Hogeschool van Amsterdam Domein Techniek Opleiding Aviation Amsterdam 23 Mei 2012

Your connection to the world

Project group 2A1O Thijs Buurmeijer Romeo Maul Fabio Neira Iris Oosterbroek Max Richtering Blenken Tim Schouten Nick Soonius Max Witteman

Table of contents
Summary ............................................................................................................................................................................. 3 Introduction ........................................................................................................................................................................ 4 1 Airport research ............................................................................................................................................................... 5 1.1 Contemporary situation ............................................................................................................................................ 5 1.1.1 Economic Prospect ............................................................................................................................................ 5 1.1.2 Air traffic ............................................................................................................................................................ 6 1.2 Airport Operations .................................................................................................................................................... 9 1.2.1 Landside ............................................................................................................................................................. 9 1.2.2 Airside .............................................................................................................................................................. 11 1.2.3 Airspace division .................................................................................................................................................. 15 1.3.1 Costs based on Rotterdam airport. .................................................................................................................. 17 1.3.2 Benefits based on Rotterdam airport .............................................................................................................. 18 1.4 Airport legislation ................................................................................................................................................... 19 1.4.1 ‘Wet luchtvaart’ ............................................................................................................................................... 19 1.4.2 Noise nuisance ................................................................................................................................................. 20 2 Concept solution ............................................................................................................................................................ 22 2.1 Concept Guidelines ................................................................................................................................................. 22 2.1.1 Airport dimension ............................................................................................................................................ 22 2.1.2 Infrastructure ................................................................................................................................................... 22 2.1.3 Airspace ........................................................................................................................................................... 22 2.2 Possible locations.................................................................................................................................................... 22 2.2.1 Expanding an existing airport .......................................................................................................................... 22 2.2.2 New locations .................................................................................................................................................. 24 2.3 Zwolle airport.......................................................................................................................................................... 26 2.3.1 Location ........................................................................................................................................................... 26 2.3.2 Airspace ........................................................................................................................................................... 28 2.4 Location Doetinchem .............................................................................................................................................. 29 2.4.1 Locations .......................................................................................................................................................... 29 2.4.2 Airspace ........................................................................................................................................................... 31 2.5 Lelystad Airport....................................................................................................................................................... 32 2.5.1 Location ........................................................................................................................................................... 32 2.5.2 Airspace division .............................................................................................................................................. 34 2.6 Conclusion............................................................................................................................................................... 36 2.6.1 Conclusion Zwolle ............................................................................................................................................ 36 3 Elaboration.................................................................................................................................................................... 37 3.1 Specifications .......................................................................................................................................................... 37 3.1.1 Landside ........................................................................................................................................................... 37

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3.1.2 Airside .............................................................................................................................................................. 38 3.1.3 Approach.......................................................................................................................................................... 39 3.2 Costs and benefits................................................................................................................................................... 41 3.2.1 Costs................................................................................................................................................................. 41 3.2.2 Benefits Zwolle international airport ............................................................................................................... 42 3.3 Conclusion............................................................................................................................................................... 44 3.3.1 Landside ........................................................................................................................................................... 44 3.3.2 Airside .............................................................................................................................................................. 45 3.3.3 Costs................................................................................................................................................................. 45 3.3.4 Benefits ............................................................................................................................................................ 45 3.3.5 Recommendation ............................................................................................................................................ 45

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Summary
Project group 2A1O has been given the assignment by the government to think of possibilities for reshaping the current capacity of the Dutch airports. After weeks of work the project group advices the government to further investigate the build of a new airport near Zwolle. In the beginning of the project the project group started by gathering information about how an airport works and what is necessary to make an airport work. Next it was time to search for locations for a possible new airport, guidelines were set to narrow the search down. These guidelines were based on knowledge we gather about the future of the Dutch airports. Calculations made clear that there was a gap of 30 million passengers that needed filling. After research the project group found three possible locations that could withstand a capacity of 30 million passengers: Doetinchem, Zwolle and the expansion of Lelystad. To make sure the best choice was made, all three options were thoroughly examined and compared. Based on the guidelines Zwolle became our first choice. This was mainly because of the little obstacles and the big open terrain that could provide the space needed for a new airport. Now the project group could start working on developing the new airport. A design for the airside and landside was made. The airside is designed with a terminal in the middle of the airport with a runaway on both the south side and the north side of the terminal. Some estimates on costs and benefits were gathered. The biggest expense of the airport will be the terminal (estimated 2.0 billion euro’s) and the two runways (640 million euro’s). Research made clear that the benefits of the landside would be around 264 million. The income created from benefits from the airside would be used only to cover the cost of maintaining the airport and should not be used to make profit.

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Introduction
Travelling by air will always be necessary and the demand will still continue to grow, therefore the airport capacity needs to be extended. The Dutch government wants an advice on the redistribution of the airport capacity in the Netherlands. The advice will clarify how this distribution will take place. Project group 2A1O, consists of eight first year students of the education Aviation Studies at the Hogeschool van Amsterdam (HvA), is selected to look into the expansion of the airport capacity in the Netherlands. Before an advice can be given to the Dutch government, a research on the operation of an airport is carried out. Because of the shortage of the airport capacity, the research will start with information about the contemporary and futuristic situation in the Netherlands. Based on Rotterdam Airport, group 2A1O will develop a different kind of airport operation. The costs and benefits research will also be based on Rotterdam Airport. The chapter ends with laws regarding operation of a new airport (1). The second chapter consists of information on creating a new airport or expansion of an old one. Hereby the passenger numbers, kind of air traffic and flight movements will be taken into account. Based on this information a list of demands on different locations can be made. Thereafter the three best possible locations will be developed. This chapter ends with a conclusion that will be based on the advantages and disadvantages of each location, indicating the best location (2). The best location will be elaborated in the last chapter. This chapter will describe the facilities and arrangements of the new concept and also the costs and benefits. Based on this economic picture of the new concept the group will make a conclusion if the ratio between them is realistic enough to build this new airport (3). In the report there will be referred to certain appendixes. The appendixes used for this research can be found in the appendix document. This document is separately attached to the report.

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Airport research

Before new solutions can be given to solve the capacity problem of the Dutch Aviation, knowledge of different aspects is needed. This research is done in chapter 1. The research starts with the beginning of the problem, the shortage of the capacity. It is therefore important to know the current and futuristic situation in order to passenger numbers, cargo traffic and flight movements (1.1). Knowing what goes around at an airport gives a good image of the influence an airport has on this situation as it is today. The different kind of airport operations are taken into account to get a clear picture. This is done by researching Rotterdam Airport (1.2). Because a new airport has to be created there has to be understanding of the costs. The costs are also based on Rotterdam airport (1.3). The last obstacle for the creation of a new airport there is the law. In order to create a new airport there are several laws the new airport has to deal with (1.4).

1.1 Contemporary situation
The futuristic problem of the Netherlands is that it can´t handle the expected growth of passengers and cargo. The current airports and their capacity are not great enough therefore it is important to create this capacity, because else the Netherlands cannot keep up the economic growth along with neighbour countries. To give a clear image of the problem an economic prospect follows (1.1.1). The exact problem for not having this capacity lies on Schiphol. The amounts of flight movements that are allowed, are less than needed to handle the growth. Also the other airports are not able to handle a larger capacity. To real problem is clarified in (1.1.2).

1.1.1 Economic Prospect
The Netherlands needs a new airport to keep up with the rest of the world on economic scale, because an airport has an important function for the economy (1.1.1a). To give a clear image of the problem, first the current economic situation of the Netherlands is given (1.1.1b). An airport in 2030 has to solve the capacity problem that will be created in the upcoming years, therefore an expectation of the problem is given (1.1.1c). For creating our new airport, a short conclusion is made to understand the capacities the airport has to offer (1.1.1d).

1.1.1a Airport
An airport is not only a place for transportation of passengers and cargo, but there is also need for many employees. Because the great amount of difference in facilities and departments on an airport there is a great need of new employees in case a new airport is going to be built. This means the employment of the Netherlands will go up and so the economic situation. Beside new jobs an airport attracts entrepreneurs to come to the Netherlands or to use the airports because of their connections to other countries. A good connection to other countries will lead to more airliners using the airport. All of this contributes to a stronger economy.

1.1.1b Current economic situation
The Netherlands has an open economy. Our economy relies on the degree of export, because the Netherlands has good connections to neighbouring countries. Therefore the economic situation in neighbour countries is really important for the Netherlands. A bad economic situation in a neighbour country, shall lead to a drop of the export. Also the flow of passengers to the Netherlands going to neighbour countries is important for our economy. For creating a new airport these factors are important: 1. 2. Current import and export Current passenger flow on airports

Ad1. Current import and export The current economic situation of the Netherlands with regard to import and export is as follows: import € 365 billion, export € 404 billion. In order to know what the import and export will do in the coming years graphic shows more details over the past few years (appendix I). Ad2. Current passenger flow on airports The passenger flow by airports in the Netherlands for this report is based on Schiphol, Rotterdam-The Hague, Eindhoven and Maastricht-Aken (table 1.1). At the moment these airport transport almost 54 million people each

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year. In order to know more about the number of passengers on these airports a graphic shows more details (appendix I).

Year 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011

Schiphol 44,077,539 45,987,132 47,794,994 47,430,019 43,570,370 45,211,749 49,755,252

Rotterdam 1,098,300 1,137,835 1,146,692 1,059,006 991,390 1,000,858 1,158,420

Eindhoven 946,218 1,143,557 1,544,098 1,629,893 1,739,053 2,142,832 2,650,000

Maastricht 356,000 282,000 160,000 252,000 135,696 270,000 360,000

Total passengers 46,478,057 48,550,524 50,645,784 50,370,918 46,436,509 48,625,439 53,923,672

Table 1.1: Passengers numbers 2005-2011

1.1.1c Future economic situation
Before planning a new airport, the future situation will be calculated. However, it is important to keep in mind that this is only a calculation based on the current data. Real numbers can deviate from our calculations. The following two calculations are given; 1. 2. Future import and export Future passenger flow on airports

Ad1. Future import and export In order to our collected date from 2007 to 2011, we can say there is an average growth of import of € 14,5 billion each year. This will give a total import of € 638 billion in 2030. For the export there is an average growth of € 15,2 billion each year. This will lead to a total export of € 693 billion in 2030. For more date see (appendix I). A short conclusion leads to the fact that the import and export will double in the upcoming years. Ad2. Future passenger flow on airports According to the four biggest airports of the Netherlands, the average growth of passengers is 1,24 million each year (appendix I). This gives a raise of passengers of 16% each 5 years. Therewith the amount of passengers on airports in the Netherlands in 2030 will come to 85 million.

1.1.1d Conclusion
For creating the new airport the following guidelines in order to passenger growth has to be maintained. The expected amount of passengers is 2030 will come to 85 million. Let’s say it will be 90 million to be sure not having capacity problems when done. Assuming that Schiphol grows to a capacity of 65 million, there is a short of capacity of 25 million people. Therefore our airport should be able to handle 30 million passengers each year. This 30 million makes sure that after 2030 new extensions are not directly necessary.

1.1.2 Air traffic
Every day a lot of planes fly through the Dutch airspace. Most of them will land on Dutch territory, some of them will just fly through the Dutch airspace on the way to their destination. The Dutch air traffic mainly consists of three different types of flights (1.1.2.a). The amount of flights in the Dutch airspace, and therefore also the amount of landings on Dutch territory, have grown a lot throughout the past years. For a starting airport it is important to know where the most movement on airports currently is (1.1.2.b). Besides that, it is also important to know what the expectations for the future will be in terms of aircraft movement (1.1.2.c).

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1.1.2a Different types of flights
As told, there are three different flight types. These flight types are: Military and government flights, commercial aviation and General Aviation (GA). In this paragraph the differences between these flight types will be explained. It is important to know the difference between these flight types for a new airport, because the airspace is divided in different sections for some of these flight types. 1. 2. 3. Military and governmental flights Commercial aviation General aviation

Ad1. Military and government flights As the title says, these are the flights performed by or for military or governmental purposes. Military flights can be flights transporting troops, or for example jet fighter training. Governmental flights are flights commissioned by the Dutch government, or can be flights transporting people of the Dutch government. Most of these flights are performed from and to governmental airports. Ad2. Commercial aviation The commercial aviation consists of all flights performed by airlines. This contains both passenger transportation as well as cargo flights. All the flights performed by airlines are relatively long flights, from flying to a neighbouring country to intercontinental flights. Most of these flights are performed from large airports with large amounts of commercial aviation. The commercial aviation is the sector where the most money is involved, constantly newer and larger aircraft are developed and used for transportation. Ad3. General aviation The general aviation consists of many different types of flying. Basically all types of flying, except for Military and government flights and commercial aviation, are general aviation. The vast majority of flights are covered by general aviation. These flights are mostly performed from and to smaller regional airports, some general aviation flights, like business aviation, can be performed from and to larger airports.

1.1.2b Current commercial flight movement
In the Netherlands, there are a lot of airports. Most of the airports are made for general or military and governmental aviation. There is one major airport mainly for commercial aviation: Schiphol airport. Besides Schiphol, Rotterdam the Hague and Eindhoven airport are also airports with a lot of commercial aviation. Other than Schiphol, these airports have both commercial as well as general aviation flights. Three other airports, Maastricht-Aachen airport, Lelystad airport and Eelde airport, are mostly used for general aviation, but also have some commercial flights. In figure 1.1, the amount of commercial flight movements (blue) and the amount of general aviation (red) per airport in 2011 are shown. One thing that strikes is the amount of aircraft movements on Lelystad and Eelde airport compared to Rotterdam and Eindhoven airport. Rotterdam and Eindhoven airport are much larger and earn a lot more money than Eelde and Lelystad airport, but they have a lot less aircraft movements. This is mainly because the types of flight, Lelystad and Eelde have a lot of general aviation flights. Eelde, for example, had only 2000 commercial flights in 2011. The rest of the 67.000 flights were from general aviation. Whereas the most flights on Rotterdam and Eindhoven airport were commercial flights. The table also clearly shows that Schiphol Airport is by far the largest airport in the Netherlands concerning commercial flights.

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450000 Amount of flight movements 400000 350000 300000 250000 200000 150000 100000 50000 0 Schiphol Rotterdam Eindhoven Airport
Figure 1.1: Amount of flight movement per airport

Eelde

Maastricht

Lelystad

1.1.2c Future predictions in flight movements
For creating a new airport, it is important to know how the amount of flight movements will evolve throughout the next years till 2030. For predicting flight movements in the future, it is necessary to know how the growth evolved throughout the past years. 1. 2. Growth in the past Growth in the future

Ad1. Growth in the past When looking back in the past, it is clear that especially at Rotterdam and Eindhoven airport the amount of flight movements have increased a lot. In the year 2001, for example, 775 people travelled by aircraft from or to Rotterdam airport. In 2011 there were 1.158.420 people who travelled from or to Rotterdam airport. This is a massive growth caused by a couple of airlines performing scheduled flights from and to Rotterdam airport. For Eindhoven airport it is the same, also a massive growth in the amount of people flying from or to Eindhoven airport. This is also caused by airlines performing scheduled flights. Ad2. Growth in the future When looking at the future, it is really difficult to predict if the air traffic will continue to grow. Experts however, figure that until at least 2030 the commercial air traffic will grow with 4.3 per cent per year. The current total amount of commercial flight movements on airports in the Netherlands is 491419. This will mean that with a growth of 4.3 per cent per year the total amount of commercial flight movements in 2030 on airports in the Netherlands is 963830. To fulfil this growth especially the smaller airports, like Eelde, Eindhoven and Rotterdam, will have to grow, because Schiphol cannot handle the entire growth by itself. The main problem with growing however lies at the regional airports, throughout the past years especially Rotterdam and Eindhoven have grown to their limits. Due to noise limitations, both Rotterdam and Eindhoven airport cannot handle a lot more commercial flights than they already have currently. Rotterdam airport is currently looking for a solution to get permission for performing more commercial flights. But even if Rotterdam will be able to perform more commercial flights, this will not be enough to cover the entire growth in commercial flights. With the current airports available, in 2030 around 590000 commercial flight movements can be made on airports in the Netherlands. This will mean that there will be 373830 flight movements the Netherlands cannot accommodate. Therefore it is necessary that a new airport for commercial aviation is designed.

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1.2 Airport Operations
At an airport there are several groups that keep the airport running. The first thing people see at an airport is the landside (1.2.1). This part is focused on the passengers. In addition, there is an airside (1.2.2), this part is mostly for personnel and aircraft. The last major part is the airspace division (1.2.3), which is based on aircraft and air traffic control. Rotterdam Airport will be used for most of the examples of this subject (Appendix II).

1.2.1 Landside
The landside of an airport is orientated on the needs of passengers. The first thing that can be categorised to the landside is the infrastructure (1.2.1a). This is also the first impression people get when they go to an airport. Passengers make provision for the revenue of an airport, therefore facilities and services (1.2.1b) have a high priority. These issues will mostly be based on Rotterdam Airport.

1.2.1a Infrastructure
To leave a good impression on travellers, a good design of the buildings and area is important. Also the roads and public transport from and to the airport have a significant role. For the quickest handling of aircraft maintenance it will be clever to have some hangars nearby. And for a good operation of flights an air traffic control and a weather tower can be useful. These topics will be discussed with reference of Rotterdam Airport in the following sequence. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Terminal Hangar Air traffic control tower Parking facilities Reach abilities

Ad1. Terminal A terminal provides all facilities passengers need. It is also the first impression they get, so it has to be structured and functionally designed. The main purpose of a terminal is to transport passengers, as safe and as quick as possible, from landside to the airside into an aircraft, or vice versa. It is important that the construction of the terminal is built based on a fast and short transportation. This will optimize the passengers’ flow and the capacity. There also has to be thought about the statutory emergency exits for all safety. The terminal of Rotterdam Airport consists of three floors. The first two floors are public and the third floor is for inflicting the airport. Ad2. Hangar A hanger is used for storing and maintaining aircraft. The size of a hangar depends on what kind of aircraft type needs to be stored. It makes it easier to have a hangar near the airport when maintenance is needed. This makes it easier to test the aircraft because it is close to a runway. Some manufactures use hangars for assembling their aircraft and are used to place them near an airport. At Rotterdam Airport there are hangars for maintenance and aircraft storage. Several companies own these such as KLM, the police and Vliegclub Rotterdam. Ad3. Air Traffic Control The ATC (air traffic control) helps a pilot to navigate and guide him for a safe flight. They control all take-offs, approaches and landings. It is a tower that offers an overview of the whole airside terrain and is operated by authorized personnel. The ATC tower on Rotterdam Airport is built on top of other buildings. The top is made of glass, which provides a three hundred sixty degree overview. Ad4. Parking facilities A lot of people like to travel to and from the airport by car. Some large airports can’t provide that. Because of the largeness of the area, they need to park their car a few kilometres away. Solutions for this are shuttle busses that bring them to the airport in a few minutes. Rotterdam Airport has eight parking areas, which are within walking distance of the airport. Three of these areas are for people with a handicap. There are two parking area’s for both long- and short-term parking. The last area is for the KLM jet centre. On an airport there are mostly several car rental companies. Rotterdam Airport has five different car rental companies. Ad5. Reach abilities It is important that an airport is easy to reach. Therefore roads, railways and waterways can be crucial. Roads are the most common way to travel to or from an airport. It can be used for private or public purposes, such as shuttle busses, taxis or by their own car. In Holland there are several kinds of roads like highways and provincial roads. Some people 9

like to travel by train. An advantage of this kind of transportation is that there is no traffic jam, so it’s reliable. In Holland there are a lot railways, which connect to almost every city. Sometimes it’s possible that an airport is near a sea or river. In that case people can travel by boat or ferry. Rotterdam Airport is reachable by car, shuttle bus, taxis and indirectly by train and subway. Other cities can also quickly be reached (table 1.2).

City

Distance (km)

Average time by car or taxi (minutes) 10 18 52 48 51

Average time by train (minutes) 30 42 74 61 95

Rotterdam Den Haag Utrecht Breda Amsterdam

6.8 20.9 60.1 60.4 72.3

Table 1.2: Average travelling time from Rotterdam Airport

1.2.1b Facilities and services
When a passenger wants to travel by plane, he needs to get on board through an airport. There are several facilities available for these passengers. First, there needs to be parking place. Food and shopping stores are useful as well. Luggage needs to be handed in through a security post. For everyone’s safety some medical services, police and fire protection is a pre. These topics will be discussed with reference of Rotterdam Airport in the following sequence. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Weather forecast Food, beverages and stores Luggage Security Emergency services

Ad1. Weather forecast Every airport has to take care of its own weather conditions, because the performances of aircraft depend on the weather. This is a very big issue in aviation. Almost every airport has its own weather station. They calculate and try to predict the upcoming weather. Rotterdam Airport doesn’t have its own weather tower, but they use the weather forecast of ‘de Bilt’. This can be used for the automatic traffic information system on Rotterdam Airport. Ad2. Food, beverages and stores On an airport there are a lot of travellers and all those people must be provided with food. Therefore there are some food chains available. For people who want to make time pass quicker, there are some beverage shops and other stores for them to enjoy. Rotterdam Airport has a kiosk in the transit hall, an airliner ticket desk, a tour operator desk and some little services for food and beverages. On the second floor there is a restaurant which is accessible for all visitors. This restaurant is open during weekdays from 5 am till 8 pm, weekends from 5 am till 6 pm. Ad3. Luggage Time of handling luggage is one of the most important things. The quicker people get their luggage, the more satisfied they are, and the better it is for the company. Luggage handling can be done manually or by an automatic electric system. Larger airports uses an automated luggage sorting system, this can increase the capacity of a terminal. Ad4. Security An important issue is the feeling of safety for passengers at an airport. This could contribute to the attractiveness of an airport. Therefore, there are security and customs personnel. These customs are responsible for the imports and exports. The security personnel take care of maintaining. Ad5. Emergency services Larger airports have their own security personnel and don’t use the local police, because it will cost too much time for a policeman to arrive at the crime scene. Those special airport agencies are a standard for international airports. Another thing to increase the airport safety is fire protection. This protection can be performed by private or public organizations and is required according the ICAO. In an area with so many people, there may get one unwell. In that case there can be a special airport medical service at the airport, but this is not required according the ICAO. In the worst case the local medical service can be called. 10

1.2.2 Airside
The airside of an airport can be divided into two groups. One contains the infrastructure of the airside, this contains about a few points. First there is a runway (1.2.2a), so it’s possible for aircraft to take-off and land. After landing or before take-off they have to make use of taxiways (1.2.2b). The runways and taxiways are equipped with some special markings and lightings, for safe operations and in case for low visibility. Once arrived at the gate, there will be looked at apron (1.2.2c). To run an airport, it has to offer some crucial facilities and services. This contains the second group of the airside. The most important facility for larger aircraft is the navigation that is possible at an airport to land, more information about this can be found in (Appendix III). Also to offer more quality, there needs to be a clean area to fly through and the aircraft must be free of cold weather conditions. De-icing (1.2.2d) is one of the services an airport must be able to offer the aircraft. For the safety of aircraft that take-off or land on the airport the bird control (1.2.2e) must be available on the airport. There are two types of landings. The first one is a landing with Visual Flight Rules (VFR)(1.2.2f), this means that a pilot lands on his vision. The second way to make a landing is with the aid of Instrument Flight Rules (1.2.2g), hereby a pilot uses his instruments to enable a landing.

1.2.2a Runway
Runways can be divided into visual runways, non-precision runways and precision instrument runways. A visual runway is mostly for small airports and can only be used with by a clear view. Non-precision runways are for small to middle size airports. These runways have some radio navigation for horizontal position declaration, like NDB, VOR and GPS. The precision instrument runways are for middle-sized to large airports and are provided with an instrument landing system. On this type of runway, a landing can be made even by a poor visibility. Runways are indicated according to the position of the magnetic azimuth, which is generally one tenth of the position degree. Runway ‘’zero nine’’ means a plane needs to land heading 90° East. This runway can be used in both directions, but is named for each direction differently. Parallel runways are indicated by left (L), centre (C) or right (R). Take-offs and landings are usually done in the direction of the wind, wind direction determines the active runway. Runway lengths depend on which type of aircraft need to land on the airport. For aircraft with weights below 90.000 kg (200.000 lb.), a runway of at least 1800 m (6000 ft.) in length is required. For larger aircraft, a runway of 2400 m (8000 ft.) is required. In some cases, heavier aircraft may also have other requirements for landing 3000 m (10000 ft.) or more and take-off requirements of 4000 m (13000 ft.). These values are based for airports at sea level and somewhat airports at a higher altitude. Because of the decreasing of air density at higher altitudes, aerodynamic aspects will influence the lift and engine power. This requires a higher take-off and landing speed resulting in a longer runway. In all, a runway depends on the wind influences, types of aircraft and the temperature (airport height). The width of a runway varies at every airport. Most international airports have a runway with a width of 30 to 45 meters, some smaller airports can have runways with a width of 5 to 25 meters. Rotterdam Airport contains a runway of 2200 m (7218 ft.) with a direction of 06/24 and an elevation of -4 m (14 ft.). Most flights today at Rotterdam Airport are operated by regional turboprop and some mainline jets such as the Boeing 737 and the Airbus A320. But it has the capacity for larger aircraft. The following runway declared distances are determined (figure 1.2). TORA stands for take-off run available and means the available and suited length of the runway for take-off. LDA is the landing distance available and means the length of the runway for landing. TODA represents the take-off distance available, this is the available length of the runway plus the length of the clearway for take-off. The ASDA is the accelerate- stop distance available and means the TORA plus the stop way. The clearway is an imaginary field, which has an upward angle of 1,25% with a minimum width of at least 500 ft. This is intended as an extension of the runway for emergency cases. Most runways are made of asphalt, concrete or a mixture of both. Sometimes they can exist of a natural surface like grass, ice, gravel, dirt or salt. The pacement surface is there to maximize friction for wheel braking. To minimize slippery by rain surfaces are usually grooved, so that it is possible that the rain flows into the runway grooves. This ensures that the tires still have contact with the runway peaks and breaking is more efficient at raining conditions. Runway markings ensures that the pilot navigate on a straight path on the ground. Here a distribution is made in five different markings. Not all of these markings are on all types of runways. The different types or runway markings are designation markings, centreline markings, threshold markings, aiming point markings and touchdown zone markings (appendix IV).

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Aeronautical ground lighting is a term that is used for all kinds of lighting on an airport. These l lightning systems are used during night, low visibility conditions and for approaches. It ensures a safe operation on the runways, taxiways and aprons. Runway lights can be divided into centreline lights, edge lights, threshold lights, touchdown zone lights and end runway lighting (Appendix V).

Figure1.2: Runway indications

1.2.2b Taxiway
Taxiways provide a transport to the apron, hangars, runways and other facilities. It is important that runways are designed for an optimal continuous flow of aircraft ground traffic. For a quicker processing, some airports construct ‘’rapid-exit taxiways’’. This allows an aircraft to leave the runway at higher speeds, which will make sure that another . aircraft can operate quicker. Taxiways are mostly made of asphalt or concrete. The length of taxiways are always variable, but the width can be determined by a code letter of the airport reference code. This width is depending on the aircraft outer main gear wheel span ( (table 1.3). Rotterdam airport has four taxiways; three of them have a widt width of 23 m (75,46 ft.) and one a width of 15 m (49,21 ft.).

Code letter

Taxiway width (meters) 7.5 10.5 15 18 23 25

A B C D E F
Table 1.3: Taxiway width

Taxiway centreline markings are yellow and can have a width of 15 to 30 cm. It is a continuing stripe in length, except where it intersects with a runway holding position marking. The pilot needs to follow the continui yellow stripe for a continuing perfect transport path. This ensures that the wings of an aircraft do not contact other foreign objects or aircraft. Taxiway edge markings are there to show the boundary of the taxiway. It consist of two lines, one both sides. They discern the pavement, which is used for aircraft with other pavements. As well as the runway, a taxiway also needs some ground lighting for a safety operation in times of low visibility’s. These lights can be divided into edge lights, centreline lights, exit taxiway centreline lights, stop bar lights and intermediate holding position.

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1.2.2c Apron
An apron is a parking place and is meant for a quick handling of aircraft operations. Here passengers enter or leave the aircraft, cargo and fuel can be refilled and some small maintenance can be done. Only authorized personnel may enter this area outside. There are several facilities and rules on an apron (figure 1.3).

Passenger bridge Operation area Parking lots technical service 4. Parking lots materials 5. Fuel supply 6. Apron side marking 7. Airside boundary 8. X 9. Entrance 10. Parking lot special equipment 11. Ground power unit 12. No parking

1. 2. 3.

Figure 1.3: Apron

1.2.2d De-icing
This is a way to prevent ice, snow or frost from a surface. It can be done at the airside of an airport, just before takeoff. Some authorized personnel will spray the aircraft with a viscous fluid called ‘’anti-ice fluid’’. This fluid would protect the aircraft surface for a certain period of time, depending on the outside environment temperature. There is also anti-icing, this is based on removing the already existing ice, snow or frost on the surface.

1.2.2e Bird control
When birds fly around an airport, they are a big danger for aircraft. Most birds will fly three hundred meters above ground. This could cause a collision by take-off or landing. This will cost a company millions, because of reparation of an aircraft and the worst to take the aircraft out of service. Each airport has its own size of bird strike problem. To prevent bird strikes effectively, it is necessary to have an in-depth understanding of the customs and behaviour of the birds. There are several reasons why there are birds around an airport, some of these birds are feeding, nesting, resting or have an en-route passage above the airport. An example of bird scaring is giving in (Appendix VI).

1.2.2f VFR
Visual flight rules Minimum flight visibility. In class G airspace, the minimum flight visibility at or below 3000 ft. AMSL is 1.5 km, provided that the flight will be executed with such a speed that it is possible to avoid other air traffic and obstacles. Above 3000 ft. AMSL, the minimum flight visibility is 8 km. In class B or E airspace, the minimum flight visibility is 8 km, but in the parts of the Nieuw Milligen TMAs that are classified as E airspace, from FRI 1600 to SUN 2300 UTC wintertime (FRI 1500 to SUN 2200 UTC summertime) and on official holidays it is 5 km. In class C airspace, the minimum flight visibility is 5 km.

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Aerodromes without an ATC service are mostly equipped with an air/ground communication station, and are identified by the call sign ‘name aerodrome’ radio, e.g. Texel radio. The pilot is first and foremost responsible for a safe and orderly conduct in aerodrome traffic. The visual approach charts of such aerodromes include position and altitude of traffic circuits, frequencies, local details about noise restrictions and other information. An ATC service is provided at controlled aerodromes. A clearance is necessary for start-up, taxiing, take-off, landing and movements associated with these. All civil controlled aerodromes generally have VFR approach / departure routes with given altitudes and reporting points, published in the visual approach / departure charts. With regards to a safe, orderly and expeditious aerodrome traffic at aerodromes, common rules are laid down for the aerodrome traffic circuit and circuit areas. However, due to local circumstances, procedures can differ from these common rules.

1 2 3 4 5 6
Figure 1.4: Aerodrome traffic circuit

1. Downwind leg 2. Crosswind leg 3. Take-off leg 4. Runway 5. Final leg 6. Base leg

The circuit area is established for each runway. The aerodrome traffic circuit (figure 1.4) is situated within the circuit area. The vertical dimensions extend from aerodrome level up to 1000 ft. / 300 m above airport level (AAL). The aerodrome traffic circuit height is 700 ft. / 210 m AAL. Before joining the aerodrome traffic circuit, pilots have to take notice of the signals displayed in the signal area, or of the information given by radio. Overflying the circuit area for observing the signal area, shall be done at a height of at least 1000 ft. / 300 m AAL. Aviation activities can take place above this height. Descending or climbing to circuit height must be executed outside the lateral limits of the circuit area. The joining of the aerodrome traffic circuit shall take place half-way downwind leg at an interception angle of 90°. Leaving the aerodrome traffic circuit, shall take place at an angle of 45° half-way crosswind leg. Climbing or descending to cruising level must take place outside the lateral limits of the aerodrome circuit area. Where glider flying may take place, specific rules for glider flying, if any, are published in the visual approach chart of the aerodrome. Minimum heights for VFR flights. Except when necessary for take-off or landing, aircraft shall not be flown over the congested areas of cities, towns or settlements, industrial areas, harbours and open-air assemblies of persons, unless at such a height as will permit, in the event of an emergency arising, a landing to be made without undue hazard to persons or property on the surface. The following minimum heights apply to VFR flights: Over the congested areas of cities, towns or settlements, industrial areas, harbours and open-air assemblies of persons, 300 m (1000 ft.) above the highest obstacle within a radius of 600 m, in all other cases at least 150 m (500 ft.) above ground or water. The daylight period is defined as the period from sunrise minus 15 minutes until sunset plus 15 minutes, measured at one position in the Netherlands. VFR flights outside the daylight period are not permitted in the Netherlands.

1.2.2f IFR
Instrument Approaches (IAP) to Civil Airports. Unless otherwise authorized, when an instrument let-down to an airport is necessary, the pilot should use a standard IAP prescribed for that airport. ATC approach procedures depend upon the facilities available at the terminal area, the type of instrument approach executed, and the existing weather conditions. The ATC facilities, navigation aids (NAVAIDs), and associated frequencies appropriate to each standard 14

instrument approaches are noted on the approach chart. Individual charts are published for standard approach procedures associated with the following types of facilities; Non directional beacons (NDB) exist of two parts: beacon transmitters on the ground and in the aircraft, an automatic direction finder (ADF). The beacon transmitters, transmits an all-round radio signal in a frequency range of 200 kHz (low frequency) to 415 kHz (medium frequency). The ADF determines the direction of the beacon in relation to the aircraft. By determining the direction to two beacons, the position of the aircraft can be derived. Most if the NDBs are precise within a distance of 25 NM. Very-high frequency Omni range (VOR) ground stations transmit an all-round radio signal in a frequency range of 108 MHz to 117,96 MHz (very high frequency). The signal is used to determine on which radius of the beacon (between 1 to 360 degrees) the aircraft is embarked. The 360 radius indicates the magnetic north. Depending on obstacles between the station and aircraft, VOR ground stations are able to transmit over a distance between 40 NM to 200 NM. Most of the VOR stations are combined with a distance measuring equipment (DME). This equipment provides information of the distance from an aircraft to the (VOR) beacon or the runway. The DME can also be connected to the instrument landing system (ILS). Global positioning systems (GPS) make use of different satellites positioned in space and circling around the earth. Determining an aircraft’ position is based on distance measuring between the satellite and the aircraft’ receiver. The satellite’s position is known and the distance is determined by the duration of transmitted radio waves. Coverage is provided most of the time.

1.2.3 Airspace division
The division of airspace is complicated. Because of the wide spectrum of airspace users, it is necessary for the airspace to consist of a various amount of layers. Therefore, an accurate control is necessary to guide all the movements without any accidents. This control is the task of Air Traffic Control (ATC). To start with the subdivision, four main areas can be distinguished (1.2.3a)according to the phase of flight of an aircraft. Each of these main areas can again be divided into seven different categories (1.2.3b) which are an indication of the degree of guidance by the air traffic control and the traffic rules bounded to the specific area. Then specific areas in airspace are reserved or not allowed for air traffic, so these restrictions have to be taken into account (1.2.3c). Finally the step to Rotterdam The Hague Airport is made (1.2.3d).

1.2.3a Air Traffic Control areas
The Dutch airspace uses the ‘The Amsterdam Flight Information Region (FIR)’ as in figure 1.5. The Netherlands have only one FIR in which the airspace is controlled and uncontrolled. One step further, the distinction of airspace layers can be made. These first layers are the so-called air traffic control areas. The different areas indicate the degree of control. This is determined by the geographical position and the phase of flight of an aircraft. (Appendix VII) shows a more detailed view of the Air Traffic Control areas in the Dutch airspace. The areas are schematic viewed in figure 1.6 and divided as followed: 1. 2. 3. 4. CTR TMA CTA UTA

Ad1. Control Zone (CTR) This zone is meant for landing and take-off and movements close to an airport. In the Dutch airspace the control zone reaches vertically 3000 ft. (upper limit) AMSL (above mean sea level) and is divided over about 15 kilometres on the earth’s surface. The ATC tower controls this zone. Ad2. Terminal Control Area (TMA) This control area is meant to guide air traffic from a flight route to an airport or from an airport to an intended flight route. Terminal control areas take over control at the CTR’s upper limit and reach about 50 kilometres over horizontally. Besides that, TMA’s are overall positioned at active airports and at the intersection of various flight routes and are controlled by the ATC approach

Figure 1.5: Flight Information Region of Dutch airspace

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and departure (APP/DEP). Ad3. Control Area (CTA) This control area is responsible for lower airspaces. The control area reaches to FL 195 (upper limit), deals with aircraft crossing the border and is controlled by the area control centre (ACC). Ad4. Upper Control Area (UTA) This control area is responsible for higher airspaces. The upper control area controls airspace above FL 195 (lower limit) and delegated to the upper area control centre (UACC).

1

1. 2.

CTA or TMA CTR

2

Figure 1.6: Air Traffic Control areas

1.2.3b Airspace classification
Before discussing the airspace categories, the difference between instrumental flight rules (IFR) and visual flight rules (VFR) have to be clarified. These two modes of flying represent whether the pilot is navigating by means of his instruments (IFR) or on visual recognition (VFR). The seven airspace categories are based on IFR and/or VFR. Each category indicates the quantity of guidance by air traffic control (ATC) and the bounded rules for a certain area. This gives the pilot clearness about the service he can expect and the obligations he has to take into account for the respective area. ICAO divides airspace in class A to class G. These categories applied to Dutch airspace are viewed in table 1.4. The first column represents the respective category. The second column views whether the airspace is controlled or uncontrolled. The third column specifies the allowed mode of flight in that particular area. The fourth column views the provision of guidance of the ATC. A fifth column gives the degree of separation between the flights. The separation means the horizontal and vertical space between flying aircraft and is regulated by the ATC. The last column conveys available flight information about other aircraft. Class A B C D E F G Type Controlled Controlled Controlled VFR or IFR IFR only Both Both Separation Of all flights mutual Of all flights mutual IFR mutual and from VFR, VFR from IFR Not assigned to Dutch airspace To IFR IFR mutual Not assigned to Dutch airspace None None ATC To all flights To all flights To all flights Flight information About all flights About all flights VFR about VFR

Controlled

Both

About all flights when possible On demand

Uncontrolled

Both

Table 1.4: Airspace classifications

A comment must be added to this table. In class B till class G VFR flight is only permitted when visibility is more than eight kilometres and the distance to clouds is at least 1500 horizontally and 300 meters vertically. For VFR flights entering class C a clear visibility of five kilometres is required. In class G VFR flight beneath 3000 ft. is only permitted when visibility is more than 1500 meters, at clear sky and visibility of the ground. (Appendix VIII) shows a more detailed view of the Dutch airspace classification.

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1.2.3c Airspace restrictions
Above all the Dutch government has authority on Dutch airspace. This exception is written down in the Wet Luchtvaart (WLV) and gives the Ministry of Transport and (when it comes to military matters) the Ministry of Defence rights to claim certain airspace above the Netherlands. The claimed zone then will be prohibited or additional rules are applicable for civil air traffic. These restricted zones have to be taken into account for the concept later in chapter 2. A description and an overview of determined prohibited areas within the Dutch airspace is presented in (Appendix IX).

1.2.3d Rotterdam the Hague Airport
The airspace from ground to approximately 3000 ft. AMSL regarded to Rotterdam The Hague Airport is of the CTR kind and is classified to class C. This airspace reaches over a radius of 8 nautical miles (NM). Therefore, the air traffic (IFR and VFR) of 3000 ft. and lower is regulated by the Rotterdam tower. The transition altitude for IFR flight takes place at 3000 ft. AMSL and for VFR flight is the altitude 3500 ft. AMSL. (Appendix X) displays more additional information about airspace above Rotterdam The Hague Airport around the transition altitude. The CTR of Rotterdam airspace reaches 3000 ft. AMSL and is classified C. Airspace Rotterdam has three TMA’s with a classification, an upper and a lower limit. All the TMA’s are classified to category E. TMA1 has a lower limit of 1500 ft. AMSL and an upper limit of flight level (FL) 055, TMA2 has a lower limit of 2500 ft. AMSL and an upper limit of FL 055 and TMA3 has a lower limit of 3500 ft. AMSL and an upper limit of FL 055. Beyond the upper limit of FL 055 the CTA south 1 of Amsterdam takes over control from Rotterdam TMA1 and TMA2. CTA west of Amsterdam does this for Rotterdam TMA3.1.3 Cost and benefits based on Rotterdam airport In a lucrative organization, expenses are lower than income. An airport has different costs such as maintenance of the facilities and taxes but it also has income that varies on the number of aircraft that take off and land. Firstly the cost will be described (1.3.1), secondly the benefits (1.3.2). Both the cost and benefits are based on Rotterdam airport.

1.3.1 Costs based on Rotterdam airport.
Rotterdam Airport is a major component of the Dutch transportation infrastructure. Rotterdam Airport has approximately 2,500 direct jobs and is one of the largest employers in southwest Netherlands. The demand for airport capacity has grown considerably over the past 30 years. Airports are divided into landside and airside areas. Airport costs consist of personnel costs, maintenance costs, security costs, ground handling and ATC costs. The costs of Rotterdam airport can be divided in two parts: cost of the airside (1.3.1a) and costs of the landside (1.3.1b).

1.3.1a Costs of the airside
• • • The airside is the most important part of an airport, the safety of the aircraft must be a 100%. The airport is responsible to maintain the taxiways and runways in perfect conditions, which is the reason Rotterdam airport has to ensure that these are maintained in a safe operating conditions. To guide the aircraft from one direction to the other Rotterdam airport has a control tower, this control tower operates 24 hours a day. Environmental taxes such as costs for air pollution and cost of noise, environmental and social costs are directly related to the number, movements and the types of aircraft that operates at the airport.

1.3.1b Costs of the landside
The composition of the costs arising on contracts and other external consist as follows: • • • Security of Rotterdam airport is also an important part for the safety of the aircraft and passengers. This consists of fire fighters, rescue, police, coastguard, military and ambulance flights. These are services that are 24 hours a day standby for any emergency. Maintenance of the facilities Other costs such as insurance costs, energy costs, hiring of external staff, consulting and accounting fees.

The amount of the costs of Rotterdam airport is nowhere to be found and that's why there is no overview of the costs of Rotterdam airport.

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1.3.2 Benefits based on Rotterdam airport
Benefits are separated in two different kinds, airside and landside. First of all, there will be given an explanation of airside benefits (1.3.2a). Furthermore, there will be given examples on Rotterdam airport of airside benefits. Secondly, ). there will be given an explanation of landside benefits (1.3.2b). Followed by examples on Rotterdam airport of ). landside benefits. Figure 1.7 shows the general distribution of the benefits of Rotterdam airport.

1.3.2a Airside benefits
There are two different kinds of airside benefits categories. First of all, the landing tariffs that are charged for landing at an airport are explained. Secondly, the parking tari for aircraft are mentioned. These are charged when parked tariffs after landing on an airport. The landing and parking tariffs combined are called Aerodrome charges. Rotterdam airport earned €16,477,223.-in 2011 with the aerodrome charges. Aerodrome charges generate 58% of the total income of in generate Rotterdam airport. 1. Landing tariffs 2. Parking tariffs Ad1. Landing tariffs Landing tariffs are charged when making a landing on an airport. The amount of the tariff depends on multiple factors: The time of the landing, the weight of the aircraft and the amount of noise produced while landing. In addition large ight aircraft, which are heavier than an amount of kilograms, are charged extra money per passenger. The landing tariffs , on Rotterdam airport are in table 1.5 below. For every departing passenger there is an extra charge of €16.66,-. every There are three main noise categories, category A, B and C. For category A there will be charged 40% more for landing. In category B there is no extra charge. Category C reduces the charges by 15% for landing.

Time(local time)
07.00 – 23.00 07.00 – 23.00 07.00 – 23.00

Weight (in kg)
Till 6,000 6,000 – 20,000 Above 20,000

Min cost (in €)
€18.40 €53.10 €139.30

Max cost (in €)
€48.40 €141.2 €139.30<

Cost per 1,000 kg (in €)
€11.90 €6.95 €9.40

Table 1.5 Landing tariffs Rotterdam airport

Ad2. Parking tariffs Parking tariffs are charged when aircraft are parked on the ground. At Rotterdam airport the parking tariff depends on a few factors, these are weight and time. The minimum charge per 24 hours is €12.55,- for every 1,000 kg there will be charged €2.10 extra. When parked less than six hours, there is no parking charge on Rotterdam airport.

7% 7% 6%

Havengeld Concession Rental
58%

12%

Shops Car parking Other benefits

10%

Figuur 1.7: Benefits of Rotterdam airport

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1.3.2b Landside benefits
There are four different landside benefit categories: nt 1. 2. 3. 4. Car parking Shops Concession Rental

Ad1. Car parking Most airports have car parking facilities. Advantage of these facilities, is that they increase the accessibility of the airport. On Rotterdam airport there are multiple car parking facilities. Rotterdam earned around €3,000,000.- in 2011 for just the car parking. Car parking generates 7% of the total income of Rotterdam airport. Ad2. Shops Large airports have multiple shops, these shops give departing and arriving passengers the opportunity to spend their money while for instance waiting for incoming or d departing flights. Rotterdam airport has one shop, restaurant and espresso bar in the passage hall. In the departing hall there is one tax free shop, two restaurants and two bars. Shops tax-free generate 6% of the total income of Rotterdam airport. Ad3. Rental An airport rents terrains and real estate. These rentals consist mostly of ticket desks in terminals, renting of offices and ground leasehold of terrains. Rental generates 12% of the total income of Rotterdam airport. Ad4. Concession Concessions are fees from third parties, which are paid for having licenses to deliver services on an airport. These services are shops, restaurants, entertainment and delivering of fuel. Concession generates 10% of the total income of Rotterdam airport. Figure1.8 shows the origin of the concession benefits on Amsterdam airport Schiphol in 2003. origin

23%

Shopping centre
7% 70%

Fuel companies Remaining

Figuur 1.8: Concession benefits of Schiphol

1.4 Airport legislation
The airport is required to meet a variety of regulations needs. So when a new airport will be built, the laws are required. The airport regulation that needs to be considered is written in several documents. Firstly, there is the ‘luchtvaartwet’ (LVW) of 15 January 1958. ’De luchtvaartwet’ regulates the use of airports in the Netherlands and is being replaced bit by bit by the ‘wet luchtvaart’ (WLV) (1.4.1). The reason for this transfer to a new law is . decentralization. This means that certain powers for some airports within the Netherlands shall be moved from the state to the province. To authorize an airport, it needs to be equipped with a ‘luchthavenbesluit’. Before the airport, ‘luchthavenbesluit’ can be provided to an airport, the airport has to be checked on certain points. Safety of airports and regulations for obstacles on and around the airport are important checks for an airport. Because of the checks environment of an airport, noise nuisance is one of the specific points that need to be checked (1.4.2).

1.4.1 ‘Wet luchtvaart’
The ‘wet luchtvaart’ makes a distinction between four types of airport. These are the airpor Schiphol (airport of airport international meaning), airport of national meaning, airports of regional meaning and military airports. In which type an airport belongs is processed in article 8.1. A condition within the ‘wet luchtvaart’ is always directed to the operator, the users or the air traffic control. A few important laws named in the ‘algemene bepaling hfst 8 van de wet luchtvaart’ are as follows: ‘Een luchtvaartuig is bij wet verboden ergens anders op te stijgen of te landen anders dan 19

een luchthaven.’ This means that an airplane is only allowed to land or take-off from an airport. An airport is obligated to have a ‘luchtvaartbesluit’ or ‘luchtvaartregeling’ at his disposal (1.4.1a). ‘Het is verboden een overige burgerluchthaven in bedrijf te hebben indien voor deze luchthaven geen luchthavenbesluit of luchthavenregeling geldt’.

1.4.1a ‘Luchthavenbesluit’ and ‘luchthavenregeling’
The ‘luchthavenbesluit’ contains conditions concerning the air traffic and the area in and around the airport (land and air side). This ‘besluit’ is directed to the operator, the users and the air traffic control of the airport in question and is mostly used with big airports. Regarding the air traffic this will mean that regulations and boundary values concerning noise disturbance, external security and local air pollution will be in this ‘besluit’. Regulations regarding flight safety will also be described in this ‘besluit’. The ‘besluit’ will contain rules about a limitation area regarding the area in and around the airport. An important part of the ‘luchtvaartbesluit’ is the issue of external security. External security is the safety of establishments or other utilizations in the area next to the airport. The external security is based on certain contours around the airport. This contour is the risk that there is a deathly accident somewhere in a region. This risk is calculated by checking the number of dead persons through a deathly accident annually in a certain area. A ‘luchthavenregeling’ uses different laws and boundary values concerning noise disturbance and external safety regarding air traffic. A ‘luchthavenregeling’ is mostly being used with smaller airports.

1.4.2 Noise nuisance
How much noise nuisance an aircraft produces is depends on the type of aircraft. Noise produced by flying aircraft effects the surrounding of an airport. Therefore, an airport is allowed to produce a certain value of noise. There are different ways to calculate noise nuisance (1.4.2a). There are maximum values of noise that airports are allowed to produce (1.4.2b).

1.4.2a Measurement of noise nuisance
When an aircraft flies above an area, it has a certain noise path. The noise path can be split up in three parts. Part one exists of the aircraft approaching to a specific measuring point. At that point a decibel meter is measuring a low noise level. When the aircraft is coming nearer to that measuring point, the noise gets louder and reaches a maximum level. When the aircraft is flying away from the specific measuring point, the noise level reduces to the starting level till it disappears. This noise path is called the LAmax. The LAmax is a noise time history course. Hereby is the maximum amount of sound measured the number used in the regulations. The LAX is the constant noise level during one second. LAX is therefore the time integrated sound level of the LAmax. When a very loud aircraft flies over, the LAmax peak level is similar to a more silent aircraft. However, the integrated level LAX is larger, because the noise is louder at an earlier time. In short, different passages can create the same LAmax with a different LAX. Noise nuisance can be calculated. It is the complex sum of all noise levels of all aircraft that fly during one year from and to the airport. Different factors are needed to be able to calculate the noise nuisance, namely: • The amount of noise each aircraft creates. • The number of passing aircrafts in a unit of time. • The part of the day the aircrafts passes. The noise load can be calculated. This is relevant to airports, because of the maximum noise level for every area. When an airport is able to calculate how much noise an aircraft produces, and how much noise there is allowed in the area around the airport, it is able to make choices about what kind of air traffic it is going to work with. There are different ways to calculate the noise load in the Netherlands, these are 1. ‘Kosten eenheid’ 2. ‘Geluidsbelasting Kleine Luchtvaart’ 3. ‘LDEN‘ Ad1. ‘Kosten eenheid’ The ‘Kosten eenheid’ (Ke) (Formula 1.1) is a way to calculate the noise load, based on the flight traffic during the day. This method is only used in the Netherlands. Aircraft passages with a lower noise level than 65 dB are disregarded in the calculation of the ‘Kosten eenheid’. The value of noise for the calculation of ‘Kosten eenheid’ is based on a measuring outdoors. The used noise level is the LAmax. With ‘Kosten eenheid’, there are different weight factors for the load of noise, depending of the time, which is separated in nine periods. The factors are ranging from factor 1 between 08:00 and 18:00, and factor 10 between 23:00 and 06:00. Around an airport, there are different areas with different maximum ‘Kosten eenheid’ levels. 20

Ke = 20 log (∑ N * 10 ^LAmax/15) – 157

LAmax = Noise level (dB(A)) N= Weight factor ∑ = Sum of all aircraft noise during one year

Formula 1.1: Calculation of ‘Kosten Eenheid’

Ad2. ‘Geluidsbelasting Kleine Luchtvaart’ The ‘Geluidsbelasing Kleine Luchtvaart’ (BKL) (Formula 1.2) is based on the small aviation. The maximum of small aviation varies with a take-off weight of 390 till 6000 kg. The small aviation flies mainly in the six busiest months (from April till September), Saturdays, Sundays and on holidays. The value of the noise level is also based on a measuring outdoors. For the noise level is used the LAX. There is also a weight factor involved, these are different weight factors than is used for the calculation of ‘Kosten eenheid’. This is separated in three weight factors; factor 1 between 07:00 and 19:00, factor 3.16 between 19:00 and 23:00 and factor 10 between 23:00 and 07:00. LAX = Noise level (dB(A)) N= Weight factor ∑ = Sum of all aircraft noise during one year

BLK = 10 log (∑ N * 10^LAX/10) – 46

Formula 1.2: Calculation of ‘Gluidsbelasting Kleine Luchtvaart’

Ad3. ‘LDEN’ LDEN (Day-Evening-Night) (Formula 1.3) is the European standard for the calculation of the noise load. The used noise level for LDEN is LAX. The LDEN has no entry value like Ke (65 dB). This means that aircraft that produce less than 65 dB are included with LDEN. Because the load depends on the time an aircraft passes, weight factors are also involved. LDEN has the same weight factors as BKL. In the next years, LDEN will replace the Ke and BKL at all the Dutch airports. Also Rotterdam ‘The Hague’ Airport still uses Ke and BKL. New airports will use LDEN to calculate the noise load. LAX = Noise level (dB(A)) N= Weight factor ∑ = Sum of all aircraft noise during one year

LDEN = 10 log (∑ N * 10^LAX/10) – 74,99
Formula 1.3: Calculation of ‘LDEN’

1.4.2b The maximum values of noise
Because of the noise load around an airport, there are maximum values. The values are determined with flight movements. Each year an airport is allowed to produce a maximum number of flight movements. The number of flight movements depends on the noise aircraft produces and the time aircraft takes off or lands. Ke, BKL and LDEN all have specific maximum values. For small airports that use Ke, the maximum value is 35 Ke. There are zones around the airport where a maximum noise level is determined. For the other small airports, which use BKL, a maximum value of 47 BKL is determined. Airports, which use LDEN have a maximum value of 56 dB (A).

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2 Concept solution
In order to create a new airport there are some important demands that have to be taken into account (2.1). The most important demand according to the conclusion of the previous chapter is that the airport must be able to handle 30 million passengers at least. For this report London Heathrow airport is taken as an example for their surface. Because 2 Heathrow can transport about 50 million passengers each year and has an area about 10.000.000 m this is a good guideline for our new airport. The list of demands is applied to different locations (2.2) and therefore the three best possibilities’ come under further research. This chapter ends with three different possible locations. Among these locations are two new locations and one is an extension of an existing airport. The three locations are compared with all the demands (2.3/2.4/2.5). At last a conclusion can be given based on the advantages and disadvantages of each location (2.6).

2.1 Concept Guidelines
After examining and seeing the different elements that are required to make an airport work. It is time to search for opportunities to create a new airport. This will be done by creating guidelines. These guidelines are categorised in: Airport dimension (2.1.1) where guidelines for runway size, dimension and capacity will be set. Infrastructure (2.1.2) which is very important for the reachability of the airport and for the objects that potentially have to be removed. Airspace (2.1.3) to make sure the location is not in prohibited areas.

2.1.1 Airport dimension
The location dimension has to be at least 10.000.000 m , this is based on Heathrow airport which has about the same dimension. Heathrow airport has been chosen as an example because it is currently the biggest airport in Europe. A location this big will create lots of opportunities for creating a new airport and possible future expansions. The airport needs to be accessible for all large aircraft. Therefore the runway needs to be as long as possible for a safe operation. Because the Netherlands is located on MSL, it needs to have a runway length of minimum 3000 m (10000 ft.). For more clearance a design is chosen with a runway length of 3500 m (11500 ft.). To support the expecting growth the location must be able to withhold a capacity of 30 million passengers (1.1.1d).
2

2.1.2 Infrastructure
The location must have a solid infrastructure for cars, trains and other transportation. This will make sure the location is easily reachable for people all around the Netherlands. For better competitiveness it is important that the location is not to close to other already existing airports and is next to the conurbation so customers can be drawn from the big cities. To make sure the build of the airport on the location passes as smooth as possible it is of vital essence that the amount of objects that have to be removed on the location can be kept to a minimum.

2.1.3 Airspace
The location cannot be in approach routes of other airports or next to an area that is in use of the military (military airport for example). This will make sure the airport can be built in all freedom without having to question future problems with the law. Sensitive natural areas need to be avoided or else legislation will slow the build down.

2.2 Possible locations
To meet the future amount of flight movements, somewhere airport space has to be created. This is because the current airports cannot handle the entire growth in flight movements. In order to fulfil this demand two things can be done. The first option is to expand an already existing airport, this can be done for example by placing new runways and expanding terminals or by lowering noise restrictions for a certain airport (2.2.1). The second option for fulfilling the future demand is to build a complete new airport (2.2.2). Building a new airport is very expensive and can take a long time, but it can solve the problem completely for years.

2.2.1 Expanding an existing airport
The Netherlands has five regional airports and one international airport. The five regional airports are: Rotterdam airport, Eelde airport, Eindhoven airport, Lelystad airport and Maastricht airport. The international airport is Schiphol. It is known that Schiphol airport is reaching its limits and is not able to expand further. Therefore it is not an option to expand Schiphol. Because of this, research has to be done to look if it is an option to expand a regional airport. To make expanding a regional airport interesting it has to comply with a few requirements. The location of the airport is

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important, many people should be able to reach the airport in a certain time and it has to be located nearby the big cities in the Netherlands (2.2.1a). When the airports comply with this requirement, the space they have to expand is also from big importance (2.2.1b). The final requirement the current airports need to comply with in order to be interesting for expanding, is the noise capacity (2.2.1c). If an airport is located next to a lot of houses, they have a low noise capacity and it is never allowed to make a lot of take-offs and landings at that airport. Therefore it is necessary that if an airport is expanded, the airport has a large noise capacity. In the end one or more airports will remain and will be further researched for expanding (2.2.1d).

2.2.1a Location of current airports
When looking at a map of the Netherlands (figure 2.1) it is clear to see that Eelde (1) and Maastricht airport (2) are not located in the Centre of the Netherlands. Lelystad (3), Rotterdam (4) and Eindhoven airport (5) however are placed reasonable in the centre of the Netherlands. Eindhoven is the only one who is a bit far away from the centre, but can still be reached in a reasonably short time from the centre of the Netherlands. Therefore the location of Lelystad, Rotterdam and Eindhoven is good enough. Maastricht and Eelde however are not located favourable.

1

3

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Eelde airport Maastricht airport Lelystad airport Rotterdam airport Eindhoven airport

4

5

2
Figure 2.1: Location of regional airports in the Netherlands

2.2.1b Space to expand
When looking at the possible expansion space around Lelystad airport, Rotterdam airport and Eindhoven airport (Appendix XI). It is clear to see that especially Lelystad has a lot of free space around the airport. Rotterdam and Eindhoven however have a lot less free space. At Rotterdam there is some free space at the north side of the location. It is not ideal to place another runway there when looking at the position of the terminal, but there is space for another runway. At Eindhoven however it is a complete different story. All around the airport first things have to be demolished before a new runway can be deposited. This is very unfavourable and therefore Eindhoven airport drops off.

2.2.1c Noise capacity
Defining the noise capacity of an airport is a very difficult thing to do. In chapter one the formula for calculating the noise capacity is given, but to apply this formula is tricky. The larges influence on the noise capacity however is the amount of people living around the airport. When looking back at the maps of Lelystad and Eindhoven airport, it is clear to see that Eindhoven is surrounded by a lot of houses. Lelystad on the other hand, has almost nobody living in the area around the airport. Therefore Lelystad is the only airport available for possible expansion.

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2.2.1d Conclusion
Lelystad is the only airport that complies with all the requirements. It is close enough to the centre of the Netherlands and therefore all of the large cities. It has more than enough free space to build extra runways and expand the terminal for the future needs. Lelystad also has a good noise capacity because few people live around the airport. Therefore Lelystad will be further investigated as possible option to solve the flight problem.

2.2.2 New locations
The availability of building land for a new airport in the Netherlands is difficult to find. This is due the fact that the Netherlands is a densely populated country. But this does not exclude that some areas are potential according the requirements set up for the need in 2030. Several options are suitable, one more than the other. These options with their geological locations will be illustrated in this paragraph (figure 2.2). These locations are researched on accessibility (2.2.2a), available area (2.2.2b)and profitability (2.2.2c) and finally the most suitable option will become clear (2.2.2d).

1 2

3 4 5

1. Markermeer 2. Zwolle 3. Doetinchem 4. Leerdam 5. Maasvlakte

Figure 2.2: geological locations of potential building area’s

2.2.2a Accessibility
For quick access to the new location of an airport in the Netherlands an area in de middle of the country (Appendix XII) is preferred. Therefore Groningen area (north) and Limburg area (south) are no longer considerable. Markermeer (1) area can be potential because major cities as Amsterdam, Den Helder and Lelystad are near it. But for this location transport facilities as new railways and highways have to be build. Then Zwolle area (2), this is a potential location because it is positioned in the centre of the country so the travelling distance from all over the country is good. Transport possibilities for example highways and railways are already constructed. Therefore it is an excellent area for transport elsewhere by means of public transport, car or truck (for cargo). Doetinchem area (3) is also potential because it is positioned in the most central area, so the travelling distance from all over the country is excellent. Besides that the location is in a reasonable accessibility it also will attract foreigners from Germany for example. Another option is Leerdam area (4) because it is central so when it comes to travelling to major cities as Rotterdam, Amsterdam, Utrecht or Eindhoven this would be option number one. Besides that the transport possibilities as canal (for cargo transport by boat) and one highway is already built and can be used easily. Maasvlakte area is ideal for cargo transport due to the presence of Rotterdam harbour. For commercial purpose existing highways or public transport as train can be used for travelling continental.

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2.2.2b Available area
To start with Markermeer area, together with Maasvlakte area this is one of the two locations where new land has to be created. It is a potential location because the area around it exists of water, this is ideal for approach routes and for adopting the new land to the needed dimensions and for expansions. Another advantage of having water around is that there are less obstacles and houses that have to be taken into account. But expanding possibilities are difficult to realise because Markermeer is a protected environment and it could be an issue for Schiphol airport (e.g. with approach routes). Maasvlakte area against it does not have this restriction. Zwolle area has sufficient space for expanding because the area is thin populated and the nearest hub (Appendix XIII) is about 60 kilometres away. The only disadvantage is the fact that an artillery test area is positioned for military purpose. This area has to be closed or moved elsewhere. For Doetinchem area against Zwolle has populated living areas that have to be taken into account together with the unfavourable transport possibilities as highways and railways. This means that possibilities for expansion can be an issue because roads and living area have to be moved. Leerdam area has the biggest issue against of all of the others, namely because of the presence of Rotterdam airport. Therefore approach routes and a new airspace division are a difficulty.

2.2.2c Profitability
Creating new land is an expensive investment and takes approximately 30 years to complete. This means that Markermeer are and Maasvlakte area will be ideal, but nevertheless most expensive of all options. Zwolle area has an artillery test zone almost without obstacles (houses or other buildings) and closing the artillery test facility will be in favour of the contemporary economic savings.

2.2.2d Conclusion
Although Groningen area has much space to offer most of the residents in the Netherlands still live near Utrecht, Amsterdam, Rotterdam and area east of the Netherlands. This means that according the most available space without hindering other airports, financial considerations and favourable geological according to an easy reach ability, Zwolle and Doetinchem area are best suitable.

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2.3 Zwolle airport
Zwolle airport is one of three locations found in our research. In order to build a new airport there are several requirements that have to be considered. At first the location must be investigated to know if dimensions, infrastructure, objects and the environment are good (2.3.1). In case the location is a possibility a check for other nearby airports and the approach routes are taken into account (2.3.2).

2.3.1 Location
An airport is dependent of a few categories. Those are described is this paragraph to work out a possible new location. The airfield dimension shows more about de dimensions and extension possibilities (2.3.1a). After the location the infrastructure will come to a closer look (2.3.1b). Thirdly it could be that existing buildings or object has to be removed in order to make place for the new airport (2.3.1c). Further the effect on the environment is described (2.3.1d) and at last the ideal runway direction is determined (2.3.1e)

2.3.1a Airfield dimensions
The new airport should be built near Zwolle. Southeast from Zwolle is an empty piece of land that is great to build an 2 airport. To handle the capacity in 2030 the airport should be around the 10.000.000 m . The location that is found 2 contains 12.900.000 m and there is room left for any extensions (figure 2.3). It is possible to place two runways of more in case the area is extended. The normal area is 4.300 m by 3.000 m. Therefore it is possible to place runways with a minimum of 3.500 m. Coordinates of the new airport are as follow: +52° 25' 18.82", +5° 58' 26.36".

Figure 2.3: Airfield dimension

2.3.1b Infrastructure
Appendix XIV shows that Zwolle airport can be reached by almost the entire Netherlands within two hours by car. By public transportation this is three hours. The city Zwolle is the nearest big city. It is about 10 km from the location of the airport. There are 2 different highways going to Zwolle who are passing the airport, the A28 and the A50. Also from the north Zwolle is easy to reach by the A28. Furthermore there is a railroad aside the A28 going to Zwolle. This will make it easy building a station by the airport. Besides Zwolle, Deventer, Lelystad and Amersfoort are other big city´s near the airport. Ruimtelijk Plan Bureau (RPB) shows us that the airport is reachable for almost 33 million passengers within 2 hours’ time (figure 2.4).

Figure 2.4: Accessibility of airport (red pointed) within two hours.

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2.3.1c Objects
The greatest benefit on this piece of land is that there are no houses that have to be taken down. It is not necessary to move people to another location. However, there is a disadvantage. The found terrain is a museum for the Dutch artillery unit. The museum has to be closed. This is also the reason why there are no properties found. There is still artillery fired on this location. The only thing that has to be done is clearing a couple of ways going to the area and 2 approximately 5 buildings have to be destroyed. In order to make more room also 400.000 m of forest (figure 2.5) has to be cleared. Closed/removed roads

Removed buildings

Removed Forest

Figure 2.5: Removed objects

2.3.1d Environment aspects
The environment at the place of the possible airport will not be influenced a lot by the new airport. This is because the terrain does not contain a lot of grass or trees, so there will not be a lot of wildlife. This is also because of the current use of the land, the firing of artillery. If there would be a lot of wildlife, firing artillery would not be allowed.

2.3.1eRunway directions
The most common wind direction in the region of Zwolle is from the southwest. Therefore it is best to place the runway facing from the southeast to northwest (figure 2.6). This runway heading is very favourable, because it will make it easy to place a large runway with possibilities for extensions. It will also be possible to place a second runway next to the first runway.

Figure 2.6: Runway heading

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2.3.2 Airspace
This paragraph describes two most important topics of the location Zwolle. This will cover in which type of airspace Zwolle is located (2.3.2a). Also the weather influences in Zwolle such as wind speed and most common wind direction will be covered (2.3.2b).

2.3.2a Airspace Zwolle
The airspace around location Zwolle is a so-called TMA-E zone. This means that both VFR as IFR flights are allowed through that area. This airspace starts at 1500 ft. above MSL and goes up to FL-095. There are no restrictions from military zones or no fly zones. This means that commercial flights are allowed to fly through this area and that it probably will not be a problem for other air traffic to make an airport in this area.

2.3.2b Weather influence Zwolle
The most common weather in Zwolle is in accordance with the common weather in the Netherlands (appendix XV). This means that it has a suitable climate for an airport. The most common wind direction is from the southwest. On average, the wind speed is between seven or eight knots (three bft). The average precipitation is usually between zero and five millimetres a day. These are all favourable conditions for an airport.

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2.4 Location Doetinchem
The Doetinchem location is one of the three locations that we have chosen for further research (appendix XVI). This ation location is situated about 30 km north of Nijmegen. This area has a low population and a high amount of cultivation. Before building a new airport several requirements has to be taken into account. These requirements consist of ding environmental aspects (2.4.1), approach routes for other airports and military airspace (2.4.2) ), (2.4.2

2.4.1 Locations
An airport is dependent of a few categories. Those are described is this paragraph to work out a possible new location. this The airfield dimension shows more about de dimensions and extension possibilities ( .1a). After the location the (2.4.1a infrastructure will come to a closer look ( (2.4.1b). Thirdly it could be that existing buildings or object has to be removed ings in order to make place for the new airport ( (2.4.1c). Further the effect on the environment is described ( ). (2.4.1d) and at last the ideal runway direction is determined ( (2.4.1e)

2.4.1a Airfield dimensions
The new airport should be around 10,000,000 m² to be able to handle the expected amount of passengers a year, which is around 30 million. Location c ( (figure 2.7) is around 12,000,000 m², which is large enough to have at least two ) runways with a minimum length of 3,500 meter. When looking into the future there could be a need of an extra runway. This can be accomplished by using the upper red square (figure 2.8), which increases the airfield dimension , by 4,000,000 m². Coordinates of the airport are as follow 51° 57' 22.58"N, +6° 25' 37.83"E. The average height of location c is approximately 15 meter.

Figure 2.7: Airfield dimension

Figure 2.8: Extra airfield dimension

2.4.1b Infrastructure
Appendix XIV shows that location Doetinchem is accessible from any place in the Netherlands by car within two hours and by public transportation within three hours. The closest major city is Arnhem, which is approximately 40 km away. Close to Arnhem there are around five different highways, which are directed from all over the Netherlands. are Furthermore, there are some large cities around the corner in Germany, like Dortmund and Oberhausen. A research from Ruimtelijk Planbureau (RPB) shows that a minimum of 33 million people is able to reach our locat location within two hours (Figure 2.9). Nearest large airports are Schiphol Amsterdam airport (50 million passengers a year), which is 146 ). km away, and some further Keulen-Bonn (10 million passengers a year), which is 160 km away. Bonn

29

Figure 2.9: Accessibility of airport(red dot) within two hours. f

2.4.1c Objects
For location Doetinchem approximately 160 buildings have to be bought, this includes the many farms and houses in this area. In addition there are two camping sites, which should be bought. Furthermore th there are two roads, which have to be diverted or closed. These are the red roads in figure 2.10. The main purpose of these two roads is to e connect the houses in the neighbourhood with nearby cities/villages. Since these houses have to be bought, these roads can be closed.

Figure 2.10: Closed roads

2.4.1d Environment aspects
The environment will suffer from the airport, the area which is around 14,000,000 m² has to be cleared for most of the trees. The local economy will benefit from the airport. In terms of the created jobs, for example on Schiphol Amsterdam airport 59,808 people worked in 2010.

2.4.1e Runway direction
Since location Doetinchem is a square, the runways could be placed anywhere on the location. According to the information from Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Instituut (KNMI) the average wind direction around Doetinchem is west. The most ideal landing is a landing in opposite direction of the wind. This taken in mind the runways should be placed at 90 degrees ( uld (Figure 2.11).

30

Figure 2.11: Runways

2.4.2 Airspace
This paragraph describes three important topics of the location Doetinchem. Firstly, in which type of airspace Doetinchem is located (2.4.2a). Secondly, which are the restricted airspace zones in Doetinchem ( ). (2.4.2b) and at last the weather influences in Doetinchem such as wind speed and wind direction ( (2.4.2c). 2.4.2a Airspace division Location Doetinchem is located in a TMA (figure 2.12) airspace that starts at 1500 ft. AMSL up to FL TMA-E FL-095. In class "E" VFR flights are permitted without permission of the air traffic controller. From FL095 up to FL195 there is a Schiphol CTA which is an A class airspace and is prohibited for VFR traffic. Near Doetinchem there are no military zones or low flying zones (Appendix VII).

Figure 2.12: Airspace above the Netherlands

2.4.2c Weather influence The average wind direction in Doetinchem is west with a daily average wind speed of 24.12 km/h. The wind direction has effect on the direction of the runway. The chance of precipitation is usually between 0 a 5 mm a day. These values are calculated from the Koninklijk Nederlandse Metereologisch Instituut (KNMI).

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2.5 Lelystad Airport
In the current situation Lelystad airport is generally being used for business flights, it is also the largest airport for small aircraft. A potential solution for the biggest economic advantages could be an expansion of an already existing airport. This will include that the costs are less expensive, because the most of the landside and airside is already available. Research indicated that Lelystad Airport could be a potential solution for the Dutch government. First there has to be looked detailed at the specific location (2.5.1). After that the airspace concerning the airport will be discussed (2.5.2).

2.5.1 Location
To determine the right location, there has to be looked at the airfield dimensions (2.5.1a). When the area is known, the location can be investigated further. The infrastructure of the location will be important when people want to travel and have to make use of the airport (2.5.1b). On Lelystad Airport there are already some facilities available (2.5.1c), this will save time and money during expansion. There are also environmental aspects that are important for the civilians living in the particular area (2.5.1d). Finally the possibilities for further expansions of the airport will be discussed (2.5.1e).

2.5.1a Airfield dimensions
Lelystad airport is located on coordinates 52°27’37”N 005°31’38”E. It contains about 9,000,000 m² ground (figure 2.13). To handle the expected amount of passengers in a year, a minimum area of 10,000,000 m² is necessary. The elevation of the airport is located at approximately min four meters MSL. There are already two runways, both with a direction of 05-23. One of them is made of asphalt with a length of 1250 m and a width of 30 m. The other runway is built for ultra-light aircraft. It has a length of 430 m and is made of grass. The facilities at Lelystad Airport are sufficient for the current amount of passengers.

Figure 2.13: Dimension Lelystad Airport

2.5.1b Infrastructure
Lelystad Airport is great accessible from all directions of the country. The most popular way to travel is by car. Lelystad Airport is located on the N 302 and is perfectly accessible by car. The highway A6 is just three minutes by car from the airport. There are also taxi’s available, which are located in front of the airport. The accessibility by public transportation is good. There are regularly busses to and from the train station. There are plans of building a train station there in the future. Just a few minutes away from the airport is a harbour. For people who own a boat, they can park their boat at the jetty in het Laservaart for free. From this jetty it will be approximately 10 minutes walking to reach the airport. For people who like to cycle, there are also parallel to the N 302 some cycle paths. The reach ability 32

of the airport can be seen in figure 2.14. Because the roads are available to the airport, it will save money on making new ones.

Figure 2.14:Reach ability Lelystad Airport

2.5.1c Existing facilities
The already existing facilities could give an advantage on financial aspects. Fortunately there are some important facilities on Lelystad Airport which are ready to be used. First there are some facilities for the passengers. For example a hotel accommodation with 24 rooms and a restaurant at the airport. Transportation can be done by rental cars, busses and taxis on request. There are also some emergency services. Rescue and fire fighting service is available at the airport and also a first aid treatment. MC Zuiderzee hospital is just 15 minutes away from the airport in Lelystad. Then there are facilities for aircraft. The most important of these are the runways 05-23. This airport operates with VFR and IFR flight and have radio possibilities for VOR/DME and NDB. There are refuelling possibilities by a mobile wagon. For the winter there are ice and snow clearing devices available. The airport holdings two snow sweepers, two snowploughs, one snow blower, one salt spreader and one clearway spreader. Nowadays a lot of VFR flights are taken from Lelystad airport, this is what this airport distinction to others and these flights provide the largest part of the income of Lelystad airport. In the future a different kind of public will be attracted to the airport. When the expansion of Lelystad airport is conducted, the VFR flights need to be removed to a different place, because these flights are not allowed to be taken within a certain radius around an airport with flights of large aircraft.

2.5.1d Environment aspects
To extend Lelystad Airport confined environment has to suffer. This because it is not needed to chop a forest. The expansion can be done on the countryside. After the expansion there will be enough countryside left around the airport for recreationists. Proportionally that specifically ground will be much more efficient when an airport is operating. Near Lelystad airport be the quantity of windmills in high. In the context of the approach routes, this is an important aspect that needs to be taken into account.

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2.5.1e Expansion possibilities
Around Lelystad Airport there is more than 50,0 50,000,000 m² countryside available (figure 2 gure 2.15). This means that extension possibilities can be made each way around the airport. An obstacle is the ‘’Larserbos This is a nature ‘’Larserbos’’. reserve and should not be scrapped. There are also three to ten houses that need to be moved, depending on the exact location. At least there is a carting track and a driving school. There are three potential extension possibilities which are marked green in figure 2.15. So extending the runways is an option, but there is also enough space around . the airport to create new runways. Because of the different square surfaces, which can be used for constructing a runway, the runways can be placed in the ideal position. This ideal position is based on average wind direction, which laced can create the ideal landing circumstances.

Figure 2.15: Possible expansions Lelystad Airport

2.5.2

Airspace division

Besides making changes at the airport, airspace division also has to be taken into account to adopt it to the potential ace new situation. This has to be accomplished because the division must be suitable for the new traffic. Now, to make an appropriate new division first the contemporary situation with its limits has to be researched ( (2.5.2a). According to this information the options for the new division are made clear ( (2.5.2b).

2.5.2a Contemporary airspace
Current airspace above and around Lelystad airport to 1500 ft. AMSL is marked as an ATZ. This means that crossing the zone must be avoided. Besides the exceptional division of the area, a VFR area with a lo lower limit of 1500 ft. AMSL and an upper limit of 3500 AMSL is established. Classification to class G is given. Then Schiphol TMA 1 classified to category A takes over control with a lower limit of 1500 ft. AMSL and an upper limit of FL 095. The VFR area of Lelystad lies in and against the border of Schiphol TMA1. Going over the border Nieuw Milli Milligen (NW Milligen) TMA B classified to class E takes over control. NW Milligen TMA B has a lower limit of 1500 ft. AMSL and an upper limit of FL 065. Beyond the upper limit of Schiphol TMA 1 and NW Milligen TMA B, Amsterdam CTA east 1 classified to class A and an upper limit of FL 195 takes over control. Figure 2.16 illustrates this situation. Besides the current division of Dutch airspace, restrictions and specials zones around Lelystad also have to be taken into account. In (Appendix IX) can be found that low level military traffic to and from EHR 4 takes place in the north of Lelystad. More important are the following restrictions: EHR 3 east of Lelystad with a lower limit of GND and an upper limit of 16500 ft. above ground level (AGL); EHR 53 and 54 south-east of Lelystad both with a lower limit of GND and east an upper limit of 600 ft. AGL; EHR 55 positioned south of Lelystad and with a lower limit of GND and an upper limit of 600 ft. AMSL. In these areas permission is necessary sometimes. In addition, EHP 25 south of Lelystad with a lower In 34

limit of GND and an upper limit of 2000 ft. ASML is a prohibited area. This means that unauthorized traffic is not allowed.

Figure2.16: Airspace above and around Lelystad airport

2.5.2b Requirements
To regroup contemporary airspace according to an expansion of Lelystad airport and the density of future traffic, it will be necessary to replace the Lelystad VFR area and ATZ. This can be realized by a CTR with a radius of approximately 15 NM around Lelystad, upper and lower limit respectively ground (GND) and 3500 ft. AMSL and classified to class A. Then the Schiphol TMA 1 and NW Milligen TMA B have to make space for Lelystad TMA with a lower limit of 3500 ft. ASML and an upper limit of FL 095. Lelystad TMA will be classified to class A. Another option is to assign Schiphol TMA 4, a certain area of Schiphol TMA 1 and 5 and NW Milligen TMA B to one new airspace area. This option is the most obvious because of the lack of space and the other airspace areas surrounding Lelystad. (Appendix VII) again shows a more detailed overview of the airspace divisions.

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2.6 Conclusion
Based on the facts found in research, a fact table (figure 2.17) will provide an overview of the different qualities the locations have. With these facts the choice of the project group has become Zwolle. This choice followed after describing the different advantages and disadvantages of the location (2.6.1). Doetinchem Dimension *
2 1

Zwolle
2

Lelystad
2

12 000 000 m

12 900 000 m

50 000 000 m

2

Runway *

2 Runways (3500 m)

2 Runways (3500 m)

2 Runways (3500 m)

Accessibility *

3

+- 2 hrs. by car +- 3 hrs. by train
4

+- 2 hrs. by car +- 3 hrs. by train Artillery

+- 2 hrs. by car +- 3 hrs. by train 3-10 houses /carting track/driving school

Object removed *

160 houses + 2 camping’s

Nature removed *

5

14 000 000 m of trees

2

400 000 m of tree’s

2

Laserbos

Figure 2.17:Location fact table

* = The dimension of the location 2 * = Number of runways + length of runway 3 * = Minimum time to reach the location from any place in the Netherlands 4 * = Number and kind of object that needs to be removed in order to build an airport 5 * = Number and kind of nature that needs to be removed in order to build an airport

1

2.6.1Conclusion Zwolle
After closely examining the locations, Zwolle has become our choice. The three locations selected are quite similar and all have some advantages and disadvantages. The disadvantage of Doetinchem is the number of object and nature that has to be removed. It will take too much time and too much money to provide the empty space that is necessary for an airport and will create problems with environmentalists and the people living in the area of the location. With Lelystad the problem is the VFR flights. Those flights are exactly where Lelystad was originally built for and provide the airport with a solid income. If the expansion of Lelystad was the choice then these VFR flights have to go and that would be a waste of funds and a waste of a good provided service by Lelystad Airport. Zwolle on the other hand has no major disadvantages besides the artillery that needs to be removed which can’t be much of an issue. The location is sizeable enough which should be able to allow expansion if needed in the future and will provide the needed capacity plus the two runways of 3500 metres. The area is easy reachable by car or train which will be perfect for drawing people to the airport. This all compared makes the choice for Zwolle airport easy.

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3 Elaboration
By now having the new location, it is time to develop the airport. For the creation of the airport the guidelines of chapter 1 has to be taken into account again. It is therefore needed to create a terminal that can handle a capacity of 30 million passengers a year. Also the runways of 3500 m has to get there exact place on the map. Furthermore the approach route is developed when the runways are placed (3.1). After the airport is set on the map a calculation of the yearly income, expenditure and costs for development follows (3.2). At the end there is a conclusion which gives all the benefits of this airport that came forward in this report (3.3).

3.1 Specifications
One of the most important things to keep the airport profitable is the construction, how the airport is divided for an optimal flow of passengers and aircraft. The landside needs to be designed so well that it gives a modern look and also is efficient for passengers and operations (3.1.1). The airside needs to be designed to ensures a safe and optimal flow and also complies with the ICAO (3.1.2). The airport need to have new air routes to operate and don’t disturb surrounded city’s or protected zones (3.1.3).

3.1.1 Landside
This part of the airport will have some new designed structures. It gives a modern image of an airport, what also results in a relaxed environment. But the main purpose will be the better flow of passengers and luggage, this is related with the terminal (3.1.1a). Another important issue of this airport will be the parking facilities (3.1.1b). This airport need to make use of a weather forecast (3.1.1c) and provides for some operators hangar (3.1.1d).

3.1.1a Terminal
The terminal (1) will be located between the north and south side of the area (figure 3.1). It will be based on what is the most profitable flow for passengers and luggage. This way it will increase the capacity of 30 million passengers a year for this airport and therefore the airport can be divided into several floors. Ground floor will be a public place. The most important here is that travellers can check-in as soon as they arrive at the airport, without carry luggage to another floor. This way the luggage can stay at the same level and it can be transported directly to the aircraft at the airside. There will be also food, beverages and stores available on ground floor. The second floor is based on travellers who arrives and departure. There are three divided areas which are the Schengen, non-Schengen and low cost areas. This floor also line up with all 144 passengers bridges which can be connected to aircraft on aprons. These passengers bridges can provide a full Airbus A380 with eight hundred people to an optimal passengers flow. The second and all upper floors are only accessible when a security check is passed. The third floor is based for personnel and business and is only accessible when complies with these standards. On this floor a lot office space will be available. On the edge of the third floor there will be a panoramic deck, which is directly accessible from ground floor without a security check. This part is separated from the business area and based on tourists. Because the terminal lies exact in the middle of the airport, an ATC tower will be on top of the terminal. This will gives the best overview of all aircraft movements. At least there is an lower ground floor which will be used as storage and as personal parking facility. (Appendix XXIII) will show an overview of the designed terminal.

2 1 1. 2. 3. 4. Terminal Parking place Weather tower Hangars

4 3

Figure 3.1: Zwolle International Airport

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3.1.1b Parking facilities
The main parking place (2) is located north east of the area (figure 3.1). Because of the needs of 30 million passengers a year it needs to facilitate up to 30,000 cars. It contains about three lower levels and five upper levels and is separated for long stay, short stay, business and valet parking. In the future it will be possible to extend this parking place. To create income, parking must be paid. Parking charge will be determined in further status and is depending on which type of parking. Employees can park their car in the private parking garage underneath the terminal which provides parking place for another 12,000 cars.

3.1.1c Weather forecast
For a proper and local weather forecast, it will be an advantage when this can be done near an airport. Therefore an weather forecast tower (3) will be built on Zwolle airport. It will be located on south west side of the area (figure 3.1).

3.1.1d Hangars
On the South western side of the area, some hangars (4) are located (figure 3.1). These are rentable for operators witch operate frequently on the airport. It also provides quicker maintenance, because all maintenance equipment will be available in these hangars and maintenance can be done inside by bad weather conditions. After hangar maintenance, an aircraft will be able to operate directly at the airport. This will increase the flow and capacity of the airport.

3.1.2 Airside
To be able to process the number of flight movements that Zwolle international airport will get, the airport needs to have a large airside. Therefore the runways (3.2.2a) will be built the way that they are large enough to be able to land and take off the largest aircraft safely in the worst situation. Because the airport will make use of ILS, there are on both sides of both runways ILS systems. This is because the runways will be used in both directions to take-off and land. Taxiways (3.2.2b) are built to ensure that the aircraft can be moved from the runway to the apron (3.2.2c). The apron is the location where the aircraft can load or unload. Because of the number of directions an aircraft can move to on the airside, it needs to be assured that the aircraft will follow the right routes. To prevent accidents signs and markings (3.2.2d) are used. The runway uses almost only markings. Taxiways use markings too, but also a lot of signs are placed beside the taxiway. At Zwolle international airport different kind of lights are used (3.2.2e). The runway lights help pilots when landing or take-off. The lights on the taxiways will help pilots to navigate on the airside of the airport. The airport will ensure different types facilities on the airside like de-icing and bird control. 3.1.2a Runway Zwolle international airport will have two runways with a space of 1.5 km between the runways. The runways will be placed in southwest direction, because most of the time the wind will come from the southwest. The wind direction in the Netherlands is changeable, so the runways will be placed from 30° to 210°. Because the runways will be placed in the same direction, the left runway will have the code 21L-03R and the left runway will have the code 21R-03L. Both runways will have a TORA of 3500 m, so a Boeing 777 and an Airbus A380 can land and take off with its MTOW. In addition the runways have a width of 60 m. The thickness of the runways will be 1.5 m. On both sides of the runways there will be a stopway of 100 m. The ASDA will have a length of 3700 m. 3.1.2b Taxiway Both runways will have one parallel taxiway. Both runways have two bypass taxiways. There are also entrance and exit taxiways before the runways and there are taxiways to the parking places and de-icing. 3.2.2c Apron The terminal will have 144 aprons, what is equal to 144 holding places for aircraft. This will be done in the form of a pier. From the terminal eight rectangular piers are designed. Between the hangars and de-icing there are between six and twelve parking places for the aircraft. For de-icing there are four places. 3.2.2d Signs and marking The runway uses markings and a few signs. On the runway the number of directions is showed, in this case 03L, 03R, 21L, 21R. At the end of the runway there is a sign ‘runway’ placed. On the runway are centerlines and threshold lines drawn.

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The taxiway has holding lines before the runway. Before the runways there are hold position signs and markings in case of an aircraft has to land. Before the hold position signs are ILS holding position signs and makings for not blocking the signal. There are no ‘no- entry’ signs, because every runway can be used to land and take-off. 3.2.2e Lights On the left side of the runways in both directions there will be lights for Precision Approach Path Indicator (PAPI). The edge of the runway will be lighted by ‘High Intensity Runway Lights’, in case for fog. ‘Runway and identifier lights’ are installed on the thresholds of the runways to provide rapid and positive identification of the approach end of the runways. At the end of the runways are ‘Runway end lights’. The centerline of the runways will be lighted with ‘Runway Centerline Lightning System’. ‘Touchdown Zone Lights’ are placed with an interval of 30 m on either side of the centerline over the first 914m. Because the airport uses ILS there is also an ‘Approach lightning system’. This lightning system will be laid in the extension of the runway and starts 730 m for the runway. All taxiways have lights on the edge, namely the ‘Taxiway Edge Lights’. These lights give blue light. There are also ‘Taxiway Centerline Lights’. Clearance Bar lights are installed by the Holding positions, so the holding positions are also visible by low visibility. ‘Runway Guard Lights’ are located on the intersections between the runways and taxiways.

3.1.3 Approach
The approach route to and of the airport is dependent from different aspects around the area where the airport is located. These aspects could be a nearby city (3.1.3a), nature/protected area because there is wildlife (3.1.3b) and military object that can’t be flown over (3.1.3c). Besides it might be that another nearby airport already has it flight routes planned (3.1.3d). After all these obstacles a final approach route is designed for Zwolle international airport (3.1.3e).

3.1.3a Nearby cities
The found terrain for Zwolle airport is not containing any villages that have to be cleared. Instead like every other location there are always a few nearby villages that have to be taken into account when planning the approach of take-off routes (figure 3.2). If we now make a possible flight route that avoids these cities, a flight zone can be projected on the same map (figure 3.3).

Figure 3.2: Cities close to the airport

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Figure 3.3: Flight zone between cities

3.1.3b Protected area
Around the new location there are two protected zones. At the south of the airport the ‘HogeVeluwe’ is located and on the west the ´Speulderveld´. Both of these areas contain different forms of wildlife. For crossing these areas a certain height is needed. (Appendix IX) shows that to cross Speulderveld, a minimum height of 600 ft is necessary. Because this area is approximately 25 km from the location this won´t be a problem. It might be that the flight routes for aircraft taking of will cross this area. With an average climbing speed of 1800 ft/min a minimum of 600 ft is no problem. The Hoge Veluwe is approximately 50 km at the south of the airport. With an average climbing speed of 1800 ft/min and estimation that a passing aircraft shall reach this area in about 8 minutes after his take-off it will at least be on 14000 ft. In this case there won’t be a problem at all.

3.1.3c Military zones
Zwolle airport will be built on a military zone (appendix IX), this means that the military zone have to be moved to other location. When the prohibited military flying area is moved to another location, this prohibited flying area will become free. Therefore, there is no problem flying in this area.

3.1.3d Flight routes of other airports
Before creating the new flight routes for the new airport "Zwolle" the flight routes of other nearby airports must be taken into account. Therefore the distance between the airports is given. The two nearest airports around Zwolle international airport are: • Schiphol • Lelystad airport Ad1. Schiphol Schiphol is located at a distance of approximately 70 km from the new location. According to (appendix XVII) it is clear that the flight routes of Schiphol won’t give any problems. Therefore the new planned flight paths of Zwolle international does not have any negative influence. Ad2. Lelystad Lelystad airport is the closest airport near the new location.Lelystad is approximately 40 km away. According to (appendix XVII) it is clear that the flight paths of Lelystad also do not form any problems. Taking a good look to Lelystad flight routes, it is noticeable that the planned flight paths of "Zwolle" airport does not have any negative influence on the "Lelystad" flight paths.

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3.1.3e Approach Zwolle airport
After analysing the different aspects around the area where the new Zwolle airport will be located, such as the protected areas, military areas, the nearby cities and the flight paths of the nearby airports the new flight paths for Zwolle airport can be established. To establish the flight path there has to be two items: Flight paths: These flight routes are shown in (appendix XVIII) Holding area: This is shown in (appendix XVIII)

3.2 Costs and benefits
Building a new airport costs a lot of money. These costs have to be earned back, otherwise it is not interesting to build this new airport. There are a couple of things that can be done to keep the costs as low as possible, it is than important to know where the largest construction costs of the designed airport will be. It is also important to know where the largest costs are while operating this designed airport. If this is clear, an estimation can be made about how much this new airport will cost (3.2.1). As told, these costs have to be earned back. Therefore an estimation has to be made about the benefits of the designed airport (3.2.2).

3.2.1 Costs
Just like in the previous cost survey, the costs will be divided in airside costs (3.2.1a) and landside costs (3.2.1b). In both paragraphs the costs of constructing and the costs during operation will be discussed. It is impossible to give the exact price for, for example, a runway. Therefore most of the time an estimation will be given if it is a large or small expense and not exact prices. If a price is given, this price will be estimated based on the costs of already existing airports.

3.2.1a Airside costs
With the costs of the airside, as told, a close look will be taken at expenses made while constructing the airside and the expenses made while operating. The airside does not look very expensive because it is most of all tarmac, but because large and very heavy aircraft have to land and taxi on it, it costs a lot of money to construct and maintain. 1. 2. Construction costs airside Maintenance costs airside

Ad.1 Construction costs airside The airside construction costs mostly consist of runway construction. The designed airport will have two runways with a length of 3500 meters and a width of 60 meters. At Schiphol airport in 2003 a new runway (the polderbaan) was constructed. The construction of this runway cost 320 million euro’s. Because the two runways of the designed airport are from similar dimensions, the price of the construction will be approximately the same. This will mean that the total costs of constructing the runways will be around 640 million euro’s. Because the terminal is placed between the runways, not a lot of taxiways will be needed. This is favourable for the costs of the total airport, because taxiways are also expensive. The average construction costs of APRON’s cannot be found, this is because at all airports the APRON’s differ from each other. Therefore also the price of APRON’s differs a lot per airport. However, there can be concluded that the construction of the runways are by far the largest costs. Ad2. Maintenance costs airside There are no certainties when it comes to the maintenance of the airside. When everything goes according to plan, nothing has to be done and the airside costs almost nothing. Only the salary of the employees for bird control has to be paid. However, once every couple of years the runways, taxiways or APRON’s need repair. This is because the weight of the aircraft pressing on the tarmac will eventually wear the surface and cracks will appear. These repairs can cost from a couple thousand euro’s to a couple million euro’s, depending on the amount of damage.

3.2.1b Landside costs
With the costs of the landside, as told, a closer look will be taken at the expenses made while constructing the landside and the expenses made while operating. The construction costs of the Landside are greater than the costs of constructing the airside. Also the maintenance of the landside is more expensive than maintenance of the airside. 1. 2. Construction costs landside Construction costs landside 41

Ad1. Construction costs landside By far the largest costs of the landside will be the costs for constructing the terminal. This is logical, because the terminal is the largest building of the airside and all passengers have to pass through it. At Heathrow airport they a are currently building a new terminal. This terminal is expected to handle with 20 million passengers every year and the expected construction costs are 1.4 billion euro’s. The designed airport must at least handle with 33 million passengers a year, therefore the construction costs of the terminal at the designed airport will be even higher. The re approximate costs of the construction of the terminal at the designed airport will be around 2 billion euro’s. The terminal is not the only thing that has to be constructed for the landside of the designed airport, but all of the other constructed expenses are nothing compared to the costs of the terminal. Ad2.Mmaintenance costs The maintenance of the landside will, as told, costs a lot more than the maintenance of the airside. T is, because This the buildings constantly need to be cleaned and a lot of people have to work there to keep the airport operable. A lot of the costs of keeping the airport operable are therefore the costs of the salary of the employees. When the airport operates normally and nothing strange happens, there will not be any repair costs. rates Another great part of the maintenance costs are from security. Making sure that no passenger with bad intentions comes on board results in a lot of security employees and expensive equipment. It is not possible to reduce these expensive kinds of costs on a new airport.

3.2.2 Benefits Zwolle international airport
In a lucrative organization, expenses are lower than income. Therefore it is important to use the potential market. This will lead to the maximum income possible. There are two different benefit categories. Firstly, the airside benefits at ead Zwolle international airport are described (3.2.2a). Followed by the landside benefits (3.2.2 Due to the passengers 3.2.2b). numbers most of the benefits are compared with Schiphol Amsterdam airport. There must be kept in mind that the following prices are expectations. (Appendix X shows how the calculations concerning the amount of benefits are Appendix XIX) made. Figure 3.4 shows the distribution of benefits in % at Zwolle international airport

3.2.2a Airside benefits
There are two different kinds ofairside benefits categories. First of all, the landing tariffs that are charged for landing and take-off at Zwolle international airport are explained. Secondly, the parking tariffs for aircraft are mentioned. The landing and take-off charges combined with the parking off tariffs are called the aerodrome charges. • • Take-off/landing charges Parking charges
10.41 11.787 6.567 8.262 62.973

Aerodrome charges Car parking Shops Rental Concession

Figure 3.4 Benefits Zwolle international airport in %

Ad1. Take-off/landing charges Aerodrome charges are the most valuable ones for an airport. Unfortunately for most airports aerodrome charges are Unfortunately, non-profit charges, they are only charged to compensate the cost for landing/take-off, parking and ATC Since our profit costs off, ATC. new airport expects around 30 million passengers a yea the landing fees are based at Schiphol Amsterdam airpor year, airport. To attract even more airlines we will slightly reduce the landing tariffs, which gives our airport an advantage s compared to Schiphol. Because Schiphol is at maximum landing capacity at the time our airport, is operative. The landing and take-off charges depend on the noise category. (Appendix XX) shows which aircraft belongs to which noise off category. (Figure 3.5) Shows the landing and take take-off charges in € per 1,000 kg for all the categories at Zwolle 000 international airport. Point-to-point flights are flights whereby the aircraft lands at an airport other than the one, point which it has taken off. These flights are the usual flights at Zwolle international airport. Based on Amsterdam airport nal the calculation about the amount of landing/take landing/take-off per year is done. In 2011 at Amsterdam Schiphol airport there were 420,249 flight movements of airline Since the expected amount of passengers a year at Zwolle international 249 airlines. d airport is 39.6% less than Schiphol Amsterdam airport, there will be approximately 253,162 flight movements of airlines at Zwolle international airport. In addition for every departing local passenger there is charged €13.50 and for the security there is charged €12.68. For every transfer pa passenger there is charged €6.10 and for security there is charged €7.10. Category day starts from 06:00 to 23:00 hours. Category night begins at 23:00 to 06:00 hours. Schiphol 42

Amsterdam airport earned EUR 745 million with the aerodromes charges. For Zwolle international airport this should be around EUR 449 million. The above described fees for landing and take off are lower than Schiphol Amsterdam take-off airport. This is simply explained by comparing the amount of runways of the two airports. Zwolle international airport has just two runways compared to six (including the Oostbaan). Another aspect is that there are more air traffic controllers due to the bad overview at Schiphol. Schiphol even has two air traffic control towers compared to Zwolle international airport. Zwolle international airport has just one ATC tower, which is sufficient enough and has plenty of ort. overview, because of the central location between the two runways. 16 14 12.45 12 10 8 6.44 6 4 2 0 Category MCC3 Category A Category B Category C 6.44 4.54 9.76 8.23 6.91 5.82 5.85 4.92 3.83 Day (landing/take (landing/take-off) Night (landing) Night (take (take-off)

14.74

Figure 3.5: Landing/take-off tariffs per 1,000 kg in €

Ad2. Parking charges The parking charges at Zwolle international airport will be €1.50 per 1,000 kg per period of 24 hours. When parked less than eight hours, there is no parking charges on Zwolle international airport.

3.2.2b Landside benefits
There are four different landside benefit categories. Firstly, the car parking benefits will be described. Furthermore, efit . the total income of car parking at Zwolle international airport will be mentioned. Secondly, the income of shops will be explained. Thirdly, the rental will be described. Finally, the concession fees will be described. Finally, 1. 2. 3. 4. Car parking Shops Concession Rental

Ad1. Car parking Car parking facilities have to be built, because of the large quantity of the total turnover, as told in paragraph 1.3 It 1.3. generates approximately 7% of the total income. In case, there are no car parking facilities, entrepreneurs will benefit and makes the airport lose potential money. As example, we take Schiphol Amsterdam airport in 2011, 26.6% of the total passengers were brought by car to the airport and picked up. In the same year 12.4% parked their car on the ere airport to leave it there for the flight. Thanks to these people Schiphol earned EUR 84 million for just the car parking. Since Zwolle international airport lays close to two major highways (A28 and A50), and just one railway, the lays expectation is that the quantity of the total passengers which parks at the airport will be much higher than Schiphol Amsterdam airport. Approximately 50% of all the passengers on Schiphol Amsterdam airport are transfer passengers. Schiphol

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This concludes that just 50% are potential users of the car parking facilities. Therefore the benefits of car parking facilities at Zwolle international airport, which has a lower percentage of transfer passengers, should be around EUR 59 million. Ad2. Shops Zwolle international airport will much likely consist of a variety of shops. The shops at Schiphol Amsterdam airport generated EUR 78 million in 2011. Since Zwolle international airport will have a lower amount of passengers, the expectation is that there will be approximately EUR 47 million earned by shops. Ad3. Rental The largest landside benefit is the category rental. Zwolle international airport will have offices nearby which are for rent. The same applies to ticket desks, which are inside the airport. Schiphol Amsterdam airport earned EUR 140 million just for the rental. According to the difference in passengers’ numbers, Zwolle international airport should be able to reach EUR 84 million from rental. Ad4. Concession To deliver services (shops, restaurants, entertainment and delivering of fuel) at Zwolle international airport there is a need of a license. The concession benefits at Schiphol Amsterdam airport were in 2011 EUR 127 million. Most of the money was generated out of Schiphol plaza, which is very well developed. Therefore Zwolle international airport should be able to reach EUR 74 million out of concession. Ad5. Economic benefits of the Netherlands Schiphol Amsterdam airport is a key factor in the Dutch economy. Thanks to Schiphol Amsterdam airport the employment of the nearby area has grown a lot. Approximately 62,000 direct jobs have been created. This is without considering the many companies, which are located nearby the airport. Due to the difference in passengers’ numbers at Zwolle international airport, the amount of direct jobs will be some lower. Therefore, the direct jobs on Zwolle international airport will be somewhere around 37,200. If the considering is made that there will be no new airport, the expected growth of 15% of passenger flow a year will not be possible after some years. Because Schiphol Amsterdam airport will be at maximum capacity, people will divert to other airports in nearby countries. This way the economy in other countries will benefit. This deteriorates the competitiveness of the Netherlands.

Benefits (In €)

Aerodrome charges
449,000,000

Car parking
59,000,000

Shops
47,000,000

Rental
84,000,000

Concession
74,000,000

3.3 Conclusion
After elaborating Zwolle airport some conclusions can be made based on the landside (3.3.1), airside (3.3.2), costs (3.3.3) and the benefits (3.3.4). By use of these conclusions a recommendation (3.3.5) can be done directed to the originator.

3.3.1 Landside
Zwolle airport is designed to withhold a capacity of 30 million passengers a year. This can only be done by designing a solid terminal. This terminal will be build between the north and the south of the location. This will make sure the passengers can reach the airport the easiest way possible. The check in of baggage will be done at the same level as the level you enter. This will help the passengers board the plane as soon as possible. In the end a set up like this will make sure the time a passenger is on the airport is kept to a minimum. By doing this the passengers will be pleased and the large groups of people that want to use the airport can be deal with. The ATC tower will be build on top of the terminal and that will give the tower a good overview of the whole airport. This is a great advantage over Schiphol airport, because Zwolle will only need one ATC tower and Schiphol has two. To make sure the passengers can leave there car at the airport when they want and for as long as they want, parking facilities are necessary. There will be a main parking area located northeast of the area, which can withhold around 30,000 cars with possibilities of expansion. In addition parking space for 12,000 cars are available for employees beneath the terminal. 44

3.3.2 Airside
One of the most important parts of an airside are the runways. On Zwolle airport it will be two facing southwest direction with three taxiways in total. The direction is chosen this way because the wind for most of the time in this area comes from the southwest. The runways will be parallel to each other and will have a TORA of 3500 metres, so big aircraft like an Airbus A380 can land. Because the airport will use ILS the lightning on the runways will be sophisticated. The airside will contain an apron which will have 50 gates.

3.3.3 Costs
It is very difficult to estimate the cost of the build of an airport but there are some parts of the airport of which you already know it will be very expensive. One of these parts is the runway. Schiphol airport has recently build a new runway similar to the one Zwolle airport needs. The cost of this operation were 320 million euro’s because Zwolle needs two, the total cost of building these runway’s will be 640 million euro’s. Building runways is the most expensive part of the airside. Another big investment is the build of taxiways, because the terminal of Zwolle will be in the middle not a lot of taxiways are needed. In this way the cost for building taxiways can be kept to a minimum. We have seen that building runway’s is the most expensive part of the airside. Regarding the landside it is obvious that terminal will be the most expensive. This is the place where all the passengers that land and arrive have to be dealt with. London Heathrow; an airport that is used as an example many times before recently build a new terminal. This cost of this terminal were 1.4 billion euro’s and is estimated to withstand 20 million passengers. Because Zwolle airport needs to be able to deal with 30 million passengers the estimated costs of a terminal will be 2.0 billion euro’s.

3.3.4 Benefits
It is easier to gain a clear picture of the benefits then it is of the costs of an airport. One of the biggest income post of an airport are the landing/take-off charges. Unfortunately these charges are being set so the cost of the airport are being covered. By keeping the landing/take-off charges lower then Schiphol, Zwolle airport will be able to attract more airliners. On the landside of the airport a lot of money can be made. Parking for example will gain Zwolle an estimated 59 million. Another landside benefit are shops on an airport. These shops will help Zwolle airport make an additional 78 million. The same estimations can be made for rental (84 million) and concessions (74 million). The build of Zwolle airport will help the Dutch economy grow in the future. The main reason for this grow is because this build will create jobs. An estimated of 37200 jobs will be created.

3.3.5 Recommendation
Zwolle airport is a good solution for the capacity problem that the Dutch government is facing in the next few years. The area where it will be build is empty and big enough to handle the needed capacity. The expected benefits are fairly accurate and the foundation of the airport have been set. Therefore this report is the first step in the right direction, in the future this report can be used to start further investigation. This further investigation will have to focus on especially the cost of building this airport. The estimations made in this report are uncertain and have to be further looked at. If that is done it is safe to say that there is a possibility that Zwolle International Airport will be build in the near future!

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Hogeschool van Amsterdam Domein Techniek Opleiding Aviation Amsterdam 23 M 2012 Mei

Appendixes

Project group 2A1O Thijs Buurmeijer Romeo Maul Fabio Neira Iris Oosterbroek Max Richtering Blenken Tim Schouten Nick Soonius Max Witteman

Appendix
Inhoud
Appendix I ................................................................................................................................................................... 3 Appendix II Appendix III Appendix IV Appendix V Appendix VI Appendix VII Appendix VIII Appendix IX Appendix X Appendix XI Difference between Airside and Landside Rotterdam Airport ............................................................ 5 Navigation ....................................................................................................................................... 6 Runway markings .......................................................................................................................... 10 Aeronautical ground lighting ......................................................................................................... 12 Bird control ................................................................................................................................... 13 Airspace division ........................................................................................................................... 14 Airspace classification .................................................................................................................... 15 Airspace restrictions ...................................................................................................................... 16 Airspace above Rotterdam ............................................................................................................ 17 Space around airports .................................................................................................................... 18

Appendix XII Available areas ..................................................................................................................................... 20 Appendix XIII Airports in north-western Europe ...................................................................................................... 21 Appendix XIV Accessibility.................................................................................................................................... 22 Appendix XV Weather influence ............................................................................................................................... 23 Appendix XVI Location Doetinchem ........................................................................................................................ 24 Appendix XVII Appendix XVIII Appendix XX Appendix XXI Appendix XXII Flight paths Schiphol and Lelystad airport ..................................................................................... 25 Flight paths Zwolle Internation Airport ......................................................................................... 27 noise category ................................................................................................................................ 29 Abbreviation list ............................................................................................................................. 30 "proces verslag" ............................................................................................................................ 32

Appendix XIX Calculation benefits Zwolle international airport ............................................................................... 28

Appendix XXIII Terminal map .................................................................................................................................... 33 Appendix XXIX Division Airport Master Plan............................................................................................................. 34 Appendix XXX Sources list ......................................................................................................................................... 35

2

Appendix I Import and export situation currently
500000 400000 300000 200000 100000 0 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Invoer Uivoer Verschil

Import and export situation future
800000 600000 400000 200000 invoer uitvoer Verschil 2010 2020 2030 2040

0 2000

Airport passengers jaar schiphol 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 44.077.539 45.987.132 47.794.994 47.430.019 43.570.370 45.211.749 49.755.252

rotterdam eindhoven maastrich 1.098.300 1.137.835 1.146.692 1.059.006 991.390 1.000.858 1.158.420 946.218 1.143.557 1.544.098 1.629.893 1.739.053 2.142.832 2.650.000 356.000 282.000 160.000 252.000 135.696 270.000 360.000

total passagiers 46.478.057 48.550.524 50.645.784 50.370.918 46.436.509 48.625.439 53.923.672

3

Future image of passengers
90.000.000 80.000.000 70.000.000 60.000.000 50.000.000 40.000.000 30.000.000 20.000.000 10.000.000 0 2000 2010 2020 2030 2040 Reeks1

Poly. (Reeks1)

4

Appendix II

Difference between Airside and Landside Rotterdam Airport

5

Appendix III
VFR

Navigation

Figure x: Chart for VFR flight Daylight period The daylight period is defined as the period from sunrise – 15 minutes until sunset +15 minutes, measured at one position in the Netherlands. VFR flights at night VFR flights outside the daylight period are not permitted in the Netherlands. Visual flight rules Minimum flight visibility In class G airspace, the minimum flight visibility at or below 3000 ft AMSL is 1.5 km, provided that the flight will be executed with such a speed that it is possible to avoid other air traffic and obstacles. Above 3000 ft AMSL, the minimum flight visibility is 8 km. In class B or E airspace, the minimum flight visibility is 8 km, but in the parts of the NieuwMilligen TMAs that are classified as E airspace, from FRI 1600 to SUN 2300 UTC wintertime (FRI 1500 to SUN 2200 UTC summertime) and on official holidays it is 5 km. In class C airspace, the minimum flight visibility is 5 km. Flights at aerodromes Aerodromes without an ATC service are mostly equipped with an air/ground communication station, and are identified by the call sign ‘name aerodrome’ radio, e.g. Texel radio. The pilot is first and foremost responsible for a safe and orderly conduct in aerodrome traffic. The visual approach charts of such aerodromes include position and altitude of traffic circuits, frequencies, local details about noise restrictions and other information. Flights at controlled aerodromes An ATC service is provided at controlled aerodromes. A clearance is necessary for start-up, taxiing, take-off, landing and movements associated with these. All civil controlled aerodromes generally have VFR approach / departure routes with given altitudes and reporting points, published in the visual approach / departure charts. 6

Aerodrome traffic circuit With regard to a safe, orderly and expeditious aerodrome traffic at aerodromes, common rules are laid down for the aerodrome traffic circuit and circuit areas. However, due to local circumstances, procedures can differ from these common rules.

1 2 3 4 5 6 Figure x: Aerodrome traffic circuit The circuit area is established for each runway. The aerodrome traffic circuit, as depicted above, is situated within the circuit area. The vertical dimensions extend from aerodrome level up to 1000 ft / 300 m above airport level (AAL). The aerodrome traffic circuit height is 700 ft / 210 m AAL. Before joining the aerodrome traffic circuit, pilots have to take notice of the signals displayed in the signal area, or of the information given by radio. Over flying the circuit area for observing the signal area, shall be done at a height of at least 1000 ft / 300 m AAL. Aviation activities can take place above this height. Descending or climbing to circuit height must be executed outside the lateral limits of the circuit area. The joining of the aerodrome traffic circuit shall take place half-way downwind leg at an interception angle of 90°. Leaving the aerodrome traffic circuit shall take place at an angle of 45° half-way crosswind leg. Climbing or descending to cruising level must take place outside the lateral limits of the aerodrome circuit area. Where glider flying may take place, specific rules for glider flying, if any, are published in the visual approach chart of the aerodrome. Minimum heights for VFR flights Except when necessary for take-off or landing, aircraft shall not be flown over the congested areas of cities, towns or settlements, industrial areas, harbours and open-air assemblies of persons, unless at such a height as will permit, in the event of an emergency arising, a landing to be made without undue hazard to persons or property on the surface. The following minimum heights apply to VFR flights: - over the congested areas of cities, towns or settlements, industrial areas, harbours and open-air assemblies of persons, 300 m (1000 ft) above the highest obstacle within a radius of 600 m; - in all other cases at least 150 m (500 ft) above ground or water.

1. Downwind leg 2. Crosswind leg 3. Take-off leg 4. Runway 5. Final leg 6. Base leg

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IFR

Figure x: IFR flight plan Instrument Approaches (IAP) to Civil Airports Unless otherwise authorized, when an instrument letdown to an airport is necessary, the pilot should use a standard IAP prescribed for that airport. ATC approach procedures depend upon the facilities available at the terminal area, the type of instrument approach executed, and the existing weather conditions. The ATC facilities, navigation aids (NAVAIDs), and associated frequencies appropriate to each standard instrument approach are given on the approach chart. Individual charts are published for standard approach procedures associated with the following types of facilities for instance: 1. Nondirectional beacon (NDB) Nondirectional beacons exist of two parts: beacon transmitters on the ground and in the aircraft an automatic direction finder (ADF). The beacon transmitters transmits an all roundradio signal in a frequency range of 200 kHz (low frequency) to 415 kHz (medium frequency). The ADF determines the direction of the beacon in relation to the aircraft. By determining the direction to two beacons, the position of the aircraft can be derived. Most if the NDBs are precise within a distance of 25 NM.

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2.

Very-high frequency omnirange (VOR) Very-high frequency omnirange ground stations transmit an all round radio signal in a frequency range of 108 MHz to 117,96 MHz (very high frequency). The signal is used to determine on which radius of the beacon (between 1 to 360 degrees) the aircraft is embarked. The 360 radius indicates the magnetic north. Depending on obstacles between the station and aircraft, VOR ground stations are able to transmit over a distance between 40 NM to 200 NM. Very-high frequency omnirange with distance measuring equipment (VOR/DME) Most of the VOR stations are combined with a distance measuring equipment (DME). This equipment provides information of the distance from an aircraft to the (VOR) beacon or the runway. The DME can also be connected to the instrument landing system (ILS). Global positioning system (GPS) Global positioning systems make use of different satellites positioned in space and circling around the earth. Determining an aircraft’s position is based on distance measuring between the satellite and the aircraft’s receiver. The satellite’s position is known and the distance is determined by the duration of transmitted radio waves. Coverage is provided most of the time.

3.

4.

Standard instrument departure (SID) The standard instrument departure is a way to leave an airport. The SID consists of a pre-determined route for taking off and flying towards the destination of the flight. It uses multiple waypoints or fixes for planning a route. The SID ends when the plane reaches an airway and can fly though wards its destination. There are two different kinds of SID’s, the Pilot-nav SID and Vector SID. With the Pilot-nav SID, the pilot is primarily responsible for following the SID route. With Vector SID, the air traffic control will also give instructions for departing. Standard terminal arriving route (STAR) The standard terminal arriving route is a way to approach and land on an airport. The STAR is a fixed route provided by air traffic control. The STAR begins just before approaching an airport, the entire procedure of altitude, approach routes and speed are fixed. Most STAR approaches are made for IFR flights, but in some cases there are STAR approaches for VFR flights as well. A STAR can be made so detailed that a pilot can almost fly the complete approach and landing without the help of air traffic control. Instrument landing system (ILS) The instrument landing system is a system which gives a pilot very detailed information about its position relative to the runway (Figure XXX). The ILS also gives a pilot the opportunity to land an airplane flying in autopilot mode. The ILS is located at the end of the runway (1) and uses radio signals to create an “imaginary” path (2) towards the runway (3). An air traffic controller will vector an airplane towards the localizer, than the airplane will intercept the glide path. When the airplane has intercepted the glide path, the instruments in the cockpit will show the position of the airplane relative to the ideal approach. The pilot can than manoeuvre its plane to this ideal line. When using the autopilot, the airplane will automatically fly towards the ideal approach line. This system is commonly used at larger airports.

1. 3. 1. 2. 3. ILS beacon Imaginary path runway

2.

Figure X.X instrument landing system

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Appendix IV

Runway markings

1. Runway designation markings On the runway there is a two numbered marking which is called designation marking. It indicates the runway direction based on the magnetic North. If for example a runway has a direction of 196°, it will be rounded to 10° and the designation marking will be 20. 2. Runway centreline markings This markings are stripes which are located on the centre of the runway. These lines are meant to give the pilot a straight view of the runway. These stripes may not exceed a minimum length of 50 m or a maximum length of 75 m. All types of runways are equipped with this kind of markings. 3. Threshold markings These threshold markings are divided into two groups, with on each side of the centreline a group of stripes. Although the length of these stripes need to be at least 30 m long and approximately 180 cm wide, with the same width of spacing between them. The number of lines depends on the width of the runway (Table 1). Threshold markings are basically on precision instrument runways and non-precision instrument runways. Number of stripes 4 6 8 12 16 Runwaywidth (meters) 18 23 30 45 60 Runwaywidth (feet) 60 75 100 150 200

Table 1: Threshold markings

4. Aiming point markings On the end of runways there are two white bars at each side of the centreline, called aiming point markings. These bars give the pilot visual support during the landing procedure and are approximately located 1000 ft. from the threshold. This marking is located on all types of runways.

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Touchdown zone markings Touchdown zone markings are located on both sides of the centreline. They give distance information, which can be useful by landing. It identify the touchdown zone and they are only applied to precision runways.

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Appendix V

Aeronautical ground lighting

Runway centreline lights The centreline lights ensures in association with the edge lights, a visible runway during low visibilities. The centreline lights are white, from the threshold line till 900 meters before the end of the runway. The first 600 meters from the end of the white centreline lights, are coloured alternately red and white. This is meant to warn the pilot of the end of the runway. At the last 300 meters are all centreline lights red. The interval distance of these lights can be 7.5 m, 15 m, or 30m. Runway edge lights These lights are mostly coloured white. Sometimes the last 600 meters can be yellow, or at short runways (1200 m ) the last half of the runway edge lights can be coloured yellow. The interval distance is maximum 3 meters. These lights are on a precision approach runway required. Runway threshold lights Threshold lights are always green and indicates the beginning of the landing distance available. These light are mostly compulsory on runways, except for a non-precision approach runway where the threshold is different. Touchdown zone lighting These are two groups of lights parallel between both centreline lights and edge lights. It extends to 900 meters from the threshold and can have an interval of 30 to 60 meters, depending of the length of the runway. End runway lighting The end of the runway contains red coloured lights, to ensure that that is het end of the runway. These lights are along the width of the runway.

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Appendix VI

Bird control
1) The ideal position of the bird scaring can is: Loudspeaker mounted on front of vehicle roof, facing forward and angled down at 2°. 2) After 1-10 secs, target birds take flight and approach sound source. If birds are reluctant to move, fluttering a rag from the window usually has an immediate effect. 3) Bird circle over or in front of sound source during broadcast - 90 secs is usually adequate for the approach to be completed – and disperse, sometimes in several directions, after the calls cease. 4) Lapwings may not approach the sound source but fly to and from, over an increasing zone, gradually gaining height.

Fig. A-25 Bird scaring 1

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Appendix VII

Airspace division

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Appendix VIII Airspace classification Classification TRA Temporary Reserved Airspace Definition Airspace reserved for executing activities, other air traffic is permitted under certain conditions Airspace reserved for executing activities, other air traffic is prohibited TSA crossing the borderline Zone with additional rules to protect activities against other air traffic Air traffic is prohibited Danger zone for air traffic due to activities Air traffic is partial permitted under certain conditions Air traffic route repeatedly used by helicopters Area cleaned for protection of helicopters Area and route cleaned for protection of helicopters on unplanned base Special air traffic zone to protect certain traffic from others or activities

TSA

Temporary Segregated Area

CBA SRZ

Cross Border Area Special Rules Zone

EHP EHD EHR HMR HTZ HPZ

Prohibited Area Danger Area Restricted Area Helicopter Main Route Helicopter Traffic Zone Helicopter Protected Zone

ATZ

Aerodrome Traffic Zone

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Appendix IX

Airspace restrictions

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Appendix X

Airspace above Rotterdam

Airspace structure and ATS airspace classification

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Appendix XI

Space around airports

a-Lelystad airport

b-Rotterdam airport

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c-Eindhoven airport

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Appendix XII Available areas

Figuur 1: Potentiële marktgebieden van luchthavens.

Figuur 2: Potentiële marktgebieden van luchthavens.

In Figuur 3 is te zien het aantal mensen dat binnen 2 uur over de weg de luchthaven kan bereiken.

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Appendix XIII Airports in north-western Europe

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Appendix XIV Accessibility

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Appendix XV Weather influence
The climate around the world differs a lot from each other. At the poles, there are mostly very cold temperatures. Around the equator however, there are mostly warm temperatures. Therefore the earth is divided into different climate types. Holland is located in a so called temperate sea climate, it is important to know what this means 1a. It is also important to know what kind of influences this has on the Dutch airports and air traffic above the Netherlands 1b. 1a. The climate in the Netherlands. As told, Holland has a temperate sea climate. This means, that Holland has relatively mild summers and winters. During summer the average temperature is 16.6°C and during winter the average temperature is 3.3°C. On average 793 millimetres of rain falls across the year, this may seem like a lot of rain, but it is not that much. In the months November and December, on average, the most rain falls, however this does not differ a lot from the rest of the year. The average humidity throughout the year differs between 70 and 90 per cent. The wind on average comes from the southwest and blows with 4.28 knots inlands and 10.89 knots at the coast. Holland does not have extreme weather phenomena like hurricanes or extremely high or low temperatures. The most extreme weather phenomena Holland has, is hard wind, snowfall or heavy rain. 1b.The influence of the climate on airports. The airports and air traffic are much dependant on the weather. If the weather is really bad, airplanes cannot take-off or land and in the worst case they cannot fly at all. The climate in the Netherlands is pretty good for airports. The only thing airports in Holland must take into account is that it can freeze and therefore ice can build up on the airplanes on the ground. For airplanes Holland also has a pretty good climate. The only thing they need to take into account is that the wind can blow pretty hard on a few occasions. Further heavy rainfall or snow can provide dangerous situations, but as told there are no extreme weather phenomena.

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Appendix XVI Location Doetinchem

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Appendix XVII Flight paths Schiphol and Lelystad airport
a Schiphol Flight paths

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b Lelystad Flight paths

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Appendix XVIII Flight paths Zwolle Internation Airport
a Approach route

b Holding area

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Appendix XIX Calculation benefits Zwolle international airport
Aerodrome charges Schiphol amsterdam airport 745,000,000:420,249 = €1,772.76 per flight. Zwolle international airport 253.162 flights 253,162*1,772.76 = €448,795,095.29 Car parking Schiphol Amsterdam airport 50,000,000 passengers 50% is transfer passenger which will not use parking facilities. That means 25,000,000 passengers for schiphol a year. 20% uses the train on Schiphol Amsterdam airport, since Zwolle international airport hasn’t got the same rail infrastructure, it is likely that more people will take the car. Therefore the benefits will be greater on Zwolle international airport.Potential car facilitie users on Zwolle international airport is estimated as 16 million.16,000,000:25,000,000 = 0.64 Total income out of car parking on Schiphol Amsterdam airport is EUR 92 million. 0.64*92,000,000 = €58,880,000 Shops: Schipol Amsterdam airport earns EUR 78 million out of shops, with potential market of 50,000,000 a year. Zwolle international airport has 30,000,000 passengers a year. 30,000,000:50,000,000 = 0.6 0.6*78,000,000 = €46,800,000 Rental 30,000,000:50,000,000= 0.6 Total income from rental on Schiphol Amsterdam airport EUR 140 million. 0.6*140,000,000= €84,000,000 on Zwolle airport Concession On schiphol Amsterdam airport EUR 127 million out of concessions. 30,000,000:50,000,000=0.6 0.6*127,000,000=€76,200,000-€2.000.000 (Minus EUR 2 million because of the good development of shops on Schiphol, this will take years to accomplish on Zwolle) Total concessions of €74,200,000 Employment On Schiphol Amsterdam airport 62,000 jobs have been created. 30,000,000:50,000,000=0.6 60 procent of total passengers. Because development of an aircraft takes years, the amount of employers will be instead of 60% around 45-55 % of the total of 62,000. 0.6*62,000= 37,200

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Appendix XX

noise category

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Appendix XXI Abbreviation list
Abbreviation A AAL ACC ADF AGL APP/DEP ASDA AMSL ATC B BKL C CTA CTR D DB F FIR FL G GA GND GPS I IAP IFR ILS K KE KNMI KLM L LDA LVW M MSL N NAVAIDS NDB NM NW Milligen R RPB T TMA TODA TORA U UACC UTA UTC Full Above airport level Area control centre Automatic directionfinder Aboveground level ATC approach anddeparture Accelerate stop distance available Abovemeansea level Air traffic control Geluidsbelasting kleine luchtvaart Control area Control zone Decibel Flight information region Flight level General aviation Ground Global positioning system Instrument approaches Instrument flight rules Instrument landing system Kosten eenheid Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Instituut KoninklijkeLuchtvaartmaatschappij Landing distance available Luchtvaartwet Meansea level Navigation aids Non-directional beacon Nauticalmiles Nieuw Milligen Ruimtelijke Plan Bureau Terminal control area Take-off distance available Take-off run available Upper area control centre Upper control area Coordinateduniversal time 30

V VFR VOR W WLV

Visual flight rules Very-high frequency omni range Wet luchtvaart

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Appendix XXII "proces verslag"
Inleiding

Na afloop van een project dient een projectverslag geschreven te worden. Hierin zullen de volgende onderwerpen worden geëvalueerd: de samenwerking tussen leden van de groep, sfeer, vergaderingen, problemen waar wij mee te maken hebben gehad en deadlines. Het proces verslag dient als evaluatie voor de groep. Hierin staat wat er gedurende de zeven weken van het project goed is gegaan en wat er eventueel de volgende keer verbeterd kan worden.
Groepsproces

Aan het begin van week 14 kwam onze groep bij elkaar voor een eerste kennismaking. Omdat het nieuwe project maar 7 weken duurt, zijn we meteen de eerste dag bijeen gekomen. Hierbij hebben we naast het voorstel rondje ook alvast een kleine planning gemaakt. De afspraak werd gemaakt om in ieder geval twee keer bij elkaar te komen voor een vergadering. Enkele dagen daarna zijn we aan de slag gegaan met het plan van aanpak (PVA). Dit duurde ongeveer 2 weken voordat we het afgerond hadden. In het PVA zijn de volgende punten beschreven: Probleem analyse, doelstelling, afbakening, planning, groepsregels, piramidemodel en onze handtekeningen vermeld. Na het afronden van het PVA zijn we begonnen aan hoofdstuk 1. Hierbij hebben we weinig problemen ondervonden. Na het afronden van hoofdstuk 1, zijn we begonnen met het kiezen van meerdere locaties. Hiervan hebben we met zijn alle de drie beste locaties gekozen. Vervolgens hebben we de gekozen locaties uitgewerkt, en uiteindelijk de beste locaties gekozen. Hierna konden we begin maken met hoofdstuk 3, in dit hoofdstuk zijn we onze locatie gaan uit werken. Nadat hoofdstuk 3 was afgerond zijn we bij elkaar gekomen en hebben alles nog een keer doorgenomen. In alle hoofdstukken is gewerkt met een buddy systeem, zodat de kwaliteit van de gemaakte stukken op een hoog niveau blijft. Communicatie tijdens dit project ging vooral via de whatsapp en vooral in vakanties ook met mail. De afspraken zijn voor het grootste gedeelte nagekomen. Echter hebben we toch besloten om een waarschuwing uit te delen, omdat het bleek dat sommige stukken tekst nog niet volledig waren terwijl de deadline al verstreken was. Helaas was de persoon in kwestie die dag niet aanwezig, waardoor hij zich niet kon verdedigen. Iets wat natuurlijke niet echt juist is verlopen, daar hebben wij ook van geleerd. Daarom is besloten dat voortaan er geen waarschuwing meer uitgedeeld worden als de persoon in kwestie afwezig is. De samenwerking was over het algemeen goed, in een enkel geval misten er mensen waarmee je moest samenwerken of verliep de communicatie niet goed. Enige min punt is de aanwezigheid tijdens vergadering. Het is vaak voor gekomen dat meerdere mensen ontbraken. Met een hoogtepunt van 4 ontbrekende mensen van de 8.
Individuele inbreng

Tijdens het project heeft ieder zijn persoonlijke inbreng gehad. Het voorzitter/notulist schap werd elke week afgewisseld. Aangezien we met acht personen waren moesten er ook mensen ingedeeld worden tijdens de vakantie. Elke vergadering werd afgesloten met een rondvraag, waardoor iedereen zijn mening kon verkondigen.
Conclusie

Als we met zijn alle terugkijken op het project, kan geconcludeerd worden dat we ondank de tijdsdruk toch goed gewerkt is. En zowat alle deadlines zijn gehaald, wat weer een positief effect had op de sfeer. Omdat er daardoor geen waarschuwingen nodig waren. Vooral de samenwerking onderling was goed, als je een probleem had kon je altijd aankloppen bij je buddy. Bij volgende projecten moeten vergaderingen vanaf week 1 vast gezet worden. Zodat iedereen dan vrij kan houden, iets wat bij ons regelmatig fout ging. Toch mogen we trotst zijn op ons gemaakte werk. En misschien wordt ons arbeid wel beloond met een van de drie prijzen.

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Appendix XXIII Terminal map

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Appendix XXIX Division Airport Master Plan
What Summary Introduction H1 introduction 1.1 1.1.1 1.1.2 1.2 1.2.1 1.2.2 1.2.3 1.3 1.3.1 1.3.2 1.4 H2 introduction 2.1 2.1.1 2.1.2 2.1.3 2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.3 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.4 2.4.1 2.4.2 2.5 2.5.1 2.5.2 2.6 2.6.1 H3 introduction 3.1 3.1.1 3.1.2 3.1.3 3.2 3.2.1 3.2.2 3.3 By who Thijs Iris Tim Tim Tim Nick Romeo Romeo Romeo/Max R Max R Fabio Fabio Fabio Thijs/Iris Tim Thijs Thijs Thijs Thijs Nick Nick Max R Tim Tim/Nick Nick/Max R Max W/ Max W/ Fabio Romeo Romeo Max R Thijs Thijs Tim Romeo Romeo Iris Tim/Fabio Nick Nick Max W Thijs Appendices 1 Economic situation 2 Difference airside/landside 3 Navigation 4 Runway markings 5 Aeronautical ground lighting 6 Bird Control 7 Airspace division 8 Airspace classification 9 Airspace restrictions 10 Airspace above Rotterdam 11Space around airports 12 Available areas 13 Airports in northwest Europa 14 Accessibility 15 Weather 16 Location Doetichem 17 Flight paths Schiphol and Lelystad 18 Flight paths Zwolle International Airport 19 Calculation benefits Zwolle 20 Noise cathegory 21 Abbrevation list 22 Proces report 23 Terminal map 24 Division By Who Tim Romeo Max R/Nick Romeo Romeo Romeo Max R Max R Max R Max R Nick Max R Max R Max W Nick Max W Fabio

Fabio/Tim

Max W Max W Max W Max W Tim Tim

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Appendix XXX Sources list
Books Hoeven, M. van den. (2011). Bouwen aan je projectverslag. Amsterdam: Hogeschool van Amsterdam, Domein Techniek, Aviation Studies.

(2012). Projectboek periode 1-2. Amsterdam: Hogeschool van Amsterdam, Domein Techniek, Aviation Studies.
Websites Geraadpleegd op: 08-04-2012

http://www.knmi.nl/klimatologie/daggegevens/index.cgi
Geraadpleegd op: 08-04-2012

http://www.klimaatinfo.nl/nederland/
Geraadpleegd op: 08-04-2012

http://www.nuzakelijk.nl/economie/2739591/luchtvaart-heeft-33500-nieuwe-vliegtuigen-nodig.html
Geraadpleegd op: 10-04-2012

http://www.vivf.nl/vliegroutes%20oude%20versie.htm
Geraadpleegd op: 11-04-2012

http://www.bnr.nl/topic/mobiliteit/260257-1109/in-2030-verdubbeling-aantal-vliegtuigen
Geraadpleegd op: 10-04-2012

http://www.rand.org/content/dam/rand/pubs/technical_reports/2005/RAND_TR138.pdf
Geraadpleegd op: 16-04-2012

http://ivaonl.marcomeerkerk.nl/training/atc/luchtruimen
Geraadpleegd op: 22-04-2012

http://musicportals.biz/nahp/artic-nl/Polderbaan
Geraadpleegd op: 22-04-2012 http://www.infomil.nl/onderwerpen/ruimte/ruimtelijke-ordening/handreiking/1-geluid/1-3-beleid-weten/1_3_2_geluid Geraadpleegd op: 01-05-2012 http://2011.jaarverslagschiphol.nl/ Geraadpleegd op: 01-05-2012 http://laws-lois.justice.gc.ca/eng/regulations/SOR-2006-102/index.html Geraadpleegd op: 03-05-2012 http://www.guardian.co.uk/business/2012/feb/18/heathrow-terminal-2-opens-2014

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