This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
The Body's Building Blocks .................. .
Your Skin-Jack of All Trades ................. .
Your Skeleton-Support and Protection ............ ii
Teeth-Food Cutters, Crushers, and Grinders ........ ib
Your Muscles-the Tissue That Moves You .... . . .... iB
Your Thirty-foot Digestive System ............... ¿¿
Lungs-Your Breath of Life ......... . ..... . ... ¿b
Your Body's Blood Pump ..... . .. . ............ ¿B
Kidneys-Your Body's Filtration Plant ............. J4
Brain, Nerves-Your Communication System ........ Jb
Seeing, Hearing, and Other Senses ............... JJ
The Endocrine System-Chemical Control .......... 44
More of a Kind ..... . ....... . . ............ 4b ¬
A GOLDEN EXPLORING EARTH BOOK
THE HUMAN BODY
All about the inside and outside of the body that
is you. A fascinating look at the heart, brain, bone,
muscle, skin, and much more-told in easy-to-read
text and lavishly illustrated in full color .
By George b. Fichter
Illustrated by Ralph b. Ricketts
Cover by Rod Ruth
WCStCtn FubIíShíng Oomþany, lnC., HaCínC, WISConSIn
Copyright® TÜÏÏ by Western Publishing Company, Inc. All rights reserved.
No part of this book may be reproduced or copied in any form without
written permission from the publisher. Printed in U.S.A.
GOLDEN PRESS®, GOLDEN, and A GOLDEN EXPLORING ERTH BOOK are trademarks of
Western Publishing Company, Inc.
Your Amazi ng Body
From thc timc of your birth, and for
as Iong as you Iivc, your body is ncvcr
compIctcIy at rcst. Evcry sccond, your
body is using cncrgy. Moving your arms
and Icgs takcs cncrgy. Thc bcating of
your hcart, thc bIinking of your cycIids,
thc rcading of this book÷cvcry kind of
activity rcquircs at Icast somc cncrgy,
which comcs from thc food you cat. You
ing your body. What is most amazing is
how your body providcs cncrgy, growth,
and rcpairs, using onIy food you cat.
Your body is composcd of biIIions of
tiny Iiving units caIIcd ccIIs. Thcrc arc
many kinds of ccIIs in your body. Thosc
ccIIs that arc aIikc and work togcthcr
form tissucs. Tissucs, intum, form Iargcr
units caIIcd organs. Organs arc groupcd
intoIargcrunits caIIcd systcms. Togcthcr,
thc systcms form your body.
Onc of thcsc systcms is thc skin, thc
protcctivc outcr covcring of thc body. In
gIands, scrvcs as a pIacc for thc storagc
tcmpcraturc, and contains many ncrvc
cndings that rcspond to touch, prcssurc,
pain, hcat, and coId.
Thc skcIctaI systcm÷thc boncs of your
It protccts vitaI parts, such as your brain,
hcart, and Iungs, and it givcs anchoragc
�nd Icvcragc for aII thc musclcs you usc
Åhc uscur �yscm consists of scv-
craI typcs of muscIcs. Thosc attachcd di-
rcctIy to thc big boncs of your skcIcton,
as inthc arms andIcgs, canbc movcd at
that hcIp givc your body itsûrmncssand
shape. Still others, such as the heart, do
t t automatically. You have no
control over them.
In the digestive system, foods are
changed into simpler forms that can be
used by the body. The principal parts of
this system are the mouth, stomach, and
The lungs, windpipe, and parts of the
nose and throat form the respiratory sys
tem. Its job is to provide the blood with
oxygen and remove carbon dioxide, a
The circulatory system consists of the
heart, arteries, veins, capillaries, and blood.
This system carries the oxygen and food
substances to cells throughout the body.
It also carries away waste products from
Wastes are removed from the body by
the excretory system. Many wastes are re
moved from the blood by the kidneys.
The lungs and the skin also eliminate
wastes, and solid wastes pass from the
The brain, spinal cord, and nerves make
up the nervous system. This is the complex
communications network with which you
see, hear, taste, touch, and sense your
surroundings. Also, the brain is capable
of thinking and remembering. Without
these abilities, you would not be able to
read this book. Scientists feel that the
brain is, for many reasons, probably the
most important organ in the body.
The endocrine system is sometimes re
ferred to as the body's chemical control.
This system is composed entirely of small,
special glands found in various places in
your body. The secretions of the glands
are called hormones, which determine
your rate of growth and control many oth
er body activities.
Finally, the reproductive system makes
it possible for human beings" to create
new human beings. It consists of the testes
in the male and the ovaries and uterus in
These various systems, each composed
of millions and millions of individual
cells, work in miraculous harmony to
keep your body functioning.
Although we are similar in structure, each of us is a unique person.
We are made of bi l l i ons of cel l s of
diferent kinds. Some of them l ook
cel l --
The Body' s Bui l ding Bl ocks
and animals consist ofa singlc cclI. Your
body is composcd of billions of ccIIs.
Onc drop of bIood, forcxampIc, contains
morc than a miIIion rcd bIood ccIIs.
CcIIs arc composcd principaIIy of pro-
topIasm, a grayish, ¿cIIyIikc, amazingIy
compIcx substancc. Many cIcmcnts arc
butthcmostcommon arc carbon, hydro-
gcn, nitrogcn, and oxygcn.
About scvcnty pcrccnt of protopIasm
is watcr. Thc ncxi most abundani sub-
Protcins arc caIIcd thc buiIding bIocks of
aII Iifc. Sugars, starchcs,andfats, thcoth-
Salts, vitamins, and a numbcr of othcr
substanccs occur in protopIasm in Icsscr
and oùcn minutc amounts, but thcy arc
of vit�I importancc.
Most cclIs arc largc cnough to bc sccn
with an ordinary microscopc. Thc typicaI
animaI ccII consists of thrcc major parts:
thc nucIcus, cytopIasm, and mcmbrancs.
Within thc ccII is found a dcnsc, tiny
mass of protopIasm÷thc nuclcus, hcId
togcthcr by its mcmbranc. Surrounding
thc nucIcus and making up thc buIk of
cvcry ccII is a watcç protopIasm caIIcd
cytoplasm. Holding ihc cytoplasm to-
ccII. In it arc a numbcr of sIcndcr, dark
thrcads caIIcd chromosomcs. Thcsc arc
A single cell Howa Cell
that about two million red blood cells die
and are replaced ever second·.
Body cells divide by a process called
mitosis, which occurs continuously in the
body. First the chromosome materials in
the nucleus of the cell become well or
ganized into distinct threads. Each chromo
some thread divides and forms identical
pairs. Then the membrane around the
nucleus disappears. The pairs of chromo
somes separate, one from each pair mov-
Chromosome pairs separate. Nucl eus membranes form; cell divides. Two cel l s
Genes are so tiny that they cannot be seen
even when magnifed thousands of times.
Genes determine the characteristics of the
cell. These features are passed on when
the cell divides. They are also passed on
from parents to their young.
The cytoplasm contains fats, sugars,
starches, proteins, salts, and other sub
stances. In the cytoplasm, too, are bubble
lke spaces called vacuoles. Some of these
vacuoles contain foods that will be used
by the cell. Others contain wastes to be
The exact composition of the cytoplasm
is always changing, for each cell acts like
a little chemical factory. It accepts raw ma
terials and converts them into usable sub
stances, and it eliminates the wastes that
form. In parts of the body that are grow
ing or that are replacing themselves as old
cells die, the cells are dividing constantly.
In the blood, for example, it is estimated
ing toward the opposite end of the cell.
When the chromosomes reach the opposite
ends of the cell, they form tiny clusters.
A membrane forms around each cluster,
forming a new nucleus. A cell wall the
appears between the two nuclei. Now there
are two separate cells, each containing an
exact duplication of the chromosome ma
terials in the original cell. All this hap
pens in an hour or less.
The body is composed of many difer
ent kinds of cells, each type having a spe
cial function. Muscle cells have the ability
to contract or change shape, which makes
movement possible. Nerve cells receive
and transmit impulses or stimuli. Gland
cells produce various kinds of secretions.
Red blood cells carry large quantities of
oxygen and release it for use where
needed. White blood cells absorb and di
gest disease organisms. So despite their
similarities in basic composition, the cells
of thc body dodißcrin thcir appcarancc
CcIIs of about thc samc sizc andshapc
and having thc samc function arc
groupcd togcthcr to form tissucs. Many
muscIc ccIIs groupcd togcthcr, for cxam-
pIc, form muscIc tissuc. Thc groups of
muscIc ccIIs arc hcId togcthcr by ccIIs of
anothcr typc that form conncctivc tissuc,
which is common throughout thc body.
BIood is a Iiquid tissuc.
Tissucs form stiIIIargcr, morc compIcx
units known as organs. Thc hcart, stom-
ach, Iivcr, and intcstincs arc cxampIcs of
organs. Most organs consist of scvcraI
kinds of tissuc, but onc gcncraIIy dom-
inatcs. Thc brain is principaIIy ncrvc tis-
suc; thc stomach and thc hcart consist
mainIy of muscIc tissuc.
Oroups of organs form body systcms.
Thc digcstivc systcm consists of thc
mouth, stomach, thc smaII and Iargc in-
tcstincs, and various othcr digcstivc or-
gans, aII working togcthcr to acccpt and
So simiIar ccIIs form tissucs that arc
groupcd togcthcr to formorgans. Organs
makc upthcsystcms that form thcbody.
Each ofthc ma¿or systcms of thc body is
dcscribcd in thc foIIowingchaptcrs.
A Few of the Many Ki nds of Cells Found in the Body
gl and cel l s
muscl e cel l s
cel l s
Your Skin-Jack of Al l Trades
Your skin is onc of thc most rcmark-
abIc of aII thc body systcms. TotaIIy, an
if strctchcd out, itwouId mcasurcscvcraI
sguarc fcct. It consists of many biIIions
outcr surfacc of your body. Ii cvcn cx-
for instancc. Thc skin is thickcst on thc
soIcs of your fcct, and it may bc cvcn
thickcr if you go barcfootcd a Iot.
Ovcr most of your body, cvcry square
inch of skin contains many swcat gIands,
scvcraI dozcn oiI gIands, about thrcc fcct
of tiny capiIIarics carrying bIood to and
from thc skin, as many as twcIvc fcct of
ncrvcs forscnsing hcat, cold, touch, prcs-
surc, and pain, and many ¡housands of
Your skin is composcd of two Iaycrs.
consists mostIyofdcadccIIsthat arccon-
Iosc IitcraIIy milIions of oId skin ccIIs. In
a Iifctimc, you shcdyour outcr skin scvcn
or cight timcs, bit by bit. Gctting rid of
thcsc dcad ccIIs is a naturaI proccss. Thc
vcry outcr portion of your skin is aIso
thcpartthatpccIs oßwhcnyou sunbum.
Thc ccIls immcdiatcIy bcncath this Iaycr
providc thc ncw cc|Is that kccp thc skin
cIcan and bright.
Sprcad ovcr thc outcr Iaycr of thc skin
around thc hairs. Somc pcopIc producc
morc of this oiI than do othcrs. Thc oiI
acts as a Iubricant tþat kccps thc skin
soù, pIiabIc, and watcroof.
Thc much thickcr Iaycr of skin undcr
thccpidcrmisis caIIcdthcdcrmis. Itcon-
tains thc bIood vsscIs, ncrvcs, swcat
gIands, and conncctivc tissuc that ¿oins
thc dcrmis to thc cpidcrmis. SmaII raiscd
arcas, or ridgcs, arc formcd by this con-
ncctivc tissuc. Thcsc ridgcsarc what givc
cach pcrson his distinctivc ûngcrprints,
unlikc anyonc cIsc's. Thcsc ridgcs aIso
contain thc ncrvc cndings for touch and
Whcn you arc hot, you pcrspirc. Morc
skin pour out liquids. As thc pcrspiration
watcr as your body dcmands a rcpIacc-
On cooI days, thc swcat porcs rcmain
closcd, andyoupcrspirc vcry IittIc or not
!t aIso contains various wastc saIts, acids,
and othcr substanccs, most of thcm morc
or lcss harmful to thc body. Whcn thc
wat cr cvaporatcs from thc pcrspiration,
on thc surfacc of thc skin.
You arc aIso cooIcd by thc action of
thc tiny bIoodvcsscIs inyour skin. Whcn
you arc hot, thcsc IittIc bIood vcsscIs
diIatc, or cnIargc, cxposing a grcatcr
amount of bIood to thc cooIing air. This
is what makcs you ûushcd, or rcd in thc
facc, whcn you arc hot. In cooI wcathcr,
in thc skin.
Thc skin is coIorcd by a pigmcnt
calIcd mcIanin. PcopIc who havc a Iot of
mcIanin in thcir skin arc brown to bIack.
McIanin and anothcr pigmcnt makc a
rcddish or ycIIowish skin. PcopIcwith Iit-
tIc or no mcIanin in thcir skin arc whitc
÷or cvcn pinkish, if thcir blood vcsscIs
Each person has uni que
al l fngerpri nts can be
grouped i nto one of three
types: arch, whorl , and
son has morc than thc usuaÌ amount of
mcÌanin bccausc thcskin has produccdit
as a protcction against bumg from thc
McIanin is aIso thc pigmcnt that givcs
hair its coÌor. Thc morc mcIanin, thc
darkcr thc hair. Whcn mcÌanin is mixcd
shadcs of brown. If mcIanin is Ìacking,
thc hair may bc bIond or rcd.
Hair consists of thc hair shaù, an oiI
gÌand, and a tiny muscÌc that can crcct
If you bccomc frightcncd, your hair wiII
When you are fri ghtened1
hai r muscl es contract,
causi ng the hair to i
on end" and "goosf bu ·
"stand on cnd," or you wiÌÌ gct "goosc
bumps" ovcr your body. This happcns
hairs contract and tightcn.
Hairstarts itsgrowth fromspcciaÌ ccIIs
in thc dcrmis. Soon thc ncw hair pushcs
throughthccpidcrmis, growing ina ÌittÌc
pockct, or tubc,caÌÌcd afoIÌicÌc. Thchair
itscIf is a rod of dcad ccÌIs,but thc basc,
or root, is Iiving and is suppIicd with
a miIIionhairs on yourbody. Somc pco-
as haIf a miIÌion. Most of thcsc hairs arc
vcry smaÌÌ and whitish; othcrs arc Ìargc.
Thc hair on your hcad grows about so
inchcs a ycar÷morc than that on somc
pcopÌc, Icss onothcrs÷and a bit fastcr in
summcr than in wintcr.
Most hairs arc shcd and rcpÌaccd at
rcguIar intcrvaIs. About four ycars is thc
avcragc Ìcngth of Iifc for a hair on your
Your ûngcmaiIs arc aÌsooutgrowthsof
is dcad, butthc rootis aIivc and is richÌy
Ìy producing ncw ccÌIs and pushing thc
nail outward. In a hcaIthypcrson,ûngcr-
nails grow about two inchcs a ycar. If
you ncvcr cut your naiIs, thcy would bc
about tcn fcct Ìong by thc timc you
rcachcd thc agc of sixty!
Your Skel eton-Support and Protection
!fyou wcrc givcnthc taskofputting a
body togcthcr, you wouId start with thc
boncs. Put togcthcr propcrIy, thcy wouId
ports thc body and givcs it shapc.
Parts of your skcIcton aIso scrvc im-
portantIy as protcction for dcIicatc parts
of yourbody. Yourbrain,forcxampIc, is
cncascd in thc boxIikc cranium of your
hcad, and your hcart, Iungs, and somc
thc muscIcs you usc in moving arc at-
thc marrow in thc hoIIow boncs of your
body manufacturcs both rcd and whitc
TotaIIy, your skcIcton consists of 200
boncs÷or 20ó, if thc tiny, bony parts of
thc inncr car arc countcd scparatcIy.
Many pcopIc arc surpriscd to Icarn that
thcir boncs arc not soIid, dry, hard, and
dcad. Rathcr, most boncs arc hoIIow or
at Icast spongy insidc, and, though ûrm,
many arc ûcxibIc. Furthcr, thcy arc vcry
much aIivc, containing bIood vcsscIs and
ncrvcs as wcII as activc, dividing bonc
ccIIs. Bonc is indccd a Iiving tissuc.
Bonc ccIIs dividc constantIy to rcpIacc
thosc that arc oId and worn-out. !f you
immcdiatcIy to makc rcpairs. Doctors
hcIp by"sctting" thc bonc and hoIdingit
tain that it hca|s straight.
into two groups: (I) thosc that providc
mainIy support and protcction and havc
IittIc or no movcmcnt, such as thc skuII,
backbonc,andchestboncs; and(2) thosc
hi nge and
pivot j oi nt
j oi nt, many
thatarc movabIc, such asthc hand, arm,
and Icg boncs.
Thc point whcrc two boncs mcct is
caIIcd a ¿oint. MuscIcs and Iigamcnts,
suc, arc attachcd from onc bonc to an-
oncbonc movcs toward thc othcr. Whcn
thcmuscIc rcIaxcs, thcbonc movcs back.
You can scc this casily by Iiñing your
muscIc in your uppcr arm.
sl i ghtly movabl e
j oi nt-backbone
a tough mcmbranc that prcvcnts thcm
from rubbing dircctIy against cach othcr
at thc ¿oints. Most ¿oints aIso contain
cushions madc of cartiIagc, pIus a smaII
amount of ûuid, pcrmitting thc ¿oint to
opcratc smoothly without doing damagc.
ing typc of ¿oint is thc baII-and-sockct
typc. This is thc typc you havc in your
hip and in your shouldcr. Thc kind of
¿oints in your cIbows and ûngcrs opcratc
down but in onIyonc dircction. Thc two
clbow by a pivot ]oint that allows thc
· boncstorollovcrcachothcr. Thisiswhat
pcrmits you to tum your hands palm up
or palm down.
Your skuIl consists of thrcc parts: thc
cranium, th�facc,and thcIargc,movablc
Iowcr¿aw. Thccranium, housingthcvitaI
brain, is formcd of six smooth-surfaccd,
curvcd boncs. Thc ¿aggcd cdgcs of thc
boncs ût tightIy togcthcr so that it is dif-
ûcuIt to scc thc scparatc boncs. (In ncw-
togcthcr in somc pIaccs. Thcsc arc thc
"soù spots" in thc baby's hcad.) At thc
basc of thc cranium in thc rcar is a Iargc
opcning, thc foramcn magnum, through
which thc spinaI cord and Iargc artcrics
and vcins pass. Thc front of thc cranium
forms thc forchcad.
A numbcr ofsmall boncscompnsc thc
facc. Insidc somc ofthc facc boncs arc a
numbcr of cavitics, or sinuscs, most of
hclp to warm and to ûltcr thc air. Somc-
timcs thc sinuscs bccomc blockcd or in-
pcopIc with aIIcrgics.
Thc Iowcr¿aw, or mandiblc, is a largc
skuII and is thconly movabIc skull bonc.
An important supporting unit of your
skcIcton is your backbonc or vcrtcbral
coIumn. It consists of thirty-thrcc small
boncs or vcrtcbrac. Thcrc arc scvcn ncck
vcrtcbrac, twcIvc in thc chcst or thorax,
hvc in thc Iowcr back, ûvc morc that arc
vis is attachcd, and four (orrarcIy morc)
The Skull ot ÕW Adult
The porti on that covers the brai n i s cal l ed t he
crani um. Face bones and l ower jawbone make up
t he bal ance of the skul l . The lower jawbone i s
the only movabl e bone.
atl as, frst cervical
vertebra-supports skul l
If thcscdiscssÌidcout of pÌacc, or "sÌip,"
thcy may pinch thc ncrvcs. This is cx-
rcctcd onÌy by surgcry.
Thc ûrst ncck vcrtcbra is caÌIcd thc
hcad. It isaring of bonc with two broad
pro¿cctions on thc uppcr sidc. Thc hcad
canmovc backandforth ornod on thcsc
AÌmostaÌÌof thc vcrtcbrachavcahoIc
through which thc spinaÌ cord passcs.
Ncrvcs conncct to thc spinaÌ cord by cn-
thcvcrtcbrac. Anctworkof bÌoodvcsscÌs
aÌso foÌÌows thcsc channcÌs.
AIso part of thc main, or supporting,
four sÌcndcr, ûat, curvcd ribs÷twcIvc on
cach sidc. A arc attachcd to thc back-
l umbar vertebra
bonc. In front, thc ûrst scvcn arc¿oincd
to thc brastbonc, or stcmum. Thc ncxt
which arc not attachcd at aÌI in front.
Ncithcr is as Iong as thc othcr ribs. This
othcr vitaÌ organs of thc chcst.
In cach shouÌdcr arc found two boncs
bÌadc (scapuÌa). ThccoIÌarboncis¿oincd
tion, thcsc two boncs that form cach
Thcarmboncsattachtothc scapuIa bya
baIÌ-and-sockct ¿oint at thc armpit. This
thc arms can bc pivotcd in aÌmost cvcç
Thc big bonc of thc uppcr arm is thc
and thc radius, forming thc Iowcr arm.
Thcsc arc thc boncs that can bc pivotcd
acrosscachothcr, pcrmitting youto twist
yourIowcrarm. EightsmaIIboncs, caIIcd
carpaIs,form thc wrist, and thc paIm of
thc hand contains ûvc Iong mctacarpaIs.
Attachcd to cach of thc mctacarpaIs arc
thc boncs of a ûngcr. Thcrc arc thrcc
in thc thumb.
Thc thumb is uniquc. Thc mctacarpal
bonc to which it is attachcd is sct in a
dißcrcnt dircction from thc othcr mcta-
carpaIs, and it can movc frccIy. This op-
to grasp and to manipuIatc ob¿ccts. This
is onc of thcoutstanding fcaturcs thatsct
man apart from aII othcr anim
Yourhipboncs arc sturdy in structurc,
for thcy support thc buIk of thc body
wcightas wcIIasaIIowing forattachmcnt
of thc Icgs. Thc hips arc formcd of two
Iargc, soIid boncs, thc pcIvics. Thcy arc
¿oincd to thc sacrum, thc fuscd boncs of
tion with thc Ieg boncs.
Thc hcavy, topmost bonc of thc Icg is
thc fcmur. It is thc Iargcst bonc in your
body. ThcIowcrIcgconsistsoftwo boncs
÷thc sIim, rodIikc ûbuIa and thc largcr,
ûat tibia, or shinbonc. Bctwccn thc tibia
and thcfcmuristhcsmaII,ûatpatclIa, or
kncccap. Thc ûbuIa and tibia arc bound
thc othcr as thc Iowcr arm boncs can.
Thc boncs of thc fcct arc much Iikc
boncs. Thc Iargctoc, Iikc thc thumb, has
onIy two boncs. A thc othcr tocs havc
thrcc boncs. Bccausc thc foot is archcd,
muchofthc shock is absorbcd whcnyou
waIk. Shocs with high hccIs throw thc
wcight of thc body forward and dcstroy
much of thc cßcctivcncss of this arch.
bones of ankl e,
or metacarpal s
or phal anges
Teeth-Food Cutters, Crushers, Grinders
You wcrc bom toothIcss. Your ûrst
tooth probabIy appcarcd whcn you wcrc
about six months oId, and it may havc
bccnasIongas twoycarsbcforcyou had
your compIctc sct of tcmporary tccth÷
twcnty in aII. By thc timc you wcrc six
ycars oId, you bcgan to Iosc this sct of
tccth and gct your pcrmancnt tccth, but
arc not shcd untiI agc tcn or cIcvcn.
Thctcmporary tccth arcpushcdout as
Thissct is aImost compIctc at agc twcIvc
or thirtccn. OnIy thc so-caIIcd wisdom
tccth, onc on cach sidc at thc rcar of thc
uppcr and Iowcr jaws, havc not yct ap-
pcarcd. Thcy usua|Iy push through thc
gums÷somctimcs painfuIIy and nccding
hcIp÷during thc Iatc tccns. Oùcn thcy
comc in crookcd bccausc thcrc is not
cnough spacc for thcm in thc¿aw. Somc
pcopIc ncvcr gct thcir wisdom tccth, but
if thcy do, thcir pcrmancnt sct of tccth
consists of thirty-two tccth.
ourjaws. Thchardcstpartof thc toothis
thc outcr covcring, orcnamcI. This is thc
part of thc tooth that shows. Thc roots
caIIcd ccmcntum. Bcncath thc cnamcI of
cach tooth is thc ivorylikc dcntin, which
makcs up thc buIk of thc tooth. In thc
ccntcr is thc pulp cavity, containing ar-
tcrics, vcins, and ncrvc cndings.
Yourcight fronttccth÷four abovc and
0at, wcdgc-shapcd cdgcs for cutting or
slicing. On cach sidc of thc incisors in
cuspid, or caninc. Thc canincs hcIp tcar
food for chcwing. Ncxt to thcm arc thc
bicuspids÷cight totaIIy, two in cach haIf
of thc uppcr and Iowcr¿aws. Thcsc tccth
principaIo ofgrinding food is donc by
thcbroadmoIars. ThcmoIars arcthc Iast
C. Mol ars-used to gri nd food
B. Cuspi ds and bi cuspi ds-used
to tear and crush food
tccth. Thcrc arc two on cachsidc in thc
uppcr and Iowcr¿aws, and ifthc wisdom
tccth appcar, anothcr moIar is addcd to
cach¿aw on cachsidc.
In an idcaI sct of tccth, thc uppcr
tccthovcrIapthc Iowcrtccth sIightIy. Of-
tcn tccth comc in crookcd or arc not
spaccd propcrIy. Evcn sIight misûts that
in Iatcr Iifc. In modcm dcntaI practicc,
thcsc conditions arc corrcctcd as soon as
possibIc. Tccth that ût togcthcr propcrly
propcrIy ûtting tccth aIso coniributc
grcatIy to a good appcarancc.
Cavitics arc tooth dccay causcd by an
A. i ncisors
B. cuspi ds and
bi cuspi ds
C. mol ars
A. I nci sors-used to cut food
bctwccnthc tccth or at thc gum Iinc, but
in thc cnamcI. Thc bactcria, which arc
normaIIy prcscnt in thc mouth, fccd aI-
son, it is important to brush your tccth
aùcr cvcry mcaI. If this is not possibIc,
you shouId rinsc your mouth wcII with
Aftcr thc acid cats away thc cnamcI,
rapid ratc. If not stppcd, it rcachcs thc
puIp cavity and bcgins to bc painfuI. It
Iy by a dcntist. Prcvcntion is much wiscr
and Icss costIy than waiting until scrious
Your Muscles-the Tissue That Moves You
ÍÍ somconc asks you to show your
muscIc, you wiII usuaIIy ûcx your arm to
show oß thc sizc of your biccps, thc big
muscIc inyouruppcr arm. You probabIy
you havc inyourbody. TotaIIy, thcrcarc
about ÛÜÜ. AImost aII of thc "ûcsh" of
yourbody ismuscIc. Musclcs account for
roughIy haIf your wcight.
You dcpcndon your muscIcsforcvcry
movc you makc. MuscIcs opcn and shut
your cycs and movc your cycbaIIs; thcy
kccpyour bIood moving, hcIp you digcsi
your food, movc your arms and Icgs and
your ûngcrs and tocs. Lvcr¡ kind of mo-
tion invoIvcs at Icast onc muscIc.
hcart, or cardiac, muscIc.
Voluntary muscIcs arc thosc thatmovc
hundrcd or morc. This kind of muscIc is
sccnundcr amicroscopc, thcccIIs appcar
to havc stripcs or bands.
Thc muscIcs of your arms and Icgs arc
caI cxamplc,consists of an cnIargcd mid-
dIc portion, or"bcIIy," andtapcrcd cnds.
Thc part attachcd to thc most stationary
i nvol untary,
vol untary, or
abIc part ofthc skcIcton, is knownas thc
inscrtion. ThcscmuscIcsarcconncctcd to
thc boncs by tcndons, which arc strong
and ûcxibIc but do not strctch.
through thc digcstivc tract or that diIatc
or rcstrict thc sizc of bIood vcsscIs arc of
this sort. Thcsc arc aIso caIIcd smooth
muscIcs, bccausc thcir ccIIs do not havc
tains onIy onc nucIcus.
Hcart, or cardiac, muscIc is a spcciaI
typc. It is cross-stripcd, or striatcd, yct it
is invoIuntary. You havc no controI ovcr
cIc in your body. It opcratcs twcnty-four
body with cach bcat. Evcry ycar your
hcart bcats or contracts about forty miI-
Iion timcs, and it may opcratc for cighty
ycars or Iongcr without dmcuIty. In that
Icngth of timc, it wiII pump about scv-
cnty miIIion gaIIons of bIood through
MuscIcs causc movcmcnt by contract-
ing. Whcn you Iiù your arm, thc big bi-
ccps muscIc in your uppcr arm contracts
timc, thc triccps muscIconthc undcrsidc
of your arm is rcIaxcd. MuscIcs causc
puII, but thcy cannot push. So to Iowcr
yourarm,yourcIaxthc biccpsand atthc
arm back to its originaI position.
Thc Iiùing rcquircs morc cncrgy, and
so thc biccps is thc Iargcr and strongcr
of thc two muscI�s. Most carpcntcrs and
othcr workmcn who usc thcir arms a Iot
dcvcIop Iargc and powcrfuI biccps. InaIÌ
cascs, howcvcr,thc muscIcthatbnngs an
appcndagc cIoscr to thc body is much
strongcr than thc onc that puIIs it away,
as in thc casc of thc biccps and thc tri-
ccps. As anothcr cxampIc, thc muscIcs
cIosing your¿aws arc muchstrongcr than
totaIIy. Evcn at rcst, muscIcs arc in a
sIight statc of contraction, caIIcd ¨tonc."
Ncrvcsarc conncctcdto cachmuscÌcand
rcccivc mcssagcs or stimuIi transmittcd
from your brain via thc spinaI cord or
somctimcs dircctIy from thc spinaI cord.
Thc ncrvcs triggcr thc muscIc tocontract
untary muscIcs by your thoughts.
Muscles of the Body
A l arge part
of your body
i s muscl e
about one half
of your total
InvoÌuntaç muscÌcs arc sct into opcr-
ation by factors ovcr which you havc no
digcstivc tract, for cxampÌc, it appÌics
causcs thc muscÌcs to contract and rcÌax,
staÌsis, that kccps thc food moving.
Whcn you bccomc hot, thc muscÌcs in
thcwaÌlsofbÌood vcsscÌsncarthc surfacc
of thc skin automaticaÌÌy rcÌax. This aÌ-
Iows morc blood to cntcr thc vcsscÌs,
which aÌso movc cÌoscr to thc surfacc.
Thcsc actions hclp to cooÌ you oß. In
contrast, whcn you arc coÌd, thc muscÌcs
around thc bÌood vcsscÌs tightcn, con-
of bÌood brought cÌosc to thc surfacc. At
farthcr bcÌow thc surfacc.
Thc movcmcnt of any muscÌc rcquircs
cncrgy. This comcs from thc foods you
cat. Thcsc foods arc digcstcd and thcn
thc bÌood tothcmuscÌc tissuc.
Thc foods thatsuppÌy cncrgy for moving
systcm, you can run or cxcrcisc in othcr
samc timc. You rcpIacc thc suppIy Iatcr.
You bccomc tircd whcn you havc cx-
haustcd your cncrgy rcscrvcs and wastc
to ahi�hIcvcI.Asyourcst, mostofthcsc
wastcs arc changcd into carbon dioxidc
and watcr, which arc carricd away from
thc muscIcs by thc bIood.
Working muscIcs arc richIy suppIicd
with bIood vcsscIs, for oxygcn is ncccs-
sary in thc proccss of changing thc gIy-
cogcn into cncrgy. Thcsc arc thc "rcd"
ampIcofa rcdmuscIcisthc hcart,which
gets a spcciaI suppIy of bIood cnrichcd
clcs is cut oß, thc musclc dctcrioratcs ra-
pidly. Thisis why, for cxamplc, a toumi-
quctmust bcIooscncd cvcry fcwminutcs
to aIIow bIood to ñow through to fccd
MuscIcs do not usc a hundrcd pcrccnt
of thc cncrgy thcy gcncratc. In fact, onIy
about twcnty-ûvc pcrccntof thc cncrgy
is convcrtcd into work. Thc rcmaindcr is
not totaIIy wastcd, howcvcr, for it kccps
bccomc hot and must cooI oßfrom timc
Any body movcmcnt invoIvcs many
action bctwccn muscIcs and ncrvcs to
producc thc dcsircd movcmcnt is known
ing muscuIar coordination, onc must ûrst
lhÍBK about thc movcmcnt. Thc athlctc,
practicc for many hours, untiI thc
bccomc almost automatic. I
Muscul ar coordi nation is requi red for al l activiti es.
Your Thirty-foot Di gesti ve System
You probabIy cat thrcc mcaIs a day,
cach mcaI at a rcgular timc. Your digcs-
tivcsystcmisad¿ustcd tothisschcdulc. If
or your stomach "growIs." Thcsc signaIs
tcII you that your stomach is cmpty and
storagc sac whcrc food is hcId in rcscrvc
bcforc bcing fcd into your Iong Iowcr di-
Digcstion bcgins whcn you takc food
into your mouth and bcgin chcwing it.
Thc food is mixcdwith saliva thatcomcs
from thrcc pairs of glands insidc your
mouth. Thc saIiva contains thc cnzymc
ptyalin that brcaks down thc starchcs in
thc food you cat into a sugar. Enzymcs
arc vcq compIcx chcmicaI substanccs.
Without thcm, digcstion of food couId
Thc moist, chcwcd mass of food in
your mouth is caIIcd a boIus. Whcn it is
swaIIowcd÷your tonguc hcIps not onIy
aIso in squcczmg it down thc throat÷thc
portion of thc digcstivc tract, is rcady to
rcccivc it. Bccausc you havc this storagc
arca, thc mcaIs you cat can providc your
Somc digcstion of food aIso occurs in
thc stomach. Thc stomach's waIIs arc
ûIIcd with digcstivc gIands÷morc than
sccrctions into thc food mass, which is
slowIy churncd by thc stomach muscIcs.
Thcsc sccrctions contain hydrochIoric
thatact on protcins, brcakingthcmdown
inthc stomachjuiccsstartsa wcak digcs-
tivc action on somc fats.
Also produccd in thc stomach is a
samc timc, makcsa protcctivc Iining that
prcvcntsthc acid and thc digcstivc¿uiccs
from cating into thc stomach waII. Thc
gIands inyourstomachpourfromonc to
two quarts of digcstivc ¿uiccs into thc
stomach cvcç day.
By thc timc thc food is rcady to movc
into thc smaII intcstinc, it is a scmiIiquid
!uicc from thc ncarby pancrcas is mixcd
with thc food as it cntcrs thc smalI intcs-
tinc. Thc pancrcatic juicc contains thrcc
digcstivc cnzymcs that act on protcins,
, .. .
Salivary gl ands-produce - l'1
sal iva, ' which begi ns di gestion.
Di aphragm ( not part
of di gestive system)
separates di ge$tive
ans from chest
food, leads to stomach.
Liver-produces bi l e
Mouth, teeth, and tonguereceive
and chop foad, mix sal iva with
foad, push foad down throat.
stores food, prepares
foad for di gestion ( some
di gestion occurs) .
Pancreas ( not shown, l ies
behi nd stomach)-produces
several digestive j uices for
use in smal l i ntesti ne.
Gal l bl adder-stores bile,
-:� whi ch is necessary for
dgestion of fo|soau
unti l el i mi nated.
which empties i nto smal l
i ntesti ne.
5moII intestine roduces
ond receives several digestive
juices, digests ond absorbs
of the md.
indigestible fod mixed
wm wotet, absrbs
simpIcr substanccs. Fat digcstion is com-
pIctcIy succcssfuI onIy whcn biIc is prcs-
cnt, howcvcr. This ycIIowish grccn ûuid
comcs into thc smaII intcstinc from thc
produccd in thc Iivcr.
Thc Iivcr scrvcs primariIy as a storagc
bIood and thcn rctums to thc blood in
timcs of nccd. It is cstimatcd that at any
momcnt about twcnty pcrccnt of thc
body's bIood suppIy is in thc Iivcr.
Digcstivc cnzymcs arc aIsoaddcd from
thc smaII intcstinc. Thcsc cnzymcs com-
varioussugars to thcsimpIcst sugars,and
furthcr digcst fais.
as twcnty fcct Iong. Thc grcatcst amount
of digcstionand absorption of foodtakcs
placcwhiIc thc food is travcIing through
thc smaII intcstinc.
smaIIintcstinc movcthc foodmass aIong
sIowIy. SIuggishIy, it makcs its way bc-
twccn and among thc many tiny, ñngcr-
Iikc pro¿cctions caIIcd viIIi. Thcsc pro¿cc-
that 0ows through smaII bIood vcsscIs
to thc surfacc in thc viIIi. Thc digcstcd
food is thcn carricd by thc bIood to aII
parts of thc body.
By thc timc thc food cntcrs thc |argc
intcstinc, about aII that rcmains is somc
indigcstibIc dcbris mixcd with watcr. As
thc mass movcs on,much of thiswatcr is
rcabsorbcd into thc systcm through thc
Iargc intcstinc's waIIs. Thc matcriaIs that
was catcn onc or two days carIicr.
In the smal l intestine, digested food is absorbed by
tiny, fngerl ike projections cal l ed vil li, which contain
many capil l aries.
Lungs-Your Breath of Li fe
You can survivc for scvcraI days with-
out watcr and for pcrhaps as Iong as a
month without food. But you cannot Iivc
You gct thc oxygcn from thc air you
brcathc. At thc samc tìmc, you gct rid
of carbon dioxidc, a wastc gas. Thìs im-
portant cxchangc of gascs takcs pIacc ìn
You brcathc wìthout thìmìng about ìt
and continuc whcn you arc asIccp÷at aI-
most thc samc ratc as whcn you arc
tccn timcs cvcry minutc÷somc pcoplc
morc, somc Icss. In this pcriod you takc
in about cight quarts of aìr. You brcathc
morc sIowIy whcn you arc rcsting and
fastcr whcn you arc working, cxcrcìsìng,
with your incrcascd usc of oxygcn. You
wiII aIso brcathc morc timcs pcr minutc
at high aÌtitudcs, whcrc thc air is "thin-
at sca IcvcI. `
You inhaIc, or takc in air, whcn thc
chcst, or thoracic, cavity bccomcs largcr
as a rcsuIt of two actions that happcn at
thc samc timc. Thc diaphragm, a thin,
strongshcctofmuscIc, contracts. Thcdia-
phragm cxtcnds across thc basc of your
chcst and is domc-shapcd. Whcn it con-
tracts, it 0attcns, pushing downward. At
spacc, air movcs intothc Iungs from out-
in thc chcst cavity and forccs thc air out
of thc Iungs.
Thc controI ccntcr for your brcathing
is your brain÷spcciûcaIIy, thc Iowcr part
of thc brain, or mcduIIa. A portion of its
ccIIs arc scnsitivc to thc amount of car-
bon dioxidc inyour bIood. Whcn carbon
puIscs that contract thc muscIcs of your
diaphragm and thosc that Iiù your ribs.
oxygcn, it is thc carbon dioxidc that scts
is brought about bccausc your systcm is
ccntcr in thc brain.
Incoming air 6rst passcs through thc
nctwork of ûrst coarsc hairs and thcn a
carpct of cxtrcmcIy ûnc hairs. Thcy ûItcr
air. Thcsc air chambcrs aIso havc moist
Iinings that hcIp to coIIcct dust or othcr
Ri bs move
down and i n,
di aphragm up;
contracts; ai r
of l ungs.
particIcs. Thc Iinings havc many smaII
!n thc phaçnx, thcarca at thcback of
thc throat, thc incoming air sharcs for a
short distancc thc samc path which food
travcIs on its way to thc stomach. If you
shouId swaIIow food whiIc taIking, thc
to thc windpipc and you wiII cough and
chokc untiI it disIodgcs. This docs not
usuaIIy happcn, bccausc as you swaIIow,
tocIoscohthc cntranccto thc windpipc,
your rcspiratory tract is what aIIows you
to brcathc through your mouth. Air
Structure of a Lung
bronchi ol e and
cl uster of ai r
sacs, or al veol i
nor is it warmcd as it is whcn it gocs
brcaths of air through your mouth on a
cooI day and comparc thcm with thosc
brcathcd through your nosc. Thc dißcr-
cncc is vcry noticcabIc.
Thc windpipc, or trachca, is a Iargc
muscuIartubcthatisstißcncd byrings of
cartiIagc. ItIcads from your ncckto your
chcst, whcrc it dividcs into two bronchiaI
tubcs, onc to cach Iung. In your ncck, at
or voiccbox. You taIk or makc noiscs by
making air go ovcr thc vocaI cords in
Insidc cach Iung, thc bronchiaI tubcs
of tubcs caIIcd bronchioIcs. Each cnds
cvcntuaIIy in a tiny, vcç thin-waIIcd air
ai r sac,
or alveol us
capiIIarics. Each lung consists of IitcraIIy
thousandsofthcscIittIcsacs. Itis inthcsc
IittIc sacs that thc bIood rcIcascs carbon
dioxidc and takcs on oxygcn.
It is pumpcd in from thc ncarby hcart.
This bIood contains vcrylittIcoxygcnbut
has a Iargc amount of carbon dioxidc.
Rcd bIood ccIls havc thc abiIity to ab-
a ncw suppIy of oxygcn in thc Iungs, thc
bIood is rcIcasing thc carbon dioxidc it
has bccn carrying. ThischangcsthccoIor
Loadcdwith oxygcn, thcbIood is camcd
by vcins backtothchcartandis pumpcd
from thcrc to aII parts of thc body.
Your Body' s Bl ood Pump
ûst. This important organ is Iocatcd bc-
ccn thc Iungs, aImost in thc ccntc of
thc chcst cavity. !t is tippcd sIightIy, so
that its tapcrcd Iowcr cnd points somc-
what to thc Icft.
Your hcart is thc most hardworking
muscIc in your body. !t bcgan bcating
about ûvc months bcforc you wcre born.
!t bcats from sixty to cighty timcs cach
minutc. !n this bricf pcriod, thc cntirc
ûvc quarts÷passcs through your hcart,
having madc onc compIctc trip through
your body. !f you cxcrcisc, your hcart
bcats fastcr, and thc bIood movcs morc
primary¿obistorcccivcbIood. Thc vcn-
triclcs arc thick-wallcd, and thcy pump
blood to all parts of the body.
AIlblood vessels eventually lead to the
heart andthen awayfrom the hcart.These
blood vessels, plus the heart, make up
the circulatory system. This vital system is
composed of two major divisions-the sys
temic circulation and the pulmonary cir
culation. The systemic circulation is made
up of all blood vessels found in the body,
circulation is made upof all blood vessels
found in the lungs and those leading to
and from them. It is much shorter than
the systemic circulation.
Blood from the systemic circulation en
ters the right auricle through two major
to upper body
vcins. Atthc point whcrc thcsc vcins cn-
way vaIvcs aIIow bIood to ûow into thc
auricIc butnot backintothcvcins. BIood
cntcring thc right auricIc is a dark rcd
coIor bccausc it docs not contain much
oxygcn. Howcvcr, this bIood docs con-
tain a grcat dcaI of carbon dioxidc.
through anothcr onc-way vaIvc that scp-
connccting thc two chambcrs and forccs
thc blood through a Iargc blood vcsscl
l . Auricles receivi ng blood
2. Vea|t|cIes pumqng bl ood
• Aat|c|es pumpi ng b|m
2. Ventricl es receiving blood
caIIcd thc pulmonaryartcry. Thcrcis an-
from ûowing back into thc vcntricIc.
rich suppIy of oxygcn. This oxygcn-rich
bIood rcturns to thchcart and cntcrs thc
thcIcñvcntriclc, thcnis pumpcd outand
through thc rcst ofthc body.
Thc vcins that cntcr thc lcñ auriclc
aIso contain onc-wayvalvcs,andthcrc is
a largc, onc-way valvc that connccts thc
Front View of Adul t Heart
to head, neck,
shoul ders, and arms
anothcr onc-way vaÌvc whcrc thc artcç
¿oins thc Ìcft vcntricÌc.
Thc hcart is mostÌy muscÌc but not of
thc samcthickncssthroughout. Thc mus-
cÌcs of thc vcntricÌcs arc much thickcr
than thosc of thc auricÌcs. Thc vcntricIcs
so thcy nccd thc grcatcr muscIc powcr.
out bIood. Thc two auricÌcs work ncarIy
in phasc, as do thc two vcntricÌcs. Whcn
both auricÌcs arc ûÌIcd, thcy wcakIy con-
tract, aÌmostat thcsamc timc. Thc bIood
movcs into cach vcntricÌc and ûÌÌs thcsc
thc hcart rcsts for a fraction ofa sccond
troÌ ccntcr inthc hcartis caÌÌcdthc pacc-
makcr. Itisaknotofncrvctissuc, Ìocatcd
out from thc paccmakcr causc thc hcart
muscÌc to contractrhythmicaÌÌy. Thc ratc
from this ncrvc makc your hcart bcat
ncrvcs function automaticaÌÌy.
Doctors Iistcntoyourhcartwithan in-
strumcnt caÌÌcd a stcthoscopc. Thcy hcar
not onÌy thc bcat but aÌso thc cÌosing of
thc vaÌvcs bctwccn thc auricÌcs and vcn-
tricÌcs and thc vaÌvcs in thc Ìargc bÌood
artery vei n capill ar
Thc bigartcryIcaving thcIcñvcntricIc
is caIIcd thc aorta. Ncar its basc arc two
Iargc branchcs, which dividc again and
thc various parts of thc body.
Thc aortaisaboutan inchindiamctcr.
havc about thc samc diamctcr as a hair
on yourhcad. But thcwaIIsofcvcn thcsc
smaII artcrioIcs, as wcII as thosc of thc
Iargcr artcrics, consist partIy of muscIcs.
amount of bIood ûowing through thcm,
or thcycan rcIax and strctch toaIIow thc
vcsscI to carry Iargcr amounts of bIood.
ArtcrioIcsbranch to form capiIIarics.
Thc vast nctwork of capiIlarics com-
capiIIaricsarc onIy a singIcccII thick, thc
Iiquid portion of thc bIood and ûuids of
by thc rcd bIood ccIIs arc cxchangcd for
carbon dioxidc and thc various wastcs
from thc ccIIs.
CapiIIarics ¿oin thc artcrioIcs with thc
binc to form Iargcr and stiII Iargcr vcins,
carrying bIood back to thc hcart.
of an inch in diamctcr, but most of thc
bIood vcsscIs in your bodyarc capiIIarics
-a totaI of about ÛÜ,ÜÜÜ milcs of thcsc
onc tubc, it wouId havc a diamctcr ÛÜ
timcs grcatcr than thc aorta.
Thc smaIIcr thc bIood vcsscI, thc morc
sIowIy thc bIood ûows through it. Thc
l i qui d, 55 percent
(water and di ssol ved
materi al s)
sol i ds, 45 percent
(red and white blood
cel l s, pl atel ets)
red blood cel l s
Various ki nds of
white blood cel l s
Red bl ood cel l s and many white bl ood
pl atel ets
A white blood cel l
approaches a bacteri um.
The white bl ood cel l
engulfs the bacteri um.
The bacteri um i s destroyed .
of bIood as do fcwcr Iargc vcsscIs, but it
is sprcad ovcr a much grcatcr arca. It is
ingovcrasidcwaIkor apatio. ItwiII stiII
movc but at a muc sIowcr spccd.
If you scratch your ´skin, you wiII cut
through many capiIIarics, but thc bIood
onIy oozcs from thc scratch. If you cut
dccpcr and happcn to cut through an
comcs out fastcr÷usuaIIy in spurts cor-
rcsponding to your hcartbcat. lf you cut
Ihrough a vcnuÌc or a vcin, thc bÌood
üows from thc wound smoothIy.
BIood consists mainIy of a ycIIowish
pcrccnt watcr. In thc pIasma arc thc rcd
bIood ccIIs, whitc bIood ccIIs, pIatcIcts,
and various saIts, foods, and othcr sub-
stanccs, in soIution. Most abundant of
smaII discs that arcconcavc, or hoIÌowcd,
on both sidcs÷Iikc back-to-back sauccrs.
Rcd bIoodccIIs arc onIy about I/3500 of
aninch indiamctcr, andyouhavctwcnty
to twcnty-ûvctriIIion ofthcsctinyccIIs in
your body. If thcy wcrc Iaid cnd to cnd,
thcthin Ìinc wouId circIcthc carth about
The Heal i ng of a Smal l Cut
Bl ood cl ot
dries, formi ng
a scab. White
blood cel l s
attack bacteri a.
Heal i ng is
scab fal l s
Bl ood fows
out of cut
and begi ns to
cl ot; bacteria
Scar ti ssue
Thc avcragc Iifc of a rcd bIood ccII is
suppIy is nccdcd constantIy. Rcd bIood
ccIIs arc produccd in thc marrow of thc
Iong boncs of thc body. Thcy gct thcir
coIor from hcmogIobin, thcir main con-
stitucnt. This compound, consisting of
iron and a protcin, can takc on Iargc
amounts of oxygcn, which it docs in thc
Iungs, whcrc thc bIood bccomcs much
oxygcn is nccdcd in thc ccIIs for thc
"buming," or oxidizing, of foods for cn-
crgy,thcoxygcnis quickIy rcIcascd from
its Ioosc union with thc hcmogIobin and
is absorbcd by thc ccIIs.
Whitc bIood ccIIs arc not so numcrous
rcdbIood ccIIs. ThcrcarcscvcraItypcsof
whitc bIood ccIIs, most of thcm abIc to
changc shapc and movc indcpcndcntIy.
Whitc bIood ccIIs attack discasc or-
ganisms whcrcvcr thcy invadc thc body.
ccIIs arc produccd in grcatcr numbcrs.
Largc numbcrs of thcsc ccIIs and thc
organisms thcy havc kiIIcd form thc pus
around an infcction. Likc thc rcd bIood
in thc bonc marrow.
BIood aIso contains numcrous smaII,
soIid bodics caIIcd pIatcIcts. PIatcIcts arc
smaIIcr than cvcn rcd bIood ccIIs, but in
Iargc numbcrs, thcy maystop thc 0ow of
bIood from a wound by simpIy bIocking
thc opcning. This oùcn happcns in thc
capiIIarics. Whcn thcskinis cut,pIatcIcts
ûbrin that quickIy bccomcs a mass of
thrcadIikc matcriaI in which othcr bIood
bIood from thc cut. Whcn thc cIot drics,
it is caIIcd a scab.
is thcIiquidportionof bIoodthatcscapcs
thc capiIIarics and movcs through Iymph
vcsscIs. Thcy arc ¿oincd onc to anothcr,
howcvcr, and incrcasc in sizc from tiny
vcsscIs to Iargcr vcsscIs that cmpty into
mcnts in thc vcsscIs, caIIcd Iymph nodcs,
contain conccntrations of whitc bIood
ccIIs. BactcriaI organisms arc commonIy
trappcd and kiIIcd in thcsc nodcs.
Cross Secti on of Õ Ki dney
( medul l a)
or uri ne
Shown enl arged
i s the maze of
capi l l aries and
to purify the
bl ood. Thi s enti re
structure i s cal l ed
Ki dneys-Your Body' s Fi l trati on Pl ant
Wastes of several kinds are eliminated
by the body. Carbon dioxide is released
from the blood and exhaled from the lungs
in breathing. Solid, indigestible materials
pass through and out of the digestive
tract. Liquid wastes, containing dissolved
salts, are fltered from the blood as it
passes through the kidneys. They are then
eliminated from the body as urine.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped or
gans, each about the size of a small fst.
They are located at the back of the body,
one on each side of the spinal cord, just
above the hips.
The inside of a kidney is composed of
an outer layer called the cortex and an
inner layer, the medulla. Each layer is a
maze of small arteries, veins, capillaries,
and thousands and thousands of tiny
tubes. It is estimated that if all the tubes
in a single kidney were placed end to end,
they would measure over forty miles. These
tiny tubes eventually connect with the
large ureter, which empties into an elastic
sac, the bladder. The bladder holds the
urine until it is eliminated from the body.
A large arter brings blood into each kid
ney, and a large vein carries the purfed
The artery entering the kidney divides
into many smaller blood vessels, or arteri
oles, and fnally into capillaries that look
like a tangled knot of red yarn. This tan
gled collection of capillaries is called a
glomerulus, and it is held inside a tiny
structure called a Bowman's capsule. There
are about one million of them in each kid
ney. From each Bowman's capsule runs
a very tiny tube, surrounded by capil
laries. This entire structure is called a
nephron. As the blood passes through
these tiny mazes, it becomes purifed
that is, fltered of many of its wastes, some
of which are very poisonous to the body.
. . ^
Brai n, Nerves-Your Communi cati on Syste.m
!f you couId rcmovc aII thc parts of
wouId stiII scc thc shapc ofyour body as
a gauzcIikc nctwork of tiny ncrvc ccIIs
and thrcadIikc ûbcrs Icading from thcm.
Hcrc and thcrc wouId bc knotIikc swcII-
ings, or gangIia, whcrc many ncrvc ccIIs
arc asscmbIcd. Thc ncrvcs conncct with
thc spinaI cord, which in tum connccts
ncrvc ccIIs and gangIia.
Your ncrvous systcm rcccivcs sounds,
sights, smcIIs, and othcr physicaI and
chcmicaI stimuIi from thc worId around
impuIscs arc passcd aIong ncrvc ûbcrs.
Thcspccd atwhichthcscmcssagcs travcI
varics with thc sizc of thc ncrvc. !nIargc
ncrvcs, mcssagcs movc as rapidIy as J7J
Thc basicunit ofthc ncrvoussystcm is
a ncrvc ccII, or ncuron. A typicaI ncrvc
ccII consists of a ccntraI body with root-
Thcrc arc scvcraI branchcd dcndritcs,
Iong or short, dcpcnding on thc kind of
ncrvc ccII. !t is thc dcndritc that rcccivcs
thc mcssagc. Thcrc is usualIy onIy onc
axon, and it, too, is branchcd at thc cnd.
transmitsthcmcssagc. Ncrvc ccIIs aImost
conncct with cach othcr. Thc cnd of an
thccnd ofa dcndritcfromanothcr ncrvc
ccII. This cxtrcmcIy smaII spacc bctwccn
Somc axons and dcndritcs arc vcç
short; othcrs may bc scvcraI fcct Iong .
. ^ ¬
They may be bound together like the small
wires in a large cable. These form large
nerves, which are distinctly white in color.
Collections of nerve-cell bodies, in con
trast, arc grayish.
Your nervous system consists of your
brain and spinal cord plus ahuge numbcr
form thc ccntraÌ ncrvous systcm.
The spinaÌ cord starts from thc basc of
the brain and cxtcnds aÌmost thc Ìcngth
of thc backbonc, protcctcd by thc bony
gray, consisting ofncrvc ccÌI bodics. Thc
and axons of thc ccIÌ bodics. Thc spinaÌ
cord is thc ccntcr for rc0cx actions÷that
is, dircct and immcdiatc rcactions, as
whcn you touch somcthing hot and ¿crk
back instantÌy, without thought.
Rc0cx actions occur whcn impuÌscs
from scnsoç ncrvcs arrivc at thc spinaI
cord and arc transmittcd dircctÌy to a
A mcssagc thcn movcs aIong thc axon of
When you touch a hot object,
nerves i n the ski n send a
message to the spi nal cord.
The spi nal cord i mmediatel y
sends a message to the biceps
muscl e, which then contracts,
causi ng the hand to jerk back.
The message al so travel s to the
brai n and regi sters as pai n.
about the needed action, such as jerking
back. This happens with great speed, and
the brain is not involved. The message does
where a mcmory rccord is made to re
mind you not to touch any hot things in
Whatsctshumanbcings apart fromalÌ
othcr animaÌs is thcir brain. Most of thc
systcms in thc human body÷circulatory,
rcspiratory, and othcrs÷arc much Ìikc
thc samc systcms in dogs, cats, and othcr
mammaIs. Evcn thc vitaI spinaI cord and
thosc of Iowcr animaÌs. But thc human
brainis proportionatcÌy Iargcr and bcttcr
todowith thinking and rcmcmbcring÷or
intcÌIigcncc. It is this compIcx mass of
that makcs you so vcry dißcrcnt from aÌI
Your brain consists of scvcraÌ basic
parts. Thc mcduÌIa is thc cnÌargedcxtcn-
sionof thespinaIcordatthcvcrybasc of
cerebrum ( largest portion of brai n)
activitics, such as brcathing, hcartbcat,
Abovcthc mcduÌÌa arc thc midbrain and
pons. Thcy controÌ ccrtain body movc-
mcnts and act as a rcÌay ccntcr. Ncxt is
thcdicnccphaÌon. Onc portionofit rcgu-
Ìatcs body tcmpcraturc, hungcr, thirst,
and somc of thc basic cmotions, such as
angcr and fcar.
Locatcdundcmcath and at thc rcar of
thc ccrcbrum is thc ccrcbcÌÌum, or "ÌittÌc
hcÌping mainÌy to coordinatc thc movc-
mcnts of muscÌcs. If it is not functioning
di encephal on
ing is unstcady, and thcrc is a gcncraÌ
trcmbling. Thc ccrcbcÌÌum aÌso hcÌps to
thc scmicircuÌar canaÌs in thc cars.
Thc Ìargcst portion of thc brain is thc
ccrcbrum, accountingforthrcc-fourths or
morc of thc brain's total wcight. This is
thc grcat domc-shapcd, wrinkÌcd and
groovcd mass that occupics most of thc
Ìcù haÌvcs, or hcmisphcrcs, and cach of
thcsc haÌvcs has four Ìobcs with spcciûc
functions. Of thcroughly tcnbiÌÌion ccÌls
arc found in thc ccrcbrum.
Thc ccrcbrum is thc part of thc brain
soning. It is aÌso thc ccntcr for mcmoç
and spccch and for thc scnscs of sight,
hcaring, smcÌÌ,tastc, andtouch. ImpuÌscs
of thc arms, Ìcgs, ncck, facc, tonguc, and
tÌc toc is controÌÌcd by this part of thc
humanbrain. IntcrcstingÌy, thc right half
of thc ccrcbrum controÌs movcmcnts on
thc Ìcñ sidc of thc body, whiÌc thc lcñ
of thc body.
Thcsc arc thc vcry simplcst functions
of thc brain, which is activc twcnty-four
hours a day÷cvcn whcn you arc aslccp.
Its impuÌscs, caÌlcd brain wavcs, can bc
mcasurcd. Thcir pattcm is as distinctivc
Ri ght si de
of brai n
ri ght side
of craniaÌ ncrcs. Thcy arc thc pathways
bctwccn thc brain and your scnscs of
thchcad÷smcÌl, sight,hcaring, tastc,and
baÌancc÷and hcÌp to controÌ thc movc-
mcnt ofthccycsand thcvariousmuscÌcs
of thc facc. OnÌy thctcnthcraniaÌncrvc,
or vagus, gocs to thc intcrnal organs of
thc body. ItcontroÌsdigcstion,hcartbcat,
matically, without your having to think
Thc vagusncrvc mcrgcs withthc auto-
nomic ncrvous systcm. Thc autonomic
systcm, ncrcs that lic outsidc thc spinal
cord, functions automatically. It has con-
troÌovcr thcsizc of bÌoodvcsscls, thc ac-
tion of thc muscÌcs in thc digcstivc tract,
thc sccrctions of thc digcstivc and swcat
optic ( a clear j el lyl i ke
+ materi al that fl l s -
enti re cavity)
scl era -
Seeing, Hearing, and Other Senses
Your cycs arc spcciaÌ scnsc organs.
Rays of Iight that cntcr thcsc two win-
dows faÌI on thc rctina, thc vcry Ìight-
cycbaÌÌ. Thc Ìight stimuÌatcs thc cndings
of ncrvcs found within thc rctina. Thcsc
ncrvcs Icad dircctÌy to thc brain, whcrc
thc impuIscs arc transÌatcd into sight.
Thc scnsitivc rctina consists of two
typcs of ncrc ccÌÌs÷rods and concs.
Thcrc arc morc than Ì ÜÜ miÌÌion rods in
cach rctina, and about 8 milÌion concs.
onIy in bright Ìight. Thc rods arc scnsi-
tivc to smaIIcr amounts of Ìightthan arc
and cnabÌc us to scc ob¿ccts as bÌack or
whitc. Rodsarc found mostÌyaround thc
cdgcs of thc rctina.
thc rctina, contains onÌy concs cÌoscÌy
packcd. This is thc part of thc cyc that
providcsgood vision forsccing coÌor and
for making out ûnc dctaiÌs.
Both rods and concs arc abscnt in a
smaIÌovaÌarca¿ust oß-ccntcratthc back
of cach cyc, whcrcthc ûbcrs of thc optic
ncrvc arc Ìocatcd. This is thc optic disc,
or "bÌind spot," whcrc no vision is rcgis-
tcrcd at aÌÌ.
bl urry vision
when looking at •�
( i mage does not
focus on reti na)
bl urry vision
convex l ens
when l ooki ng at �
(focus i n front
of reti na)
concave l ens
The optic nere from each eye con
nects directly to the brain. Nerve fbers
from the lef half of each eye go· to the
lef side of the brain; those from the right
half of each eye to the brain's right side.
Because of this crossing over of the optic
nere fbers, each half of the brain re-
Accommodati on-Abi l ity of Lens to Change Shape
l ens thi ck
when l ooki ng i nto your eye.
ceives half a picture from each eye. This
enables us to perceive depth or distance.
Our eyes can thus distinguish height,
width, and depth and can see three
Muscles attached to each eyeball per
mit you to tum your eyes to the right or
tcctivc covcrs for your cycs, which arc
kcpt moist by sccrctions from thc tcar
MuscIcs aIso controI thc shapc of thc
clcs controI thc iris, which is thc colorcd
portìon of thc cyc. Thc opcning in thc
iris ìs thc pupiI. Thc opcning or cIosing
ofthc pupil in dim or bright Iight Icts in
morc or Icss light. Thc pupiI appcars as
thc dark ccntcr of thc iris.
Thc scnsc ofhcaring isaIso cIoscIy as-
sociatcd with thc brain. Sounds arc pro-
duccd by vibrations in thc air. Thosc
withinthc rangc of our hcaring arc from
as Iow as Ì Û up to7Ü,ÜÜÜ or cvcnJÜ,ÜÜ
vibrations pcrsccond. Thc rangcofhcar-
othcrs can dctcct sounds at a Iowcr or
for cxampIc,producc sounds thatarc too
and can bc traincd to rcspond.
Lach car consists ofthrcc ma¿or parts.
Thc outcr car, onc on cach sidc of thc
hcad, is madc mostIy of cartiIagc. It is
rcaIly thc Icast important part for actuaI
hcaring, scrving onIy to hcIp dircct thc
sound wavcs into thc car. Somc anímaÌs
this. AIso part of thc outcr car is a short
canaI Iincd with skin. A thin mcmbranc.
thccardmm, isIocatcd atthccnd ofthis
funncI-shapcd canaI. Whcn sound wavcs
strikc thc cardrum, it vibratcs at thcir
Thc vibrations of thc cardrum arc
pickcd up by thc thrcc boncs that com-
priscthc middIc car. Thcsc arc thc ham-
mcr, anviI, and stírrup, which go aIso by
thc Latin namcs of maIIcus, incus, and
stapcs. Thcsc smaII boncs, arrangcd in a
chain, transmit thc sound vibrations to
thc cochIca, a coiIcd, or spiraÌcd, ûuid-
ûlIcd chambcrof thcinncrcar.
The cochlea contains numerous cells
that end in hairlike structures. These hair
cells are connected to endings of the audi
tor nere that transmits impulses directly
to the brain. In the brain, the vibrations
are translated into the sounds we hear.
The middle ear is connected directly to
the throat by the eustachian tube. This
makes it possible to equalize the pressure
on each side of the eardrum, which would
otherise be ruptured when you go sud
denly from one altitude to another. In an
airplane, or even in an elevator that
whisks you rapidly upward or downward,
you swallow to "open your ears" and to
releve the discomfort or pain caused by
the diference u pressure on the two sides
of the eardrum. Tle eustachian tube is
closed except when you swallow or yawn.
Also located in the inner ear are three
semicircular canals and two small pouch
es attached to them. They have nothing to
eustachi an tube
(opens into the throat)
do with hearing, but they do control bal
ance. A of the canals are flled with a
fuid. The two pouches contain very small
stonelike bodies called otoliths and are
also flled with fuid. Movement of the
head or body causes motion of the oto
liths and of the fuid in the semicircular
canals. Nerves are stimulated and mes
sages are sent to the brain, which then
recognizes the kind of movement made
by the body.
Another important sense is that of
taste. In addition to helping to form
sounds, the tongue is the center of taste.
The tongue has about J,U taste buds.
Those in diferent pars of the tongue pick
up diferent tastes. Sweet, sour, bitter, and
salt are the four basic tastes.
Taste buds at the rear of the tongue
are more sensitive to bitter tastes; those
at the front, to sweet tastes. Salty tastes
are registered along the front edges on
thc rcar cdgcs.
Foods vary a grcat dcaÌ in tastc. Somc
arc too bÌand and othcrs too strong, and
thc tcmpcraturc of thc food or drink. A
soñ drink isswcctcr at roomtcmpcraturc
than whcn it is coÌd, as onc cxampÌc.
In addition to thcsc basic tastcs, odors
pÌay an important part u our "tasting"
ing an onion from a potato or an appÌc,
if you arc givcn smaÌÌ cnough picccs so
that thctcxturc docs notgivc thcm away.
ButifyoudonothoÌdyour nosc, youcan
smcÌÌing food you think you arc tasting.
Cel l s that detect
smel l are l ocated
i n the roof of the
air through thc nostriÌs. OnÌy vcry smaÌl
tcction of thc odor, howcvcr, thc smcÌÌ
bccomcs Ìcss and Ìcss noticcabÌc. Largcr
amounts of othcr foods arc rcquircd bc-
forc thcir odor can bc dctcctcd.
Pain, hcat, coÌd, prcssurc, touch÷thcsc
arc scnscs Ìocatcd in thc skin. Thcy
scnscsof "fccÌ." Eachtypcofscnsationis
ingrcat numbcrs in thc skin. On a smaÌI
touch of a pin in onc pÌacc but notpain.
Anothcr spot givcs thc scnsation of pain
but not touch.
Thcsc scnscs arc cxtrcmcÌy important
to thc protcction of your boy. Thcy tcII
you whcn you'vc comc in contact with a
prcvcnt scrious accidcnts. AÌso, thcy cn-
abÌc you to fccÌ or grasp ob¿ccts without
having to scc thcm.
2 . touch
Shown, enl arged, are fve sensory nerve
bundl es and where they are l ocated in
the ski n.
The Endocri ne System-Chemi cal Control
(femal e) W
isl and of
( located in
pd crea )
Thc cndocrinc systcm is composcd of
a numbcrofsmaÌÌ, spcciaÌ gÌands Ìocatcd
cr, and mcssagcs arc scnt aIong thcm as
though thcy wcrc wircs. Ncrvcs govcm
immcdiatc and fast-moving actions, such
as thccontraction ofa muscÌc. Thccndo-
craIIy sIowcr but havc a Iongcr, or somc-
ontrol is indircct÷by thc rcÌcasc ofspc-
cals arc calIcd homoncs.
Hormoncs dctcminc your ratc of
growh and dcvcÌopmcnt. Thcy hcÌp to
control your bchavior and havc much to
do with your pcrsonaÌity and cmotions.
Thc so-calÌcd mastcr cndocrinc gÌand
is thc pituitaç, a smaÌÌ gÌand Ìocatcd at
thc bascofthcbrain. ApanofthcgÌand
is, in fact, attachcd to thc brain. ScvcraÌ
hormoncs arc produccd by thc pituitaç
gÌand, and thcy arc of such vitaÌ impor-
tancc that you wouÌd not survivc long if
thc gÌand wcrc rcmovcd.
Onc hormonc from thc pituitary con-
troÌs thc growth and functioning of thc
thyroid and adrcnaI gÌands, also in thc
cndocrinc systcm. Anothcr dctcrmincs
your growth pattcm. Too much of this
hormonc produccs giants; too Ìittlc pro-
duccs dwarfs. An cxccss in Ìatcr Ìifc may
rcsuÌt in big fcct and hands, a "Ìantcm"
¿aw, and an cxccptionaIÌy Ìong nosc and
big cars. In aduÌts, hormoncs from thc
pituitary aßcctthc sccrctions ofmaIcand
aßccts thc bIood prcssurc.
Thc thyroid gIand is Iocatcd in thc
Thc thyroid is somctimcs rcfcrrcd to as
troIs thc basic proccsscs of thc body. !t
cspcciaIIy aßccts growth pattcms. ChiI-
drcn with too IittÌc of this hormonc bc-
comc mcntaIIy and physicaIIy rctardcd.
ThcyarccaIIcd crctins. AduIts witha dc-
ncrvous, and oftcn mcntaIIy sIuggish.
If an excess of the hormone is pro
duced, people become thin and "pop
eyed" -that is, they have protruding eye
balls. Nowadays the production of the
hormone is ofen slowed down by giving
drugs rather than by an operation to re-
Too much of
gl and' s hormone
tal l peopl e;
too l ittle,
2. Z4 meters
2. 44 meters
2. l 3 meters
1 . 83 meters
. 61 meters
move part of the thyroid gland, the rem
edy in the past.
Just behind the thyroid gland are two
pairs of small, yellowish, pea-sized glands,
the parathyroids. Before they were rec
ognized, they were sometimes removed
along with portions of the thyroid in
goiter operations. Death always resulted.
The hormone produced by these glands
is necessary for the proper functioning of
the nervous system.
At the top of each kidney is an egg
sized adrenal gland. It consists of an inner
portion, or medulla, and an outer layer,
The medulla produces the best kown
of all the hormones-adrenalin. Some
times called the "emergency" hormone,
it causes the liver to release more sugar
into the blood, thus making possible the
extra spurt of energy needed either for
fght or for fight. Adrenalin also makes
the blood vessels of voluntar muscles
dilate so that they are richly supplied with
blood. When adrenalin had been poured
into the system, almost superhuman feats
are possible-at least, performances that
far exceed what persons can normally do.
The outer layer of the adrenal glands
yields several other hormones. They help
to control the rate at which sugar is used
in the body. They infuence, too, the rate
at which salts are excreted by the kidneys
and govern secondary sexual character
istics, such as the growth of the beard .
Within the pancreas are found the is
lands of Langerhans, groups of endocrine
cells. Their hormone is insulin, essential
for the body's proper use of sugar. With
out insulin, the sugar in the bloodstream
is not used by the cells. This is the disease
called diabetes, which fortunately can
usually be controlled by taking insulin.
More of a Ki nd
Every living thing in this world is capa
ble of reproducing its own kind. Repro
duction is literally a law of life. Without
reproduction, plants and animals would
All plants and animals are composed
of living cells. The most frequent way of
reproducing new living cells is simply by
cell division. A single cell undergoes a
series of complicated changes and then
divides, forming two cells. It actually mul
tiplies by dividing. Each new cell usually
will be identical to its parent cell, except
that it will be smaller-about half the size
of the original cell. Reproducing by cell
d vision is known as asexual reproduction.
One-celled plants and animals repro-
. . duce by asexual reproduction. Under ideal
growing cond · · ons, some bacteria are
capable of dividing about every ffteen
minutes. As a single bacterium divides,
it produces two new cells. Each of these
divides, producing four new cells. The
four cells divide to produce eight new
cells. After just twenty such divisions, oc
curring in about fve hours, there will be
over a half million new bacteria cells.
Asexual reproduction occurs at varying
rates m all living things. Most of the cells
m your body divide constantly as you
grow and as wor-out or damaged parts
are replaced. These cells reproduce them
selves in exact detail as they maintain the
health and upkeep of the body.
Humans, like most of the familiar ani
mals, cannot produce more of their own
kind by asexual reproduction. For them,
sexual reproduction must occur.
ÌH sexual reproduction, the male con
tributes a reproductive cell called the
sper. The female's share is provided by
ferti l ization ( egg
and sperm unite)
a single-celled egg, or ovum. Both the
sperm cell and the egg are incomplete
cells, capable of living by themselves for
only a short time. They become complete
cells when they are united. This uniting of
sperm and egg is known as fertilization.
The fertilized egg then divides again and
again, by simple cell division (asexual re
production), producing a human being.
Only a fertilized egg is capable of growing
into a new individual.
In the human reproduction system,
there are special organs that produce the
sperm and egg. These organs are called
gonads. Thc maIc gonads, or tcstcs, pro-
ducc thc spcrm. Thc fcmaIc gonads, or
ovarics, rodcc thc cggs. Whcn an cgg
it travcÌs down a smaÌÌ tubc caIIcd thc
fcrtiIizcd cgg thcn travcIs to thc utcrus.
ßoth thc oviduct and thc utcrus arc part
of thc fcmaIc rcproductivc systcm. It is
hcutcrus thatthc fcrtiIizcd cgg grows
Thc dcvcIoping fcrtilizcd cgg is caIIcd
an cmbço. At ûrst, thc cmbryo appcars
of a Baby
ccIIs. As dcvcIopmcnt continucs, thc ccII
mass bcgins totakc shapc,untiI, at about
thrcc months, it is casiIy rccognizcd as a
a human. FinaIIy it cmcrgcs from thc
utcrus, and a baby is bom. During its
ninc-month pcriod of growth, from fcr-
tiIizcd cgg to ncwbom baby, it incrcascs
its wcight six biIÌion timcs!
In thc nucIcus of cach ccÌI arc found
many smaII, sIcndcr, dark thrcads caÌÌcd
somcs in aImost aII human ccIIs. Rcd
bIood ccIIs donot havc anybccauscthcy
do not havc a nucIcus. Egg and spcrm
ccIIs arc dißcrcnt inthat thcyarc incom-
pIctc ccÌIs. Each has onIy twcnty-thrcc
chromosomcs within its nucÌcus. Whcn a
spcrm unitcs with an cg_, it rcstorcs thc
chromosomc numbcr to forty-six, thus
making it a compIctc ccII.
Each chromosomc is madc up of stiÌÌ
hundrcd gcncs to makc up just a singIc
Half of our chromosomes ( and genes,
too) come from our father and half
from our mother.
chromosomc. Evcry body ccII that has a
nucIcuscontains thousands ofgcncs. It is
thc gcncs that hcIp to dctcrminc your
Though chiIdrcn rcccivc haIf of thcir
mothcr, thisdocsnot mcanthatthcywiII
a matching gcnc from thc othcr parcnt.
Thus thcrc arc two gcncs for cach trait,
not onc. Howcvcr, onc of thc gcncs may
dominatc thc othcr.
Thc gcnc for brown cycs, fr cxampIc,
is dominant ovcr thc gcnc for bIuc cycs.
If you arc brown-cycd, you might havc
onc gcnc for brown cycs and thc othcr
gcnc for bIuc cycs. Or it might bc that
both ofyourgcncs arc forbrowncycs. If
you arc bIuc-cycd, it mcans that both of
your gcncs arc for bIuc cycs. You do not
havc any gcncs for brown cycs.
AII inhcritcd traits arc thc rcsuIt of a
combinationor amixing ofgcncs. About
JÜÜ triIIion dißcrcnt gcnc combinations
arc possibIc. This is why you arc indccd
bcing. You havc many fcaturcs that arc
Iikcthoscofonc orbothparcntsor thosc
of your brothcrs and sistcrs, but you arc
not 0X0ClÍ] Iikc anyonc cIsc in thc worId.
OnIy onc cxccption is possibIc. Idcn-
ticaI twins, who arc aIways of thc samc
scx, havc thc samc inhcritancc. IdcnticaI
twins arc formcd whcn thc cgg dividcs
aùcr it has unitcd with aspcrm andthcn
Thcir gcnctic contcnt is idcnticaI.
FratcmaI twins, howcvcr, arc no morc
aIikc in thcir inhcritancc than arc any
brothcrs orsistcrs inthcfamiIy. Thcyarc
formcd whcn two cggs arc produccd and
cach is fcrtilizcd by a dißcrcnt spcrm at
aImost thcsamc timc. Thc twins thcndc-
vclop togcthcr. FratcmaI twins may bc
of thc samc scx or a maIc and a fcmaIc.
Ocncs do dctcrminc inhcritcd charac-
tcristics. Howcvcr, a Iackof propcr food,
cxcrcisc, and rcst can inûucncc growth
and pcrsonaIity dcvcIopmcnt. How you
kind of gcncs you inhcrit!
Gol den EXPLORI NG EARTH Books travel far beyond the boundari es of t he
pri nted page. They l ead readers on exci t i ng expedi t i ons -whether i n the
mi nd or on foot -and open thei r eyes to the many fasci nati ons of the natural
worl d. Each i n the seri es i s an advent ure for t he young nature l over
or begi nni ng sci enti st who wi shes to be better acquai nted wi th our earth
and i ts many marvel s.
Ê0| 000 EXPLORI NG EARTH b00k8
FLOWERS, TREES, AND ARDENI NG OCEANOGRAPHY
REPTI LES AND AMPHI BI ANS NATURE HI KES
ROCKS AND MI NERALS
OUR å0 UNI TED STATES
T E H UMAN BODY