1: Circulatory System Heart:
1. Location: found in the Thoracic Cavity 2. Pericardium: CT membrane that surrounds heart, secretes fluid to

reduce friction
3. Septum: vertically divides heart into R/L halves

a. Right side: pumps blood into lungs b. Left side: pumps blood to rest of body 4. Chambers of Heart a. Atria: upper chambers of the heart b. Ventricles: lower chambers of the heart
5. Valves: one way valves to prevent backflow a. Atrioventricular (AV) valves: during systole (contraction)

i. Tricuspid valve: right side ii. Bicuspid valve (Mitral valve): left side b. Semilunar valves (SL): backflow during diastole (relaxation) i. Aortic valve: left ventricle/aorta ii. Pulmonary valve: right ventricle/pulmonary trunk
6. Circulation pattern:: must know this well on pp. 932-933: a. Must know where blood is Low in O2 and High in CO2 vs. High in O2 b. Superior/Inferior Vena Cava into Right Atrium through Tricuspid Valve c. Right Ventricle through Pulmonary Valve into Pulmonary Trunk/Arteries d. Pulmonary Veins into Left Atrium through Bicuspid Valve e. Left Ventricle through Aortic Valve into Aorta

Cardiac muscle: intercalated discs 1. Connected by gap junctions that cause them to contract in waves 2. Held together by desmosomes

Diastole: Ventricles relax. Diastolic pressure: pressure can keep arteries open even ventr. AV Node: located in lower septum between atria 3. Capillaries: one cell layer thick to allow gases/nutrients/waste to diffuse thru (simple squamous epithelium): based on concentration gradients 3. Valves in veins: keep blood flowing in one direction. Systole: Ventricles contract pumping blood into major vessels exit heart (Valves: Semilunar open/AV-valves close to prevent backflow into atria) b. why? Keep blood flowing in one direction 1. Arteries (muscular with 3 layers): endothelial layer/smooth muscle/connective tissue: combined strength/elasticity allow stretching-“Pulse” a. SA Node (pacemaker): spontaneously initiate electrical impulse/contract 2. Systolic pressure: pressure of blood when the ventricles contract c. no backflow . about 70 beats/minute a. Veins: walls composed of three layers but much thinner/less muscular a. Blood Pressure: force exerted on walls of large vessels. Ventricles contract a fraction of a second after the atria. highest at beginning b.Control of Heartbeat: 1. Heart sounds (Lubb dup): or heartbeat is result of valves closing Blood Vessels: circulation is a closed system. back pressure close SL-valves and opens the AV-valves to allow for atria and ventricular filing to begin 4. Relaxed 2.

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