricke

was

my
of

heels,

and

thought that
gone.

chance

escape was

now

Instant-

ly I was again on my feet, and, as ft "For three or four days after I left the were, in a fit of desperation, rushed towtompany I travelled without any difUcul- ards the bear, which, fearing, as they do, ty, and al great speed, but the fourth and the/«ce of man, ao;ain turned and run.—
fifth,

the weather being dull

I

got strayed Irom
in the

my

course,

and cloudy, Sir Bruin stopped to secure the little morand soon sel I had been eating, and retired a few
paces to devour
it.
I

found myself

midst of a rough hilly

While

the bear

was

country, abounding with large loose rocks thus employed,

crept to

my

gun, keep-

which some places almost
from passing at
lious kinds ol
all,

prevented

me

ing the rock between him and me, having

and covered with va- reached it, took deliberate aim and killed timber of the most magnif- him dead on the >pot. Having secured my
In passing the
rest

nights horse, I fell to woik at the carcase of my was constantly vanquished foe, and, after cooking and ea° disturbed by the dismal howl ot the wolf ting a choice piece of his flesh, left the It being now and the fierce growl of the bear which rest to {eed his kindred. animals were very numerous and would near night, I travelled two or three miles frequently approach within a few steps further, and enc^itrped for the night. The and threaten to devour mc. One (Iry af- next morning appeared more favourable ter a toilsome ride, I dismounted, turned over head, and I made an early start. Bemy horse loose to graze and seated myself ing on the banks of a small creek, I con-

cent description.

in these solitudes

my

on a rock, with the
^isFon I had,
to

little

remaining pro-

eluded
ing
till

to follow it a vthile.

After wind-

refresh myself.

While
was

my way

through the rocks and trees,

thus seated resting
satisfying the

my

wearied limbs, and
of hunger, I

near the middle of the day, I

came

to
in

gnawings

a valley which

seemed

to

be

hemmed

suddenly startled by a :^rraoib!ing on the on every side by huge towering hills. I rocks immediately in my rear. 1 turned had not travelled far in this valley before
round and beheld a huge bear approaching
I

found myself ushered into the presence
Indians.
I

me

in

double
to

quick time.

I

instantly

of a hostile tribe of

halted to

sprang

my

feet, for I

was well acquain- devise some means
I

to effect a return vviihI

tek with his

mode

of

warfare.

turned ©ut being discovered; but
that rear
it

soon

found

and faced

his lordship,

when he approach-

ed within about sis feet of me, lose on his
hind feet and most impudently stared
right in the face, for

was too late. Immediately in nty was a choice set of young warriors

in front, and on both sides by high and more than a miriute. craggy mountains. My noble steed, than After discovering that I was no ways bash- him, [ would defy the whole Indian world ful, he bowed, turned and run I did the to produce a stouter, swifter, or better,

me

same, and made

for

my

horse.

Bruin was was now brought
retreat

to ihe test.

He

started

not so easy tooled; he seen

my

&

with the velocity of the rein deer,

— bouu'

L 18 ]

ingover ditches, stones logs and brush. -^ ted in the rocks til! long after dark, when Soon I began to ascend the mountain, but I crawled out, and surveyed the counlry found it much too steep and rough. The as well as the darkness of the niglit would Ipdians dismounted and followed on foot, permit, and finally started in the direcI applied the whip, but in vain. Mj horse tion which I thought 1 would have the was compelled to yield to exhausted na- least chance of meeting the Indians. I and I dismounted, and left my had not travelled far, however, until I ture much prized animal to fall a prey to the was again doomed to be disappointed, for savages, I ran up the mountain with all I was on the very borders of thf»ir«ncampHappily the camp was all quiet, possible speed, but finding that I must e- ment.

ventually be overtaken,
in a hole

I

secreted myself and

1

returned quietly to

my hiding place

among
it

the rocks, and closed the

on the mountain, hoping that on the mor-

mouth of

with leaves and sticks.

After

row

I

would be able
by which

to to

make some new
extricate myself
I

remaining a few minutes
iieous cavern, I heard the

in this subterra-

discovery

ferocious yells fiom these savages

— which

judged
Early in

to

be
the

of triunph of

my

pursuers, as they captu- the

merciless

Blackfeet.

red

my

lamented horse.

The

victory

was morning

not yet complete, although the
the principal prize.

horse was

of the next day the hunt was resumed with increased vigilance^ but again

Some
to

of them followed

returned

willi

disappointment.

After the
of the hole

on and came close
sed

my

hiding place,pas-

sound of
nif",

their voices
to

no longer reached

and re-passed within reach without

I

crawled
1

the

mouth

discovering me.

What

a

moment

of in-

from which

presently beheld them run-

tense anxiety was this!

All chance of es- ning races with the horse they had taken
if ta-

cape cut

of!.

No

prospect of mercy
to die

from me.

In this sport they spent (he day.

ken!

^ope

began

evitable

seemed

death in- Tliis village did not appear to be their to be the very next inci- permanent residence, but was handsome-

—and

dent that would occur.
their search
nntil

They continued
for they

Ij situated on the

banks

of a small creek,

near sunset,

and

I

suppose

the}'"

had came here on a

knew

that I

had not reached the

summit sporting expedition.

The second
to

night I

of the mountain.

As

they

retired

down made another

effort

save myself, and

the niountain, squads offourorfive

would graduallv descended

the mountain, to'the

frequently halt and hold a busy consulta- o'eek some distance below the camp.-— tion— then suddenly return to complete This I followed, until daylight again comtheir search, as if they feared

that

some

pell^-'d

me

to

hide myself; which

I

did by

hollow tree or rocky cavern might escape crawling into the brush close to the creek, unexplored. Finally, they gave me up in where I se&reted myself till darkness^adespair, and retired into the valley, with g»»n give me an opportunity to resume my

my

horse.
that
I

journey.
t)er of

Dusing the day

I

seen a

num-

had escaped this scrutinizing search,! began to breaUie more I'vee ^"^n the valley, whom I supposed to be and easy; but I was yet far from being out hunters, 'ihis day I again had a view of
of danger.
lost the
I

"Now

the Indians pas?,

and repass up and

was conscious
to the

that

I

had

my

horse under the saddle of the
as
I

chief of

course

Columbia

ri\er,

and

t'^e tribe,

supposed; but did

not at-

The fol/owiiig night could not tell how to regain it, even if 1 tempt to rej^cue him. should succeed in escaping Irom my pres- I travelled a short distance down the
ent perilous situation.
I

remained socre- creuk when

I

came

to

where

it

empties

irv-


[20]
to the Pieres river.

Here

1

came

to

my

great speed, not even stopping

for

any

reckoning
if I

of the

country, and thought that thing to eat.

On

the

fourth

I

happened
buffaloe.

could escape from hunger

and beasts where the wolves had killed a
1 satisfied

of prey, I

could manaj2;e to elude the In- Here
that the Indians vyere
all

my

appetite by collecting

dians,

Supposing

the

not so numerous on
the river,
1

the opposite side

of

made
t^H

a fire

meat that was left on the bones, by rubbing two sticks togethit.

resolved to
I

cross overr~for er, and cooked
rait of

From

the gluttenous

which purpose
laid
it,

built a

old logs,

which
to.

I

took of this meat, I was ena-

my

shot-pouch, gun, blanket, &c. on
tor the opposite shore.

bled

travel three or four days, without
I found descended the river,the

and pushed

Af- any particular occuirence; but
1

ter getting nearly across, the

current be- that the further
to

came very
which tore
the watery

rapid,

and

1

began

descend scarcer became the
1

roots, buds,

&c., on

the river at a rapid rate until Istruck a rock which

mast depead

for subsistence,

and

my

trail craft to

pieces— comall

I

was

finally obliged to turn

my

attention

mitting myself, gun, blanket and

to

lo get

something

to eat,

without traveliing

element.
it

hunger and exertion,
culty that I
Jand, with the loss of

Being weak from any further. For several days I loitered was with great dif- about from place to place, but could find
in

succeeded

reaching the

no nourishment.
able to walk.
I

My

body began
I

my

only companion, weaker and weaker, until
vi^ilderness of

to grow was no longer

snd

my

only hope

in I

this

dangers
in the

— my gun.

stood on the
I

bank and

Still my mind held its sway, was well avyare how desperate was

midst

of despair.

had no other
to fight

my

situation.

Finally loosing

all

pros-

weapon than

a butcher knife

my

p.ect of getting

any thing more
found by

to eat,

&

way through a country swanking
vages and equally dangerous wild

with sabeasts,

uo hope
myself

of being

my companions

or friendly Indians, I thought of preparing
for death,

On my

knife

depended

all

hope

of

proven-

ting starvation.

The

loss of

my

blanket to the Almighty.

and committed my soul I have no recollection

was some- of any think that occurred after tbis, untimes quite cold, and I had no other cloth- til I found myself in the hands of my de-^ ing than a shirt and vest having thrown liverers."
>vas also severe, as the weather

the rest

away when pursued
I

b»y

the Indi-

ans on the mountain.
ol this river for

follovved

thebanks
the sec-

two days, subsist'ng up-

on buds, roots, weeds, &c.

On

ond evening whilst digging for a sweet kind of root, in a swamp, I was alarmed by the growl of wolves, which were descending the
hill to

the river,

about

fift}'

yards distant.

The
to

ouly chance
tree,

of esI

cape now, v/as

climb a

which

did immediately.

Here

I vvas

compelled

to roost until daylight, in the
ful agitation.

most pain-

The wolves
at the
tliey

tearing up the
tree so that I

ground and gnawing
sometimes
through.
feared

would
I

cut

it

The

third

day

travelled

mlh


[ 21

-J

much vous, whoii they followed, and ha»l arriSome were de- ved at camp a few days before us. No terrtiined on immediately chastising the important arrangement was made among Others, the men with regard to trapping, &c., unIndians, and retaking his horse.

The

sloiy of Fity.pairiclc creaietj

exciteiricnt in our

camp.

who were not friendly disposed towards til the people gathered in from the diderMr. F., would not credit his story. For ent parts of the mountain. In the meanmy part I thought the man had related time 15 of u« joined together, each man
nothing more than the truth as to his suf- furnishing an equal quantity of merchanferings, for nothing less could have redu- i^'z^Pi horses, &c., and to receive an equal

ced him
found.

to the

condition in
all

In a few days

which he was ^^^^^ "^ the proceeds, August 25th. Every thing npcessary was restored to
o"''

for

order and tranquility, and we commenced

expedition being ready

this

morning,

making arrangements The Columbia U a
of the

for trapping,

&c.

^^e started in a
far until

southern direction, but did

strong,

clear

and not go

beautiful river at this point, (the junction

—thinking

that

if

we encamped for the night we had neglected any

Lewis

river,)

and

is

yards wide.

The Wallah

1000 thing which we would stand in need of, Wallah emp- ^^'e would thus discover it. The next morabout

down— ning finding all things in order, we conmuddy, and a very rapid tinued travelling down what is called which There was at this rendezvous P'eres hole, or valley. This valley is sitstream. and at this time, about 400 white people, who "ated on the river of the same name,
tiesintoit about 14 miles lower
is

rather

lived in

^vonstant

intercourse

with the

'9

f^om 70

Flatheads and

"Nez

Perces," or Pierced
children,

^^'g'^

to 80 miles in length, with a mouutain on the east and west— each

Nose
and

tribes,

which

latter consists of

warriors, besides

women and
They

1000 so high that it is impossible to pass over them, and is from eight to ten miles wide,
'^'^^^

live in the closest friendship

with their
are said

river

runs immediately through the

ncghbors, the Flatheads.
to act

centre, with a beautiful groye ot timber a-

honorable

in

aW

their dealings, nor
steal-

io"S

either bankj from this timber

to the

do they now practice treachery and

mountain, a distance of four or five miles,

ingso extensively as most of the tribes be- there is nothing but a smooth plain. This low this ; although, when first discovered nieadow or prairie issoperfectly level that
cording to his success in stealing.

by the whites, a brave was esteemed ac- a person may look up or down as far a^ They the eye will reach without meeting any
tl»««g to

have now reformed, and a white man can
at all times find a trusty friend in a

obstruct the sight, until the earth

Nez and sky
ling a

appear to
this

meet.

After travel-

Perces.

few miles
in taking a

morning, some of the

same some time we came in view Indians,and finally lost their horses and 8 with the naked eye, when we halted. of their men. After travelling about for They advanced towards usdisplayinga Bri a number of days, under the direction of tish tiag. This we could not comprehend; a Mr, Saunders, their leader, they cama but on coming closer discovered them to
towards
us.

Among the discoveries of importance which we marie here was nine of Captain Gant's men, who had left us at the mouth of the Laramies. In crossing the moun-

men,

view of the country beto

fore us, discovered something like people

upon horses, who appeared

be coming
in the

After continuing

tain they had several encounters with the direction for

across a party belonging to

this

rcndez- be hostile Indians

.

We

immediately de-

[ $i2 ]
sjiatclied a riiessfenger

back to the rende?'- <lone umler the superintendance of Flfz-

^ous for reinforcements and prepared our- patrick, whoacted as commander-in-chief, In a case of this kind any man not eThe Indians corrtselves for -defence.
inenced building a fort
in

the

the bank of the river; but

at the time vve

timber oh tincing the greatest degree of courage, »^^ ^^ery symptom of bravery, is treat-

what they were doing, ed as a coward; and the person who adAfter waiting here a few hours we were vances first, furthest and fastest, and

were not aware
reinforced by
jind

of

200 whites, 200 Flatheads, makes
Perces Indians.
fl^g,

the greate^tdiiplay of animal courthe estimation
of
his

SOONez

The

Indi- age, soon rises in

ans with the British

on seeing such a companions. number of people galloping dos^n the plain of gaining a

Accordingly with the hope little glary while an opportn^

for any electionat full speed, immediately retreated with- "'^y offered, though Bering purpose.as a politician in the States in their fort, whither they were hotly pur-

mi

sued.

The

friendly indfans

soon discov- would

do— I

started

into the

brush, in

company with two acquaintances (Smith and Kean) and two Indians. We made ivho are decidedly the most numerousand warlike tribe in the mountains, and for a circuitous route and came towards the
ered them to belong to the Blackfeet tribe,
this reason are not

disposed

to

have any

foft

f'om a direction which
least

we

thought

we

friendly intercourse with any other nation
of

would be

expected.

We

advanced

they are closer andcloser, crawling upon our hands good warriors and well armed with guns, an^ knees, with the intention of giving thought;we could rush right on them «5e/ec^shot; and when within about &c.

an inferior number,

unless

We

them and drive them out of the brush in- forty yards of their breast work, one of At this we to the plain and have a decisive battle at our Indians was shot dead. all lay still for some time, but Smith's foot advanced with atl possible once. speed,and a full determination of success, happening to shake the weeds as he was I until we discovered their fort by receiv- laying on his belly, was shot through.

We

ing a most destructive
sure.

fire from the enclo- advanced a little further, but finding the This ihrowed our ranks into com- balls to pass too quick and close, concluWhen I turned, 1 found plete confusion, & we all retreated into the ded to retreat. plain, with the loss of 5 whites, 8 Flat- that my companions had deserted me. In

heads and 10

Nez

Perces

Indians killed, passing by, Smith asked
out,
for I

me

to carry

him

number of whites and Indian* wounded. The formation of their
besides u large
fort astonished all

which met mj approbation precisely,

was glad

to get out of this unpleas

hands.

We

had been ant situation under any prelext— provided

all my reputation tor courage would not be day and did not discover that they were questioned, ii^fter getting him on my back, building it. It was large enough to con- still crawling on my hands/ and knees, I tain 500 warriors; and built strong enough came across Kean, lylng^near where the to resist almost any attempt we might tirst Indian fell, who was also mortally make to force it. After dressing the woun- wounded, and died soon after. T carried ded, and having recor.noitered their fort, Smith to a place of safety and then returour forces were divided into several de- ned to the siege. A continual fire was kept tachments, and sent in different directions up, doing vnore or less execution on both with the intention of surrounding the fort sides until late in the afternoon, when we and making them prisoners. This was advanced to close quarters, having noth-

within a few hundred yards of them

— —
-

L 23 ] jng but the thifkne?*;
«>t

lUeir breast

work

tion, as

we

though*, haO

sei/.eil

the

mind

between
caping.
til

us,

ami ha\ino;
all

them completely of each of them.

surrounded on

sides to prevent anyes-

By

the time

we were made

sensible of
it

This position we mainlaine<l un- the

full

extent of our

needless alarm,

meantime havmg made had began to get daik;and on ascertaining prepat-ationstoset tire to the fort, which was the extent of the injury which we reretvbuil? principally of old dry logs, as soon ed, (having lost 8''2 killed, piincipally Inas niglit would f?et in, f»nd stationed men dians,) it was determined not to again atat the point where we thought they would tempt to surrouml the fort, which was a
sun-set, in the

be most likely

to

make

the first break, for so.-c disappointment to
the wing,

some

of

the

men

the purp(^se of faking them on
in their flight.

who were keen

for chastising the

Indians

We then took up our Having made all these pre- for their trick. march for the rendezvous; but on starting parations, which Were to put an end to all Furthei molost-^tion on the parlof the Black- one of our party of 15 men, who had first
started out the day before, could not be most ingeni- found. Search was made, and he was ous and well executed device of the ene- found it» the brush, severely vi'ounded, my. A few minutes before the toicfi was After carrying him on a litter a few miles
feet,

our whole scheme and contemplated

victory

was frustrated by

a

to be applied, our captives

commenced
shouts of

the
tri-

he

died and

was buried
is

in

the Indian

most tremendous yells and

umph, and menaces of seemed to move heaven and
as thought a

by digginf^ a hole in the defiance, which ground, wrapping a blanket or skin round
style:

— which
it vvith

earth.

Quick

the body, placing

it

in the

hole,

and covis

report

spread

througli all

ering

poles

a'<id

earth,

Th.is

the

quarters, that the

was covered with manner of inlercing the dead in this counBlackf^et Indians coming to reinforce the try both by the Indians and whites, except besieger!. So complete was the con.ister- >" the winter season on account of the
plaifi

nation in our ranks,

ci

eafed

\,^f

this strat-

groutul being frozen, when the Incliansare
in

'agen),that in five V/i!nij(es afterwards, there

the habit of wrapping their dead in but-

was not

a single

white

man, Flathead or
within a

faloe. robes,

and laying them on poles from
on which
poles the

Nez

Perces

Indian

hundred one
tor
life

tree to an(»ther,
is

yards of the
ly of his

fort.

Every man thought on- corpse
and run

tied with cords.

own

serurity,

without ever looking round, which would
at

The next morning we raised another war party and went back to the battle
ground, but no Indians could be found.

once have

convinced him of
it

his folly,

In a short titne

was ascertained

that

it

was only a stratagem, and our men began
to collect together I

They must have left the fort in great haste for we found 42 head of horses, together
with Fitzpatrick's which
tliey

where our baggage was.
exltib-

had taken

never shall forget the scene here

on the mountain,

tv\)

waninr?;

and one
baggage,

ited.

The

rage ot some was unbounded,
to

squaw lying dead
s'des a large

inside of their fort, be
of their

and approached
«ult alter so

madness.
and

For

my own
I

quantify
skins, &c,

part, although 1 felt 'uuch regret at there-

such as

fur*?,

There

mi^^t have

much

toil

danger, yet

been a great

could not but give the savages

credit for

holes they ))ad
their

number of them, from the dug in the ground around
t!ie fort,

the skill they Mi>p!ayed in prcservir g their
liveSj at the

dead horses and the edges of

very

moment when

ilespera-

say from three to lour hundred.

1

learnIntlj-

ed afterwards that

the

Nez

Perces


24 ]

[

ans shortly after found
Blackfeet,
in

seven more dead
close by,

some brush

they had been secreted to save their

sion and f*)Ughl Ufider the British flag. It whore apjjcaied by their story that these Indians scalps, some months previous, had fell on a party

which
dance.
the

is

the principal
in

object with

these

belonging to

their

companythe spoils
flag,

— but

Itw ot

Indians,

order

to

have

their

women

vvhoni escaped to tell the fate ot their

com'

we returned to rades— and acnong rendezvous and presented Mr. Fit7,- obtained, was this
In the afternoon

which they
their e-

which they used

patrick witli his long-lossed

and

highly

as a signal to deceive

and mislead

valued horse, which seemed to compens;;te
for all the sufferinjis

nemies,

whom

they might

meet

in

Ihcso

and harf'rhips which extensive plains.
Sept. 1st. After
to-day,

he had encountered.
Alter remaining here a few days a vio-

remaining here until

duringwhich time Mr. Saunders lent dispute arose between Stephens and joined our company of filteen, which made Fitzpatrick about the price ol tiie hoiscs up tor the one that was killed, and who vvhich the latter was to give to the former was^he only one be^id^s mjiielf, ot Capt. lor the beaver skins ofGant's which Sle- Gant's company; leaving the balance with phens had sold to Fitzpatrick. No per- Fitzpatrick some hiring with their equip-

son interfered, for

we

all

knew

that

it

was uicnts which they purchased on
^^^ to

credit.

a dishonest transaction from

beginning to ^^^
in

v/ork

makmg

preparation

to

end.
his

Fitzpatrick having
possession,

everything

start the following
to reach

morning,on our second

own

was therefore conten- attempt

some region where we

mean man could prosecute our business of trapping who had it in his power to make his own to some atlv:antage. The conditions of our terms. Stephens, on the contrary, was in agreement were the same as on the first a bad situation— having paid before hand^ expedition, viz:— each man to find an eand not being able to force measures, had q^al portion of traps, guns, and ammunito put ly he

ted and as indeperxlcnt as arty

up with what he could
in

get.

succeeded

hiring four

Final- tion, and to receive an equal share of the men, and peltries which we might catch,

started back to the
to secure the fur

patrick.

He

On t^ie morning ot the 2nd Sept., havmouth of the Laramies which he had sold to Fitz- «ng every thing ready, we left the rendezarrived on had not left many days, how- vous, all in a fine humor.

We

ever, until he

was oi'crtaken by a scout- the head waters of the Multenemough living party of those Indians we had suuoun- er without any thing of moment occurring
killed,
fort. Two of his men were —where we made our tali's hunt. After and himself shot through the thigh travelling near 100 miles South West having the two mules along, which was f'om the top ot the mountains, or from the

ded

in the

stock, one of l^ead of Lewis river, we got totally out of were told which was killed, and the other brought the range of the buftaloe. back the wounded Stephens, who died in t>y the natives that those animals were nea few days afterwards froni mortification ver known further west, which is something singular, as the country is just the taking place in the wounded leg.
the bal lance of the original

-%e

were

Tiiese Lioccur>ence, we same, if not better as to grass, belonging to the dians subsist principally upon salmon.and Nor-We8t, or British trading company, such other fish as they can catch, with the

A few days
visited

after this

by a party

from

whom we were

enabled

to learn the assistance of roots,

buds, berries,
kill

& some
bow

way

the Blackfeet Indians had got posses- small game, which they

with the


-

[ ^^3

]
ot"

an J arrow.

They

aie generally

oi

a

more ners and customs
with the exception

the

Siiuko Indianii

swarthy nature, small and cowardly, and arc very similar
travel in small gangjs of from four
to five
to

to those ot the Flatheads,
ol"

stealing,

which they
Indians,

families
in

this

they are

compelled
starvation.

do consider no harn?.
call

The Snake

order to Iseep from

Tjjey or as §omo

them, the Shoshonies,werc

are always roving from plain to plain, and once a powerful nation, possessing a glo-

from valley
in

to valley

— never
till

remaining rious hunting ground oh the east side
the

ot

one place longer than

scarce.

When

on

the

game gets move the women

mountains; but

they, like

the Flat-

heads, have

been almost annihilated

by

have

to

perform the n»ost laborious part

(he revengeful Blackfeet, who, being sup-

having charge of the transportation of their plied with firearms were enabled to'defeat
baggage.

While doing

this, a

female, the

all

Indian opposition.
entirely

Theii;

nation has

n)ost feeble of their feex, will carry a load

been

broken up and scattered
wild region.
the

of perhaps a hundred weight a whole day, througliout

all this

The Shomore abmore

without manifesting the least fatigue
complaint.
is

or shonies are a branch of
ful

once powerthe

This

tribe,

which

I

believe

Snake

tribe, as are also

called the

Bawnack,
t-ind

or Shoshooies, aie ject and forlorn tribe of Shuckers,or

the most indolent,
bitiun of

any

iribe

have'the least am- generally termed, Diggers and Root eatwe had yet discovered. ers,vvho keep in the most retired recessstrive es ol the

They

are lazy and dirtyjand only

mountains and streams, subsist-

t6 get as

starving.

much as will keep them from mg on the n>ost unwholesome food, and They are no way ill disposed living the most like animals of any race
t\\e

towards

whites, or at least they never of beings.
the exception of stealtraps.

disturbed
ing a lew

us— with
of our the

We

left the

^^, Snake Indians and took a
to the

We

continued more Southern direction
for sev- er,

Bear

riv-

moving down

Multenemough

which empties into Big Salt- Lake
this river foi

eral huiidred miles,

during which time we followed

two days, and then

These river. we still had a little two rivers are about the same size, say jirked buffaloe meat. Between trapping ffom two to three hundied yards wide, & and trading we had made quite a protita- Irom three to four hundred miles long. blehunt. To get a beaver skin from these They run South parallel with each other, Indians worth eight or ten dollars, never and empty itUo the Big Salt Lake on the cost more than an awl, a fish hook, a knife, Norh side, at no great distance apart. — a string of beads, or something equally as This lake is much larger than any other
subsisted principally

upon beaver, deer, crossed over

to

Weabers

and bighorn

— though

trifling.

west of the mountains

— supposed

to

be

As winter wa's approaching, we began 200 miles long.and near the sawie in width. to make arrangement* to return to some It is surrounderl on the North, about the
more favourable climate, by collectingour mouths
fur,

cf the rivers, by a mountainous
tlie

&

and giving each man

his share of the

broken countiy, and on

South
a
is

& West
inhill

baggage.

We

travelled back

with great by a barren, sandy plain,

in

manner
also a

speed, and arrived in the buttaloe country capable of vegetation.

There
it

on the

first ot

November, where we met
trades
for

or peak near the centre of
it

so high that

with anation of Snakelndians, with whooi the snow remainfe on

the greater part of
is

wc made some small

burtaloc the year.

The water

of such of
it

a braek-

robes and skins for the winter.

The
7

m,in- isb nature that only part

freezes in

[30
Its briny

j
to the

ihe coldest weather of the winter season, said they belonged

Crew

nation on

substance prevents

all

vegetation the East side of the mountains.

In

alt

within a considerable distance of the mar- the intercourse had with thera, while they
gin of the lake.

The Bear and Weabers were

with

lis,

not

the least

symptom

of

rivers are the principal streams
it is

by which deception was discovered, and they parted
off
lis manifesting as much regret as if we had been old acquaintances. But we were doomed to experience the faith di the Crow n'ltion for, on the same night of

fed.

In the Spring of the year, when with
ice melts

the

enow and

and runs doWn

the mountains^ this lake rises

very high,
in

on account of
the
fall,

it

having no outlet; and
jiart

returned and stole —leaving salt one and two inches thick on five of our best hunting horses. This was some parts of its shores. It is situated on a serious loss to us, and a valuable prize the west side of the mountains, between for them— for an Indian belonging to these the waters of the Columbia and Rio Cole- hunting and vvarring tribes is poor indeed the if he is not the owner ot a horse, as it is i"ado, or Red river; and is called by The rivers upon this animal they rhuch depend for natives, the Great Salt Lake. which emptj into this lake abound with success in chasing the buf^aloe, and upon tnany kinds of fish, such as trout, cat-fish, him gieatly depends the fate of the battle^ Having a man in oui company who had and others suitable for hook and line, parWhere the once been n captive in their village, and ticularly at their mouths. Country is low, and small streams empties who could talk and understand a little of into them, the dams of the beaver causes their language, wo resolved at all hazards the water to overflow its banks, and makes to give chase and retake bur horses. We a swampy, marshy country for miles steered across the mountains towards the
or latter
of
it

summer

sinks their departure, they

round.

People trapping on these streams Southern head waters

of

the Missouri riv-

are compelled to construct canoes of Bull er.

The

first
is

stream we came to oh the

and

butl'aloe skins,

in

order to

visit their

east side

called

Bighorn

river

— down
this vil-

traps.

which stream we travelled
leaving this lake

for

some days.
In

On

we continued our

until

we came

to their

village situated at

journey towards the head waters of the the mouth
Colorado, which stream empties into the lage

of Stinking river.

we found
first

a negro

man, who informed
country with

Gulf of Calatornia.

After a tedious, but us that he

came

to this

not unpleasant tramp ot several days

we Lewis

&

Clark

— with whom he also returof Missouri, and in a few

came
ted to
ter

to a beautiful situauon
this

on one of the ned
hal-

to the State

main feeders of

Mr. Mackinmake preparations to spend the win- ney, a trader on the Missouri river, and it now being about the middle of No- has remained here ever since which is ariver,

where we

years returned again with a

had remained here but a bout ten or twelve years. He has acquifew days, during which time we were oc- red a correct knowledge of their manner cupied in building tents, &c, for winter, of living, and speaks their language fluverober.

We

when we were

visited

80 Indian warriors.

by a party of 70 or These Indians mantowards
us,

cntly.

He has rose

to

be quite a consideraof a chief,

ble character, or chief, in their village; at
least he
for

itestcd the best of friendship

assumes all the dignities
This

while in our camp, and said they were going to war with the Snake

he has four wives with
is

whom

he lives

Indians— whose

alternately.

the custom of

many

country we were

now

in-«>-and

they also of the chiefs.

[27]
After inForminp; the negro of
oiir

stolen

solvent and had declined doing
in this

business

horses, he told us that they had thcni, and
that the reason they

country

— and

that

they [Gant*s
in

were taken from us party]
in

had

left this

place

Septerabci

Wa9

becatrse

we were found
thfeiti

their ene-

last, to

go and establish a trading po%t on

micB' country, and that they supposed
ivere going to trade

we

the Arkansas river, with the
dians.

Arpahce In-

guns,

&c.

By

The

letter closed
left

giving the chiefs some trifling presents our
horses were produced in as good trim as

Stephen's party had
Fitzpatrick.

by stating that him and joined

This

letter

was directed

to

when they lelt us. (I shall say nothing Mr. Saunders, who was in our company, more of these Indians at present, as I shall and who, Gant supposed, would be the have occasion to speak ot them when I a- fi»'st to return.
gain visit their village.)

Soon

after the contents
to the

of

the letter

About the

first

of January 1833, the were

gama

getting scarce in this vicinity,
left

company, some the "^eu weie sent across the Laramies river
to see
if

made known

Indians

us

& movGd down
this

the

river,

they could

make any

discoveries

We

employing of importance, as we could see the reour time in hunting, fishing, and such oth- mains of what we supjwsed to be an old These men, er sports as we could come at, but without encampment on its banks.
remained at
station

any particular occurrence, until the 20lh after searching for some time, found where of February, when wesetoutt^n our spring several buffaloe had boon slaughtered, and hunt. We crossed the country to theriv- from the manner in which it was done, it er Platte without any difficu/ty, and con- was evident that it was the work of a par^
linued
it

down

this

stream to the junction of ^J

"^ hostile

Indians

— and

not

being able

and the Laramies, where we had joined

to trace

which direction they had steered,

spring, and

company in the previous wo were at a great loss to know what to where also we had parted with do having no person to act as commanCapt. Gant. On encamping tor the night <^er. There was much ditrerence ofopin we found a tree off which the bark was ion and great contention about which way
Fitzpatfick's

pealed, and wrote on with a coal, that, by

we

should take.

Our

object was,

if

pos-

searchtng

in

a certain

place mentioned,

sible,. to

avoid meeting with the

Indians^

we would find a letter,— which we did, as our force was small, and not well prcand found the document, written in Gant'e pared to encounter a band of savages dehand, which stated that only two parties fended with firearms. Finally, it was dehad returned, viz:

— Washburns

own— and

al'oo

that Capt.

and his cided that we should leave the rivers and Blackwell had strike for the mountains thinking this

came up from

the States with a supply of route the least

dangerous.

After travel-

provision, merchandize,

The

letter

went on

to

ammunition, &c. ling an hour or so, wo suddenly met with detail the hardships, a body of eight or ten on horse back, who
which they had we judged
to

8ufl[erings,and misfortunes

be hunting

— pot being backOn
this
full

encountered, which only amounted tothi^: ward about meeting with such a number»
that they

had

lost their horses last winter,

we marched

boldly towards them.
off

and had been

to

Santa Fe and purchased they imtnediatciy galloped
the

under
to be

more
and
nod

— while

crossing

mountain

his

speed, in the direction which
ing.

we were
avoid

goin

party had accidentally met with
his

Washburn
in

Thinking

tiic

main body
to

company—that they then

ascertai- that direction,

we thought
and

them

for the first, that the

conipuny was

by turrsing

to the right

keeping near

——
[ -28 J

the iivc^.

M't: did not
iiov^ever,
their

advance

far in this

signal fur bis fulluweis.
as fust as

We

guiluped

off

direcuon^

unlil

we suduenij
tiius

we
all

could,

but were soon sur-

came upon
dent,

encauipment.j^Being
hold by

rounded on
febeiter us,

sides» vvitlmut

anj thing

to

led into their strong

n»ere acci-

except a

hole lunned

by thy

our

we held a own safely.

hurried consultation as to sinking of water-.- which are very numei> Their horses and white ^us in some ot'these plains. Into this hole

judges could be distinctly

seen

although
flat-

^<^

drove our horsefi,and expected
i'^

to

reach

we were some

distance

oif,

and we

^'^^ t^>P

tiuie to

keep the Indians at bay,
with them.

tered ourselves chat

we had not
Vv
ith this

yet been '^"^ tnake peace
horses

Before wa
in

discovered by any in the village, and tha| n^^ our

properly secured

thia

we might
silently

yet escape,

hope we

i*ounded a retreat and

inarched slowly

&

was hundieds of red men stand'"g above and eagerly looking down upon
'^"'^

there

back

for

the purpose of sheltering

us*,

uttering

tlie

mo&t terrifying yells

of

ourselves with the timber,

where we
for

tended

to build a fort
if

immediately,

in- vengeance, brandishing their guns, bowjs we and spears a& if they would devour us.

knew

that even

we we/e
first

not discovered

We
»s

were

in just

such a situation now., as
with all

met would give the alarm, and the chase would be comraeaced.

now, the party we

calculated to bring on despair,
horrifying feelings,

its

—-eacli man iioldinjj
drop
ol

In going along, juking from bluft'to

his

gun cocked and ready, resolved toseU
life

bluff, in

order to avoid being seen, we were his
single Indian

only ^vith the

last

blood.

overtaken by a
back.

on horsefull

VVe stood
there

in this situation, for

a few mia-

He

would ride up at

|;allop

ules, waiting for

them

to cononience, when

within 20 or 30 steps of us, and then sud-

way

04i@

rushed into their
excited,

ranks ap-

denly wheel, ride back towards the camp,

patently

much

who on addressing

and then return as before.

After repeat-

ing this several times, son)e of our

when

he

came

close, raised their

a few words to the warriors, they all put men, down their arms, and made signs t« ub to guns,and come out, that they would not molest ug.
in

he, thinking there

might be danger

run- This

we

did, but

it

was with a

walchlul,

cibg away, came to us and told us
the chief
tent, to

that jealous eye.
to his

The man whose
have put a stop

timely arrito their

had

sent for us

to

come

va! seenved to

de-

who doubtless here saved our ving confidence in his good intentions, all lives, now came forward and signified to declined the invitation, but told the mes- us that we had better go with them to their fcenger tha^ we would just retire into the camp, and eat, drink and smoke, and he timber,(where we intended to beoccupied would exert his influence not to have us whi.ch advice we accordingly folin the meantime in building a fort,) and h-urt
eat,smoke and be friendly* Not ha- signs, and

Ihat

if

the chief wished to have any thing

fo say to us,

he

could

come

there

for

lowed-- taking our horses with us. On arriving at their camp, we found two who
in

which wp started into the woods, taking could talk the Crow language. The Rickthis fellow with us, with the

intention

of arees (the nation

keeping him
ed.

until the fort

would be erect- were) on being
tion took these

at

whose hainJs we nov/ war with the Crow u.atold

two prisoners, as they

After going but a short distance our pii- "s, and adopted them as their brethren.
goner broke loose, and immediately
ran

After manifessting a
with ihem,

desire to be friendly

onto some rising gioucd, where he made
his horse

by smoking, &c. these
that,

Crow

perform many singular leats as a prisoners informed us

had

it

not been

.

[
for the

29

J
liiil^t,

fimely arrival of the chief, when

we

when he

left

us

and returned

— rma;

were

in the hole,

we wouUI most
pieces.

cei-fain-

nile^ting the most intense anxiety for our;
safety.
this kind

ly have been cut to

This iaaitoof every of myself,

Indeed wc were

loth to part vvith
if

gether

probable.
as

The

feelings

man,
to

for

we

telt as

we were
After parjour-

individual,

well

as those

indebted

him

for our lives.

when surrounded

in this hole,

were

horri-

ting with the chief,

we pursued our

ble in the extreme.

The thought

struck

ney with great tjpeed, until the evening of

we, as i leaned against a rock, that here I the second day, when we were obliged to mu^t end my career. Our feelings may stop by a snow storm, which threatened be imagined, but not described. We here turned our us vvith destruction.

The Crow
terceded

prisoners told us that the on-

panting horses loose to graze, and
preparations to pass the
the morning,
to

ly reason they

knew why

the chief had in-

night-—-which

made we
ot

lor us,

previously been con.?ulted on the subject,

In was because he had not did undisturbed. the horses were not

two

be tound.

AU
in-

(having been absent when
ered in the plain.)
ticular liking for us,

we were

discova par-

search was
'or

in vain,

and we gave them up
tliat

This chief took

lost— concluding

they had

fell

and seemed determi-

to the

hands

of

our enemie?., and

if so,

we

ned

to

save us from the destructive venhis people.

'^ad better

be on the move, as they were
the owner,

geanceot

He

prepared a coin-

doubtless close at hand; but
not being satisfied, again

fortable lodge (or our
in

own accommodation,
eat.

started

out.—

which we slept and
in this situation

We

remain-

rhis detained us

a while

longer, when,

two days and part of the appiehending dun^jer from the Indiaiis, we any thing to disturb fi«ed two guns as a signal for him that we us-— during which time the Grow prison- were going, if he was yet in hearing. We ers had many questions to ask about their resumed our journey, and after travelling
ed
third night, without

own

people.

They appeared
notwithstanding
their escape.

to be

well

''^

^^'^ miles,

halted lor the straggler— but

treated,

but
to

anxious

make

tiiey were About mid-

'~*e

never returned.

The Rickarees
consisting of about
piincipal chief is

are a

powerful nation,

night of the third night,our friendly chief,

who
all,

slept with us every

night,

awoke us

1000 warriors. Their called Uighbacked Wolf.
since,

and told us the horrors of our situa-

Some twelve

or fifteen years

they

tion. He said that he had a great many were very friendly with the whiles. This bad men among his followers, and that he friendship wa'^ interrupted by the follow-

was unable
blood
thus

to

much longer— the

appease their angry nature ing circuiostance:— About eight or ten red man thirsts for years since, Mr. Mackenzie* took a chief

that he

had succeeded
village

in savin<>;ug

f»om three different nations (one of which
vvas a Rickaree.) to

far,

through

much exertion— &

that
in

Washington

city,

and

now, as the whole
slumber,
escape.
el
it

was wrapt

while

taking them back to

their native

would be a fit time for us to wilds through Virginia, the liickaree chief He gave us strict orders to trav- took sick auddied in the city of Richmond
speed, and

with

all

not to slacken our Mackenzie returned with

liie

other two,

While passing r/ights, for he said Asnaboin and Mandan, as soon as our departure would be known, the Rickaree village, (which vvas then sitwe would be pursued. When our horses uated on the Missouri river, from whence
pace for two c|ay3 and

were brought out and

WC

all things was ready, * Fills name tias Iiprclufore boon . were escorteu by the chief until day- —by mistake.— Pub.

.,,,

,

,

,

.

printed

.

,

}l(;vk>nn>/

,,

,

they have since removed
the fate of
iieved,

to this

country,)

several others.
frightened, and

The horses appeared much
I

IVlackcnzie stopped and iiiformed them ot
tiicir

began

to

apprehend some

chiot

— which

they disbe- danger.
a-

Whilst leading

my

horse tow-

and immediately declared war

ards the camp, an

Indian, armed

with a

gainst the whites.

They were much

en-

raged, and

made

a violent attack upon the

bow and arrow, came rushing upon me. I made several attempts to mount, but
often failed, for as I would spring

as

boats containing the merchandize of

Mr.

to get

Mackenzie— a

great

part of

which they on he would jump from under me.

The
fif-

destroyed, and have since been the cause savage
of the death ol numbers ot white men.
teen
tie-

now approached
and
I

within

about

steps of me,

signified that

he

April 10th. Having lost
ing rejoined by our lost

all

hope of

w^ould slay

me

unless

stopped and deliv-

man, vvhowecon- ered upmy horse, T sprang behind a bunch eluded hid been captured by the Indians, of bushes, which afforded me a tolerable we resumed our journey with 14 men. shelter. He then made signs to me that
Beaver we found in abundance catching if I would deliver myself up he would not more or less every day, and every thing hurt me. But this I refused. My only seemed to promise a profitable business, weapon was a large knife, which I carried
until the 7th will ever be

day of May a day v/hich in a scabbard at my waist. I drew this remembered by each of us. out and proposed to meet him. He then Having encamped the night previous on a gave me to understand, that if I would lay small creek in the Black Hdls, or on the down the knife he would lav down the

head waters of the river Platte, without bow and arrow, and we would meet and timber or any thing to shelterourselves, in be friends. This I also refused to do.—
case of an attack

by the Indians, within

He made
me
ed them
to kill

use of

various inducements to
I

80 or 100 yards.
hot by any
less

We

this

evening again get

from behind the bush, but
not, for 1
if it

heed-

turned our horses loose to
prudent, while

gray.e,

which

is

knew
in his

his intention

was

means customary and much
travelling through a

me

was

power.

He still

country infested with hostile savages, as

advanced slowly toward me. I had been in several dangerous situations with the

they arealways hovering around theen- Indians and wild beasts,

campment, ready
ent occasion
as

to

lay hands

on any

I

bad almost despaired.
the

in someof which But none seeni-

thing which they fancy.

But on

the pres- ed to cause

same

feeling as
A.lone,

did

my

we thought

ourselves secure, present predicament.

and unarm-

we had

not seen nor

met with any In- ed

— my situation was

distressing indeed,

and an immorning our horses were in sight on a hill mediate and cruel death I knew would be About 9 my fate if I surrendered. Whilst reflecta little above the encampment. o'clock three of us started to bring them ing on what to do, and looking at him
dians for several days.
the following I had no chance of escaping,

On

down

preparatory to our

start.

As

there through an aperture in >he bush, he shot

was no danger apprehended,
took our guns. of the
hill

neither of us an arrow at me, which fortunately missed
its

When we

got to the top
to

aim, and struck a branch within a few

the horses

were not
hill

—having descended the
siile.

be seen inches of

my

face,

and

fell

harmless to the

on the other ground.
to

By

this

time he had got quite close

The

other two

men
I

soon found their and being below

horses and started with them

camp.

thought struck

me on the hill side, the me that I might despatch
I

After searching a while

found mine with him with a stone—-for which purpose


31 ]

stooped
let ray

down

to get

one, and carelessly they

came across

a

large

body

of Indians,

body move from the shelter afford- supposed to be about 200, who, after a ed by the brush, and at that instant T felt sharp engagement, in which one of our I jirk- men, named Gillam, of Illinois, was killthe pointed arrow pierce my side.
ed the weapon out immediately, and
ted to run,
still

starI

ed,

and two wounded, succeeded
all

in tak-

holding to

my

horse.

ing

our horses except two.

Whilst

I

expected every

moment

as I ran quarter-

v/as listening to this

lamentable story, our
to the

ing past the Indian

to receive

another,

spies

came running

camp, bringing

which
if the

I

most certainly would have done, the unwelcome tidings that the Indians
to

savage had been in the possession of were again approaching with great speed,
run to the brush for (hose determined to rule over us.

any more;and
lie

Each

man
and

had already discharged at me, would

now

gathered a robe,

blanket, guns,

only be giving

me

time to escape.

He then

such Ihings as he could not do without,

&

pursued me.
tance
I

After running a short dis- carried the v/nunded into the brush at the thought that my horse might be the foot of the hill, where we immediately

means of saving my life, if I would leave commenced buildinga fort. The Indians him for the Indian, and accordingly I re- app»'oacbed and surrounded our encampleased my hold; but the Indian disregard- ment very cautiously, thinking that they ed the horse and followed me. By this would take us by surprise, and capture time, owing to the loss of blood from ray man, beast and baggage without any diffiwound, ard the great excitement I wasun- culty but they were outrageous when der, I began to grow weak and faint, fori they found that there was no boily at home, thought that every moment would be my They made the best of their victory howlast, as I heard the Indian puffing & blow- ever, and took every thing we had left. \Ye were now v;ithin When they had completed the pillage, ing in my raar.

sight of our

camp, and

discovered by the

men

then there, who im-

were fortunately which was only done when they could no longer find any thing on which to lay their

mediately ran
the face of

to

my

relief.
I

AVhen

I

seen

bands, they started off with their booty.
they

my

companions,

lost all

m5 After

had traveled some distance

strength and

fell

prostrate to the ground,
his design

they halted and collected in a circ!e,with-

The
life,

Indian, foiled in

retreated for the purpose ot

sure of

my

horse, but

in this

on my in plain view of where we were, and smomaking ked to the Sun, or Great Spirit. While he was also going through lhisceremony,som8 of them
us.

mistaken, for in turn he was pursued by happened to discover

On

this,

they

my

companions as hotly as he had chased quit smoking, left their horses and came When my mind again resumed its on foot within 30 or 40 steps of u%, but me. sway, I found myself in the camp careful- on seeing our fort, which was only partly

ly attended

by

my

companions.
conversation with

built,

they turned away and

left us,

with-

On

entering into
I

my

out making any attack.
this

We

remained

m

companions,
ly one
I

found that I was not the on-

situation

until

morning

— those

who

the Indians, were able, being occupied in completing any more Indians being our fort. Soon after daylight the Indians in the neighborhood than the one above al- again made their appearance, and approaluded to, but it appeared by their story ched within a ston^^s throw of the fort, and that, when the two men who started out on reconnnileiing our situation they con'

who had encountered
of

was ignorant

with me, were rcturnins:

vvith

the

horses,

eluded that vve weie too well defended for

[ ^^ J

them

to gain

any advantage over
left

us,

— and

at!

the horrors

ot remorse.

In

^ac^

we

the second time thej

us

without giv-

felt a di^^position

about

this

time to do that
right,

ing us a chance of tryifigour strength.

which would not have been
barked
business

had an

This morning
b!e from
it

I felt

very weak and fee- opportunity aflbrded.
to fear that

When we
it

ftrst

em-

my

vvound, and began

in this

was

iviih

the ex-

was more serious than was at first sup- ppctation that to ensure a fortune in the About 10 o'clock the company far trade oniy required a little perseverwas ready for the move, ami I was pack- ance and inc^ustry. We were not told ed between tv.'o horses. After travelling that we were to be constancy annoyed by
posed.

two or three mdes we halted to rest near the Indians, but that it only required the some brush but not without having sen- observance of a peaceful disposition on our tinels stationed for the purpose of keeping part, to secure their friendship and even

a .vigilant look-out, for

we

still

expected support.

Some

ot the

Indians with
true,

whom

an attack from the Indians.
ter

Not long at- we had
approaching,

intercourse,
to

it is

had been of

we

halted

our sentinels informed us great advantage

us
it

in

our trapping ex-

that the savages were aj>ain

peditionsi but then

would be of short

We

commenced throwing up a
time approached

tor, it they would not render immediately vvent into the brush and duration, fort. Ttiey this themselves abnoxious by their own treach-

very cautiously,
to put an

&

see- try, our friendship
lives,

with them

would be

med determined

end

to

our

sure

to

meet with an inteimplion through
artifice
af-'a

W^hen they observed

that v/e

were delen- some ingenious

Deighbouriug
life

ded by a breast work, they

halted, recon- jealous tribe.

Such had been the

we

noitered op every side, and finally gave up had led, and such the reward.

Our situation was netat all suited for and left us. These Indians who had hung round our path so long, robbed us of so sober calculation. Som.e appeared altomuch necessary properly, killed one ard gether careless what would become of wounded three of us, and came so nigh them— seeming to have a willingness to
exterminating our

whole company,
to the

we
tribe

lound out, belonged

Rickaree

turn in with and live the life of a savage, some two or three were anxious to leave

the

same who (right^ned us

in the sink

the wilderness and return

to the

States as

hole, on Platte river.
It

^^
to

us had a distant hope of having better luck, Some of our men were acquainted with labonred hard, encountered one danger only to be eclipsed by another. had the situation of the rendezvous of a com-

we lSf leisure template our situation. Some of
was now
that

empty as when we left them. But this con- was rejected by nearly all, for we still had

We

at times

endured the most excruciating F"} "^ traders on the head waters of the suffering from hunger and fatigue—living CoUrado, trading under the firm ol B. L. in constant communion with the terrors K. Bowville, & Co. and it was proposed to
of a wilderness studded with savages and start for ibis post immediately. After

much
that

no

less

dangerous beasts of prey, for two debate and persuasion,

it

was agreed

long years, and

now

left

deslitute of eve-

ry thing except an old
rifle

greasy blanket, a and a tew loads of ammunition, some entirely recovered— and started on our As we travelthousands of miles from our paternal long and tedious juurney.

make the attempt. We got every th.ng ready— the wounded having

we

should

homes.
tion

To

reflect
to

on our present situa- l^d along we kilted plenty of various kinds
fill

was enough

every

heart with of

game— met

with

nothing to

interrupt

L
fyur

33

J
if lie

journey,

ar.il

on the 25th

oi

July ar- Pacific, and

did not find
tlie

beaver,

in?

rived at the
this

camp

of Bowville,
o'

which

<it

should return to
foilowing summer.

Great

S. L. in the

time consisted

195 men,

tc-gefber

Mr,

Walker was

a

with a small compFiny belonging to iMackenzie, from the Missouri river, of

man

well calculated to undertake a busiof this kind.

60 men. ness

He was

well hardened

We

were well

received by these men,

to the

hardships of the wilderness

— un-

most of v/hom had been in the woods for derstood the character of the Indians very several years, and experienced many hard- well— was kind aad affable to his men, ships and privations, similar to what we but at the san>e titne at liberty to comThey seemed to sympath- mand wiihoul giving offence,— and to exh^.d suffered. ize with us about our loss, and all appear- plore unkn«jwn reo;U){js vvas his chief deed anxious that we should turn
in

with

iig'^t.

I

was anxious
and
for

to

go

to the coast of

them and restore our

lost fortunes.

After the
^^it'*^

Pacific,

that

purpose hired

we had become thoroughly

rested from the

Mr. Walker

as clerk, for a certain

sum

The i20th of Aug. was fixed as most per year. of our men hired in different ways with the day for each company to take its deThese men had been en- parture. When (he day arrived every this company.
fatigue of our long tramp to this post,

gaged
neaily

in

trapping
for a

in

the vicinity

of this

thing v;a« in readiness,— each
^^ed with four horses,

man

provi-

rendezvous
all

long time,

&

had caught
section
of

and an equal share

the beaver,
to

and were thinking of blankets, buCaloe robes, provi3iong,and
every article necessary h)r the comfort of
«»en engaged in an expedition of this kind,
a large tract of land

about moving
country.

some other

There was
Columbia

man appeared and more lively il-.an on and to the Pacific ocean and GulphofCa- anyotijcr siti.ilar occasion,— and 1 somelafornia on the West and Soulti, which tiujes thouglu that we were now on an exwas said to abound with beaver, and othj- pedition from which we would realize
laying to the South
i[)g to

West

of

this,

extend-

As we

travelled along each

the

river on the

North,

in better spirits,

erwise suited as
our

a

tradii'g country.

As some

profit.

On
.irrivcd

the
at

fourlh day
the

of our

company was now very
concluded on dividing
Accordingly

large, the ofit

journey we

hu's of

some

ficers

into three

Bawnack
to

Indians,

Theise Indians appear
in ihi^

divisions.

Capt. Bowville

hve very poor and

most forlorn

was left here with a considerable force to watch the movements of the Indians, and to do what he could at trapping, as th.is had been a great harbor for beaver, it was thought that there might be still some uiore to be caught. A Mr. Cerren, with a few men was sent back to St. Lewis, wilh 4000 lbs. sf beaver fur, with instructions to return and meet Capt. Bowville
at the

condition.
visit

They

generally

make but one

to

the

bud'alue

country during the
can lug

year, where they rem,>in until theyjirk as

much meat

as their fesaales

homo

on their backs.

They

then quit the moun-

tains and return !o the plains,

where they
the remainhorses,

subsist on fish and small

game

der of the year.

They keep no

&

are always an easy prey for other Indiana

Great Salt Lake

in

the ft)llowing

provided with guns and horses.

On

tell-

summer, with a supply of provisions to do ing these Indians the route we intended to the company, for the two loUowing years, take, they told us we must provivle ourThe other division, under the command selves with meat enough to subsist upon which wc fourd to be vcof a Mr. Walker, was ordered lo steer lor many days through an unknown country, towaids the ry good advice. We novv set tt; work lay-

^9

»

[ Si J

\hg

iii

a slock of provision,

and

in a

lew

Iniliiins,

and pursued our course Norlh-

days each man was provided with about west. Our men, who were in such fine 60 pounds (if substantial meat, which was spirits when we left the rendezvous, bepacked upon our horses, and we set sail gan to show symptoms of fatigue, & were
sn

good cheer.

no longer so

full of sport.

We

travelled

September we kdled our along these paths acccording to the direclast bufialoe on the West side of the Salt tions of the Indians, now and then meetLake. We still continued along the mar- ing with a few straggling natives, who intention of were in a manner naked, on the trail ot gin of the Lake, with the leaving it when we got to the extreme west the main body to the bufialoe country.

On

the 4lh ol

side of

it.

About
very

the 12th

we found

the

Some

of these straggling
salt,

Indians show^ed

country

poor,

and almost without us some lumps of
rabbits,

which was the most

game, except goats and some few

white, clear and beautifuf I ever seen.

On

the 13th

we
i

luft the

Lake and

took a

On
ble
to a
for

the 30lh

we
in

arrived at a considera-

westt rly course into the most extensive

&

hill,

which,

appearance,

is

similar

barren plains

ever seen.

This day we
their

came
up

to a

spring,

where we found some

smooth rock, the night, and

— where
lot

we encamped

our horses loose to

Indians encamped,
winters supply

who were on

way graze

— which

to the bulTaloe country, to lay

in their

of meat.

These Indians

done with set by the

we thought might now be safety, as we were no longer bemurderous Uickarees. While

to be more wealthy, and exercise laying about resting ourselves, some of the more ingenuity in providing for themselves men observed the horses very eagerly than those we had met with a few days a* licking the stones which lay on the surThis go. They have paths beat from one spring face of the ground, near the spring. or bole of water to another, and by obser- circumstance caused the men to examine ting these paths, they told us, we would the stones, which we found to be salt,

appear

be enabled
trouble.

to find

The

chief of this

water without much and had been carried herefrom the hill by tribe, further the Indians. Their surface was covered

told us, that after travelling so

South-west, (the course
bout to take,)

many days with moss or lust, but on breaking them, or we were now a- rubbing oS the rust, the salt is seen in its puwe would come to a high rity. This hdl runs North and South, and

at the top the

which was covered with snow is from one to three miles across, and prowhole year round, and on duces no kind of vegetation, whatever exeach side of which we would find a large cept a little grass which grows in holes or river to head, and descend into the sandy gutters around its base, formed by water
mountain
plains below,
lakes, pears.

forming innumerable small descending from the hill during the rainy and sinks into the earth and disap- season. This country appeared the most

Some

distance further

down
to

these like a desert of any I had yet seen.
ther,i is

It is

plains, he said,

we would come

another so dry and sandy that

scarcely a-

mountain, much larger than the first,which ny vegetation to be found he had never been across. In
he said, there
this latter
all this

— not

even a

space, spear of grass, except around the springs,

was no game; but that near Tke water in some of these springs, too, mountain we would come a- is so salt that it is impossible to drink it.

cross a tribe of poor Indians,whorahesup-

The Indians say

that

it

never rains, only

posed would not be friendly.

in the spring of the year.
left

Every thing

On

the

next morning

we

these


35 ]
continued travelling down tlii« river, now and then catching a few beaver. But, as we continued to extend our acquaintthe natives, they began to prac-

i:

het-c

seems

to declare that, here

man

shall

We

not dwell.'*'

After travelling a feiv doys longer thro'
these barren plains;
tain described

we came

to the

moun- ance with
its

by the Indian as having

tice Iheir'national failing of stealing.

So

peak covered with snow. It presents a eager were they to possess themselves of most singular appearance being entirely our traps, that we were forced to quit It is trappingin this vicinity and makeforsome unconnected with any other chain.

surrounded on eUher side by

level plains, other quarter.

The

great annoyance

we

and

rises

abruptly to a great heighth, rug- sustained in this respect greatly displeas-

ged, and hard to ascend.
the eve

To

take a view ed some ot our men, and they v/ere for ta-

of the surrounding country from this
tain,

moun- king vengeance before we

'eft the

ccuntry

meets with

nothing but a

— but

smooth, sandy, level plain.
this

On

tlie

whole, tain

was not the disposition of CapWalker. These discontents being
this

mountain may be set down as one of out hunting one day, fell in with a few Inthey killed, tke most remarkable phenomenas ot na- dians, two or three ot Its top is covered with the pinone and then returned to camp, not daring to ture. The next day tree, bearing a kind of must, which the let the Captain know it.

wh^

natives are very fond

of,

collect for winter provision.

and which they while hunting, they repeated the same viThis hill is olation— but this time not quite so suelike a
hill

nearly round, and looks

or cessful, for the Captain found

it

out,

and

mound, such as

may be met

with in the immediately took measures
ual suppression.

for its cfiect-

prairies on the east side

of the mountain,

Not
Indian.
this
ties,

far

from our encampment we found

At

this place, all
is

the branches

of this

the source of the river mentioned by the stream

collected from the mountain in-

After we all got tired gazing at to the main channel, which forms quite a mountain and the adjacent curiosi- large stream; and to which we gave the

we

left

it

er, in

order to

and followed down the riv- name of Barren River a name which find water and grass for we thought would be quite appropriate, as
this

our horses.

On

signs of beaver, and

game was

scarce in

stream we found old the country, natives and every thing bewe supposed that, as longing to it, justly deserves the nanse. this country, the In- You may travel for many days on the

Oians had caught them for provision.
natives which

The banks of this liver, without finding a stick occasionally met with, large enough to make a walking cane.— still continued to be of the most poor and While we were on its margin, we were dejected kind— being entirely naked and compelled to do without fire, unless we
we
very
filthy.

We

of these Indians

came to the hut of one chanced to come across some drift who happened to have a had collected together on the beach.

that

As

considerable q^iantity of fur collected.-- vve proceeded down the river we found At this hut we obtained a large robe com- ^j^at the trails of the Indians began to look posed of beaver skins fastened together, in as if their numbers were increasing, ever

exchange

This robe was worth from 30
extended

two awls and one fish-hook, since our men had killed some of their to 40 dollars, brethren. The further we descended the »''ver, the more promising the country be*ThislnUwas.ePnin 1824. by a Mr. Smith, who
for
liis explorations to the Pacific coast, and there taken prisfner by ilie Spaniards See his

was

gan
,

tO appear, llthouo-h
,

it Slill
.

retained

it«
i

travels.

dry, Sandy nature.

,.,

\> e

had now arrived

,

1

36 1

^villiin view of aclustcrofhills 01- mounds, New Orleans in 1815. Before we had which presented the appearance, from a got every thing con!j)Ieted, houever,^tIie

<iistance, of a

built

up together.

number of beautiful cslies Indians issued frcui their iiiding places in Here we had the plea- the ^rasss, to the number, as i:car as 1
grew in very could guess, of 8 or 900, and marched some places along the straight tov.ards us, dancing and singingin the greatest glee.
,

sure of seeing tmber, which

sparing quantities
liver beach,

When

within about

September we arrived at 150 yards of us, they ail s^t down on the some lakes, toimed by this river, which ground, and despatched live of t.lieir chiefs we supposed to be those mentioned by the to our camp to inquire wheliier their Indian chief whom we met at the Great people might come in and smoke with us. Salt Lake. Here the countiy is low and This request Cii^->t. Walker very prudentthe 4th of

On

them that he was willour horses, as it was the first good grazing ing to meet them half way between our they had been in for a k-»ng time and here, breast work, and where their people were on the borders of one of these lakes, we then sitting. This appeared to di&pleasa encamped, for the purpose of speixling the them very much, and they went back not
intentions, but told

fine

swampy, producing an abundance of \ery grass— which was very acceptable to

\y refused, as they evidently

had no good

night, and letting our horses have their satisfaction.

the least

bit

pleased

with the receptioa

A

little

before s«n-set, on ta-

they had met with.

king a view
a spy-glass,

of the

surrounding waste with
issuing

After the

fire

deputies
to their

related the re-

we discovered smoke

suit of their visit

constituents, a

from the high grass in every ditection. part of them rose up and signed to u«., This was sufficient to convince^us that we (which was the only mode of communica-

were

in the

ans; but as
to,

midst of a large body of Indi- ting with them) that they were conung to we could see no timber togo our camp. At this 10 or 12 of our a\en
that
it

we concluded
remain
in

to

our present situation, and de-

would be as well mounted the breast work and made signs to them4lrat If they advanced a step fur-

fend ourselves as well as

we

could.

We
tho>^.e

readily guessed that these
in

Indians were

arms

to

revenge the death of

iher it was at the peril of their lives. They wanted to know in what way we would do Our gunr> were exliibited as the weait.

& pons ol death. This they seemed to disany ad- credit and only laughed at us. They then vantage over us, we had no expectation wanted to see what elioct our guns would that they would give us any quarter. Our have on some ducks that were then swimwhich our men had killed up the
they could succeed
in

riverj

if

getting

first

care, therefore,

horses, which
all

together,

was to secure our ming in the lake, not far from the shore, we did by fastening them We then fired at the ducks thinking by and then hitching them to this means to strike terrour into the sava-

pickets drove into the ground. This

do-^re,

ges and

drive

them away>

The ducks

we commenced our own safety.
gBge
in front,

constructing something for were killed, which astonished the Indians

The

lake was' immediate- a good

deal,

though not so much as the

]y in our rear, and piling

up

all

our bag- noise

of the

guns

— which
a

caused them
After
this

to

we had quite a substantial fall flat to the ground. breast work— which would have been as put up a beaver skin on
impregnable
to the Indians ari'ow, as
to

they

bank

for us to

were shoot
at
Icit

at for their gratification— when they

the cotton -bags

the

British bullets

us for the night.

This

night

we

sta-

L

^^

]

(ioncd a Btrong

j:5u:u(i,

but

Fio

Indians

made

Indians, and

give

them an

idea

of^ur

their appearance,

and

weie permitted

to strength,

32 of us dismounted and prepa«

pass the niglit in pleasant dreams.

red ourselves (o give a severe blow.
tied our extra horses to

We
choice

Early

in the

morning we resumed our

journey along the lakes, without seeing

a- left

them with

the

some shrubs and main body of our com»
each
a

ny signs

of the

Indians until after sunrise, pany, and then
issuing from steed,

selected

when we discovered them
side of us.

mounted and surrounded

this

party

the high grass in front, rear, and on either of Indians.

We

closed in

on them and
field

This created great alarm
at first,

a- fired, leaving thirty-nine

dead on the

was nearly the half the remainhad surrounded us on purpose, but it ap- der were overwhelmed with dismay ^runpeared that we ha.d only happened amongst niag into the high grass in every direction,
niong our men,
as

we thought they

— which

as us.

them, and they were as much frightened howling in the most lamentable manner, Capt. Walker then gave orders to some From this we turned our course

from the border of the lake into the

plain,

ot the

man

to take the

We had
be'gan to

not travelled far until the Indians Indians and put the

bows ot the fallen wounded out of misewhich we dealt
be revolting to the

move after

us

first in

small

num-

ry.

The

severity

v>'ith

bers, but presently in large companies.

-

with these Indians

may

They
when

did not approach

near until we had heart of the philanthropist; but the circumfor several

travelled in this

way

hours, stances of the

case altogether atones tor
It
far

they began to send

small parties in the cruelty.
us most earn- that

advance, who would
estly to stop

solicit

we were

must be borne in mind, removed from the hope

and smoke with them.
several

After of any succour

in case

they had repeated this

times,

we

ed, and that the country

we were surroundwe were in was
Our
object wai^

began

to

understand their motive

— which
their

swarming with
to

hostile savages, sufiicient*

was
into

to.

detain us in order to

let tiieir
iis,

whole !y numerous
even to

devour

us.

force

come up and surround
close quarters

or to get to strike a decisive blow.

This we did

with us,

whea

a greater extent than

we had
naked

in

bows and arrows would be as fatal and tended. more effective than our firearms. We These Indians are

totally

now began
continued
at

to be a little

stern

v^^ith

them, male and female
if

— with

— both
of

the exception

and gave them to understand, that
to trouble us,

they a shield of grass, which they wear around
it

they would do
this

their loins.

They

are generally small and

their

own

risk.

In

manner

vv'c

weak, and some of them very hairy.
subsist

They

were teased

until

a

party of 80 or

100

upon grass-seed,

frogs, fish,

&c.—

came forward, who appeared more saucy Fish, however, are very scarce their manand bold than any others. This greatly ner of catching which, is somewhat novel excited Capt. Walker, who was natural- and singular. They take the leg-bone of ly of a very cool temperament, and he a sand-hill crane, which is generally agave orders
for

the charge, saying

that bout

18 inches long,
ot a

this

is

fastened

ia ot

there was nothing equal to a good start in the end

pole

— they

tlien,

by means

Buch a case. This was

sufficient.

A num-

of a

r;i[t

made

of rushes,

which are very

berofour men had never been engaged in plenty— float along the surface of these any fighting with the Indians, and were lakes, and spear the fish. They exhibit anxious to tiy their skill. When our com- great dexterity with this simple structure
maiider gave
hi=;

consent to

chusti?<o.

these

— sumetin!G»

killiijo;

a

fish

wilh

it

vv

a

10


[

38

J

grofli tii*tarict».

Tlitfy aUo have a Kind uf vey ui acreis the fiver,

hook by \^hich thoy
successfuf, but
it

somelimes

arie

very

decs not

nft'ord

them

much

spoit as

the spear.

This hook
beard cut
line

formtd ofa small bone,
a sand-stone,
it

ground down
have a

and

a

double

ulien ueidtllre Lakes and continued our course in thedi-* as rection ofa large mountain, v\hich was in fcight, and which we coubJ gee was coveris In the eveon ed wiih snow on the summit. in »iin^- we encamped on the margjn ofa large
foi

with a

flint

— they then
This

made Lake
this

med by

a

river

which heads

in

of wild flax.

line is tied nearest tlie

mountain.

This lake, likewise, has
except that which
this

beard end of the hook, by pulling the line
the sharp end with the beard, catches,and

no outlet

for the water,

sinks into the ground.
l^ike is

turns the bone cros8ways» in
'J'hesG lakes are all

ils

tnoulh.
togeth.er

similar to

lie,

The water in and tastes much
was
in

like

joined

by pearlash.
ty o{

If this river

the vicini-

n^eans of the river which pngses
to anotl'.er, until
it

from one
largest,
in tkis

bome
as

city,
it

it

would be of inestimable
calculated to
nr)

reaches

tiie

value,
^^'&sh

is

admirably

which has no out-let.
able

The water

clothes

wiilmut soap, and

doubt

lake becomes stagnantand very disagree-

could
uses.

be appropriated to

many
the

valuabla

its

surface being covered
to a

with

a

There

is

also a great

quantity oi
surface of

green substance, similar
pond.
In

stagnant frog
i&

pumiiiice stone floating on
the water,

warm weather
this lake,

there

a fly, a-

and the ?hyre
he next day

is

covered with

bout the
wheat, on
'V^

siz»

and similar

to a

grain of

them.
river

'1

we

travelled upthis
en>*
is

m

2;reat

numbers.
beach
gather

towaida the mountain, where we
for.

hen the wind

roils the

waters onto the

camped
feide

the
tfie

night.

Tliis

mountain

shoie, these Hies are left on the

very high, as

snow extends down

the

the female Indians then

carelully
ol

nearly half vvay

— the

mountain

runa

them
es,

into baskets

m^de

willow branchto the

North and South.
In the morning
to the

and lay them exposed

sun

uRtil

they become perfectly dry,
laid
flies,

away
is

for

when they are winter provender. These
grass seed, and a few
food during the

we despatched hunters mountain on search of game and althe

so to look out for a pass over
tain, as

moun-

together wiih

our provisions were getting scarce
bulfaloe

rabbits,

their principal

— our dried
done.

meat being almost
all

winter season.
-

After prowling about
in

day, our

Their iiabitadnns are formed ofa round hunters returned

the evening, bringing

hole

dug

in the

ground, over
it

are placed, giving
iiolc

the bhapc of a polatoe

which sticks the unwelcome tidings that they had not seen any signg of game in all their ram-

this is

covered with grass

& earth —
of
stiff

blings,

and what was equally discouraghad seen no practicable place

the door at one side and the
ther.

fire at the o-

ing, thai they

They cook

in a

pot maile

for crossi'^g the
er,

mountain.

They, howev-

mud, which they
ter

lay

upon the

tire 4"

burn;
af-

had with them a young colt and camel,

but from the sandy nature of the mud,

which they secured by the natives taking

fright and running oR', when the hunters when they make a uew one. came in sight. The next morning, having These Indians call ihcmselves Shosho- eaten the last of our dried buflaloe meat, coes; and the Lakes have been named it was decided that the colt should be kilBaltle Lakes. led and divided equally to each man. Our On the lOlh of October we lelt(he?eln- situation was growing worse every hour,

cooking

a

few tunes,

it

falls to pieces,

dians and built raits out of ju^hcs to con-

and sotncthing required

to be

done

to ex-

L
ivicate oui selves.

39

]

Our hones were
the
fi)0<l,

retlu- ed to be

our only prospect of preset" aliotn
early

ced very much

ironi

fatigues of our Accordingly, at an

hour

ilie

ticxt

journey and

I'g'it

having

travelled

morning we

fetartetl

on our journey along
in

ti\rough a poor,

eandy country <;xtending

the foot ot the

mountain

search

of

tlie

from ihe buftaloe country of the Rockj path discovered on the previous day, and

Mountains,
distance
fjf

to

our present encampment, a found

it.

On ex«min
it,

tion

we found

that

about 1200 miles, without en- horses travelled
hill ot

and must of course
This gave
us great
feailul

counteringa single

any consequence, come ftom the west.
one
in

(with the exception

of the

v^hich
a-

encouragement, as we were verj

Barren

river heads,

and

that

we went

we would
all.

not be able to get our horses o-

round,) and so poor and bare that nothing ver at

Here we encamped

for

the

can subsist on
bits

it

with the exception ofrab- night.

In the morning

we

started on our
the

these being the only

game we had

toilsome journey.

Ascending
be very

moun-

met with sinca
antelopes.

we had

left

the buiTaloe tain

we found
and
its

(o

difiicult

fiom the

country, with the exception of one or two rocks

steepness.

This day we

Notwithstanding thuse plains made but poor speed,
tie-

and

encamped on

forbids the support of animals ol eveiy
scription, yet I

the side of the

mountain,

do

iu)t

believe that

we

pas-

Oct. 16. Continued our course until in

sed a single day without seeing Indians, or the afternoon,
fresh signy^

when we

arrived

at

what

and some days hundreds of we took
pass over
the our

for the top, vvhere

we

again ento
Ciit {i)V

them.
irig

To-day we sent out several
Capt. Walker,

scout- camped, but without any thing
horses'',

parlies to search out a

as the

ground was covered widi

Nidever and a deep snow, which from yppearance.hiys After get- on the North side of the peaks, the vviu;lc ting part of the way up the mountain we year around. These peaks are generally came to a grove of limber, where the moun- covered with rocks and sand, totally inmountain.

mygelf started

out together.

tain
left

was

too steep for

our horses, and we
foot.

capable of vegetation; except on the South
giiip,

them, and travelled on
us,

NidcIn-

where grows

a
a

kuul of Juniper or

ver was separated from
dians

when two

Gio shrub, bearing
to gin.

berry tasting similar
the night withoiU gin berries,

made

their

appearance,

but as soon

Here we passed
to eat
ol the insects

a* they saw us, they t-x.k to IVight and run

any thing
aiid

except these

directly

towards Nidever, who

at

once

some

from the lake deh,id got

lupposed they had been committing some scribed above, which our men
mischief with us, fired, and, as
thc-T

from

were the Indians.
fiom cold
thi.s

We had

not

suffered

much
to

running one behind the other, killed them
both at one
shot.

for sevt'i-al

months previous
;>i>

After

this

unpleasant

but this night. 'surrounded

ut: wcrt;

to our horses, witli the everlasting snows on the summit and from thence l(k^amp, Mr. Nidever oj tliis mountain, the cold was felt with was very sorry when he discovered wh.at three fold severity. he had done. In the evening the balance In lakii-g a view the next morning oF-'lio of our scouting parties returned, but none extensive plains through uhich we h;id Iraof them had killed any game. One of veiled, its appearance is awfully Hjblime. them had found an Indian p\\h, whicii Asfarnsth.e eye c;in re;;c!i, you Cc-^n see

circumstance we went back

thry

thuught
it

led

over

the

mountain— nothing
morto tlie
is
it

but an
to

unbroken

!e\e!,

tiie^ome

whereupon

was resolved

that in the

eye

behold.

To

ihe Ivist the as^

nm^ we

would take

this path, as

seem- pect

truly

wonderfu!.

The

^i-ht nicety

[

40

1

with nothing but a p-^or

sandy

plain, ex-

tending from

tlie

base of (he

Rocky

tnoun-

somt^ofour men had becotue almost unmanageable, and were desirous ot turning
back and retracing our steps
loe country!
to the buffa-

tains to the level

below— interposed

with

aeveral rivers winding tKeir way, here and

The

voice of the

majority,

there forming innumerable lakes, having
their

which always directs the movements of

margins thinly adorned with a few «uch
to flow,

withering and fading cottonwood

where the water ceases
into the sand.
rivers

a company, would not pacify them; trees— nor had the earnest appeals of our captain and sinks any effect. The distance was too great

But

(his is

not

all.

The
all

for

them

to

undertake without being well

which head

in

this

mountain,
to

provided, and the only

way they could be
them have a-

lead towards the East, as

if

meet those prevented, was by

notlettijig

from the Rocky mountains, and likewise ny of the horses or ammunition.

Two ot

empty into the lakes. The next morning our horses were so much reduced that it was thought they would not be able to it was with no cheerful pi ospecl that each man prepared himself for travelling, as we travel in the morning at aU, whereupon it
had nothing
to eat

wwth

mentioning.

As was agreed
for the

that they should be butchered

This gave our would encounter prodigious quantities of men fresh courage, and we went to bed snow. When we would come to such this night in better spirits than we had Some of the men a certain portion of the men would done for a long time. places, be appointed alternately to go forward and had fasted so long, and v*'ere so m.uch in

we advanced,

in the hollows

sometimes we

use of the men.

break the road,
get tlirough^ and

to
if

enable our horses to want of nourishau'nt, that (hey did not any of the horses wouh! know when they had sati^ified the demands

get swamped, these same

men

v;cre to get

of nature,

and eat as much and as eagerly
lean, horse
flesh, as

them

out.

In

this

tedious aid

tiresome

oi this black, tough,
if it

we spent the whole day without In some going mora thin 8 or 10 miUs. of these ravines ivhere the snow is drifted
mannc!:

had been

the choicest

piece of beef

steak,

In the oaorning, after freely partaking
of the horse
to

from the peaks,

it

never eatirely
at
this

melts,

meat, and sharing the remain-

and may be found

season

of the der

each man, we renewed our journey,
then coming onto an Indian path,
the directiou

year, from ten to one

hundred

teet deep,

now and

From appearance it never melts on the but as they did not lead in we did not top, but in warm weather the heap sinks we were going,
by
that part melting

follow

them—

which lays next the but the most of the distance we this day giound. This day's travel was very se- travelled, we had to encounter hills, rocks The snov/ in most of vere on our horses, as they had not a par- and deep shows.
tide
to eat.
stiff,

They began

to

grow stupid

the hollows
if it

we

this

day passed through,
all

and
ting

and we began

to despair

of get- looks as en-

had rer^ined here

sumit

them over the mountain.

We

nier, as eight or ten inches

from the top

camped this night on the south side of one was packed close and firm— the top being fell only a day or ol these peaks or ridges without any thing loose and light, having To add two previous. About the middle of the eat, and almost without fire. to arrived at a small Lake or to the troubles and fatigues which we en- afternoon we
over pond, where we concluded to encamp, as we found a small quantity of the rocks and through the snow, we had at this pond find that very indide! eiit grass, but >vhich our horthe mortification this evening to

countered in the day time,

in getting


-^^

>

L

J

scscioppcd

Oil

with great eagerness.

Mere ered,

aiul the

coldness of ihc

aii-.

The
the

tie
i

vvc spt-nt Ihc niglir,

having yet seen noth- scent from the
lliat

Rocky mountains
all

(o this

ing to create a hope

we

liad

arrived

near the opj)Osite bide of the (nounta!«»

hut triHing, and supposed by

com

pnny not
this

and what was equallv

as

melancholy, hav- ded
oi"

to be ,o;reater than we had ascen mountain from the plain lliougi.

ing yet discovereii no signs

game.

we had no means of ascertaining

the fact.

The

next morning

hour, fortunately

we resumed our la- It is true, however, tb.at the vast plaiM liiiding less snow and through which we luul travelled was alnuiober of small

ntorc timber, besides a
lakes, and

most perfectly

level,

oii

part of which the

some prospect of getting into a vvater gradually descended to the West, country that produced some kitul of veg- and on the other towards the East, Our situation was g- owing more dist'reS' ctation. The timber is principal'y pine,
cedar
ai'd red

wood, mostly

of a

scrubby sing every
ol,

liour,

and

ail

we now thought

ami knotty quality.

After traveirmg a

was

to extricate

ourselves from this in-

few miles, (urlher ho^vevefj than any oth- hospitable region; and, as we were perfecterday since we had icacheil the top of the ly aware, that to travel on foot was the r.iountain, we again encamped on the mar- only way of succeeding, we spent no time
gin of another snutM lake,

where we also
iotne pasture
it

in itileness

— scarcely stopping
nature's

in

our jour-

had the good fortune
for

to find

»ey

to

view an occasional specimen of the
ot

our horses.

This evening

was again

w'O'iders

handy-work.
every day,

We
on

deciiled to kill ihiee

more

of

our horses
(roni

travelled a (ew mijes

still

which bad grown entirely worthless
severe travelling and
nioiniiig several
little

the top of the mountain,

and our course
encounter in

food.

The next

continually obstructed with snow hills and
iocks.
f>ur path,

parties

weie

(les})atchL"d

Here we began
from under

to

on
to

search, of a pass over the

mountain, and
all re-

many small streams which would
these high

make search
in the

for

game; but they

shoot out

snow-

turned

evening without finding

ei-

banks, and after running a short

distance

thcr. The prospect at this time began to in deep chasms which they have through grow somewhat gloomy and threaten us »ges cut in the rocks, precipitate theoiwith hard times again. We were at a selves Irom otie lofty precipice to another, complete stand. No one was acquainted until they are exhausted in rain below.

with the country, nor no person

knew how Some
was.
since

of these precip'ces appeared to us to

wide the summit

of this Uiountain
for live

be more than a

mile high.
if

We

had travelled

days

we

inan thought that

Some of the we could succeed \n

arrived at what

we supposed to be the descending one of these precipices to the summit were now still surrounded with bottom, we might thus work our way into snow and rugged peaks the vigour of ev- the valley below— but on making several

ery

man almost exhausted

— — nothing

to

give attempts

we found

it

utterly
to

impossible

our poor horses, which A'ere no longer a- for a man to descend,

say nothing of
to

ny assistance
then, for

to us in travelling, but a bur-

our horses.

We were then obliged
in the direction

keep

along as

we had to help the most of them along the top of the dividingndge between we would an old and leeble man. two ot these chasms which seemed toleaci

This mountain must be near as high as pretty near
the main chain of the
at 'cast a person

we were

go.-

Rocky mountains
froni the
it

ing

— which

was West,

in
to

passing over

vast quuntilv of

snuw

would judge so witli which
1
I

the mountain, supposing
suuth.
In this

it

run north

&

ijcov-

manner we

contiiiucd un-

[
til

4-

J
willi

t!>e 2.J1I1,

witiiout

any particular occur-

jutl;i,in^

precisiuh in

a casij

of this

lence, except that ufourliorses dying dai\y

kirul.)

flesh i)t* wjiich we preserved (of Tije next morninj*; we resumed our jourOur course was very rouy;h & (ire- nev somewhat revived with the Strong essome, having to encounter one hill ofsnow pectation that after a few days inore tediand one ledge el rocks after another. On ous travellinj;, we would (iiul ourselves in the 25th every man appeared to be more a coutury producing some kind of game

— the

lood.

discouraged and

down
if

spirited

than ever,

by which we

mi^^lit

recruit

our

languid

and

I

thought that

our situation

would

fiame?, and pasture" to

resuscitate the fa-

soon be beyond hope

no pro«;pect of get-

misihed condition of our horaes.
fuuni!

We

still

ting from the mounfftin

would n'uv bedis-

snow
so

in

abundance, but our course
obstiurled with rocks as
ar»i-

covered.

This day we sent out several

was not

much
I.)

parties on discoveries,

who returned
last

in the

formerly.

iwo or ihree days we
of

evening wiihuut bringing the least good
news, except one man, who was
ing,

ved at the brink
a

the

mountain.

This

having separated Irom
brought a basket

his

com- at firbt was compan- approached
a

happy
it

sigh!,

but when

we

close,

ions,

(uti [of
first

acoins to perpendicular that
acorns we tempt
of Mis-

seemed to be so near it would be folly to atyou
have one

camp.
souri.

These were

(he

descent.

In looking on the plain

had seen since

v\e left the

State

below with the nuked eye,

These nuts our hunter had got Irom of the most singular pro«ipects in nature; an Indian who had the-n on his back tra- from the great height of the mountain the veiling as though he vvas on a journej a- plain presents a dim yellow appearance;«cross the mountain,
to

(he

Kast side.

but on taking

a

view with the spy glass
beautiful plain
until

vie

When
ped
life.

the Indian seen our hunter he drop-

found

it

to be a

stretchetl

his

basket

«

f

provision and

run

lur

out towartts

(he west

tlie

horizon
the

These nuts caused no

little rejoic-

presents a barrier to the sight.
to the

From

ing in our camp, not only
iheir value as food, but

on account of spot where we stood
country as
almost

plain beneath,

because they gave must
a
it

at least be a di.stance of tlnee mile.-,
is

us the gratifying evidence that

perpendicular, a

person
if

mild and salubrious enough to produce a- cannot look

down without
to

feeling as

he

coins vvas not

far distant,

which

must be was wafted

and

fro in the air,

Irom th«
the surto

vas'iy dirterent from any

through fur

a long time.

We

we had passed giddy now felt a- mises
in

heiglit.

A

great

many were

as to the distance

and direction

greeably gurpri>ed that

we had succeeded
a region ot
native Inin travers-

the nearest point of the Pacific.

Captain

so far and so prosperously,

Walker, who was a man well acquainted
with geography, was
ot the

many

miles in extent

where

a

opinion that

it

dian could find nothing to eat
ing the

was not much further than we could
sea shore.

'sce

tame

route,

but acorns.

These with

the aid of our glass, as the plain ha<l

nuts are quite difTerent from those in Mis- the appearance of a
souri
able.

Here we

— being much
They

larger
1 i

and more palat- encamped
to

for the night,

and sent men out
returned after
reported

ate fron^

3

inches in

to iliscover sonie

convenient passage down

length, and about 5 in diameter, and
roafcteti in

when towards
a

the plain

— who

ati

the ashes or broiled, are supeI

absence of a few hours and

that
trail

rior to

any cliesnuts
subsisting

ever eat

— (though

they had discovered a pass or Indian

pers'in
niettt

upon very lean horse which they thought would answer our puris

fur sevetal

days

hardly capable of pose, and also some signsof deer and bear,


[
i\ iilt

!^
»ve

J

h

was

tMi'.iall V

a^

j»»\ Till
oi'

tJL'w 3

as

()arU

of" ilu'ii'

!1p«1i a>^
it

exdeiite
for

'h'l'tj^ei" ft-

ioiiiieii to hav«^ a
l(M»tl.

fasle

?(Mns
afler

nalarablo
put^uiiiij;

Wtiie will icndiM-

j>()sslL)'e

a

liuirtaii

The
a

next

«n«)iriinjr

bf iii;>; to eat.

This we «l<me several
only
of

lime*;,

our coulee

lew miles

al(Mi<i;

the

ed^e

of

and

it

wa?

ijie

ihiu^ that saved uh

the mountain top vve

arrived at (he

palii

horn death.

24

our horses

liied

since

discovered by our men, and
coininencetl
the colli

inanedi^tely

we

arrived on topolThe

mountain

— 17 of
find-

the descent,

gladly leaving whirh

we

eat the

be««l

parl^\

and famished

rejj;ion (d'

snow be-

When

hind.

The mountain was

extreusely ^feej) ing ntiy

men returned without we pas^.;)L;e over the rucks,
our

sear-

and

difficult to

de^cend, and theonlv way ched
takinii; a

(or a place that
iri

was as smooth and

we

could comeariv speed was by
(iirecii'Dri,
llieii

p;raduai
ter

the descent as po-sible.and af-

zigzu^

first

diining
to th.e

alonji' Oiie

(jitt(if;j>-

one we brtught our l;wrses,and
roi)es
:i

gide and

turning

other,

until

by ia^teniIig

round them

let

tiiem

we
t>f

arrived at a ledge or precipice of lorka,
p'eat height, arul extending
eiglit or

down one
baggage

at

time without doing them a-

ten ny injuty.
all

Aiti-r

ue

got

our horses and

juiles

along the nuuintain

— where
In

v\e hai-

vmw

lise

rockn

we continued

ted

and sent men in each direciioii to as- our course dov\n tlie mountain, whiGi) still 'Vha certain if there was any pos'^ibiliiy of get- c<Mitir.ued \evy steep and difficult.
the
afler-

ling over this obslruetion.

circumstance of oue

ol

our

men

killing a

noon of the sauje day our men returned deer greatly cheered
without
tile

llie

languid spirits of
ove*."

Rncrmg any safe passage

thro' our
in

huntersjand after we got gafelv

rocks

— but one man had succeeded
on his back
in less

ibe rocks several ol the

men
it

started outoji

killing a small deer, which he

carrieil all
this

search of game, alihough
nioht.
'I'he

wus (hen near

the

way

to catnp

was

main body continued on
at

dowu

dressed, cooked and eat

time than until we arrive*!
wliere

>ome green oak
vvlui »!'iurn.ed

bushe-i,

a hungry wolf would devour a laiub.

we encau>ped

This was the
rabbit

tiist

game

larger

than a for our iiunters,

forihe night, to watt

soon afler

we had gust when wx-*
tlie

killed since

the 4th of

Au- dark well

pai(i

for

their

labour,

haxing

killed the last butt'doe near
lirst

kiUed two laige black
bear, autl
all

tsiled
fat

deer

ami a
good

Great Salt Lake, and the

we had black

very

and

in

meat was exh.tusfed, eating order. (being 14 days,) during which tin>e we liv- cheeilu! and
eat since our dried

This night we

paS'sed jdoi e

m
a

better heart than

anv we
wavJ

ed on stale and forbidden

horse fie-h.

[

had spent for

long

tin»e.

Our meat

was conscious that it was not such meat dressed and well cooked, and every mau as a dog would feast on, but we were di iv- felt in good older to partake ol it, In descending the mouniain this far we en to extremes and had either to do It was the most unwholesome have found but little snow, and began t<« this or die.
as well as the most unpleasant

food
I

I

ev- emeige into a

country which

had some,

cr eat or ever expect to

eat

— and
It

hope signs of vegetation
of

—having
oak

passed thro'
bu»hcs, &.c.

that no other person will ever be led to go through the same.

compel- several groves

green

seemeil to
rille,

The

principal
is

timl)er vshich

be the greatest cruelty to take your

cross,

fled- V>'(.od,
tiee.

we cameaWhite Cedar and
continue<!
at

when your horse
starvation, but

sinks to the ground from the

Balsom

We

down
better,

still

manifests a (le^ire and the side of the mountain
to shoot hitn in

our leisure, fin-

willingness to follow you,
the head and then cut

ding the timbei niucli

larger and

him up

^

lake such

game moic

ahuiHl.K.t

aad

liic

m''A

n^

j^^

r^Mtiie.
bt-T,

Here vveluuiid
large

jiiciil}' oi

()Ak

tun-

til

thfy hud

ininlc

^cvc^ul

unsuccessful

beaiing a

quaiitity vi

aconis,

/iuii!>-~;is t!ie

din. ijte and

soil is

about the

t!iuu<^h ol a

didercnt kirul

from

those tatoj).

same,
ty^

(lie

grass equally as ^oud and pletiaut! f.jrests as

kcti

from the hidian ou the njouiilain

and the praries
tiie

extea-

In the evening ol the SOlh

we anived

at

sive as tliose of

region

td'

the

Rocky
Great

the foot or base of this
J^pcnt

mountain

— havin";
quite

Mountains.

But none
is

of these
u\'

anitnals

almost

a tYiliilh in

ciossing over.
it is

A- have ever been lound west
Salt I^ake, which

the

lonp: the

base of this mountain

about

tliree

hundred

ron)antic

— the
is

toil

is

very productive

miles west

ol

the

summit

of the

Rocky

the timber

iiiuiien-;c'y large

and plenty, mountains.
bear

and

iiaiue,

such as
are

ilcvv, elk, ^riz'/dv

On
until

the loliowiu": nu^rninii

we

diiectcd

nnil antelopes

ren^arkubly plenty,

ou; course across or ratiier along the /ilain,

Froui the mnuntain out

(a (.he phiin, a dis-

we came

to a largo

river heading in
its

tance varying
t't!i)ber

Irom

ItMo 20
as
it

miles,

the

the juountaio and uenditig the plain.

way
othr-r

tlin,'Ugh

stanc

s

as llTu k
is

could grow,

This river presents muie wonany
stream
iorm-

and the land
loi.g the

well watered bv a iiuuiber derlul

curiosities than
its

of'suiali streauks rising licre

and

there a-

we

passeil.

bed lays very
ib

dei'j)

mountain.

In the la>t two dnys ing xf^vy high banks, even
trees of
th.e

smooth and

travelling

we have found some

level parts
is

ol"

the country; but wiiere there
is

Tlcd-woud species, incredibly large
oj

— some
18
fa-

rucks

its

appearance
of

beyond doubt
oihei'

which would measure Irom 16
at

to

Ihe

most remarkable

any

water

thum ibund the tiunk

the iieight

of a course.

Some

places the rocks aie pded
to

man's head from the ground.

up perpendicular
to-

such a

height that a
li;c

On Now,
ly

the Gist

we pursued our course

man

on top,

viewed from the bed of

wards the

plain in a

western diiection.— river, does not look larger
child.

than a small

that we had reached a country thickBikd wiih almost all kinds of game,
lon<I

Fiom
it is

the appearance of these pie-

cipices

not

exaggerating

to state that to half

our n:en and particularly those
liunting,

of they u.ay be found
a mile high
at
tiie

irom a quarter

were

in

line

spirits.

This day

— and

many

of them no wider

our company was
could hardly
<]y,
tell

much
w})ich

scattered, and

we

top than at the bottom.
its

Through such
with great
to

was

the

main bo- places the liver forces

way

as

th.c

men were

stretched
all

over a rapidly, tossing pitching^- foaming
a

such
to

large space of ground,

nioving vvitldn

degree that no Inilianhas the courage
to

each others hearing towards the plain. Af- attempt
ter a

navigate

it

with his

canoe.—

ved

at the

walk of about fifteen miles we arri- When the water passes through these narmargin ol the woods, where we rotvs it spreads out in a beautiful deep bay
to

concluded

spend

the

remaind.er of the as

if

to repose after

its

turbulent da&hing

day and night.
crcd together
quantity ol

When

our

men

all

gath- against
til it

the rocks immediately above, unit

it was astonishing to see the game which they had collected Our hunprincipally deer and bear. ters complained very much because there

reaches the next rapids, when

again

pitches forward.

This plain

is

well

wa-

lered and
a

is

quite productive, as

we found
and

large quantity ol

wild pumpkins

was nobuRaloe here
imals afford

as

killing these an-

wild oats.

the hunter

such fine sport

;

This night
foil-iiwiih

it

was decided

that

wc should

and they would not believe any thing else

commence

trapping for furs and
as^

than that buflaloe inhabited this region un- u-idve this expedition

profitable as pos-


-^^

L
sible, Uty, as yet

J

we

liad

s^pent

much time
vvidiout

ilie

liclicst soil,

producing grass
antJ

in

abun-

and

loll,

and

lo>t

many

horses,

ddnce of
quality.

the

most delightfid

valuabl<*

realizing

any

profit

whatever

a!l!iough

every »nan expressed Iiimself fully compensated
for his labour,

These

prairie* are in

many
some
all

places swar*

ural curiosities
Accordlr);',- to

of which are which we had discovered, quite docile, particularly the males, on see-

by the many nat-

min;: with wild Horses,

the

arrangements made on ing our horses.

They
all

are

\cry

fat,

and
oi*

the evening previous,

we

all

the

nextmor- can be seen of
the riv-

colors,

from Spotted
in

ning commenced travelling
cr at a slow gate, 'carefully

down

white, to jet black;

and here, as

the

beaver signs,

examining for land of civili/.ation, ihey are the most beauand recruiting our horses, tiful and noble, as well as the most valua-

much need of, as we found ble of the whole brute creation. Since we left (he mountain we have seen much more injured in crossing the mountains than we had at first suppo- many signs cJ Indians, such as moccasin sed— many of them being sprained and tracks, and smoke rising from the prairies stiRened almost beyond recovery, and cer- in diffeient places, but as yet we had not
vvhich they had

them

to

be

tainly
lar<^e
ol

beyond present use.

We

laid

up

a

succeeded

in

getting in conipany with any,

supply of deer, elk, and bear meat,

At

this

season of 5he year,
is

when
fire

the grass

the best kind.

fattest of the

These animals are the kind I had ever eat. Here
such
a-

in these plains

dry,

if

a

should be

started

it

presentsa spectac'e truly g;rand
the flame
it

we found

a laige qtiantity of acorns,

— and

if

is

assisted with z favorw^ith

as those taken fiom thelndian.

These

able wind,

will

advance
to

guch speed

corns compose
wild animals
believe,

the principal
section,

food of the that the wild horses and'other animals are

in tliis

— the bear,
game
to
is

I

sometin?es puzzled

get out of

tlie

rOad,

solely subsists

upon them,
the

atid

and every thing looks overwhelmed

with

where acorns are scarce, poor and scarce.

both consternation.

We

continued travelling

down
be
in

the liver until the 7th ol

November,

The country

heie appears
to the

ma- ^vhen

we

arrived at five Indian huts, con-

ny respects similar

east side of the

taming 15 or 20 Indians male and female.

Kocky mountains.
smooth and
ies are

The

land

is

generally

When

they

first

beheld the approach of

level,

and the plains or praii- beings so niysleiicus as we were to them,

very extensive, stretching towards <hcy exhibited the most unbounded alarm

the setting sun as far as the eye can reach; and fear.

But

it

was not loDg

till

we

suc-

calming their terror, and conheading in this rugged mountain, running vincing them that they had no reason to parallel with each other thro' the plain, al- apprehend any daiager, by sliowing a wilof

whilst a

number

beautiful

rivers,

all

ceeded

in

,

so to the west, with their banks handsome- lingness to smoke, (this being the
Jy adorned with flourishing

first to-

timber of dif- ken of friendship with

all

Indians,) which

immediateOak, Kim, Mulbery, Hackberry, At- ly became reconciled, and we commender, Shoemack,&c. This grove of timber ced gatiiering all the information from Iheuj
pi-y,

ferent kinds, such as Blackwalnut, Hick- they at once understood and

may

be found along the river at any point, Miat our limited means would atlord each and generally extends about four milts in- being entirely ignorant of the others Ianto the plain. Between this grove of tim- guage, and the Indians being extremely
pi the

ber.and the forest extending from the foot awkward both in making and understandmountain, there is a level prairie of ing signs—which i^ the principal method 12

OS,

[

40

J

f)f

conversation \vilh

tlie

ilifferent tribe-, in
ti\a?)y

te«' tlie Iio!e i«

burnt iK'op enoup.h they

ex'-

(his region.

After reaking

efforts tinguisb
ivith

the

fire,

scrape out the coals and
a

togetsoine information

frcin

them

ashes, and have

tolerably well

shapecf

reference to the Big Water, white people, hopper.

When
is

tl)is is

done they get a long

beaver, &c., without receiving any furtiier stone which
satisfaction

rounded at one end, and

by way of answer
to

to

our in- put

tiie

acorns in and coinmence

mashing

quiries, than a grunt similar

to that of a

them

fine,

which

is easi'.y

done as they are

hog,

we concluded
for

them
M'hilst

further

trial.

spend the night with always previously diied bv tire or the sun, Towards night The meal thus made is tb.en taken out &
tlieir

passing through

camp, some mir'ed with water
a knife,

in a

basket

of our

men found two blankets and

vvater-tig!)t—-which Ihey broil by

made almost mak'ng

whicli convinced us at once that they had stones led hot and throwing them into the

some communication with white people, blske^ By When the blankets were held' up to them of mush with
Ihey pronounced
the
in tolerable distinctnes.-i,

this

process they

make

a kind

wliich any

hungry man would

be glad to satiate his appetite,

word

Spcfuish,

and

pointed to

the

These

Ii^dians also appear very delicate
to eating

west

— from which circumstance we

infer-

and feeble—which they attribute
ters

red that the Spanish settlement could not acorns.

To-day, whilst some of our hunfor

be far distant.

were searching
b'each',

beaver signs along

7'he next morning our Indian hosts bro't the river

they found the carcases of

some horses
of trading,
nisli

to the camp for the purpose four Indians, tvvo o( which were partly which were marked with a Spa- consumed by Grizzly bears. They ap-

brand.

After trading

for five of ihe

pearcd as

if

they had died natural death?,

we gave one and been laid there by (h.eit friends accofyard of scarlet cloth and two knives; we ding to their custom of disposing of the left these ludians and continued down the dead, as two of them were well wrapped river in search of beaver, which are very up in beaver skins. This day our course scarce. These Indians arc quite small, & lay through a large prairie covered with much darker than those of the buHaloe wild oats wliich at this season of theycar country, as well as more indolent &. sloth- when nothing but the stock remains, has ful. They generally run naked with the much the appearance of common oats.— exception of a few, who wear shields made This plain lays on the South side of the of some kind of skins. Their huts are river, to which we gave the name of Oat
best of their horse?, for which

composed
Their food
aiid of a

of

dry

polls or

logs set

upon Plain.

The

grizzly bear and wild horses
in

end, and their bedding consists of grass, appeared more numerous
is

the

country
f

composed principally

of horse through

which we

this

day passed, than

meat and acorns

— the latter are
this is

very large had ever before

good quality, which they manu- ning just before
as

known them. In the evesunset we came across the

lacture into a kind of mush.

Their melh- carcase of another Indian, which was also
foUowsi'lliinartly eaten by theuild beasts.
a fire up-

od of manufacturing

From
we

the

They go
on
it

to a large log
it

and build

numerous signs we were

led to the belief
werci

and burn

half or
is

two-thirds of the that the country through which

done by keeping the now travelling was thickly inhabited with log wet except about afoot in diameter, Indians,butnotwithstandingwe kept watcli where the fire is kept up until the hole is both night and day we were unable to dis-

way

through, which

(leep enough,

and of the proper shape. Af- cover any but those we had

l«tt

in

the

rnnininc;

ti<h'

could

iiabita(i«ms, allhon^ii

we fnul any (I their extreme end of (lie ^reaf wosf. we would sometimes next dajs we travelled very
looked as
i!

TIip (wn
witliout

f.-iiit,

C(tme across a

(rail

tliat

it

wbs mceiin^ with any
pes's.

thiiii:

to

impede our proour

traversed by hundretls at a lime.
so discovered so. ne ks
si;2;n<J

'W-e nl-

On

the nij;ht of the 12th

men

of wliite people,

were

a<rnin throw?)

uito

<;rpal

constcrna-

we would

occa&iofiaily

come across
if

tree or log

chopped with an axe as
hunters.

a tion by the singular appearat.ce ofihe headone vens. Soon alter dark the air appeared

by trappers and
the river.
is

At
is

this

place to be complefely thickened
lulling t(nvards the earth,
i?i

with meteors
nl"

from
as

two
tiie

to

three

hundred

some

which

yards wide^

coutitry

generally tvonid explode
i?e

the air

and

otiicrs Vv-ouM
frigiit-

level the water

moves gently forward, beclear anil
sm(j(»th.

dashed

to pieces
-^o

on the ground,

ing quite deep,
night

T!ds ening our horses

much

that

it

required

we encamped on the bank of the riv^ (h« tnnst active vigilance of the whole erina very beautiful situation. Snnii af- compnny (o keep them together. This was ter the men weht to rest and the camp had altogether a mvstei-y to some of the men became quieted, we were startled by a "ho probably had never before seen or
loud distant noise similar to that of thun(]er.

heard of anythini^

of

the kind, but after an

Whilst lying close

to the

;9-round

explanation from Capt. Walker, they were
pati-jfied that

this nv>;se cotdd be

distinctly heard lor a
of

no dafiger need be appreisenfalling
('f

ctmsiderable length
mission.
of our

time without inter-

ded from the
were termed.

the stars, as

thef

When itv/as at first observed sotne
as they
it

men were much alarmed,
wr»s

After travelling a
tnorriing
ter,

(ew mile?

the next

readily supposed

occasioned by an
to fear that
\\\o.

we

arrived at the hend of tide wath,..*

earthquake,and they began

we

which convinced us

the noise

wo

would

all

be swallowed up in

bnhe

earth: and

others judged

bowels had heaid a lew days previous was creaWe continued down it to be ted by the ocean.
Capf.
the river until wcariivcd at
it

the noise of a neighboring cataract.

tile

bay, where

Walker, however, suggested
^ible cause,

a riioreplau-

mingles

its

water with

the briny oceans

which allayed the fears of the The country here lays very low,

&

b)nk;4

inost tiujid.

He supposed

that the

noise

as

if it

was subject
found
beitu;

to

being overflowed,

origined by the Pacific rolling and dashing
lier

Here
to the

vve

dillicult travelling

owing
iu

boisterous

waves against the rocky

ground

wet and swampy,

shore.
the

Had any of us ever before been at the vicinity ol this bay we found a great coast, we v.'ould have readiW accoun- many Imjians, who were mostly occupied
l'"or

ted

the mysterious noise.

in fi-hing
of

— which are

very plenty. These
llien

The
end
ij{

idea of being within hearing
the

the

Indians appeared friendly enough, but
ence, whether they treated
that

Far every member
all

IFesi inspired
of our

the heart of they manifested a kittd of careless indifTer-

company
no time

with a pa-

us well or HI,
therefore con-

triol'C feeling for his country's honor,

and

we

did not like, and
ti)

we

were eager

to loose

until they

eluded

leave

this place

and make for
possible,

should behold what they had heard.
felt as if all

We

the main coast as soon

as


a

ant|

our previous hardships and

accordingly
tion

we

started in a southerndirec-

privations would be adequately comuensated, if

and

alter travelling a

day and
to

half
t^n

we would be spared
homes
of our
to saj that

to

return in

the broad
the 20th.

Pacific

burst forth

view

safety to the

kindred and

'i'he first

night

we encamped

hate

it

we had

stood upon the

quite close to the beach near a opting of

[ 4«-

J
it

tleVighllful

could
iMit

water. Tiie scenes vhich we now contemplate was quit« ciitil'ertroni those we had beheld ;uul dwelt a-

so calm as

uastliL' previous

evening;.—-

All

its

sleepinj^ ener<^ies
ih.e

weue lashed into

TurY, and

midst tor months back. Here was a smooth deep would

roll

mountain waves of the <ireat and dash against the shore,

unbroken sheet of" wafer stretche;! out far producing the most dealening sound. In. beyond the reach of the eye-— altngethev tl^e couvse of the day a detachtnent of our ditferent from nuju.Hains, rocks, snows ^' company was despatched to makediscovethe toilsome plains

we had

traversed.

Here
to

rics,
teil

who returned
had

in the

evening and

sta-

we
act

occasionally found the traces of white
an<! as the

that they

discovered

many

signs
to to
ai-

men,
feo

Indians

sliil

rppeared

of

while people,

whom

they supposed

strange,

we began

to

think that the be

Spaniards, but they vvere

unable

Spaniards had the Indians under complete come up with ihem.
subjection, and \hat they

This same party

could,

if

so dis-

so jound the carcase of a wha'e which

was

poged, set them on us and give us trouhle.
It

ninety feet

long

Ihe tusks

was therefore

thoui;ht

Uest to

Snd out pound*.
cu.l-

About noon

of the thi»-d

weighing 4d day ai-

the whereabouts ot ihe Spanian!?; and
livate their fiiendship.

The Indians
tliin'i-

here

we arrived liere, the attention of the company was diiected to an object which
ter

practice fishing
it

to a

great extent;
tliey

indeed
do.

could be dimly seen

at

a

distance

riding

seems

to

be

the only

on the vvater,which was immediately judged
to

They have many methodiofcatcnngthem

be a

ship,

but no one
it

knew

from.

— but the principle process
i^ave proper

is

by spearin"

vthenceit came, where
It

belotiged or where
curiosit} to
if

them with bones made sharp, and some g"Vng.
instruments of Spanish manufacture, in

was now our

know

'no>'e o( this

singular object and

possible

The

principal

which they are very expert.—- to attract iheir attention and bring them Accordingly we fastened two fish in the river we came to shore.
vyhite blankets together

fisheries, are

down, and which has the principal Indian shad and salmon. We did
out the

and hoisted them
This had the desiuntil

into the air on a pole.

not find

name

of

this

tribe,

or

red

effect.

It

was not long
ji)y

we could

whether they consider themselves distinct
from any other
lives
tribe.

tell that

the distance b^•twt•en

us was fast

Most
to

all

of the nathe last

diminishing, and cur be imagined
stripes
flag

and surprise may,
the broad
of the
in the

we met

with since
to

crossing
the

when wo
stars

belieid

mountain, seem
tion, as they

belong

were about the

same nasame colour
for a-

and bright

American
air at the

waiving majestically

some disand size— spoke the same language ny thing we could tJiscover to the contra- tance from the shore and the boats were ry, and all appeared equally ignorant and despatched to see what nation we belong«"ast head.

The

ship anchored

most of them entirely na- ed to, and what our business was. Their They have no particular place of astonishment was equally as great as ours ^ed. residence but claim the whole of the ccun- when they'ascertained thatwe were children
Oillatory try stretching from
the

—and

mountain

to

the of the

same nation

of themselves.

On

ma--

sea shore as their own.

In some parts the king this discovery, and a signal to that natives raise a small quantity of corn, ellect being given by the boats, the ship fipumpkins, melons, &c., the soil being so red several salutes of canon in honor of our

very strong and mellow, that
but
little

it

requires meeting, which

made

the welkin

ring.—
Boston^

labour to raise good crops.

On. further acquaintance
this ship(tne

we

ascertained
to

:;^lst.

This morning the ocean

wa? not

Lagoda)

to

belong

L ^^^ J

comaiundetl by Caj^t.

Baggshaw.

After co Hay, fonnei! by
nil

tl<e

river vvntch w&ite--

exchanging

civilities

by shakinj^ !iam!^

scended, which
iki^h river.

he calls

Two

L;uies,'*or
i^

rounJ, Capf. Bagi^shaw

stiongly iusisleel
(he

It is

about three-luiuths of
aftd is

on us going on

b;)aril

and paitiskingol

mile

v\i'iL'

ul its

moulh»

considered
oi

ships (are, stating; that he had a few ca'aks
of untapped Coneac.
tion that

a sale harbor
ves-aels;

for

almost any quantity

This was an invilaih.e

and within 60 or 70 miles South

refuse,

none of us had and accoidingly

least desire ta

of us is the

4.5

of us

went on
ar-

ish, tlie capital of this
is

town of Monterey, also Spanprovince, & whicU

board the La«o<.ia, leaving the
to

remaindei

called Upjiet- Calafoi nia.
tiiat

He

also in-

take care

ot the

camp, ^x.
B.,

When

formed us
St.

about 60 or 70 miles north

riving on the ship Capt.

had a table of

Francisco.and about 100 miles from

spread with the choicest of liquors
fair the ship

&

best
in;-

our present position was a Russian settle-

would

afllord,

which was

ment, which consists of about 150 families
in this

mediately surrounded with hungry Capt's. ^^ho settled

country a few years


in

Mates, Clerks, Sailors and greasy trappers ag" for the purpose of catching sea otler, after eating, the glass was passed around which ate of great value, on account of the
quick succession, first drinkingafter the quality of the
of brave
in the
far.

They

also

cultivate

fashion

Jack Tars, and

after-

the

ground

to a

considerable extent. Cap-

wards

something
ort'.er to

mountain style, mixed with tain Baggshaw went and examined the the manners of the natives. in carcass of the whale which our men had anr.use the sailors. found, and pronounced it to be the Sperm
of

oil ofvvhJch is of the most val and uable kind. He supposed it had been plunge a great deal as she lay at anchoi washed here when the sea was rough du* and consequently I was compelled to re- ring a storm, and was unable to m:;ke its

Alter we got on board, the sea became wliale, the
to pitch

very rough, causing the vessel

,

turn to shore from sea sickness.

The

ba-

lance remained and kept up the celebration until daylight the next snorning,

way back over the sand bars. we also learned soma further

From

hiui

particulars

they

all

returned to Unt', accompanied by ed us so

when concerning the mountain which had causmany hardships in crossing, parts
ticularly the

the ships

crew

to t^per

oft

on the

haider of which vva* visible from the ocean, par-

fare of the trapper atid hunter.

'I'he feast

snow covered peaks.
the coast
for a

This
it

on the vessel was

far superior to

anything he called

the

Calafornia mountain, as

we

could give them, although they appear- runs parallel with

great

ed perfectly satisfied with
they met with from us, as

the reception distance, commencinir at the
it

was

a long

Columbia

river,

mouth of the and extending along the
of

time since they had tasted any fresh meat, coast

to the

mouth

Red

river,

or

Gulf

or any thing but salted victuals; and theirs of Calafornia, forming a beautiful country

was
that

the first bread,

butter,

cheese, &c., from the sea shore to the base of the
tain,

mouna i\Usoil,

we had

seen for more than two years,

and extending north and south
of rich

After the feasting was at an end, Capt. (ance of ubout 6 or 700 miles

Baggshaw gave us a description
country
to

of

the vvell timbered

and abundantly watered by
in the

enable us to Iry our plans ac- iiaiumeiable small streams heading

cordingly.

He

said the nearest settlement

mountain and Hovving towaril the

Father

was

the town of St. Francisco, about forty of Waters.
of our present

miles north

encampment,

Most

of this vast

waste of teiiitory be-

iituatcd on the south side of the Francis- long^ to the Republic of the United States, 13

[.

so

J

What

a tlieme to

contemplate

iti»

settle-

eil

difficult,

menl and

civilization.

Will the jurisdic- out into the

we here concluded to plain, uiiere ue found

gtsik^
uiutli

government ever sue- belter walking, the country being quite ceed in civilizing the thousands of savages level, soil rich, and a lew Indians. Soma now roaming over these plains, and lier of these natives live well, as they cultivate hardy freeborn population here plant their pumpkins, bcatis, and some of them Indilion of the federal

liomes, build their townsjand cities^and say an corn

— they
thesQ

also raise an

abundance of

here shall the arts and sciences of civiliza- melons, which grow to an enormous size,
tion take root
in this

and

flourish? yes,here,
of the great

even But

all

Indians

still

seemed
2*2d

to

be

remote part

west be- very ignorant

an?l stupid,

fore

many

years, will these hills and val-

On

the evening
at

of the

November
hills

leys be greeted with the enlivening sound, v;e

encamped

some rough
tliis

near a
iherfe

of the

workman's hammer, and

the

merry small creek.

In

neighborlmod

But this is left are a great number of these hills, all ot undone by the government, and will only which are well covered with excellent be seen when too luU' lu wpply the reme- timber, and abounuitig with all kinds of
whistle of the plough-boy.
i\y.
«>n

'I1)e

Spaniaids

nm making

inroads

the

South

— ho

Rur^sians are encroach-

game except buHaloe. company had become

The most
nearly

of our

bare footed

ing with impuniiy
the North,

alutig the sea shore to for want of moccahins, as we had wore out and fuithei North east the Bri- every thing of the kind in travelling from ti^h are pushing their stations into the ve- the Rocky mountains and, as winter wa* ry heart of our territuiy, which, even at approacliing, and no one knowing vvl at

this day, wiore re?eu»b!e
resist
ii'.viis'Min,

military

than trading stations.

governn)ei!t should be vigilant.
assert her claim

we would meet with Our among the Spaniards, it was advised that She should we should tarry here and provide ourforts to kind of a reception

by

taking possession of selves with an ab'indant
possible

winter supply of

the whole territory as soon as
foj-

shoes.

Accordingly,

our

hunters

were

we have good reason

to

suppose

that despatclsed to scour these hills tor the purwill pose of getting hides to

the territory west of the
gon>e

numntain
to a

make moccasins^
In the

day be equally as important

na- &c,,

when we would

be at leisure.

tion as that on the east.

evening the hunters

all

returned to camp,

The nextday
dilion

Capt. Baggshawtook leave with the tongues of 93
of

deer and some of

of us and started out on his trading expe- the hides, and also

some wild

catlJe,

— appointing

Monterey

as the

point which are likewise very numerous.

They

brought the tongues in order to show the where we were to ineet in a few days. The next morning after the departure number each man had killed. The wild of the ship, we were all in readiness to cattle are very timerous, keeping hid pretstart lor

Monterey, the Capitol of the Pro-

ty

vince, which lays in a southern direction, are

much all day and feed at night. They much wilder than deer, elk, &c. Our
they

After travelling a few miles along the coast hunters brought
finding
it

very difficult

in

consequence

ot of the cattle

the wet,

swampy ground, we found
fish,

the quite fat beef,

some of the choice parts which was but it was much interior to
in

had killed,

carcase of another large
feet in length, with a

measuring 47 the meat of the buffaloe

of the

horn or sword pro- mountains.

These

cattle inoinne

Rocky much to

jecting t;om

its

nose 125 inches long.
still

As

rough and hilly parts of the country, owit

liavelling so near the water

continue ing,

is

supposed, to the Spaniards and

iii(]ia!i»

hui.tin^ liLMii wiieu

ioutnl

in

the

cy, inteinlin^ (o pM<»s
St.

lludiijiji

(he

town of

plains.
23cl. 'I'his

niornini^
the^^e

we

diif^cted

our
f^t

Juan or John svhich lay in the coursi^ we were going. Here we found tlie Irav<^liin<T

couise

aciM>ss

hills.

On

iirtivin^

injch ensief, as

we now had sume
on, aiihoujih th«j

the foot of the hills on the

Snuih side, we
bend,

kind of roads to

tra\(d

found one of (he liorns of these caltle which
measurerl 85 feet on the outside or

were

far

from being;

vvajj;on

roads

— runnincr
Tov\ards

through an extensive ptairie of rich AoiU
with here and there a lonely hut built near
of

and one

foot in

circumierence

at

the root

or thickest part.

This we supposed had some grove
ox.

timber or brook.
at St.

been the horn of an

These

cattle are

even:ng we arrived

Juan, which w«

much

larmier an<l

look better in their

wild

now loand

to

he a Spanish Miss^ionarj sta(tf

state than

when domesticated. Their horns
o(

tion for the establishment

th^

christian
the Indi-

particularly are niuch larger than those

religion U!.d civilization

among
it

our country

— but

this is

probably owing anv

to the Softness of the climate; as here there
is

Here Capt. Wa'ker deemed
to halt for a

prudent
ascer-

no winter vdv freezing weather.

We

few

ilayn, in

order

to

continned across the plain and arrive<i on
the banks of a small creek

tain the disposition of the people,
to

&

make

which empties further inquiries with respect
try, &c., lest

thecoun-

into the sea at the distance of 7 or 8 miles,

we

mi^^ht

be
in a
If

considered as

where we encamped
long after

for the

night.

Not

inttudors and treated

way

that

we

we had
it

halted,

Spa'iiards arrived at

was ei^ht would not much like. our canip,from whom to keep on peareiible
there
iards, at least no

was our desire
to

teim;? with tlieSpan-

we found

as diilicult to get information

one desireii
kind

give

thw
th.at

of any kind, as from most of the

Indians, least offence of any

— knowing

signs

make them understand Spaniards and Indians had quite a dilTerWe was unavailin^i and not one of our ent mode of carrying on a warfare. obtained privilege from the Priests to secompany understood a word of Spanish.
All our efforts to

They were
looked as
if

fine

portly looking

men, but

iect a

convenient place

lor grass,

wood,
breast
in

th?y had been cast from civd- water, &c., to pitch our encan'.pfncnt, and

iz.ed society as

long as
all

ourselves.

They
Mon-

imtnediately

commenced
to

erecting

a

reniained with us
24th. tercy

night.

work, with which
for

defend

ourselves

W"e

set out this

morning

case

we were

attacked by Indians or any-

accompanied by ihe Spaniards

as thing else that chose to molest us.

guides,

who

piloted us to

the house of a information

gained

here,

Capt.

From Walker

tiful

Mr. Gibroy, who had been a brave and du- thought it advisable to go no further into Tar in his younger days, when he their country, or the ifdiabited parts of it, had learned to speak a little English.— owing to the difficulty in getting pastura From this old man we gathered much use- for our horses and provisions for ourselves
ful

information as

t'D

the country, climate,

as there

is

no preparations

(sf

any kind

people, natives, &c.
to

Here we concluded made

remain for the nignt.

The
to give

old

man
the

showed every disposition
kindf/.

us

all

information he could, and treated us very

We

ascertained that

we were

accommodation of travellers; besides the expense of living would be much le&s to remain here where game waa plenty and grass good.^ To-day Capt. Walker, i;'*" getting a
for the

M

within 35 miles of Monterey. In the mor-

passport, which
to

is

nete5.sary for a stranger
frotii

ning

we

started in the direction of Munter-

have

in

passing

one ward or dis-

C
tiict to

52-

J
kiiKl

another,

and v.hitb muit be
in

re-

built of ihis

of brick.

Fur rafter*
shaped, and

nevvcd by the AlcuhJe or Squire

each

tkey use poles tolerably well

di!.tjict, took Ivvu men and started fur {or latliing they make use of poles of a Monterey, where he intended presenting smaller iize. The roofis generally comhimself to the Governor, and asking the posed ul a kind of cane grass which i»care-

ptrmis&ion of his

Excellency

to

pass the
infort}?

tuily laid on

the rafters and then covered

winter in his settlenjents, and to

with earth; lor which purpose Ihev generally

him where we
tensions, &g.
St.

v\ere fioni, our business, in-

have the roof nearly
built of

fiat

in

ortler to

hold the earth.

But the church, or prinis

Juan

or St.

John
a

is

beautifully &itu-

cipal building,

handsoine biick^
with

ated on the

banks of

small creek

in

a

and

is vvell

finished,

being covered

20 miles from the tiie. For the instruction of tliese Indiana coast and about the same distance from there is four hours of each day devoted to Monterey, containing frouj i,ixto seven hull- education and prayer, and the balance of dred inliabitants all of whom are Indi- the day is occupied in teaching them iht*
rich level plain, about

ans, with the excej)tion o( the Friests and

rudiments
cal arts.

o( agriciilture

and the mechani-

IJ or 20 people,

who

are occupied in teain the

The

females are carefully in-

ching and instructing these heathens

structed in the art of sewing, and otherac-

ways of religion and them instructions in
rendering the
&oil

truth; besides giving

complishments

ol

housewifeiy.

Every

the art of farming and

tiling in this station, is

under the control

&

productive—^wilh

the

management

of the

Priests,

who

exercist*

hope that they

will

eventually succeed in
ot the

the authority of Governor, Judge, 4*Cm beto try

inculcating into the minds

savages ing privileged
v^Mll

and condemn

all cri-

such a knowledge of agriculture as
red

minal acts.

greatlj conduce to the amelioration of the

Oa

the first evening

we

spent

in

our

man's condition.
be found

are simple in
as

Their habitations new encampment, we wer« shown the man^ construction mostly such ntir in which the Spaniards take wild cat-

may

in

the wildest parts of the

tic,

whicii vvas quite

a different

practice

But those of the Missionary from that used by the Iridiansof ihe Rocky Neve-r establishment are quite different, & plain- niountains in taking buSaloe, &c. ly show the superiority of (he white man It*^;^ than two goes at a tinje, who are aU.
mountains.
over the indian, both as regards comfort
re-

ways on
eucii

the back of their fleetest

horses.,

and convenience.

This station much

provided with a
li'iv'd

strong cord

with

a,

sembles a fott orgarrison. The part which nuose
ii

on itne end.

When

the aniri-

called the Church, forms one side or end.

in;.!
tlt.'r

is

started they give
the

chase and the

The

other three sides are divided into difcells,

that overtakes
its

game
tight.

first,

throws

ferent departments like

each cell the noose round
covers
gin^ to
is

neck or horns, and be-

sheltering so

many

Indians, and

draw

the noose
to

When

ilie

near half an acre of ground, with the door noose
of each cell opening to the inside.

found

be

secure he gives the

These cord

several winds

round the pummel of
is

buildings are the same as

if

they were un-

the saddle, (which

made

strong for
all

thi^i

der one roof, with the exception of a gate
at each corner of the squareT^'^The build-

purpose) and stops his horse

of a sud-

den, which throws the animal to the ground

injs are CO
pal part of

acted ot brick, the
in

princi-

and frequently breuks
animal
is

its

neck.

If

the

which are dried

the sun.

thrown without injury, the otiwith his

The

walls are built thick and strong

when

er hunter cornea forward

nuose

i:

53

]

and fastens it round iU lund foot, which Governor, as he was lully capable offuU enables them to manage Ihe stoniest and filling such an office. With the Governmost ferocious
bulls.

Having thus captu
them home

or,

Capt.

Walker succeeded

in

every

thinj;

red their object of pursuit, they somelimes he desired, having obtained

permission to

have great trouble
live.

in getting

a-

remain

in the

country during tho approa(o

The one

with the cord round the an- ching winter,
uhile he

hunt and

kill

as

much

imals head goes before

with the ganib as would support our company, and

cord fastened
rear.

to the hitid foot

stays

m

the

to trade as

much

with the Spaniards as

we

If their prisoner

becomes relracto- pleased, but were torbid

trapping in the

man in the Indian lands or trading with the natives, commences vvhippmg, while he in fiont The Spaniards manifest a warm friendship uses many devices tj provoke the brute, for ihe Indians under their jurisdiction, as until it in a fit of rage makes at him, when those who were friendly towards us were
ry and refuses to advance, the
rear

he puts

otT at fnll

speed,

run two or three miles
stopping.
large

in this

and sometimes constantly remiiRling us of the danger way without wronging the Indians,
of

of

In this manner they brought a handsome cow into our camp this

Mere we lemained until about the 18lh December, without anything occurring
visits

evening which we^ purchased, and
to

found

except the daily

we

received

from
about

be good beef.

the Spaniards and Indians,
no'->s to

who werecuand
all

Aithough they exhibit a great degree of
tlextetity in taking these wild beasts,their

know how we
however,

lived,

«?•

'i'i^ey

only found

that

we

mode

of

killing

them

is

far different.—

lived like they did

themselves, any more

When
make

they want to butcher their beef they than they lived inhabitations built of vvcod. the horse with the noose round the b'*'^^' mortar, &c. while we lived in huts

neck pull a different way
with the noose round

the foot,

from the one made of skins of animals. About this time until the Capt. Walker proposed tome to take a

animal is thrown on the ground, when they tramp through the settlements for the purdismount and cut its throat with large pose of taking a view of the country, and the manners and customs of the inhabitknives.
I'his was precisely what I had long do mo^t of their work ants. want wood they been wanting. Accordingly, Capt. W., repair to the forest, ride along ualil they two others and myself left the camp and find a log to suit them, when they drop steered to the south-east, intending to retheir noose round the end of it,- and thus turn through Monterey. The country thro'

They appear

to

on horse-back.

If they

drag

it

to their

homes.

They

are very ex- which
it

we passed contained

rich

soil, tol-

be other- erably well timbered, but thinly inhabited are constantly riding & ncv- with a tew Spaniards and Indians, who apwise, for they er appear so well satisfied as when they pearea to live there because they were not permitted to live any other place. These are seated on a prancing steed.
pert on horseback, nor could

^

On

the

first

of December. Capt. \Valkfee

people, generally, are very ignorant

and

er returned from Monterey, where

had

much more indolent
genuity
selve?
is

met with a hospitable reception by the Governor and principal people in and about the Capitol, and where he also again met with Capt. Baggshaw, who served as an interpreter for Capt. Walker anil the
11

—and

— have
in

little or

no inthera-

only seem to enjoy
the chase.

when engaged

This

the only occupation

of the

wealthier

portion of Spaniards.

Their habitations

are built of sun-diied brick, some of which

L ^^ J

nppear well enough on the oiit8ido,but the ground
inside sliows no kind fifnieciianistn

is

moist.

AnotJier raetlioil.no les^
is to

— there

being no

floor, jDnrtition,

or

tvoik of

get a crooked log-, any much the shape of a sled-runner, fix a

novel, however,

kind except the bare walls.
are

Their

floors piece of iron in front

which answers

for a

made smooth by taking a large beetle and hammering the surface of the ground
until
it

coulter, then sharpening the log they

a furrow similar to the track of a

make sled. As

becomes perfectly
of having a

level

— thus

tliey

a substitute tor a harrow, they use a brush,

never

fail

solid

foundation!

and by laying

a

weight on

it,

some times

They have
ly a little

a small fire-place in one corner scratch the giound in tolerable style. This

of the house, with a

above the mantle.

chimney extending on- manner of tilling the soil could not be done Their beds with such success in any other country

and bedding generally consists of blankets v^here the ^^oil is less mellow and tender spread upon a large hide layed on the than here. These people have no fences round their ground, and after rising in the morning
these beds are
rolled

up

in

one corner,

cleared or cultivated land^

although they

where they ansu-er the pnrpose of seats raise an immense amount of stock, such as through the day time*. Their diet is gen- horses, mules and horned eatlle allot erally eomposed oi beat:s and meat made which range at large over these extensive

into a kind of soup, with but little bread,

prairies all seasons of the

year^

many

be-

Most
all

of them are entirely destitute of cookit

ing utensils, and, were

provided with knjves,

manner totally wild, so much so, not that they are that when they wish to milk a cow, they their manner of mount one of tlieir coarsers and noose Uer,
ing in a
to a
is

cooking and eating would be equally as fasten the cord
inconvenient as the wildest savages of the feet, when she

tree,

and then
country

tie

her

forced to be quiet.
this
I

Duhave
or a

it

Rocky mountains. But the wealthy, who, ring our whole stay in may be supposed, constitute the aristoc- never seen any thing
this

like

a stable

racy of

country, appear to liveatcaife,
ail

barn, as

shelter for the

dumb

brutes

surrounded with
with the

the comforts of

life,

nor did

I

ever see any one feeding an anit

are entirely independent and unconnected

imal, unless
that
all

common

people.

They

carry on
in

was

sick.

was a favourite cow or horse This, however, is not at

farming to a considerable extent
districts, the principal

some
is

singular as any

number of animals could
all

labour of which

subsist,

and be

in

good order
plains,

seasons of

done by the Indians from the missionary the year, on these
station.

asm many spots

The

principal

productions are

the grass

is

green the
of

whole year round,
to

wheat, corn, and beans.

They
is

also have

The months
as
it is

August, September and
animals,

many
drink.

vine-yards, and manufacture a large

October are the least enticing
the

quantity of
for grain
el

wine— which

their principal

Their mode of preparing the soil the year. is of an awkward and rather nov- beasts inhabiting the dry prairies and hills, nature. When they want to plough, repair to the low wet ground, where they
can get enough to subsist upon until the

warmest and driest season of As soon as August sets in the

they repair to the woods and get a sappling with a knot or branch jutting out on

dry season passes away.

The

rainy sea-

one
or

side,

Tiiore

which they make sharp.hitch two son commences generally in the latter part teams ol oxen to it and then pro- of October, and continues until the first

cecd to score out the ground
generally done in wet weather,

— which
when

is

and sometimes middle
the weather

of
fair

January,

When

the

becomes

and the farmers

[

5.>

]

sow

their grain, ^uc;h
(!)is

^.s

wheat

anil

rye.

MerchamUze

Is

soUl

at a great

advance^

During

wet vvea(her the animals grow particularly silks, jewelry and groceries, i'at, and the inhabitants employ the prihciThe principal part of their hides are pal part of this time in catching and do- sold to U. S. vessels tiading on the coast,
inesticating them.
eraify lasts about
jfirst

This

fair

weather genuntil the

When
for the

a trading vessel anchors on the coast

two months, or
the rain

purpose of trading,

the

news

is

of March,

wheti

again de- spread over the whole country
fire.

like wild

scends and continues until about the middie of June

The owners

of cattle,

who are

of the

— the grain,
(M

however, grows
It

<5'

wealthier class,

collect

together

all

the

ripens during

wet weather.

then

poorer Spaniards and Indians lor the pur-

a m(Uith or so until the far- pose of eatching and butchering the catmers gather their crops which occupies tie, in order to get their hides. This is the about a month, when the warm weather commencement of their sporting season,

kceps dry for

sets in; destroying

a/1

kinds of vegetation,

They
ses,

are

all

mounted on

their fleetest hor-

giving but a poor subsistance to the

dumb
the
first

and on these occasions the hunters go
with a noose and
or lance,

brutes, and to the country the appearance in pairs, one provided

of an

unproductive climate.

About

the other with a spear

which

is

end of the dry season (say about the
of November) the
face of nature in

used

in cutting the
it is

sinews of the animals
noosed, which causes

this

hind legs after
it

country has more tke appearance of spring
in the

to fall to

the ground, after which

they
strip

United States than any other part
is

of

are easily despatched.
off the

After

they

the year, and, as there

no winter nor
said that
is

hides andt ake out the tallow, and

freezing weather here

it

may be

August, September and October,
as, at the

their

sometimes the choice part of the meat, the remainder of the carcase is left on the

only winter, (to substitute ii^arm for cold) ground to be devoured by the wolves.

The

end of

this period the face

ofna- hides are then stretched out on the ground,

ture assumes a nevv dress and

vegetation
that
frost

and the tallow moulded into large cakes*

shoots forth precisely in the
it

does

in

manner Pennsylvania when the
is

As
all

a compensation

for

their labour,

the

butchers, or hunters, receive one third of
the tallow they can collect.
is

leaves the ground in the Spring of the year,

When the

The dry

season

occupied

by the inhab- vessel
into larj^c

about leaving the coast, the hides

itants in gathering

the mules

and tallow which has been collected, is conto the beach,

droves and driving them
at

off to the

market veyed

Santa Fee, a distance of 12 or
country.

1400 sold

at

§1 50

a piece,

where the hides are and the tallow at
is

miles from this part of the coast,
a wild and desert

through 4 cents per pound.

Here they

The
is

greater part of this cargo
at

paid for

meet with ready
from the traders
to Santa

sale at a
of

profitable price in

merchandize

high prices, but which

Missouri,

who

repair

as valuable here as
useful.

money

itself,

and

Fee annually

for that

purpose,

much more

A

vessel loaded with

These traders are generally well supplied hides and tallow from this coast is of the with merchandize which they exchange at greatest value, and has afforded an easy Santa Fee for gold and silver, and with path to wealth for many ©f the American
these Calafornian traders
for

Spanish hides.

The

price of a

mules and merchants. mule at After travelling leisurely along fhrougii
$10.

Santa Fee

is

generally from C to

their country,

which

still

continued thinly
tsvo'

inhabited by these people, and passing

[
5»mall

^6

]

mis»ionai7 establishments,

we

arri-

ions of

New

Mexico.
o!

Vessels saifing a-

vcd

at a 8mal!

town called

St.

Hose, or long the coast

the Pacific to the noith,

10 miles south ofMor)- all &top here to take in supplies, as it is where we arrived on the 25th of the last w'.iite settlement thej pass, until December. This is also a missionary sta- they reach the Russian doiuinruns of the
St. Joseph, about

tercj,

tion,

and the largest ofany we had yet en- North-West
This
sJa-

;

but as the inhabitants raise

countered, contaming about 900 Indians, no grain only
principally from the mountains.
tion
is

what

is

used for
is

home con-

sumption; the

mariner

only enabled to

constructed and managed similar

that of St. Juan, except the church,
is

to supply his vessel with meat and water -— which Besides theadvantage the agriculturalist

much

larger,

and

built

witlv^a greater

might derive

by supplying vessels with

display of the arts of civilization.

we remained
time
in

for

Here provisions, he might be enabled to cai ry two days, employing our on a large exporting business— as the soil
climate
is

watching the proceedings of tUese and

every calculated

to raise

Indians in their devotional exercises.

The

large crops of grain.

Another prominent-

manoeuvres

of those who have been lately advantage the town of St. Joseph would converted to the christian religion (being have, is the facility of internal communiof the Catholic faith,) is something very cation with the Indians now inhabiting the

singular, as they at one

moment

manifest prairies and mountains

of the interior,

or

the most

unbounded transports

of joy,

and

the white race, who,

it

may

reasonably be

the next throw themselves into the greatest expected, will have undisputed dominion

paroxysm of weeping and

lamentatioti.

over

this entire
it is

region before long.

We
of

then continued our journej and soon
is

As

at present,

arrived at Monterey, which town

built here'of considerable

there are some men wcaUh, the principal
tra-

on a beautiful situation on the south side part of which they have acquired by

Monterey Bay this Bay being formed dirg with vessels different kinds of pelby Kings river. This is the Capitol of Up- tries, such as Spanish hides, tallow, beaper, or North Calafornia, and under the ver, sea-otter, bear, deer and elk skins, government of New Mexico. Tha town and also horses and mules. There is also is small containing only about 30 or 40 a brisk trade carried on in this place with dwelling houses, one church, one calaboose the Sandwich Inlands, about nine days
a part of which
tice, or io
is

used

as a house of jus- sail from

this port,

—and

which might be

other words, a court hou8e,whcve rendered

quite

lucrative.

The most

of

the Governor transacts his public business, the vessels, however that put into this bay

and
used

a kind of a fort, built in a

commandin case

are on fiihing expeditions.

The Sperm
this

ing situation on the edge of the bay, to be whale are very
in the

numerous

in

part of

defence of the town

an the Pacific ocean

— the

oil

of which affords

attack should be

made upon

it

from the a profitable reward

to all

who embark

in

sea, containing several pieces of artillery, this

dangerous and toilsome business.
the 29th

This bay

is

very deep, affording an ex-

On

some of our men arrived

in

cellent harbo** for any numbet^ of vessels. St. Joseph, with a portion of the peltries

The tQwn

has

that a seaport could

every natural advantage we had collected whilst crossing the moundesire; and if a pro- tains, and which we exchanged with Capt.

per spirit of enterprize prevailed
the inhabitants,
ish
it

among Baggshaw

for

merchandise,
to

such as gro-

might be made

to flour- ceries

and ammunition
to

equal to any other town in the domin- our return

do us whilst on Missouri the next summer.

^

[

57 J
campnienl,wl)cre we arrived without meetdifficully; finding everything
all

After conciutliiig our trade with

Captaui

Baggshaw, and spending
the expiring year on land,

the iast

day of ing with any

by

invitation, to celebrate

we all resolved in good New-Vearsday named
the

order, and
Piiillps,

well except one mr^n

on board the liagoda,

wilii

Governor precarious

who was layino; in a very state from wounds inflicted by

and Capt. Baggshavv. The day was spent a bear. It appeared that Philips had been quite merrily, and the whole company out hunting deer, and having killed one,
manifested the best possible huraor, each
took out the insides and
tree,

bung

it

upon a
ahorse

one contributing
telling

to

keep up the sport by

and started

to ti^e

camp

to get

faring

some mountain adventure or sea- to bring it home. After travelling a mile exploit. In the evening we ended or so, whilst ascending a liill, came sudthe celebration by leturning on shore and denly upon an old bear and two cubs.—
rifies

taking a few rounds wiih our

— which
in
tell-

The
is

bear immediately on
their

seeing

Philips,

terminated by conclusively convincing the as
sailors that if they could

custom, reared on her
close,

hitid feet,

beat us

and being very

commenced growlThis our hero could

ing *Mong yarns,-'

we were more
.

than a ing most furiously.

match

them with the rifle. not brook, and feaiing the consequences morning of t'ae 2d of January if he should shoot and wound her, lost his 1834, Capt. Baggshaw insisted on us a- presence of mind, and started to run.— gain visiting his vessel, for the pujpose of The bear immediately pursued and caught
for

On

the

taking a glass,

vviiich

we

gladly accepted, him.
ail

He now

found

it

quite useless to atlife

and

after shaking

hands
the

round, and af- tempt to get loose, and only saved his
with our by sinking to the ground
to

fectionately

bidding

farewell

and affecting
left

to

friends on board

vessel, returned

be dead.

The

bear then

him, but not

land
his

in

company with

the Governor, when
a gra-

without wounding him to such a degree that
it

Excellency offered our Captain

was

a long time before

he

could collect
feet^
It

tuity of a tract of land seven miles square strength
if

enough

to

raise

to his

composed was late at niglit when he reached the of difi'erent kinds of mechanicks, and set- camp; and was so far gone, from hungq^r &. Capt Walker was well pleas- loss of bbod, that his life was despaired tie on it. One of his arms was broke & ed with the country, and said he had a of at first. great mind to accept the Governor's oiler, his body most shockingly cut and manghe would bring 50 families,
as he had no doubt he could in a few years led.

On our way from the Capitol to our emass a fortune, and be at the head of a rich and flourishing settlement; but his camp, we had an opportunity of witnesslove for the laws and free institutioiiS of ing a part of the Spanish mode of gambling
the United States, and his hatred for those in this

country,
to us,

which was

rr.re

amusebull-baI

of the Spanish Government, deterred him

ment
ting.

and which they
this

call

from accepting the Governor's benevolent
offer

It is in

fashion, as near as

— and we bid

farewell to the Govern- could

understand:

When

a

number

of

or and hij people, well
reception

pleased with

the sporting genl^emen get together

for this
all

mounted and prepared for the chase. left St. Joseph and returned with When they come across a herd of cattle our merchandize, consisting principally they make large bets on who shall b© tlj«
well

met with We now

we had thus far every where among the Spaniards.

purpose, they

repair to the prAines,

of groceries, ammunition, &c.,

to

our en-

first to

noose one

of

the cattle in the drove

15

[
in siglit.
this far,

68 J

When
they
al!

every thing

is

artanfyed person

who

has never seen any sport of

t!iis

take an even start.

The

kind.

After the boar finds himself eecure
worried, he

one that gets the rope round the
horn or neck
first

aninrials

and has become pretty well
the
lets the

claims the assistance of seats liimself sullenly on

ground and

the rest to throw the animal to the

ground

horse pull at the cord, stretching

— which ends the chase
art of

lor this time.

As
in a

h's leg out until the pain

the Spaniards are generally

skilled in the

vere,

when he

will

becomes too sedraw up his leg, horse
ease as a

throwing the noose, the chase

and

all, v;ilh

as

much apparent

I have been told depends on the horse would a sleigh. Heetness of the horses. When they have that some of the largest bears have been secured a bull in this way, they take him known to drag two horses a considerable

case of this kind mostly

to a

pen made strong for this purpose, where they put him in for safe-keeping, and settle the bets. Having got through with this gamc^ to give the loosers an op-

distance In a

fit

of rage, in spite of

all

the

exertions of the horses and riders to the

contrary.

After the bear

is

pretty well
is fas-

worried

in this

way, another noose
will

portunity to rfgain their losses, they start tened rqund one of the fore feet or neck,
out on the hunt of a giizzly bear,
prefering the
in the

always when the bear

commenve
and

beating the

largest,

which they capture ground with

his feet

manifesting the

same way. Taking a bear is a much most intense rage and anger imaginable more dangerous piece of work, than any and in this manner they drag, whip and other animal, owing to their enormous coax him along ^o the pen where the bull
strength.
It often

happens

that, in taking is confined.
if

a bear, they are unhorsed; when,
tliey

alone.

Their cords are made of green cow-hide,

imminent danger of being tore which they cut into narrow strips, hang to pieces; but this seldom happens unless them in the sun and rubthem^as they dry, the horse is thrown, or the saddle lore making them soft and pliable, when they loose. In taking a bear, their object is to are platted into a rope which no weight
are in
ijoose

him round one

of

the hind biting
to

legs, in

can sever.

order to keep him from

the cord.

When

the bear has arrived at the
bets on

bull
all

which they are very apt
the neck.
tie

do

if fast

round pen,
lit-

their

taking him

and

A

single hunter

can do but

disputes are settled,

refreshments taken,
for

with a large bear, and they are seldom and preparations
single handed, or

made
the

another scene,

attacked

without the which

is

by

far

most pleasing to
begin
to

certainty of assistance from

some

of their the

Spaniards.

They
stick,

enrage

comrades.

When

overtaken by the fore- the bull by pricking him'with a nail fixed

most

rider, the bear stops

running
will then

&

pre- in the

end of a
to the

and

when

his

anger
is

pares for war.

This man

engage has rose
itjto

war

pitch,

the bear

let

the attention of the bear

by teasing him,

the pen with the bull.

The men now
will

whilst another hunter will

come up
is

in the bet all they are

worth on which

be the

rear of the excited animaJ and

noose him conquerer, and every thing manifests the
securely greatest possible excitement.

by the hind foot;when the covd
fastened to the hind foot,

Sometimes

he

is

generally the animals refuse to fight until they are

considered safe.
begins
in

It is then that their sport forced to it by being tormented with the good earnest, and the feats that sharpened sticks, but when one receives a are sometimes performed by the men, bear blow from the other, nothing can part them

and horses, would be incredible

to

any

until

one or the other

falls.

These

fights

[

59

]

Irtst

sometimes half

ail iu)iir

uilhout relaxthe

the bull
let

became master and
pen.

the bear

ation.

The

bear

is

much

strongest,
tiie

out

ol the

Tlie battle

was was very
with so

but

it

has no chanceof avoiding
of

tiuusts

closely contested,

and

I

never seen anifiji^ht

of the bull, in consequence

the smallfield,

mals so much enraged, and

ness of the

pen; but

in

an ope<i
in

a

much
its

fierceness.

The
hiu),

bear could

master

gri'/zly bear will

conquer a bull

a few-

the bull for a good

S})ell,

when

it

could get

moments.

arms around

but the large body of

When
animal
settled.
is

the fight

is

over the conquered

the bull would prevent any serious injury,

taken out and the bets are again
If
it is

and presently the bear
a

would be shaken

the bear that

is

uhipt,the to the ground, when the bull

would
with
that

have
el-

game is continued and the bets renewed on some person who will offer to go into
the pen with the enraged bull, lay his

chance
It

to

plunge
in
tills

at

him

feet.

was

manner

the bull

hand

managed

to get the

advantage

of bruin.

on some part of

body and escape un- After (he bear was taken out, the compaThis is by far the most danger- ny commenced betting on an old timetouched. ous part of the whole p'ay, and many ives worn Spaniard who offered to go into the
his

have been
but

lost at

it;

but so

fond are the
in

pen and touch the enraged animal.
short titne
all

In'a

Spaniards of gambling, that
is of

play a

life

the
th'^

preliminaries were arthe

little
all

consequence.

When

the

ranged, and

man entered

pen

in

bets are

arranged, the adventurerstands the

manner

as

described above, but un-

at the door of the
his
in

pen w'nh his blanket in fortunately, when he went to pull hisblanand the company is occupied ket oil" the animals head and como out, one maddening the bull, when he has be- of the beasts horns was thrust quite thro'
hand,

come sufiiciently enraged the hero steps his thigh. As soon as this happened, the in, when the bull will make a desperate Spaniards commenced plagueing the bull
plunge
at

him with

his

horns, which

the

at the

opposite side

of the

pen and the

man

escapes by throwing the blanket over wounJcd

the face of the bull and blinding him

— he

in

then claps his hand on the designated spot,

man vvas su'lered to crawl out the best manner he could, There arc also many other methods of

snatches the blanket off his horns
his escape.

If he gets out without the bull

striking him, he has

won

the

makes gambling practised by these people, and vice of every description seems to beopenstakes for all ly countenanced in some parts of the set^'

those

who

bet on

him

— which
on
all

will

be a

tlements, such as horse
ing,
is

racin>i;,

card play-

profitable business lor him, as he

receives

and evcnstealing. The

lattci of

which

a certain

per centage

the

money

carried on to

a considerable extent
is

by

thus won.
It

both vnale and female, and

even recog-

to be played

happened that one ofthese games was nized, under some circumstances, as one While we were in the neigh- of the established customs of the country,
being iivvited to attend

borhood, and on

The men

a.e always provided with dirks,
skill,

Capt. Walker, several others, and myself which they can use with superior

concluded on going

to see the

performance.

We

remained

at

our old

encampment
with any and on the

When
^red,

we reached

the

ground the Span- near
to set

St.

Juan, without meeting

iards had the bull and the bear both secu- thing to disturb our situation,

and were just going
Presently

them
got

to

most friendly intercourse with both Span-

fighting.

the animals

to iards

and ludians,

until

last

night,

when
and

blows, and continued for a short time, when

six of (tur

best horses

were stolen,

[

(K)

J
it

vvliich

we

at first

supposed lo be the work Capt. Walker thought
had heretofore trusted pUin Tor us
t«)

wouUl be the best
with

of Indians.

We

pack up and leave the neighto avoii!^ a difficulty

ever3' thing in the fiderny of both the

Span- borhood,

in

order

when our horses a people of a ferocious and wicked nature, bad been thus taken from us we began to at a time tvo, when we were not very well keep a sharp look out. In the morning prepared to contend against such an ene(10th) several scouting parties were des- my in their own country. Accordingly
iards and Indians,

but

patched on search of the stolen property,

we

set

about purchasing provision, and the

and returned

in the

evening with only one, next day

ve were

pretty well

supplied

after following the trail far into the
ish settlement,

Span- with
but the

flour, corn,

beans, &c.

which convinced us imnie-

ISth. This

morning every

thing

wa3
in

diately that

it

was not

the Indians

prepared and we took up our march

an

Spaniaids who had behaved so dishonora- eastern direction.
ble.

We only

travelled 12
for the

In the

following morning Captain

v)r

15 miles

this

day and encamped

Walker went
ring what steps

himself to one
fo;-

of the Al-

caldes or F2squires

the purpose ofenqui-

which we spent without the occurrence of any thing ot importance more than
rjigh^

had best be taken tore-

the recalling to

mind

ot

the

scenes en-

store our stolen property, or

how we could countered and hardships endured by each
an interview
of us in our

be recompensed.

On having

way- faring

to this

remote cor-

with the magistrate he learned a good ma-

nerof the world.

ny things more than he had formerly known The t^vo following days we continued —which was this, that Spaniards, whilst without interruption in the same direction, travelling through the country with a poor and encamped on the banks of a beautiful horse, was atfliberty to take a good one if stream called Sulphur river, where we
he could fiad
longed
to,

sue!),

no matter who

it

be-

concluded

to

remain

until

in the

Spring,

or

whether wild or tame, and

when

it

would be more pleasant travelling
to ihe
is

continue his journey.

And

also, if

two eastward
the

Uocky mountains.
handsome

Our
riv-

men

set

down

to

play at

cards, and

encampment

beautifully located on a ri-

looser thinks that his opponent has cheat-

sing piece of ground, with a
er gliding smoothly
front,

ed or defrauded him, he
visit his horses

is

at

liberty to
to

alowg immediately in

and help himself
if

such

an extensive oat plain stretching out

as he can, but

the act,

it

owner catches him in as far as the eye will reach to the rear, and generally ends in bloodshed.— and is about 40 miles east of St. Juan.—
the
a

For

this

and other reasons,
in

Spaniard

is

The banks
fully

of this river are

most delight-

never seen away from home without his
rope or cord,

shaded with timber, principally oak

he stands

in

need

The soil in the plain is veryorder to noose any thing and elm. strong and deep, producing heavy ciops ot of.
is

Stealing horses

practised more

than

wild oats and grass— affording excellent
pasture for
year.
horses,
at this

any other kind

ot theft,

and

it is

not recto

season of the

ogni^cd as a crime, owing, probably,
the cheapness of these

animals— as they
for

can be bought at any time

from one to necessary

ten dollars. Those costing SI are
fillies,

we had made every arrangement to our comforl while we remaihere, our men commenced hunting in unbroke ned
After

bear, elk and deer being very are first rate hor- good style webet:ame aware plenty, and the fattest we had anywhere On the 20th, it being a fine that such was the practice of the country, met with.

and those

for

$10

SGS well tamed.

When

[
4lay for

(51

]

hunting,
get

a

large

poitlon of
tho

our time.

lo
iiad

ilie

evening, as sonie ofuur

men

sportsmen

vui

early in

morning who

been out hunting, were returning

bound
middle

for a general hunt,

to rake the

uhole prauie.
day, two of

ol the

sight of a large

drove

ot

iu)me, they accidentally came across a Towards the large bear laying in a hofp, sound asleep, ihe men came in Our men were anxious to see &ome sport, elk, (ceding in and commenced making a noise, and even

and determined

the open prairie,

and as they

were cauto s^hoot,

tired a

gun

or

two without bringing her

to

tiously approaching near

enough

her sensci, and getting her out yf the hole,

they unexpectedly came upon five grizv^ly

bear that were
(-Id

They then dismounted, stationed themgrass—^two selves around the hole and shot her before ones and thnie cubs; the latttr began she moved. On examination, they found
j^lt'eping in the
txj

to

howl most piteously, which enraged the her

be

ol

the grizzly specie=i and of the
also having

old ones, and they

made
in

at our

hunters largest size; and
in the hole

two young
than

with open

moulii.

Iiut as

one of them ones
such
matters, a
ball,

with her, not larger
cat.

was an old practitioner
having
a

common

sized
fat,

The

old oae

was

good gun, carryingan ounce

extremely

and from

the signs about

\^hich he caWeil ''Knock- him
fjuite

the hole, it appeared tl ai t«he must have sf[l/^,^^ &{nO(i composed (bidding his companion, had this as a permanent place ofresidence. who was about to run, to stand hisground) It is the first instance I ever knew of tauntil the bear can'.e

within reach
it

of him

king

a

bear of

this size whilst asleep,

uhen he
her

discliarged

with the muzzle in

28ih.

gave tivcd at This inspired the party of other hunter with courage, and he treated St. Juan Missionary station, ar.d taken with which we supthe other bear in nearly the same manner, them 300 head of horses
as our hero said,

mouth— wiiich,

her a very bad cough.

To-day a pai ty of Spaniards arour encampment on search of a Indians who had eloped from^the

The cubs

not

showmg any

desire to depart

posed

to

be the party seen

by

us on

the

alone, were also killed.

This days hunt -Gth.
all

1 hese men stayed with us

all night'

was exceedingly lucky,
two men, but
as they
all

not only to these and the next
wiio were out, joined

morning same
in

of

our

to

nearly

the Spaniards

the chase,

men who

returned with heavy loads of were to get one half of the horses as a compcnsation for
tlieir

game.

trouble,

if

lucky enough

On

the 25th Capt.
Vv'ith

Montercy
for us

eight

Walker men for

strrted

to

<o find

them. Thes;e

men

followed the In-

the purpose dians to the footofalarge mountain,

where

of laying in a

larger supply of provision
east, in

they discovered several smokes rising out
the

on our journey to the

the of the forest along the base of

mounthe

spring, as

we began
with

to

reflect that

we

tain.

In

a

thicket of limber, from

might

companies smoke that arose, they thought the whole on the road who would need assistance. Indian force was concentrated, and the
fall in

so!»ie

other

26th.

To day

about 10 o'clock,

we

dis-

Spanish and

American
a severe
all
tlie

force

surroupdcd
to

covered a large drove of horses passing the spot
through ihe plain, followed by a few pco- the
pic,

in battle array,

determined
preparations

give
at

offenders

chastisement

whom we

supposed

to be

Spaniards once.
to

When

were

or Indians

— but

they did

not appear

made, the word

to

fire

was given.

Rut

know that we were in the neighborhood. & we were not anxious to let them know it for (car they might travd our wav ^ome
16

instead of the lamentations ol

wounded Insilence an-

dians, and the Irantic prancing of frighten-

ed

lioisc;,

nothing but

a

dead


-

pwered

the t'.isciiarge

of Ibeir

aidllery,—
into
tlie

sent! another (lelacli(«enf,
is to

wliosc dutv

it

They

then dismnuntetl and

went

do likewise.

T!iey prefer eating do-

thicket,

where they found

a

large portion

tnesticated horses because the act of steal

of their horses well butchered, and partly

ing them gives their

flesh

a

superior
trouble

fla-

dried and a few old and

feeble Indians,

vour

— and
is

it

would be

less
if

for

with some squaws and children.
dians having
killed
in

The

In-

them

to catcli wild horses,

they

could

some of

the horses,

thus gratify their stealing propensities.

were engaged

drying the meat,

— but on
to the

There

supposed

to

be about ten Indi-

seeing the white

men

approach, fled

ans to one wlvite man, or Spaniard, in this

mountain, leaving nothing beijind but what country.
is

The

population

is

divided or clas-

above stated.

The disappointment

of sed into three degrees.
or Spaniards.

1st.

The

whites

now exceeded all bounds, and gave our men some evidence of the
the Spaniards

2nd.

The

Indiana;

& third

the offspring nl a white and an

Indian.—

depravity of the Spanish character.

By The

seasons are distinguished only as wet

way

ot

revenge, after they found that there and rfny— there
in

being no snow and very
only established religion
Catholic faith, which

was no use

following the Indians into
fell to

little frost.
is

The

the mountain, the Spaniards

mas-

that of the

Roman

ftacreing, indiscriiTiinatsly, those

helpless

is

professed by almost every Spaniard,

creatures

who were found

in the

wigwams
ea»'S.

To-day Capt. Walker returned from the
settlements well supplied with

with the meat, an<l cutting

oft their

such

arti-

Some

them weie driven intoa wigwam, eles as he was in need of— bringing with when the door was bariicaded, and a large him 100 horses, 47 cow cattle, and 30 or quantity of combustible mat'.er thrown on 35 dogs, together with some flour, corn,
of

and around the hut, for the purpose of set- beans, &c., suitable for ©ur subsistance in ting fire to it, and burning them all togeth- the long journey, for which every man was
er.

This barbarous treatment our men now busily engaged
re- tions.

in

making preparaCaptain
this expedition,

would not permit and they went and
leased the prisoners,
fell

Two or

three days after

when

the Spaniarc's

Walker returned from

we

work and despatched Ihem as if were visited by 40 or 50 Spaniards, all they were dogs. When this tragedy was weU mounted, and each man prepared with
to

completed

they

all

returned to our en- a noose, on their

way

into

the neighborthe purpose
o\

campment on

the 31sl.

hood of wild

horses, fcr

On

their arrival at our

iards told

me

that
to

their

camp, the Span- catching some. In this company we found object in taking one of the horses which had been stolen
left

off the ears,

was

show the Priests and from us before ue
every
ef!brt

the settlement.

Alcaldes, that they had used
to

regam

the stolen property.

These peocoming
in

The Spaniards honorably gave him up after we proved our claim. As the maaner
tome, I was anxious to see the and accordingly several others and myself joined the Spaniards and accompariosity

pie also informed
this

me

that

the

Indians of of taking wild horses was altogether a cu-

country are

in the habit of

large droves to the missionary

stations, 4* sport,

make

the most sincere professions of re-

ligion, until

they gain

the confidence
will

o!

nied them.

After travelling a short disat a large pen, enclosing

the priests,

when they
ofi'all

suddenly de- tance we arrived
call a

camp, and take
get, to the

the horses they can about three-fourths of an acre,

which they

mountain,

where they remain

park or correll.

This penis built

as long as their meat lasts

— when they will

quite strong, to prevent horses from brea-

king

ihi'ougli.

Altaiued

(o

(his pea. ;ite

'I'heici' uriolht-r w.tr nl^ c'-.tchina
horst"?,

tiio^e

two wings extemlino;
in the

lo tlie right

and

lefl,

which

i?<thi^:

They

are noosodj

shnpe of a V, upwards of a
ill

tuiio &.

thrown

to the ^^round, partly

blind-folded

a iialt

length.

The wings

are

made by and
iiird

saddled, wiieu some adventurous Ppanwill fuount

posts being set in the ground an(( poles tied
to

on ins back,

let

thelioise

them with

a piece of elk or

horse Idde,

rise to his feet,

and
he

if

he becomes

unmanand run
to
is

about

f(>ur feet

high-— the neck Rr pen be- age'ible, they give him the whip,
higher and stronger.
if
it

ing built

much

This the brute
his fee*

until

is

no longer able
after

keep
gen-

pen appears as
purpose

had been used

for this

under him,

which he

many

years.

Alter we halted erally suOiciently docile.
repairing

here, the Spaniards were occupi^'d during
the remainder of
l!ie

day

in

weak

parts of the pen
all

the moi ning

and hands proceeded

On the l2th we returned to our camp, some when Capt. Walker traded with iheSpanwings, and in iards for several of (liese horse? and in

to drive

the evening they bid us farewell and con-

in the horses,

which was done by sending tinued their homeward journey,

out parties

in difrerent directions,

mountin

ed upon the swiftest hoiscsin order tooat- pointed run the wild ones and turn them
of the pen, wlien the
(ront
|y

Feb. 14th. This mo-ning had been apfor our departure, and according-

every thing requisite

for

our

comfort

men all collect in a was in readiness, and we Ia7.ily left our breast and drive them down into the penj camp for the e;!st—^leaving six of our comwhich answers tlie same purpose as a bas- pany behind, all of whom are tradesn^en^
ket does a fish-dam. are
all in

When
is

the animals such as carpenteis, hatters, &c.

where iheV

the pen< a fence

erected across f)urposed following theiroccupations, which

the neck to prevent the escape of
ses.

any hor-

will

no doubt be profitable
(»l

to

themselves^

The men

will

then dismount and

and

great advantage to the indolent and

pass along close to the pen for the purpose stupid Spaniard.
of accustoming the horses to

ThR

price of furniture

the smell of here

is

exceedingly high.

A

rough table

human

beings.

When
to

this

is

done, four (more like a bench,)
lU'wn boards nailed

consisting of rough
together, will
paii

or five will enter the pen, leaving the bal-

cost

8

ance on the outside

prevent them from and 10 dollars.

A

of

simitar

made

breaking out, and with their cords noo?c bedsteads the same. Two of our men con^ and tie all under two or three years old. structed a wind-mill which they sold for
After securing 70 or SO
over this age
are considered too
in tliis

manner,

all

were turned
hard to

out,

— as

they tions

^HO. Al! kinds command a
is

of mechanical

produc<

corresponding price.
to the

tame.

They This

partly

owing

inconvenience

& ol getting out the stuff there being no tame horses, saw-mills in the country, the carpenter is and they followed the same as a dog. It is compelled to cut out his stufl by hand;and
then blind-folded those they had taken

turned them loose with the

settlements,

way they always get them into the as there ara very few tools in the country, where they are divided to it requires great labour to manufacture a each man, who brands ai\d hobbles them, piece of work with any kind of taste. The parting scene between the company and then turns them loose upon the prairAfter they have been confined in this and these six men appeared the mostmelie. siluation two or three days, they are con- ancholy separation we had undeigor»e
in this

sidered domesticated, their fetters taken since
off,

and treated similar

to the other horS'?s. sions,

we teft the States. On other occawhen we had separated vvi'h a por

[
liOii

<^i

J
ac({uaiiiU.''J

of our i)un(e:?,
ot

it

was with
a<i;.:«in.

(lie

coiuj-

wcl

I

uiih

l!io

ati

of

iioo^inji-,

dent bone

meeting
witU

men remained
making
try,
a

Rut ihete uoultl tatch and br'm^ togelher our horsea the delennination of at atiy liiue (!.t>y would become separated,
cuuti-

permanent residencein the

About the

CTili

we

arrived at the

t>aae

and neveragain returning

to tlie states;

of the Calatornia

mountain, having

past
lifidr

whilst the most ot ui vvere as detpiniinedly bent on never again returtung to t!>isre-

many

Indians on our way, and also

ing mariy here.
Oi» the

gion— hence we

parted as

if

we were

for-

2301 wc conlinued our
along
ilie

journey

ever afterwards to be ieparateJ by woi Ids. to the

^Jouth

base of

the inoun-

On shaking hands with these men, viih whom I had been in daily intercourse for
the last eighteen months,
it

tain in search o! pasture tor
a

our cattle and

convenient
is

pass ovei- the mountain.

appeared more Here game

very scarce,

owing

to

the
a-

like parting with brothers, than
eise,

any thing numerous swarms of Indians scattered
long
to
in c\{^vy direction.
o(

On

the second of

Our company was now reduced
men, 315 horses
beef,

52 March we killed one

our beef.

Pursu-

— and
a

for

provisions, 47 ed our course,
a consid- finding

still in a

southern direction
Indians plenvegetation of
to

and dO dogs, together with
other

game

rather scarce,

eiable portion of Hour, Indian corn, beans, <y, pasture imj)roving, ami

gome groceries and
naces^ary on

iiiw

articles cveiy description beginning

grow rap-

such an

expeditmn.
in

We

idly
til

— weather showery with warm sun, un70
huts, containing fioin

continued up Sulphur River
direction, and for the
first

an

easterrj

the lOth of

night encarnpe'l 60 or

March, when we arrived at 250 to 300

this stream, after trav- Indians. These Indians appear quite difmore than 12 or 15 mi'es. ferent from thos^ more convenient to the 15th. Continued ourjourney upSuIphur Spanish settlements, and call themselves tiver, passing through a fine country, most Pagans, their chiet Capetaine, and have ol which is prairie, covered plentifully names for several tilings nearly the same with wild oats and grass. Their wives they call wifa, After we had as we have. encamped this evening, two Spaniards kettle, wood, and meat the feame as we came to our camp bringing with then? 25 do. These people seem to live poor, and

on the South side of

plling not

very

fine horses, which they sold company, and engaged themselves

to

the are equally as indolent as any of those

we

to ac-

had met with

in

the

Spanish dominions,

company us

to the buffaloe

country.

They They

are generally small in stature,

com-

jnformed us that they had deserted
the Spanish army,, and that as
it

from plexion quite dark, and some quite hairy, was the Whilst here we killed another of our beef,
to the

second time,if taken now, according
Spanish military discipline,

and made a present of some of the beef, to-

their punish- gether with a

dog and some

tobacco, to

ment would be

certain death.
travelling from
all

these Indians.

Their principal diet duthe year, consists of
is

We

continued

day

to

ring this sea?on of
roots

day, the country

the
soil

way being

of the

and weeds, amongst which
all

parsly,

most enticing nature,
ance.
<>f

very strong,tim- auil a kind of cabbage,
eat raw.
cipally

of

which they

ber tolerably plenty, and

game in abundThe two Spaniards we found to be
as

In the

summer

they subsist prin-

great advantage to us,

some

of our so

upon acorns,at least a person would judge to see the number of holes that
the.

horses caused us great trouble, and one of aie burnt into
the Spaniards being an excellent rider and

logs for

th? purpose of

ma%hing them.


[

«5 ]
Tliis tiihe

When wc
diaiis^ their

were about leaving these In- Spanish settlement.
chiel
!jfou2,ht

are well

a hear(y

atxl acquaiiitetl with the rules of barte.ing lor

good-looking

younji;

jema/e to our Captain goods or any
her in

thing thev

wish to

buy

and proposed
an ox.

to give

exchange
prudetitly

Capt.

Walker very

dined

the otTei, tellini; the chief that
to travel,

much more so than any oMicr tribe we met They make ivgular vi^i[s to suc!« de- vvilh. we posts where tliey are unknown, and also
lor

had a great distance
probably be without
^^ c

and would niake appointments with sliip-traders to meet half (he lime, meet at «ome designated tiir.e and place;
quite comfortably thus they are enabled
to

travelled

along

carry

on a

consii!!

meeting with no

unu^^al occirrence.
still

The
con

siderable degree
retain several of
pilfered from
th.e

of

conunerce.

TUvy

country thr(uigh whiih we passed
tinned as charming as
coul(] de^iie.
ineroust,

(he

images which they

the heart

of

man
-

churcii

— ihe greater part
of
the chiefs.

The

IniJians

were quile nu

of which

is

the propeity


of

seme

of v\hom

nifest the

most

would at times maunbounded alarm. We strong,

'il.ese pe(>j)le are

kcvcu or eight
arc

hundred

their houses

constructed

also

passed

a great
of the

number of streams
'I'he

poles and covcreil vvilh grass, a^d aretol-

flowing out

uiountain, and stretch- erably well suoplieil
Pacific.

wiih house-hold fur-

ing afar towards
ios

tl.e

prair- niture which they broug'it witli

them

at tlie

were most beautifully decorated with time they robbed (lie church, 'i'hey folflowers and vegetation, interspersed with low agricultural pursuits to some extent, sj)lendid groves of timber along the banks raising very good crops of corn, pumj)All the out-door laof the rivers giving a most romantic op- kins, melons, &c.

l)eara!ice to the

whole face of nature.
Indian

hour

is

done by

ih^'

females.

They

are

We

at

length arrived at an

vil- also in ihe habit

of

making regular
kill

visits

lage, the inhabitants of

which seemed

to to the

settlements (or the purpose of steal-

be greatly alarmed on seeing us, and they irg horses, which they

and

eat.

immediately commenced gathering up
food and gatheiing
in their

their

We

passed one night

vvilh

tliese

Indi-

horses

— but

as ans, during which time

they informed us

soon as they discovered that
people, they

we were white of an accessible passage over the mountain, became perfectly reconciled. In the morning we resumed our journey, Alter we halted here we found that these hiiing two of these Indiarjs as pilots, to go
the Spanish
ol

people could talk

language, with us acrciss
all

tiio

mountain

continued
in

which we thought might be
tage to the conipany, and

great advan-

day without any interiuption, and
at

on inquiry as- the evening encamped
In the morning
in

the foot

ol

the

certained that they were a tribe called the passover.

Concoas, which

tribe
in

some eight
the

oi

ten

we continued up
at the

the

years since lesidcd

Spanish settle- mountain

an eastern direction, and en-

ments

at the

missionary station

near St. camped this evening

lower end of
the

Barbara, on the coast, where they rebelled the snow.
against the authority of the

The next day we found

country, rob- snow more plenty, and encamped without

bed the church

of all its

golden

images

&

grass of any kind.

We

candle-sticks, ami

one of the

Priests of prehend hard tiuies again.

now began to apOuihorsesno
in the

several thousand dollars in

gold and si- longer resume*! their march

morn"

ver,when they retreated

to the spot

we found them—being
hundred miles distant
17

at least

five

where ings with a playful cheerfulness, but wouhl or six stumble along and go just when their- rider>i
<lo so.

fto,n

Ihe

nearpst would force them to

We

contin-


[ (Kl ]
111(1

(lavellinf; in
lantictl

(!;is

way

lot

(vuv

days of

liiis

(Caialui

iii.i)

inr.unlaln,

we crossed
towards
t!ie

uhcn we
siile

safely on

the

opposite
cli-

many
east,

small liver^

ilovving

of the mountain, in a

teoDperato

but emptying- into

lakes scatteied

mate, and among tolerable pasture, which through the plain, or
latter

desert,

where

the

was equally a« gratifying was
to the

to

our hor- water sinks and

is

exhausted

in the earth. to the

ses as the former

men. H

This plain extends from here

Rocky

We
horse,
an,

here

made our

pilots

presents of a mountains, being an almost uninterrupted

some tobacco, and
to the
left

many

Intling level, the surface of which

is

covered with

trmkets captivating

eye of an Tndi- dry, loose sand.
return to
their

when they

us to

In this
gitig

manner we

travelled along,pas-

friends.

such scenes as are described above,

Our
fed.

hordes and cattle wore pretty

much

until at length

we

arrived at

some springs
boiling, or

latigued, but not as

much

as

we

anlicipais

which presented a really remarkable appearance, and

The country on
biing
tiiin

this

side

much

may

be

called

i.iferior to I'nat
^o\\

on the opposite side

the

more properly Steam Springs,
the banks of a small river. are

situated

and

la'.'icr

sandy, produ- near the base of the mountain,

on or near

cing but

little

gras^, wlsich

was very

dis-

These springs
rise

'.M)urr.ging to

nur stock, as they
of strong feed.

in <!;rcat waJit

now stood On the op2;>*owinfr
it

three in

number, and

within a

short

distance of each other,

one being

r,osite ^ude

vegetation

had been
this side,

much
over a

larger than the other two.
if it

The wapiece of

fur several

weeks—on

hasnot

ter constantly boils as
fire,

was
if

in a kettle

started yet.

and

is

so hot that

a

we travel- n^eat is put under the water at the founled a ffw^ n)iles and encamped at some tain-head, it will cook in a few minutes, beautiful springs, where we concluded to emitting a strong sulphurous smell
Alter discharging our pilots

ppcnd the remainder of the day,
to give

in

order the water alsotastes of sulphur. In a clear

our horses and

cattle

rest.

Our morning
as
it

the steam

or

smoke

rising

from

Capt. here concluded on following the base these springs
of the

may
the

be seen a great distance
air

mountain
to

to the north

come

our

trad

untd we would when crossing to the

hangs

in

over the springs,

similar to a dense sheet of fog.

There

is

west, or Calafornia.

not a spear of vegetation growing

within

May
ful

2r*d.

This morning we resumed several rods of the spot, and the surface

our journey, every

man
to

possessed

of

doubt- of the ground presents the appeavance of
of crust, or hard

apprehensions as

the result of this one solid piece

baked
in

<letermination, as the hardships which

we mud.
ma-

When

the

water empties
water,
it

and

encountered
casion,

in this

region on a former oc- mixes with the river
in the

leaves an

were yet fresh

mmds

of

oily substance floating on the surface sim-

ny

of us.

The country we found
continued through

to be ve- ilar to tar or

greace of any kind,

ry poor, and
grass.

almost entiiely destitute of
this

About

the 25th of

May, we

again con-

We

poor tinned

our journey,

but our difliculties

country travelling a few miles every day, had been multiplying for sometime, until
or asfaras the

weakened

st&te of our

brutes would admit of.

dumb now we found them quite formidable. The weather was The principal part of our present difRculbeautiful, but ties arose from the scarcity of pasture lor

mostly«clear and otherwise

we

liad quite

a

cold wind

most

all

the our horses and

cattle.

After

travelling

time.

'5'raveHing along the

eastern base the best

way we

could, for a few days to-

L

67

J

wards

tliu

Xoctli,

'vVi'

aiiiviMi

;it

liMolluM'

jikmi
'iIi'k

(o ji't'ijaie lor Iravin;^ (iu- ni ruiilali!.*
al^i^ pi()\

bcaulilu! ^ariiv
in'.^

})l;i!n,

ordoseil,

sttelch-

ed lo bo

thv

ii'>ull

c.l'

imsiyi-

out to \he 'Mst far

bevofd

thr

learhof

iiiatioii

only.
iioxl morsiin;,^ oiir

the pye, as lovid as ibo
of a inke.

beciiUncd surface
liie tra-

The
tiie

Captain, fhinkini;
i\c-

Wt^ occasianally fonml
as yet,

desert not very wide at this point,
stiikin<j;

ccs of

Iii(li;ins,4)ut

we have

jw)tbeen

cidcd on

across
wou!<l

in a

norih-easterii

able to gain an auiliance with any ofthem,
as tliey Ree to the r.-sountaiti as soon as

dirodiun,

v\irich
il

shuitenoiu
op.ly

route

we considerably,
cessful as
to

we could

be so sucot"

npproach.

Game

bcinj:!;

verv very

scarce, and
indiil'orent

sucnjoiint the

diificulties

our cattle poor,
livins;.

;];ive6

us

travidling liuough hjose s;uid, without water, (us the stiennis

dcscendif g
all

from the

Our
been

direct course,

after reachinrr

tliC

moutitain into the plain

sink.)

eastern base of this mountain, would have
a north-east direction,
fo!-

but

.'ipprehensive of peiish.injr

Ow the IGiii of May, evei-y thijig newe were cessury for our dry tramp bein^ in leadiVv'ater in cros- nes«, we starti'd across the plaifi, v\hicli
wo!i!d

sing this extensive

desert

— which
it

was

d'jne with a

willif!;;

heart by
ail

aljoost
i];et

doubtless be the fate ofar)y

tiaveiler
is

who

ev(!ry
h.ouse,

man,

a?

we wvMe

anxious to

would undertake
ed that
it

it,

when
this

recollect-

extends Irom the

ba'^e

and had been travelling many disV:^ of the witliout getfinj,:; any nearer. The t'^avela dislin;; in

llocky mountains to

mountain,

the plain, alter passing
streatns,

thetermin-

tance of several hundred mdes.
ing the ca^-e

This be- ation of the
loose,

we were

obliged to ()aas along treinely

laboriou.-^.
tlse

we iound to be exThe sand lays quite
would blow whilst
cattle

the base ot the mountain in a noithern direction, until vvt

and as

witid

would Arrive

at the point driving our horses
tlse

and

ahead of

us,

where we ascended the mountain when going to the coast, and then follow the

saiul v/ould be raised u\) in

such clouds

that we could scai-cely see th.em, which Rocky moun- was very painfuj to our eyes. The nrst tains, or Great Salt Lake, where we ex- night in the plain we ejv.nmped at a Iar»e peeted to meet the company we had lelt liole or well dug deep in the ground, wiiich Travelling along the we supposed to be the vvork of Indian?, at the latter place. mountain foot, crossing one stream after and in which we found a sniall portion of another, was any thing but pleasant. Day stagnant wafer, but not half enough to after day we travelled in the hope each slake the thirst of our numerous herd. The next morning we resumed our toilday of arriving at the df^sired point when we would strike oil in a homeward <!!- some march at an early hour, finding our Every now and then some of stock suHeiinggreally for the uar.t of vvarection. This <lny we travelled witti as inucli the company would see a high peak or pro- ter.

same

trai'

east toivnrds

l!ie

montory, wiiich he
by the company on

would think was seen speed as possible,
a

vvi\h the

hope of finding
;

former occasion, but water whereat
to
it

to

encamp

but at lengtli

when we would draw near

our pleas- night arrived, and

the fatigues of the

dav

ing anticipations would be turned ititode- obliged us to

encamp without water, wood

spondency; and at one time, about the or gras:*. The tlay had been excessively middle of May, our Captain wa« so certain warm, except when the wind would blow,
that he could see a point in the distance,
a

and
fot

in the

afternoon two of our dcigs died
water.

which he bad distinctly mrirked as
on our former tramp, thai

guide

want

of

On
of

examination
of our

wa

he ordered the found that the fcct

many

djimb

y

[

^8

J

brutes were
saiiii.\*
'

completely ciippkd

'

Uy
'

the

Ni)thing hiippciicd
iind

ihrough

liie

iii^ht,

'

we inuved
tlioiighi;

carelessly along our trail, as

Oui- situation
critical.

at

present 'seemed
iT;"<pect

vei

we

but our

(eelin<i;s

cannot be
signs of our

A

dull,

gloomy

appeared

ilescribed at dayliglif

when no
every

to

darken ihe countenance
of the coiiipan}''.

oi

every

mem-

lormer tracks could be discoveied.

Men
any
ti-

be.'

W'e were now comthe

were despatched
all

it)

direction on

pletely surrounded with

vating perplexities

— having
its

most a^gra- search, but
travelled two

retuiiicd

wiilujut

dings with which

to co'ufort

our despond-

long day's journey into the plain and
idea

no ing company.

Tlie compass told wliich
go,

d-

how

far

yet to

termination,
ot

and

icction

we sheuid

but otherwii-e

we
this

from the manifestations

maisv of our

we/e coa'plefeiy bewildered.
tattle

Our

horses,

most valuable stock, we were well convinced they could not endure these h.ird.ships

and dogs were almC'St exhausted

"Hjiriing.
dog'ij

The

pitiful

lamentations

(d

our

much

longer.

To

-dild

vexation

to

were sufficient
'^''>^'

to

melt

the

hardest

our present
tion took

difficulties, a violent

alterca-

'^^^'f^"^'

tlumb bruies sutiered more

between the men a? to whether we would proceed in our present
place
RUijority of the

water

tlian ioui\,

and these dog^, vvhen
them, would ap-

<^lealh

threatened
the

to seize

direction, or turn back to the

mountain.— proach
in

A

men weie

favour

ot

^'^^^

^^''^'^

men, look them right in the *^ig countenances of a dis^lracted

be ailorded, it no help cuuld Walker, who never done any thing by halves, with. a few oth- would comtnence a piteous and lamentaWhen erg, were of the opisnon that ive were half ^'^ Uow\, drop down and expire. way acro&?, and could as easily proceed as the day became warm we blackened our
the latter, but Capt.

person, and

return.
nier

On

all

such

disjiutes,

on

all for-

pace, and tnoved slowly forward, but with-

occasions,

the majority decided on

out any hope of n^eeting

with any

water

what steps should be taken: but when our at least for a day longer. When night Captain was in the minority, and being be- came we halted for a short lime in order loved by the whole company, and being a to collect the men and annuals together,

who was seldom niistaken in any W'»i^'» ^^'^'e scattered in every direction thing he undertook, the men were very re- ^^^'-^ "^''^ in width, lest we should get sepluctant in going contrary to his will. The "'a^^-^S at night, as we intended to travel dispute created much conlusion in our «n without ceasing until we would find
njan also

ranks; but fortunately, about niidnight the

^'''^^^^' o»" «'''»^'e

at the

mountain.

Captain yielded

to the

wishes of his men,

^Vhen our furces collected together, we

and as

it

was

cool,

ling than in the

At and more pleasant trav- presented a really forlorn spectacle. day time, we started back no time, either while crossing the Rocky
to follow

towards the mountain, intending
the
at

or Calafornia mountains, did our situation

same

trail, in

which we
Previous

had to keep our order to come to the.hole appear so desperate. tlu«»b bruies constantly moving about on encamped on the first night
their feet, for
it

We

in the plain.

if they would once lay down would be impossible to get them up aoft' our dead cattle a kind of gain, and we would then be compelled to Nor were the men in a much moccasin for such of our beasts as were leave them. It is true, we had food, condition. lame, which wc found to be of great ad- belter but our thirst far exceeded any defecripvantage, as it feftectually shielded their

to starting,

wc took and made

the hides

fcet

from the scourin;:

effects of

the sand.

tion.

At

last

it

became

so intense,

that

[

w

]

whenever one of our
«lie

cattle or horses
\

would

bfuiidrfil

on the east by
t!)e

(he.

Rocky m')un

the

men would
our

nediateiy catch the tains, on
it

west by the C;ilafornia tnoun-

blood and greedily swallow

down.

tain,

on tbe Norlh by the Columbia river,

When

men had

collected tog;ether,

and on the south by the lied, or Cylorado
river.

and rested

their wearied limbs a liti!e,our (hat t'.iecat-

These two mighty

rivers rise in the

jouiney wa? resumed, finding
tie

Rocky mountains adjacent
am! as the former flows
the latter
in a
in

toeacli
a

other,

and horses travelled

much

better

at

N. \V.

and
{'orms

night than in daylio-ht.

We advanced rap-

southern direction,

idly this evening without any interruption,
until

this plain in the

shape of the letter

A.—

about midnight, wh.?n our horses be- There are numerous suiall rivers rising in

came ur«nanageab!e, and contrary to our ut- ei her mountain, winflins their way far mo&t exertions would g;o in a more northern towards (.he centre ot the plain, where
direction than
ineffectual
thotij^ht

we
it

desired.
to

After several they are emptied into lakes or reservoirs,
in the

attempts

check them, we awd the water sinks
enou;^h
to the

sand.
is

Further

perhaps

would be well

North where the sand

notsodeep

to follow

wherever they would lead. We and loose, the streams risinj; in the spurs bad not followed our horses far until we of the Rocky ana those descending from
flow on
until
in

discovered, to our indescribable joy, that the Calalornia ,mountain^,
the instinct of our horses was far

more exall

their waters at lengdi

mingle together

tensive and more
foresight
ot

valuable

than

the

the

same

lakes.

the men, as

we, unawares,

The

Calafo.nia mountain extends from
to

came suddenly upon
fresh water.

a beautiful stream of the

Columbia

the
pvith

Colorado
the

river,

running
the greatest trouble to

parallel

coast

about

We now had

keep 150 miles distant, aud

12 or 15 hundred

our beasts from killing themselves drink- mile* in length with its peaks perpetually ing water in w])ich we succeeded only covered with eternal snows. There is a

until day- large number of water courses descending when we counted our force for the from this mountain on either side those purpose of uscertaining how much loss we on the east side stretching out into the
in part, light,

and were thus occupied

sustained by undertaking to cross tliedesert,

plain,

and those on the west flow generalstraight course
until they
is

and found that we had 10 cows, and 15 dogs.

lost

64 horses,

ly «n a

empty
there a

into the Pacific; but in no place

In Older to get something to cat for our
stock, and also to keep them from drink-

water course through the mountain,

The
their

next morning after finding the pag-

ing too

much

water,

we

left

this

stream

ture, our herd having rested and satisfied

which had afforded such delighr, before
either the

hunger pretty well, we resumed our

men

or beasts

had time to

re-

journey along the edge of the plain, travelled as fast as their
uf, still

pose their wearied limbs. After
a

travellir.o;

weakened

state

would

few miles
to

this

morning we had the good admit

finding pasture sufficient for

luck

come

across tolerable pasture and

their subsistance, until, after several day's

Here we de- constant travelling, we fortunately came termined on staying until the next morn- to our long sought for passage to the west. ing, for the purpose of resting our wearied 'I'his was hailed with greater manilestastock. tir.ns of joy by the company, thaii any
plenty of wood and water.

This desert which had presented such circumstance
an insurmountable barrier 18
to

tha».

had occurre<} for somt!
to

our

route,

is

timc,as

it

gave us

know where we were,

[ ^<' ]
luul also to

know when we might expect wild
country
ot

tlial

he couhJ not call them
to

ot!,vvlii!»t

*o arrive in a plentiful

game.

there

was an Indian found

be slaughter-

Here we again laved by
pose of resting, and
fo follow

our old

Being thus compelled to fight, as we a day for the pur- ed. making preparations thought, in a good cause and m self detrail towards the Great fence, we drew up in battle array, and fell
on the Indians
in the wildest

Salt Lake.

and mostfe-

June

8th.

This morning we
a

left the

Ca- rocious manner we could,

which struck

Inlornia mountain, and took

north-east dismay throughout the whole crowd, kill-

direction, keeping our

former path,

many

ing 14, besides wounding a great

traces of which were quite visible in places.

more as wc rode

right over
off,

the.n.

many Our

Here vegetation

is

growing rapidly, men were soon called

only three of

giving our hord abundant pasture, in con-

whom were
'i'his

slightly

wounded,

jequence of which ihey have greatly improved
travel
in

decisive strode appeared to give

appearance, and are enabled to the Indians every satisfaction they requilast.

quite

After continuing our red, as we

were afterwards permitted
continued

to

coursse in

this

direction for a

few days pass through the coutjtry without molesta-

without interruption,
in the

we

at length arrived tion.

We then

our course up

neighborhood
of

of the

lakes at the Barren river, without meeting with
to interrupt us, until

any

mouth

Barren

river,

and which we had thing

about the 20th

when we found that if we continwe had seen a ued in this direction our provisions would great number of Indians, but now that we become scarce long before we would reach had readied the vicinity of the place where the Rocky mountain?; and accordingly on we had the skirmish with the savages when the 21st «ur Captain decided on leaving
Battle Lakes.

named

All along our route of June,

from ike mountHin

this far,

going to the coast, they appeared to us

in this river

and taking a Northern direction
of striking the

double the numbers that they did at that
time; and as
fight

for the

purpose

head waters

we were then compelled to them, by their movements now, we
would be the only course
for

of the
find

Columbia

river,

where we would

game

plenty, and also beaver,

saw

that this

After leaving Barren

nver we made a

us to pursue.
or that

We had

used every endeav- quick passage across the country and the

we could think of, to reconcile and first waters we came to, was Lewis river, make them friendly, but all to no purpose, near its head, where we found game such

We

had given them one present after an- as deer, elk, bear and beaver plenty. Af-

other

— made them
to
if

all

the strongest mani- ter laying in a

small stock of fresh meat
the

festations of a <iesire for peace on our part, here,

we resumed our journey towards

by promising

do battle against their en- buffaloe country.

On

the

morning

of the

emies

required, and

we found

that our 3d of July

we were
in

delighted by seeing
four of our

own

safety

and comfort demanded that some buffaloe
such a measure.

company with

they should be severely chastised for pro- Spanish cattle that had strayed a short dis-

voking us

to

Now

that tance from the
of

main body during the night,
killed,
left

we were our men

a good deal

aggravated, some of two

which our hunters

beingthe
the Great

said hard things about
if

what they
in

first

would do

we would

again

come

con- Salt

we had seen since we Lake the year before.

We travelled
where we

tact with these

provoking Indians; aad our a short distance to-day when on arriving
that,
if

Captain was afraid
the passion of his

once engaged, at a large spring of most delicious water
so situated in a
beautiful grove,

men would become

L
coiR-liuIetl to spcMil the Niiiioiial Aiinivei-

'1

J
2") mon hi^lont^iiig to (he Biitisth North-West Fur Company, trom Fort

i>y (if

sary of American Indepetulence; i\ud
cordin'^iy our hunters

ac-

went out
and

in the alfat

Vancouvre, situated near the mouth of the
river.

ternoon and killed several very
lo,

buHa- Coluuibia

These people informed
ct)lony at

which were dressed

the choice

me

that the infant

the

mouth of

parts

prepaied lor a grand feast on the

the Colun^bia river

had

revived, and was

morrow.
fourth

When

the inorn of the glorious
j^ave three salutes,

now
150

increasinq; rapidly,

under the superand contained

first

dawned we
in

intendance of the
fa'oilies, the

British,

spent the morning

various kinds of a-

major part of which are

inusement, and
t

at

noon partook of our na- English, Canadian,

French and Indians,

onai dinner, which

was relished
portion of
in a

the beti]:ood

and but lew Americans.
being very

They

carry on

ter as

we had

a small

old

agriculture to a considerable
soil

extent

the

brandy, which we drank

few nsinutcs,

fertile,

climate mild, and

deeply regretting that we had not a small
portion of what was that day destroyed by

fiost

and snow but seldom known.

Thev
at the

also have a Grist and

Saw-Mill, and are

the millions of freemen in the

Stvites.

establishing
tlie

an

extensive fishery

The remainder
by drinking
at

of the day

was celebrated mouth of

river,for the purpose of catch-

toasts, singing songs, siiootitig

ing Sahnon, as they are very abundant
this stream.

m

mark, running, jumping, and practising

They have
all

a Goverjior,

on our horses
stdi with us,
lar pranks,

— having

the two

Spaniards

live

under a Republican form of

and Governmost

who learned us many

singu- ment.
to

From
is

accounts, however, their

and were a valuable edition

government
bv
the

not of

much

use, as the
is

our company, as they created

a great deal

unbounded freedom
all

of action

exercised

of fun, and were alvvays in a good humor,

members
is

of the colony, &: their

July 5th. To-day continued on search government
ot

intended more tor eftect

Capt. Bonneville,* on Bear rivei,in

fin-

with the Indians, than

any advantage
party

to

ding

whom we

succeeded

without having the people.

much
ling

difficulty,

on the r2th, after travelthough

About

the 17th of July

this

left

through a luxuriant,

rather us and continued their journey on
inter- of the Blackfeet Indians
for the

search

rough country

— where we again had
own
since
at the

purpose
it

course with people of our
ing the
first

nation, be- of trading,

alter

which

they said

was

we had met
Lagoda,

with, except the their intention to return to the coast by the

crew

of

the

we
for

separated same route.

Irom these same

men

Great Salt

We

remained here

until

the 20th with-

Lake.

Here we encamped
until

the pur- out meeting with

any thing particularly,
suppiv of merchandize

pose of resting a few days, and

probably when Capt. Cerrie joined us with 40 men,
large

remaining

we would

receive supplies bringing a

of provisions, merchandize, &c., from St. packed upon mules and horses from Mis-

Lewis
the
us,

spending our time in discussing souri. "\\ ith what we had on hand these many scenes encountered by each of men brought enough of merchandize and and the many hair-breadth 'scapes that provision to supply our present company
for a

such-and-sucl» a one had made.

whole year.

This party intended

to

After remaining in this situation a few return immediately to Missouri with what
<Iay8, there arrived at
*

our

camp

a

compaDouwille

peltries

we had on hand.
alvvavs
"^

Tins name has
mistake.

These succouring companies are
tieretofore

been printed

,

—by

looked lor With great anxiety bv the peo-

,

r


,

i

i

[73
pie

]

uho have been
ol (iine.

in

the

nujtmlaius any tha iHljicent country

with 50 men,

and

length

Many

are ai

limes en- Capt.

Walker

will)

55 men, being
to cross

the bul-

tirely destitute of

such articles as would be lance of our force,
tiieir

the

Rocky

of great advantaj^e to

cotnfoi

f

— ma-

inourWains to the waters

of the

Missouri

ny expect
tations of

letters or some other inanife?;- river, and then continue hunting and traremembrance from their friends ding with the Indian?* until the month of besides some, who have been strictly June, 1835, when Capt. Bonneville with
it,

temperate (because they couid not help

his

men would

join us

on the Bighorn

riv-

as the supply of liquor will always be exhausied,) look forward with longing anticipations lor the

er, at (he

mouth

of Popuasia

creek, which

empties into the Bighorn below

Wind

riv-

supply which

is

always er mountain.
After the usual ceremony of parting on

sent to this country by the owners of these

companies, for the purpose of selling
the
is

it

to
It

sjch occasions,

which

is

perlormed

by
all

men and

thus paying their wa^es.
in a refined state,

each one affectionately shaking hands

generally brought

and round
ofl"

— we separated, each division taking
a separate direction.

is

a cash article, which
price of

they retail at the
gill.

in

Capt.
in

Walkeastern
at

enormous

gl per

Generally er continued up Bear river
this

an

when
j;et

a

succouring '•ompany of

kind

direction, and the first night

encamped

arrives at the
a little

camp

of the trapper,the
a real

— with
as they

mellow and have

men Smith's Fork. In the morning we resujubilee med our journey in the same direction, being the most direct route to the

the exception of a few

(after the

summit of

Indian fashion) who are always prevented, the mountains,

nothing

occurring more

must watch

the rest,

and keep

a

than usual with the exception of killingaof

look-out lest the whole

company should be ny quantity
by the Indians,
er, until

game we might

think prop-

surprised and massacred

about the 8th of August, when, as
a

Scarcely one
ed in
this

man

in ten, of those

employ- the company were passing through

small

country ever think of saving a prairie,

we discovered
shade
ot

a large grizzly beat-

single dollar of their earnings, but
it

spend laying

in the

some brush

at the

as last as they can see an object to spentl

edge

ot the

woods, when Icur of us startbut on

it for.

They

care not what

may come

to

ed for the purpose of killing him,
bear heard us

pass to-morrow

— but think
to

only of enjoy- coming close, the
into the thicket.

and ran

ing the present moment.

We now

took separate

We

now began
for

make

the necessary

courses, mtentling to surround the bear
sport;

&

arrangements

our future

operations— chase him out and have some
as

but

such as dividing such

men

wished

to

one man, as we came

to the thicket,

acted

remain in the mountains, into one compa- very imprudently by dismountmgand foliiy, and such as wished to return to the lowing abuffaloe path into the brush,when
States in

another, and

settling with the the bear, hearing our horses

on the oppo-

inen for the hist year's services, and hiring site side, started out on the same path and met the man, when he attempted to avoid them lor the ensuing year., 'v^,

July 30th. Having every necessary ar-

it

by

climbing a small

tree, but
to
it

being

rangement completed, Mr.
and what

Cerrie return- too closely pressed

was unable

get out
passed,

ed to the State of Missourf with 45 men, of the reach of the bear, andjas

we had in store. CapJ. caught him by Bonneville was left to make his fall hunt of his thigh in
fur, 4-c.

the leg and tore the tendon
a

most shocking manner.

on the head waters of Columbia river, and


[
>'> J

-

Ijufoic

we could
and
vie

i^tt

(o his

aid

the

bear of this \ivcr, Ihe

roundv
hills,

i*^

gciiei.'illy

com

made

off

finalij escapeiJ.

posed of prairie
lent giass,

covered with eKcelvviih

Heie
pired

the next,<lav,

encamptd and remained unlil when (he wounded man exbled
to

and abound

plenty

ot

game

of different kinds.

— having

After trapping; here a

dealli

from

the few days, vie agreed to
river,

move down onto
belo^
this,

wound, although eve»y elltort in C)L«i' pow- Wind er was of no use. After burying tliis man, Stone which was done in the customary manner whilst
of inteiring the

which

empties into Yellow

a

short

distance

and

leisurely

tiavelling along one

day

dead

in the

mountains
ground,
in-

through an extensive prairie, a large horde
of butiuloe were discovered
at a

having dug a deep hole
to

in the

diiitanco

which we deposited the body well wrapt making towards us with considerable speed
in

up

blankets, and
first

tlien

filled

up

the

No
til

one was

disposed

to

take any notice
of provij»ion,un-

grave,

with bark and then with earth,
a short distance

of them, as

we had plenty

we continued our journey
in the

we teen them advance

closer and fasride right o-

afternoon, and

encamped on

the head

ter, as if

they were going to

waters of Lewis river, and at the ba^e of ver us.
the ilocky mountains.
past, at

The whole drove came
and started
\i\

rushing

which our loose and pack horses

Here we made preparations forour voy- took
age across the mountains.

fright,

advance of the
in

Few

that

have
hills

bufifaloe, scattering our

baggage

every

once performed
will

a

journey across these

direction over the prairie for several miles,

encounter them a second time

with leaving us nothing

but our riding hcrses.

a cheerful spirif;aud particularly will they This occasioneil us to

encamp

lor the pur-

dread the task

if

they have encountered as pose of collecting our stray horses and lost
as
at

many hardships and perils company that now reposed
to

some of
its

the baggage, which was done, with the excep-

base, si- titm of one horse

and some merchandize,
to find.

lently contemplating the dreadful fatigues which

we were unable

To

see a

be encountered until we would

reach drove of perhaps a thousand buftaloe driving through a level
left

Ihe eastern base.

plain as fast as their

In the morning at an early hour, we

strength will permit them, isa mostlright-

the waters which empty into the Pacific, ful spectacle; and then, when our horses and continued our way up the mountain, started in advance, pitching and snorting, Mav.'hich we found tolerable rough, and cov- the scene was beyond deseriptioo. cred, in places, with a large quantity ef ny of our horses were severely crippled in

so much so travelled without ceasing,and consequence of this chase, without meeting with any interruption, un- that we were detained three days in waitinjured til we at last arrived in the Prairies, on ing on them and repairing our

snow.

We

the east side, near the head

waters

of

the

merchandize.

Yellow Stone
cross,

river.

On

our

passnge aof petrified

A

few days after leaving

this

place

wo

we found

several pieces

arrived, Aug. 20, on Popoasia creek, where
oil

wood, one of which was six or eight feet we found at; long— which our men divided amongst earth similar
themselves,
for the

spring,

rising out

ol the

to that of

&ny other

Rprisjg.
oil

purpose

of

making After emptying

into the creek, the

can

whet-stones. Here

we concluded on com-

be sean floating on the surface for a con-

mencing our

fall'i

hunt, as the beaver ap- siderable distance.

The

oil

i«»

of a

dark
tar,

peared to be quite numerous.

hue when
is

in the fountain,

almost like
If thia spiini;

In the neighborhood of the head wafers but 19

as ihin a§ water".

was

in (he Slates, 1 liave
inij^ht

no lioubt the theniist (er's supuly
it.

ol nte.tl, wlu'^li

is

the custotij

make

a valuable use ot
to

A
&.

Mr. otall

tribes in a plentiful countrv ol'game^

Bergen, belonging
had been severely
;ind afterwajds
reliel.

our company,

who

to

go in bodies sufficiently large to defend

afllicted with the «heuinof

thenaselves in case of an attack by a neigh-

ati>:m,procurcda phial
feaid it

it.which he used,

boring hostile tribe,

as

there

is

scarcely

afforded

him entire

three tribes to be found in the whole Indi-

an country, on friendly terms with each

Aug;. 21j;t.
suit of beaver,
lion, passing

To-dav
ufnch

vve
is

continued

in

pur- other,
1

our daily occupato

now found my?elf
1

in

a situation that

from one watercourse

an-

had charms which
ed
lor.

had
I

many times

long-

oiher, through plains

and ovpr

hills, all of

Ever sine*
I ha«l

engaged

in the trap-

whichate

p^rairie,

with the exception of ping business,
v\heie there
ia

occasional mtercourse

the base of the

mourHain,
ol titiiber.

with the Indians, but never resided with

an abundance
this

We travelled in
a!iy
in

them

until now;vvhich

would

afford

meevare a

mnwner, and spending our time most- ery opportunity
way, without meeting with
or
life,

to minutely observe their

Iv in this

interrjal

mode

of living.

The Crows
They
the

misfoj tunes, backwuittl's

any thing

unusual

a

powerful nation, and inhabit a rich and gxtensive district
of country.
raise

occasionally being quite
beaver, until

hucces^lu!

in catchirtg

near

no vegetation, but entirety depend on the
chase for a living.

the Uiitklle of

October, when

we

arrived

This

is

sittm^ion

among

the tnbe ol

Crow

Indians.
getting cold,

of nearly every tribe, and

when gameg«ts
to

We

now

find the wi'ather

scarce

in

one part of the cou»try claimed
tribe, they

with plenty of snow, frost and ice, which

by a certain
part, until

rpmove

another
bcto

cempeU
thiij

us to

sui^pend our

trapping for
fair

after

a

while their

game

season, having 4ofie a very

busi-

comes scarce, when they are induced

iiess;

and

to

increase ourttore of peltries, encroach upon the territory of a neighbortrading with these In- ing tribe, which will at once create a fear•
iul strife,

w'Q

now commenced

<lians for butlaloe

robes, beaver fur, &c.

and

not unfrequently ends xa

tor

which purpose we intend

passing the the total destfaction of some powerful natiun.
in the It will

w

inter in this neighborhood.

After remaining here a few days,

be recollected that

I

was amongst

meantime

«>btaining the principal part

ot

these Indians once bafore,

the valuable peltries of the Indians,

the our horses were stolen

when some of and we followed

company
river as

them and appointed Wind them into the Crow village, where we the place to mett and resume the feund our horses and also a negro man, in
left

trading as soon as the Indians
lect a supply

could col- the winter of
to

1832-33.

This

irran

— leaving
Crows
in the

two men and iny- found
for the

be of as great advantage to us

we now

self

among

the

purpose of as on former occasions, as

he has become

instigating

them

business of catching thoroughly acquainted with their language,

beaver and buffaloe.
?^ov. 1st.
Thi^s

method of transacting their public antf primorning Capt. Walker vate business, and considered ot great valand continued
in ue

and

his followers left us,

by the

Indians.

He

enjoys perfect

the direction of

Wind

river, there to erect

peace and satisfaction, and has every thing

a temporary trading house for the winter he desires at his
season, and

own command,
from 7 ta
into

we remained

with the Indians

The Crow

nation contains

who were engaged

in collecting their

win- 8,000 souls, and are divided

twodi-


L
'Vifeions bi

^'5

J

an

cijiKii

nunib.-r in

cvil!:

llicre

vvliole attair

i:<

aKribuied

to

the virlueot
sell
it

being too great a ninnber
cr, as Ihev could

to travel togeth-

his talisman,

and he can then

foral-

not get p^aine
a force.

in

many most any

price he dematKls,

andifitbe a

places to supply such
vision
is

headed by
to pilot

a separate chief,

Each di- precious stone, or seed, or piece of wood, all whose similar articles are inimediatelj enhanced
in value,

duty

it is

them from one hunting
and
to lea^l his follow-

and the them

gt

eater the piice

they

ground
ihey

to another,

pay
it

for

such an

article, the greater service
in

erg to baltie in tinie of war
call

— one
hair,

of

whom

will be to

the hour

«)t

need.

Grizzly Bear and the other, Long Some of them will even give four or five Haired Chief, which name he derivesfrom good horses for the most trifling and simlength
of his

the extren^e

which

is

pie article of this kind.

no

less than
is

sine feet eleven

inches long.

Their principal wealth
ses,

cons^ists of

hor-

This

the principal chiet, or
is

Sachem,

oi

porcupine quilU.,
foi

'dud

fine

dressetl
is

the nation, and

quite a worthy andven- skins,

clothing, &.c.

but nothing

of

erable looking old

man

of 75 or 80 years so'much value as their idol; without which

of age.
to

He

uses every possible precaution
hair,

an Indian

is

a poor miserable

drone

to so-

preserve his

which
it

is

perfectly ciety, unworthy the esteem and
his ionship of brutes.

companis

white, an<l.^as never had

cut since
the

liong-haired chief worhis hair,

infancy.

He

worships

it

as

ditector ships nothing but
ri-

which

regu-

or guide ot hisXate through

life

sing or laying

dVvn

vvitlioul

and caiefully folded up eveIsumbly and Jy morninginloa roll about three feet long
laily con^bod

— never.

devoutly adoring

this tali<?man,

nnd which

t>y

the princi[)al warriors of Ins tribe,

they term Bah-paik (medicine.)
It is

Their houses are composed of dressed
pine poles

customary

(or

every tribe of Indi- buffaloe hides and

about 25 or

ans
to

in the

regions of the

Rocky mountains 30
to
I

feet in length,

and about three inches
j)oles are
all

have some instrument or article
to

pay

in

diameter.

These

homage

and invoke, but no nation,
devoutly attached
the

be- end in a circle, and

stuck upon coming together at
of a

lieve, are so

to their ta- lh« top
is

forms the shape

hay -stack.—
cut in proper

lismans as
life

Crow nation— it
Crow

their

The buRaloe

robes are then

their

very existence.

Almost every shape, sewed together and covered over
Their
fire is

individual of the
of this kind,

tribe has something their habitation.

placed in

and which generally
a piece of

consists the centre of the lodge,

and the poles be-

ofa seed, a stone^
or eagle's cfaw, or

any thing which

fancy

may

lead them to

wood, a bear ing left apart at the top affords a very good Some of these their draught for the smoke. believe has a sue- bouses are much larger than others, such

cessful virtue,

chased of si^me

and which has been pur- as are intended for the transacting of pubThese are constructed witb noted warrior who has lie business.
in his

been swrrounijul

undertakings whilst much care, and are

cjuite

comfortable and
bufltaloe

in the posslaseion of

such an article.
it

This convenient habitations

— the

robes

magical thing, whatever
fully enveloped
in

may

be,is care- aflording a iulFicient shield

from the effects
buildingsall

a

piece of skin,

and
If

of the cold.

In their public
affairs are

then tied round their neck or body.
old experienced warrior

an their national

discussed at sta-

gives one ©r two ted periods by the warriors and principal young men an article of this kind on going men. Here they have their public smokes tb war, and they happen to be successful and public rejoicings,
in taking

scalps or

stealing horge!^%

the

This

tribe

is

also governed

b)- a

species


[.

]


vA

of police, sucii as

luvii.';;^

a

c(;ininit(ee

engaj^ed

iii

soiij^'

danj;,er()us

advenUne.
every
are at liberty

isoUiierii a|}p()inle(l foi'

(he purpose of k(H'ptheir vii!a»o,

Their pied.itoij wars atVord them
opportunity lor
this, as

ing order and

regulatiou in

they

appointing a day Cora general liunt an«l

and sotnetimes compelled
bend the bow or wield
Tlieii fust

to enga^^e in the

keeping any

who

niigkt

be so

disj)o->cd,

battle's strife as soon as they are

able to

from runninij ahead and gA-ne, in order that

cliasino- oi!

o

the

the

tomahawk.—
the

each individual
to

may

promotion
is

IVonj

lanksofa

have

a

fair

chance

obtain

an

equal

piivate citizen,

secuted by stealing a

share of provision, with his

nei;>i'.b()r.

Tew horses and killing one or two of their
enemies, when they are eligible to the
tie
ti-

These
a

soldiers are also to observe that on
their village
is

sucij occasions

not

left in

of a Snuill Hrave.

By adding

so

ma-

weak and
to

unsi.fe condition

by too

many ny more
title of

acts ol this kind, they receive the
a

going

war, or to
in

horse stealing, (which

Large

or Great

Brave; from

generally ends
to see that
i.\fn\

war) at a time, and also thence
party
is

to a Little

Chief, and to rise to the
steal

such

a

properly proviif

station ol a

Great Chief, they must
kill

with a competent
it is

commander, and
to act
in his

such a number of horses,
such
a

and scalp
so

not,

their ilufy to supply (he deficien-

number

of the

enemy, ami take

cy by appointing one
If

place,

any person acts contrary

to

their laws,

many gans or bows and arrows^ Whenever one person exceeds
istii]g

Iha exinstalled

these soldiers have the liberty of punishing him for
his horses

chief in these deeds, he

is

it, which is done by shaving into the office of chief of the nation, which main and tail, cut up his lodge, he retains until some other ambitious, daand whip him, if not contrary to the decis- ring brave exceeds him. They always

ion of the principal chief, in

whom

is

ino5^

take goed care, however, not to excel their

vested the power
this

of

vetoing every act
if

present chief, old Long-hair,

executive committee

not agreeable

This school, as

it

was, creates a great

to his wish.

deal of jealousy and

When game
are about to

becomes scarce, and they
to
is

pie, but

it

seldom

leads to

envy among the peoany disturb-

move

ry moveable article

another section, eve- ance, as the executive soldiers, or police, packed upon horse- are always ready to chastise and punish

back,

when

they travel

on until they ar- any such conduct.

rive in a country

abounding with game.

Any

persifln

not rising to either of these
is

I'heir children from

two

to three years of stations

by (he time he

twenty years of

age, and unable to ride, are tied upon the age, has nothing to say or do in

any pubto

baggage, and those younger are fastened

lie

business whatever, but
ot

is

compelled

upon a|board and conveyed
heretofore described.
of

in

manner

as perform different kinds

meniel labour

They have

dray formed

by these poles, which

a sort altogether degrading to a man^^as it is puttr has u«>ws— is ting him on an equality with
vvhich
is

done by fastening one end to the pack saddle, and the other end dragging on the
ground, on which they
ture.

low enough indoed in^^e estima-

tion of the Indian.
t^»e

place their furni-

slave of the

Such a man becomes women, as they are at lib-

erty to order him to do any thing they may more personal ambition and ri- think proper, such as carry wood, water, valry existing among this tribe than any &c., or any diudgery that is required to other I became acquainted with— each one be done,

There

is

trying to excel the ©ther

in

merit,

whilst

After receiving (he

title of

Little Chief

;

ti)ey arc at iibcrtv to
in all

.-p-c,^.k

and lake part
to the af-

sicies

many

other animals-,

.xi

.;

-iti;::,!*'

-'.•:

public del)ates in relation

routul.

fairs of the nation,
all

and are exempt from
in

When
tliese

they are in

a

country

suitable,

kinds of labour

going

to

war, which

people will destroy tho bulfaloe by
of

has to be done

by \he

privates,
or»

who

are driving a herd
of a

some huntlr«ds

to

tlie

generally young uisn, as

such occasions edge
at liberty

convenient rocky precipice, when

they have no

women
command
is

with them; and

as they are forced headlong

down

the craj^gy

they progressively rise, Ikey are
ta

descent.

This

is

more dangerous than
bufi'aloe,

the

order and

those

who

arc be- other method, as the

unless the

neath them. I'his
their ambition,
tion. II

the principal cause of Indians are vevy
far

numerous, wdl sometimes
their ranks,

which

exceeds (le?crip- rush

in a solid

column threugh
their feet.

one of the men who hay fallen in- knocking down the horses and tramping
ti-

to

tfie

rank of a woiuaij.and has became

their riders

under

red of that ©ccupation, he will undergo a-

They have another
bufifalo,

iVitihod of taking the
this

ny exertion, and encounter any dcinger.no
matter how great,
in

which

is

i'»

way;— If

they

order to distinguish
forlorn

know

of a place at the base of

some raoun-

himself and improve his

and dis-

t;un that is

surrounded an three sides with
they

honorable condition.

inaccessible precipici-s, and a leavel valley
it,

Soon

after

we
I

took up our quarter's with leading into

manage

to drive the

thcie Indians,

occupied

my

time in as- whole gang of
force

IJ\iffaloe

into this

manner of taking game, which, il it is more laborious, it is more successful than the Spanish mode of tacertaining their

them up

to its termination,

neck and when they

erect a strong fence across
outlet,

the valley, or

and then butcher

their prisoners at

king wild horses.
in

When

their families are leisure.

want of provision, or desirous of havIn a place of this kind I was shewn by inga hunt, one of the principal men, who the chief Grizzly B^ar, upwards of seven might be called the trumpeter, will mount hundred builalo skulls which k« said had a horse and ride round through the en- been caught at a single hunr, and which campment, village, or settlement, and pub- had taken place about four years previous, licly proclaim that on a stated day tl.e About the 20th of November, after travwhole tribe must be prepared ffjr a general ellirg for three or four days in pursuit oJ
hunt, or surround.
the vdlage
is

When
will

the

day arrives provision, we

at length ^arrived in the vi-

alive betiraes in the morning, cinity of

butlalo,

where we pitched
for a

o'lr

and several hundred
their race-horsest

sometimes mount tents and the Indians prepared
to a

gen-

and repair

certain eral

hunt.
all

In the evening

their horses
style,

designated section of country, which they were
are to surround.

dressed

m

the best

and

at

When
in,

the

men have

all

an early hour the next morning four or five

had time

to get to theiu

allotted stations,

hundred Indians wyre mounted and ready
This was
a favourable

they begin to close

driving the game, for the chase.

principally buRalo, into a circle and

whan

oppoi.tunify hu

they are pretty well confined

in the circle,

me

to gratify

my

curiosity in

seeing this

they

comm«nce killing them tirne, no man dare attempt to
the

— until

which kind of sport, and

my companions aadmy-

take any of self followed in the rear of the Indians^ manner they have some- Our hunters had not advanced far on thi times caught several huiidied buffalo, be- spOrtisg expedition until they met with an

game. In

this

objr^-t wliich onfirelv

put them out

of th<^

L )»otion

''^

J

built in front, composed of tlieir ajilily in catch- breastwork some distance across logs, brush and stones. From their presIhe plain, along the base ol some rough ent situation tney have a decided advancra<:gy hills, was espied a considerable bo- tage over the Crows, and it well prepared
(.1

showing us
for,

ing buffalo,

at

dy of people, who appeared
cing towards us.

to

be advana halt

f<^'i'

war,

could hold

out a

considerable

was length of time, and deal destruction thick called, for the purpose of observing the and fast on any force that mi<jht attempt movements of the strangers, and consult- to scale their fort vvhich looks more like It did the production of art than nature. Whilst ing on what steps should be taken. not vfquire the keen eye of a Crow Indi- the Blackfeet vvere assiduously engaged in an Ipng i^ V?U that their visitors vvere In- defending their position, the Crows were
Immediately

dians and belonged to their implacable enemies, the Blackfeet
lril>e.

no

less idle

in

preparing

foi

the attack,

This was

e-

nough.

War

was now

their only desire,
their

de* termined should not be relaxed as long as
there was
a
in

the destruction of which, they were

and our Indians advanced towards
eneniies as fast as the «peed ol
ses

living

Blackfoot Indian to
Previ-

their horfeot,

be

found

the

neighborhood.

would admit, who, being on
forced to

soon overtaken and
rocks,

were ous to the arrival of the reinforcement, ascend the which was about ten o'clock, there had

which

they did in

safety.

The been
when

three

Crawa and one ^lackfoot

kill-

Crows immediately surrounded
feet,

the Black- ed, which

confident ot an easy victory, but

the latter

was done at the first attack after were driven into their fort,
the express reached the

they made the attack they found that their

When
to point a

Crow

enemy was

too we^t prepared for defence, village every

man, woman and child able

and they immediately despatched an ex-

gun or mount a horse repaired

press to the yHl^ge for a reinforcement, of with aU speed to the scene of action,

who

men, conscious

that

the Blackfeet

would came up uttering the most wild and pi^rI

not attempt to leave their present position cing yells
until such reinforcement
to arrive.

ever heard in

my

life.

A great
tribe

would have time deal

of

contention

at first

took place a-

mong

the principal mei) of the

Crow

This was quite a difllerent kind of sport as to the manner of attacking their enemy, from that which I expected to witness who appeared to look down upon them in

when
no

I left

the Indian camp,

less interest,

and

me.

Whilst the

parties eiPiiployed

but one of defiance; notwithstanding the Crows Ijept more important to up a continual yelling and firing ef guns, express was absent both all of which was without eflect. Finally their time in strengthen- they appeared to harmonize and underfar

ing their positions

— the Blackfeet had cho-

stand each other.

sen a most fortunate spot to defend themselves,

As

matters

now seemed
crisis, I

to

indicate the

and by a

little

labour found them- approach of a

repaired to an emi-

selves in a fort that might have
it

to

an army of frontier regulars.

situated on the

brow

of

done cred- nence about 2QQ yards from the fort am' It was ong some cedar trees, where I had an exa hill, in a circle cellent view of all their raovements. At
horse-shoe,
first

of rocks shaped
feet high
feet,

similar to a

the

Crows would approach

the fort by

with a ledge of rocks from

three to four two or three hundred in

a breast, but on

on either side^ and about ten arriving near enough to do any execution, on the part reaching to the brink of the fire from the fort would compel them
wilh
a very

the

hill,

creditable piece of to retreat.

They

then formed

in

a

traji

alon^ the top

tif

(he

j'u!,i:;(^

and

in rotation
tlie

music vvouhl

rlie

(.(jwardlv loius of a halt-

would ride

at fjll

speed past

breast-

uatoxicated militia tomparjy.

work, firing as (hej passed, and then throwing themselves on the side
til

Now
if it

was

the

moment

for action.

Each
iifo

ol

ihe horse un-

man appeared
(his

wiHin|2; {q sacrifice his

nothing; will be exposed to the
leg.

enemy

except one arm and one
found
ses
to

This they

would bring down an enemj; and in spirit did they renew and repe^it the

be very
their

destructive to their hor- attack on the breast-work of their enemy,

and also

ten Ci'ows and several hor»;es laying dead

men, (here being now but as often did they retreat with severe loss. Again and ag.iin did they return tq
their
ill

on the
thus

field.

Urged by

success the charge, but
ctTorts vveie of

all

was

ofijo

use— all

their

far,

and by the piteous lamentations
the

of the wives, children and relatives of those to

no avail—-confusion bcgaw spread through (heir ranks— many ap-

who had

fell,

Crow

Chiefs decided on

peared

sibspending the attack, and determined to the whole

hold a council ot war for the purpose ot froni deciding on ujiat measures should be ad- been heretofore mentioned, and

overwhelmed with despair anc( Crow nation was tibout to retreat the field, when the negra, vyhu has

opted, in order
Blackfeet.

to

destroy these

brave been
steps

in

who hacj company with us, advanced a few towards (he Crows and ascended li
a«ldressed
(earnest

M'hen the principal chiefs met u\ coun- rock from which he cil, all was still except the laqientaiions warriqrs in the most
of the bereaved, who,

the Crpvy

and impress(hat

perhaps, regret the ive njanner.

Il<i

told

them

they had
if

severe pennance which the customs of their been here making a great noise, as

(hey

people compelled them to endure

for the

could

kill

the

enemy by it— that
abi)ut

tliey

had

memory
more on

of a deceased friend,

and lament talked long and h)ud
fort,

going into the

accourit of

tlie

prospect of trouble

and tha^ the white nuen would say the
his

ahead, than for the loss
sustained.

when talkwar exploits. He told them stormy council. Some vv^rc in favour of that their hearts were small, and that they that they acted more like abandening the Blackfeet entirely^ & oth- were cowardly ers were determined on charging into their squawc than tnPP? ^^^ were not fit to dewhich they have Indian had a crooked (ongue,
a hasty

The

chiefs held

and ing about

fortand end the battle
massacre.
on, but

in a total

and bloody fend

their

hunting groi|nd,

Ijp told

l\\Qi]\

This was
until

finally

decided up- that the white
the pipe tion of
chief.

men were ashamed
to

of then:)

not

after

several speeches

were made for and against it, and of war smoked by e^ph brave afjd

and would refuse cowards
tell

trade with such a na-

— that the Blackfeet woul4
their

go home and

people that
a

three

As
chiefs

soon as this determination of the thousi^nd Crows could not take

handful
at,

was n^ade known the war-whoop

a-

of them,

— that they
wherever

would be laughed
wit!)

gain resounded with the most
roar through the plain

deafening scorned, and treated
voice
that nations
to

contempt bj

all

— every

known— that

no tribe

was able
its
til

to

make

Jj

noise

was strained

would degi^de themselves hereafter by
for-

very utmost to increase the sound, un-. waging war with theni, and that the whole
the very earth, trees

and rocks seemed Crow nation, once so powerful, woulc|

te be possessed of vocal powers.

By

their ever after be tteated as a nation of sc^uaws.

tiemendous howling they had
^Jiery,

great a change in the courage of Iheir sol-

worked as The old negro continued in this strain until they became greatly animated, & told as the most soul-enlivening marshal them that if the red man was afraid to gq

.:H>,u*j^

t

Ills

cr.rniy, nc

-v^uuUl

show

tiicin

exluiuaicil,

iic

vvouKl
his*

suiUlenly rise
knit'u

to

hu

that a black

man uas no^ and he

leaped

feet atul j)lungo

to

the heart of

from the rock on which hu hud been stan- an enemy who would be
ding, and, looking neither to the right nor
to the leftj

lUihing Ihrouoh

the crowd, and then die.
in self

This would not

made

(or the

Tort us faat as

he be done

defence, nor svilh a hope oj

could tun.

The

Indiaris <i;uessing his pui--

escaj)e, but ih.roogh revvnge.

pose, and inspired by his
less

woids and

fear-

This was truly a scene of carnase, enoijoh to sicken the stoutest
thin;; at all in

example, followed close
iti

to his heels,

heart-^but

tio-

and were
old man.

the fort dealing
left

destructiok,

comparison with what took

to the right

and

nearly as soon as the

place afterwards.

fjund the

The Ciuws, when ihey enemy strewed over the field.

currence.

Here now was a scene of no common oc- n?»ne having escaped their vengeance, comA space of ground about the menced a general rejoicing, after svhich

size of an acre, completely

crowded with they
ciLjbir;,

retired a short distance

f(;r

the

pur-

hostile Indians figiiting for life, with guns,

pose of taking repose
incnt.

and some

refresh-

bfiws and arrows, knives and

yell-

iHg and screamino; until the
to
lift

hair

seemed

Although (he victory was complete, the

the caps from

our heads.

As

soon

Crows

paid dear for

it,

having

lost

about

as most of the

Crews got Blackfeet began to make

into the fort, the
their

thirty killed, an<l as njany

more wounded,

escape out besides a great

number

of hordes.

The

ol the opposite side,

over the rocks about loss of their companions did not appeaV to

no better

10 feet high. Here they fwund themselves dampen the rejoicings ot the men the least off, as they were Immediately bit, and indeed it would appeav that the

surrounded and hemmed in on all sides by squaws should do all the mourning and laoverwhelming numbers. A large number menting, as well as all the labour. Their on both sides had fell in the engagement «ead were all collected t«gethei', when the in the inside of the fort, as there the Crows squaws went reund and claimed their kinhad an equal chance with their eBemy,but dred. This was a most afiecting scene
-

when on

the «utstde

the advantage

was but what was
o

it

when contrasted with

that

decidedly against them, as they were con- enacted by the m«n as soon as they had The women fined in a circle and cut down in a few rested from the tod of battle.

moments. When the Rlackfeet found would threw themselves upon the dead there was no chance of escape, and know- bodies of their husbands, brothers, &c.and ing that their was no prospect of mercy at there manifest the most excruciating anthe hands of their perplexed and aggrava- guish that any human beieg could suffer, ted, but victorious enemy, they fought The women were occupied in this manner with more than human desperation. From when the men went to work to glut their the time they left ih«ir fort, they kept merciless vengeance on their fallen foe. themselves in regular order, moving forMany of the Blackfeet who were scatward in a solid breast, cutting their way tered over the battle ground had fallen by
through with their knives,
until their last

broken limbs or wounded

in

some way,

&

man

fell,

pierced, perhaps,

with an hunif

were yet writhing

in

agony, unable

to in-

dred wounds.

In

this

massacre,

the Blackfeet would

receive a dangerous
to the

one oF jure any one or help themselves in any All sueh were collected together, way.
if

wound he would drop
d«ad, ?.nd
if

ground, as
not too

and then tormented
in."-

his

strensHi wa«

fin

to relate.

in a manner too shockThese fiends would, cut ofl"

r

81

J

their ear?, nose, iiantis

and

feet, |)'uck out

ards

tiie

their eve^, pull out llieir hair, cut

them

o- ter dark, not to rest,

camp, where we an ivyd goon afand calmly meditate

pen and take out part of their inside?,pier- on the «icenes of the day, but to see furtht^r cins; them with sharp sticks— in short, ev- developements of thcsuptTsiitious propeiiery method of infiicfing pain was resorted
to.

sities of the

poor neij;!ected savage.
in iho
villai^e,

In f.rder

tliat

they niight render their
still

After arriving

a

part of

mode of torment

more excruciating, the n;en

cosmneoced

their

public rejoic-

tbey would brino into the presence of the ings, by beating upon druins, dancing and

dying the bodies of tho^e who were alrea-

sinj>ing,vvhici^, together

with the incessant

dy dead, and then
livers,

tare out

their hearts,

wailings and

lamentations of those

who
was
to

and

brains;,

and throw them

in the l)ad lost relatives,

gave us

a night that

faces

of

the living, cutting

them

to pieces, entirely free

from repose, and averse

and afterwards feeding them to t'neir dogs sober rellection. In this manner the whole accompanying the whole with the most ni^^ht was spent, nor did the morning bring taunting and revengeful epithets, whilst any prospect of a cessation of these singuthose not engaged
in

this

fiendish work,

liir

customs.
ten (.'clock the
in

were occupied
this

in

keeping up a constant

About
engaged

whole

tribe

was

screaming, liowling and yelling.

When

performing the

funeral

obse-

torment commenced,

all

the sufferers fjuies to the remains of their deceased rel-

who could
with

get hold ot a knife or any thing atives.

At an early hour

the wife

had

which they could take away their seated herself by the side of her dead husHves, would do so immediately. All the band, where she would remain until it
torment that could be
inflicted

by their came his tuin

to

be

inteircd,
aiid

when she
form of

persecutx)r9, failed to bring

a single

mur- would clasp the cold

lileless

mur

of

complaint from

the sufferers
least

— nor

him,

whom
it

she

still

seems

to love,

and

away by some of being conquered. No not if they had 'the men. Their manner of burying their been offered undisturbed liberty, would dead is also most singular in some resThe corpse is carefully wrapped those sufferers who had lost so many oF pects:
would they signify the
cling to
until forced

symptom? of

their companions, acknowledge themselves

up

in buffalo

robes and laid into the grave,
his talisman,

prisoners in the
preferred to

Crow

village.

Death they together with
else to

and any thing

this,

and death with indescriall

which he was attached,

— and

if

he

bable horrors, did they

receive.

be a chief of some importance, his horse's
tail

After they had finished tormentmg the
living,

&

mane

art shaved off and buried with

which was not done
to kill, they

until there

was him

— these

benighted

Indians believing
turn into a

no more
oft

commenced

cutting that each of these

hairs will

mangled badies,which beautiful horse in the land of spirits, where were hoisted on the ends of poles and car- they think tltat a horse and bow and arrow ried about, and afterwarda dashed them a- are all that a man requires to perfect his gainst trees, rocks, &c. leaving them on happiness and peace, the plain to be devoured by wild beasts. As soon as the dead were deposited in
the heads of the

novv repaired to their dead the silent tomb, the musicians collected where they went through various together and marched through the camp, manoeuvres, as much as to say that they beating upon sticks and drums, as a sigfriends,

The men

had revenged their death, and scon after- nal for the mourners wards every thing was on the move tow which thcv did? and
21

to
tlie

fall

in

the

rear^

whole procession

[

82 ]

then proceeded to the

top of

some

rising

and resume her lormer standing
ty.

in sorie-

ground, not

far olf,

where the males and

This

niglit

was spent

in

about

the

same manner as last nijjht—some being The lemale mourners now took the point engaged in dancing and singing, and othof an airow, vvliich was fixed in a stick, & ers crying and lamenting the loss they had

females separated into different groups.

commenced
forehead

pricking their

heads, begin- sustained.

ning at one ear and continuing round the
to the

other,

making
on

incisions nation gave orders to

half an inch apart all

round; and the

Nov. 22d. This morning thechief of the move for the purpose jnen of getting among the buflalo and other

went through
streams.

a similar course

iheir legs,
ou,t

game—-and
tional

also to be prepared for a
their

na-

arms, &c., until

the blood

oozed

in

dance on

march.

About ten
in

All this performance was done
least

o'clock the whole tribe

was

readiness

without creating the
pain,

appearance

o\

and we started in the direction of the battie ground, and on arriving there a halt
of ihe

After doing this each
lost a

lemale that had was ordered for the purpose of giving the

near relative or particular friend, dead carcases
aloiig; a

Blackfeet the

last

ev-

coliected

log

and deliberately cut dence of the Crow's revenge

— which vva§

oil a linger at the first joint, which was done by beating and mangling every piece done with as much coolness as the prick- of flesh they could find. This done, the ing process. This is done bj the males, march was resumed to a beautiful level also, except the two first fingers on the plain, perfectly smooth and covered with right hand, which they preserve for the short grass, for two or three miles square

purpose

ol

bending the bow, and many of

— where the
place.

national dance

was

to take

the aged females

may

be

seen with

the

When

they had

dismounted, the

end
this

oft*

each of their fingeri, and some have
off the

even taken

second crop.
the

Whilst the oldest squaws,

whole nation formed a ring, when 69 of all painted black, formin a line in the

other Indians

was being done by kept up

mourneig, theed themselves

centre of the

a continual

noise circle, each bearing a

pole from 13 to 15

with their music, singing, dancing and yell- feet in length.
ing.
^

The

person

who struck

the

first

blow

at their late

battle with the

The

procession

now

returned tothevil- Blackfeet
the female mour-

now commenced dancing, and
'

lage with the laces of

all

ners daubed over

with their
until

was immediately followed by every young own blood, man and woman belonging to the tribe,
it

which they never remove

wears

oflf.

(except the

mourners, who stood
all

silent,

Those not wishing
iis

to loose a

finger are at
it

melancholy spectators)
best dresse?,

clad

in their

liberty to shave off their hair close, but

handsomely worked with por-

the general custom

among

lose a piece of their>finger.

Crows to cupine quilU, and their heads delightfully Any one who ornamented with magpie and pheasant
the
tails

has lost a relative

is

not allowed to take

— forming
make by

themselves in double

file,

part in the dance or any kind of sport for and

12 or 13 moons, unless one of their
ving friends take the
life

dancing round the whole circle to which survi- wild, though not irregular music

of an Indian be-

they

stretching a piece of buffalo

longing to the tribe that killed the mourn- skin over a hoop similar to a riddle, where

ed one
loss,

which will and drown all
to

at

once atone

for all
is

it is

well stretched, and then
filled

sewed

to-

grief,

and she

then gether and
face
it

with sand and

left until

allowed

wash

the

blood from her

is

dry and

properly shaped,

when

the


^^

-

L
isanil in

]

thrown out
put
in,

iiiul
it

some
is

pt-bbles
for

or

prospect

(if

^anie appoarecl

so

<;o()i!,

the

t)ullels

when

ready
i:s

the

Indians deteirnirieU on remaining:

liere a

hand

of the musician

— and

in

shape sim-

few days

for

(lie

purpose of

layin;^

in

a

iiar to a j^oard.

stock of Ijuilalo robes to trade with Capf.
the circle once or

After dancioii; round

twice, they would suildeu!y halt;8i»out their
terrible

lar;je

Walker. The Indians would go out in companies and kill a great number

war-whaop slioot otT their guns, of the^c aninuils, when it would be theduwhen the rattling music would again com- ty of the women to follow after and galhmence and tliey would all be engaged in er up the hides, which they would convey the dance. Each member (»f the tribe, to the camp, and dress them ready for the duty of the squaw« to who was not mourning, from the child up market. It
i?^

to the

enfeebled old
this

man and woman
After about

took

dress ihe builalo robes alone, which
sii

is

done
a

part

in

exercise.
in this

two by
an

etching the hide tight on the ground
let
it

hours spent

manner, they conclu- and
by the display
of

iliere

dry,

when they have
fixed in

ded
far

their celebration

piece of iron
^tick,

or

sharp stone,

a

ladian battle, which wasexceedingly grand,

making

a tool sinnlar to a foot-adze,

beyond

any description
or

I

had ever
warriurs

with which they cut and scrape the fleshy
side until
t^r
it

heard.

70

80

of

their best

becomes
have
a

thin

and smooth

af-

mounted
feet,

their

most active horses, one party

tl.is the)*

njixture

composed

ot

acting the part of their enemiesahe Black-

the bniins and liver of the

animal mixed
taken
out and
it is

each one armed with a gun, a club

together, in

which they soak the hide a

or lance, and

some with

both.

They
and

sep-

couple

of tlay^,

when

it is

arated, one pai ty to-one side and the other to the other side of the
plain,
at a

again stretched on the ground, where
beat antl rubbed with a paddle until
it

be-

given signal would advance towards each
other as fast as their horses would run,
ring and striking as they
fi-

comes perfectly

soft

and

c'ry.

After catching a good many bufTalo and some beaver at this place, we removed tothrowing themselves nearly under their wards the point designated to meet Capt. horses, so much so, that they could fire at Walker and his men. On the SOth weeneach other under their horse's belly. Du- camped at the junction of the Bighorn and ring the time they seemed to exert every Wind rivers. Not long after dark our ennerve, yet they kept up a continual noise, campment was surprised by a party o[ aby repeating the most wild and ferocious bout fifty Plackfeet suddenly appearing a-

would pass

yella

I

ever
tlie

heard.
lancet
is

Their activity
no
less

in

mong

our lukrses for the

purpose

of steal

throwing
can throw

wonderful-^— ing them.

This cieated a great uproar

in

being so expert in this
it

business that they our camp.
a

Kvery Indian was on
for fight in

his feet

20 or 25 yards and strike
man's head, whilst

and leady

an

instatit.

The en-

mark

the size of a

ri-

emy was

discovered too soon, and had to
of one man, without
all.

ding past as swift as their horses

will go.

retreat with the loss

The

greater part of the day was occu- taking any horses at

They were

foj-

ways across the plain to the up their march towards the river No-wood, mountain, but as the night was very dark on the banks of which stream we encamp- they could not be overtaken, and finally ed for the night. In this vicinity buflalo escaped. The one who had fallen was a appeared to be quite numerous and the In- principal chief among the Blackfeet, and dians killed several this evening. As the had ventured too near the encampment for
pied in this manner, after which they took

lowed

a great

[

8.4

y
It'vei as a floor,

thv purpose of tiiooiing a valuable horse.

with

llic

margin oflherivtliriviiig;

Htje we were
Ir)()ian
fcion,

to

have

atiutliev ^ceiie of

er evtMilj^ ornainenled

with

cot-

exultation.

On

the

toriiter

ocia-

lou wootl.

A

great

many

\vlii?e

people

when

the 69 Blackfeet had been kfll-

pass the winters

in this

valley, on

account

ed there was too

much griet min«led with «f Ihe abundance of hufldloand other game, The first night after reaching the camp the joy of the Crows to render it any thit)<^ like complete: but now it was quite difl'cr- of my old ctunpanions was spent in tellent, an enemy had falleti without cost- i'lg and hearmg t!)ld tiie many exploits ing a drop of blood on their part. On tlie ami atlventures which we had severally

former occasion

it

— now

it

was exultation

was joy only imitaied seen and took part in reality. Itap- Capt. VValkerand
scalping of one or being disturbed
ot their

in since

ourseparatio!).

his

men
any
of

had passed the

prarg natural for these Indians to
rnore-over the death and

exult time without encountering any hardships,
in

way, with the
hostile

— than they
my

efiemy without the loss of one

would

to kill fifty of the

own exception of cne- who watched
time

a

party

Indians
for

their

movements
succeeded

some

and loose one of their own. After those who had gave chase
this

&

ivho at lust

in stealing a

to the

few of their horses,

Blackfeet returned to camp,
dian was taken
liad

dead In-

The
n^ade

following day the

Crow

chiefs

were

lo a

some small articles of in hands. Alter every one carefully examined him, he was taken merchandi/.e, when we cominf^nced bartree atid there suspended by the neck, tering with them for their furs and bufHalo
presents of
the

men commenced shooting at him robes. As soon as they had sold out their squaws piercing him with sharp present stock they left us all highly pleassticks. This work was kept up until af- ed with their success, and commenced ter midnight, when they commenced dan- hunting tor more. As gatne wasvery plenwhen
jind the

ringandsi.>g::)g, yelling &<shouting, which

ty here

was carried
their time

far

beyond
near

that of

the 21st winter

in this valley,

we determined on spending ihe where we occupied
hunting and trapping a
little

and 22d Nov.
until

In this manner they spent
ten o clock,

«"i' l'"«e in

when
river—

ouiselves, but deriving our principal prot«ts

they prepared

to

remove up
after
all

which they did
the

by trading with the Indians for robes, which they would bring into our camp as taking leave of

Wind
it

dead
to

Indian by

abusing

in

some

^^bt as

they could dress them,
daily hunting
of

manner

show

their spite.

The
river until the

the Indians, as

We

travelled

up

Wind

well as ourselves, had thinned the buffalo

when we arrived at the camp P'^tty well, and driven them across the ofCapt Walker, whom, together with his country onto the Platte river— in conseinen we found in good health and spirits, quenee of which the Indians are now This camp is situated 60 or 70 miles east (l^t March, 183r)] prepatmg to leave us ofthe main chain of the Rocky niountains, and go down to the Yellow-Stoae river,
4(h of Dec.

on the head waters of
after

Wind

river,

running 150 or 300
river
is

miles in an easthe Bighorn.

which, which empties into the Missouri, where they intend spending the summer,

tern direction, empties into

The

Indians

left

with

us one of their

The Wind
tiful

valley, through

this river passes,

one of the
nature.

which tribe most beau- sy, or

who had received
a similar

a stroke of the pal-

affliction,

which had de-

formations

ot

It is

of

20 miles wide

in

«ome

places,

upwards prived him of speech and of the use of oneand is as hall of his body. He was a man of 30 oi

[

85
I

]
v !i(c!c.;.s

•i;-;

yra-s

ol i»gr,

nppcjirrd to be in

-nod
dead,

bul aiter

rubl)in;>

arui bleedinj^

hcalti),

hut was imifcly I;e1p!ess, one
k'g, bcisi*; ci»tiicdy i)uird),or

arm them eRectuaily, Ihey recovered, when
nuMj proceeded to exttitate the one

the

and ore

nnd
fo-

br«!5ini5'ng to

detay.

He was
toid

entirely
situation
tiiis

spectidess, and liad been in diis
four

we thought was t!ie least we t*;und to be in the must dangctous
uation, as his legs ar.d lower pai
t

whom injuted.but whom
sit-

yeais.

T'wy
greal

us that

of his

nuiu h.ad brei; a
the

warrior, and
fri.m a

that
h.ard,
in

morning
bed

alter retun.in^

body was completely ciubhed. This man, (Mr, Laront, o( St. Louis, whore he left
a wife

thou^^h «uetest,lul battle, he
his

was found
and

ami four children) sulieied .nostsethe reniainder
of the

d.ead, a* they ^ujinosed,
to bui v

that,

verely during

day

wlien about

him

in the evenir'ij;,he

and

al!

niiiiiL

and died the

next morninii?

g ve

si;it)S

of re^naiising
to his

(Mnveyed back
evl

when hf was about fcun rise. life wigwam, and reniainThe manner
lie

of

dig5;ing these

holes

is

(here U

v

tuo days and td^hts, wlien

upon
then
the

a high

dry bank, where they

sink a

teeovtred

fo ihc situation in wiiich

he was

round hole
di;:^

like a well, live or six iQei,

lelt Willi i\>.

As

he ha<" been suth a valall in their
h.is

a

elwunber under ground,

and where

uable

ciiief,

they did

power

to

merchandize isdeposileil
tccll part oi
it

— alter which
all

restore him the use of

body, and

had the
jilace
to

is tilled

up, and the top
the

(onveyed
so longer,

iiim

about

wiili

them from

covered with the statural sod, and
is

to place ever since, but

had resolved
left

and therefore

do overj>luss earth him widi us, thrown into tlie

careluliy

scraped up

&

river, or creek, so that nootj

telling us to
if

do with him as we pleased
to


to

thing tnay be left

the premises lo

lead

we saw pMoper
good,
if

take him with us well
leave irnn

to the tiiscovery of the

hidden treasure,
in

atid

not,

we might

March

iOth.

To-day we deposited

be food for'the beasts of the forest.

the cold earth the remain* of our

lament-

Having e«)ncluded our winters hunt and ed companion, Mr. Laront, in the most who hisve left respectable manner our means would altis, our men are now occupied in digging low, after whi'-h we resumed our business
trading with these Indians,
holes lor the secretion of our
jiehries

merchandize,

until

wc

reluir.

from

and of secreting our stores. Our provisions our were again grovviiig scarce tor which puris

spring's hunt, and

when we would
at the

be join- po^e each one

anxious

to

be on the move,

ed by Capt. Bonneville and his comj)any.

When we
in

tirst

canie to this place,

wc could

who was

to

meet us
the

mouth

of

Pa- stand

our encampment almost any mor-

poasia creek in

June next.
Coptain
to

On

was sent by
'•i/e

the 8th I ning and shoot down some lazy buffalo measure ibo that would be lu rking in the neighborhood

sf the holes that the
in

men were digging
men, the bank

—but now our
as a rabbit.

hunters might scour
not
kill

the

and whilst
tavcd

one of them,

taking the di» valley a whole day and

as

uiuch

siiensions, with three other
in,

covering two meti entirely, antlie

Having every thing

in

readiness for re-

other up to

shoulders, and dislocating moving on the morning of the 12th, Capt.
I

my
that

fool.

Of

the four,
to get out
all

was able

— the others being
''lately obtained,
•?'-

was the only one Walker wentgto the palsied Indian and without assistance told him that we were about going and
the time were not able to take him with Help was imme- poor Indian then, not being able
to us

seated at

us.
to

The
speak,

ihe accident happened.

and the men extricated made imploring signs
vvh.o

to leave

him

§oon as poH:^ible,

appeared entire- as much provision as vveeouhl spare. This


[

^^

]
\\ai(ini;

we

tlone

with clioeriulnes?,

but
woll,

it

only

men

{\)v

us ficcoiclirtg

io

appuinf-

consisted of the carcase of a

which

nuMit, at (he iiioulh of Popoasia cieek.

we placed

within reach

of

hiiii,

uhen he
ul

lequestcd that

we uould

fasten the cabin

door so as t© prevent the entrance
beasts.

Here we encamped for a few days, unwe could collect our peltiies together wild and make a divide— having sent some ol
til

our

men

to

biing

our

niei

chandize, &c.s
it,

The wounded,
myself
a litter

consisting of one with a from the place where

we had deposited

bi'oken leg, another's

back Sj)raincd, and who succeeded without any diflicufty,and

my

foot dislocated,

were placed on stated

that no traces of the

palsied Indian

made

of a buffalo skin, with a pole

tied to each side of

tween

two horses.

we had left there could be discovered. it and fastened be- We now set about packing and sorting our This was the most furs, &c., and making arrangeuuMits for
well as to the the ei.'suingyear

painful travelling to me, as
others, that
1

— such as

paying-^r-ff'

hands

had ever experienced,

par- hiriijg

them

for

another term, and appor-

liculaily whilst passing over a rough piece tioning the diRerent compaiiies.

Captain
continue

(f ground.

Walker, with 59 men, was
ltd in a northern

to

Our conise

direction trapping in this country fur otie year from

after reaching the IVighorn river,

which we

this time,

and Capt. Bonnevillei with the
all

followed a few days and then crossed over remainder, taking
to

the

peltries

we

hatl

Tongue

river,

which stream empties

in-

collected,

and

which was

packed

upon

to the

Missouri below
stone.

Yellow
log and

the mouth of the horses and mules, was to go to the States, Here we decided on hunt- and leturn in the summer of 1830, with as

trapping,

beaver signs were as strong a lorce as he could collect, and a
ice

quite numerous.

The

had not entire- large supply of merchandize, and
but there Capt. W^alker in
this

meet

ty melted from this stream yet,

neighborhood,
of

was none

left to

prevent us from following

On

partitig this time,

our favouiable pursuit-

In this neighboi- were at a loss to

many know what to

the

men

do.

Mat»y

hood, we spent the months of Aprd, May, were anxious to return to the States, but and part of June, passing from one water feared to (\o so, lest the offended law might course to another, finding plenty of bea- hold them responsible for misdemeanors ver at each place, and some other game.' committed previous to their embarking in During the whole time we were permitted the trapping business, and others could to follow our business without any distur- not be persuaded to do so for any price— All the wounded had completely declaring that a civilized life had no charm* bance. Although I intended to return recovered, and were enabled to make a for them.

profitablehunt— having
following rivers all of

visited, in our toil- to the

mountains again,
first

I

was particularthe

some occupation, the head

waters of the ly anxious to

visit

States lest I

which are the tribu- should also forget the blessings ot civilitaries of the Missouri:— Tongue, Powder, zed society, and was very thankful when Yellowstone, liittle and Big Porcupine, I found mysell in Capt. Bonneville's comMisscleskell, Priors, Smith's,
Otter,
rivers.

Gallatin's, pany, on the

march towards

the rising sun.
killed all

Rose-bud,

Clark's and Stinking

As we travelled along we game we could, this being
is

the

necessary,

as

About

the 10th of

June we suspended provision

very scarce on the course
the white

we

our trapping and returned to

Wind

river,

intended

to

pursue between the village of
settle-

where we found I'apt. Bonneville and his the

Pawnee Indians and

[

87

]

rnouts.

About
until

the

2r)Ll> uf

July we ani-

aiis for

some corn, we

lult

them and

trav-

ved on the Phit

le livcr,

which we [oilow-

tlle-J rajjidiy ever}'

day

until

we arrived
exthe

ed

down

we

arrived, at the

Pawnee
(Voir.

in

Lndependenci:, (Mo.,)
white

vvhicii is the

village,

situated

about

150 miles

Ireme western
29Lh of
Auj^u.-.t,
fou'-

settlement, on

where

the

Platte river empties into

the

1835

— after

being absent
live

Missouri.

After Hading with these fndi-

lour years,

mon ihs, and

dava.

K!,NH,

J%

COPY of Letter to Dr.

George D. Lyman from Henry R. Wagner

March 6, 1940
Herewith is my little tale about the Zenas Leonard.
About in 1908 or 1909, while passing through Chicago I stopped at McClurg*s bookstore to see if they had anything new, as I Always stopped there when passing through Chicago, Mr. Chandler was at that time in charge of the Rare Book department. He told me that he had a book in which he thought I might be interested and produced the Zenas Leonard narrative. I had heard of the book on account of the reprint but had never seen the original which I knew was a very scarce book. He said the price was |75,so I put it in my overcoat pocket and went off with it. While chatting witb him he said that Walter Douglas, who was at that time manager of the phelps-Dodge interests in Arizona, had been in shortly before and he had showed him the book, Douglas was not interested, That evening while on the Rock Island trtin to El Paso, while going to the dining car, I happened to see Mr. Douglas, whom I knew ^uite well, sitting in a drawing room with a lady who turned out to be his wife. I stopped a minute to shake hands with him, and he asked me to come in and have e chat after I got dinner. So on my return I stopped in the drawing room. While talking to him he said that something rather amusing had happened that afternoon. I might say that Douglas was only Interested in collecting Mexican Inquisition documents. He said he had visited McClurg and Chandler had shown him a book whose title he did not remember but he said he wanted #75 for it. He then said that ax about five- thirty he stopped in McClurg 's to pick up a package end Chandler had told him that he had sold the book, and then Douglas said, 'I wonder what fool paid #75 for that book." I allowed that I was the fool and said that it was a very rare book well worth $75, but he would not believe it.
The book passed to Mr. Huntington with my collection of Western Books, and he sold it at one of his duplicate sales. As it had my bookplate in It afterwards turned up in the possession it it was readily recognizable. of Herschel V. Jones, but I hardly think he bought it at the Huntington Sale, although he might have as he was just then beginning to be interested in Western books. It recently, as you know, passed into the hands of Dr.Rosenbach,

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