Atoms to Ecosystems

Behavior of Gases

PURPOSE:   Extrapolate some pressure-temperature data to determine the Celsius degree value of absolute zero Calculate the molar mass of carbon dioxide gas using the ideal gas law.

Pre-Lab Assignment Determine the molecular weight of a gas if 1.053 g of the gas occupies a volume of 1.000 L at 25 °C and 752 mm Hg Part 1: Absolute Zero This part is done as a class demonstration, but write it up as a lab. Materials and methods: Obtain five different temperature baths, large enough to accommodate the bulb of the pressure-measuring device. The five baths should be: • A cylindrical Dewar flask, half-filled with liquid nitrogen (LN2); temperature = –195.8°C • A cylindrical Dewar flask, half-filled with a slurry made from acetone (CH3COCH3) and dry ice; temperature = –78.0°C • A beaker, half-filled with ice water; temperature = 0.0°C • A beaker, half-filled with room temperature water; temperature = TBD • A beaker, half-filled with boiling water; temperature = 100.0°C For further research on how cold various cooling solutions are, check out http://www2.uni-siegen.de/~pci/versuche/english/v105-2.html Procedure: Prepare the baths as described. Using the computer’s LoggerPro software and the data logger attached to the pressure-measuring device, monitor the pressure as the bulb of the device is set sequentially into each of the five baths. When the pressure has reached an equilibrium value, record it in your notebook in a table similar to the one below: Bath Liquid nitrogen Dry ice/acetone slurry Ice water Room temp. water Boiling water 100.0 Temperature (°C) –195.8 –78.0 0.0 Pressure

moles) of gas and T is the gas temperature. Usual rules apply. . One complication is that weighing the carbon dioxide gas is hard. you will fill a flask full of carbon dioxide. Recall that R is the ideal gas constant. n is the amount (in this case. To put it another way. MM = m/n. you can find the molar mass of a pure gaseous substance by measuring the mass of gas in a certain space. You will need to figure out the mass of the air inside the flask and subtract that off of the mass of the flask in order to get just what the flask weighs. whose value can be found in nearly any reference. Part 2 Molar Mass of CO2 Introduction: The ideal gas law gives the relationship between the characteristic properties of a gas: PV = nRT where P is the gas pressure. Combining the previous two equations: MM = mRT/PV In other words. The ideal gas law can be algebraically rearranged so that it is solved for the number of moles of gas: n = PV/RT.Analysis:  Using Excel. In other words. pressure and temperature of the carbon dioxide and calculate the molar mass of carbon dioxide using the equation above. Materials • 250 mL Erlenmeyer flask • Electronic balance • Barometer (attached to classroom wall) • Small piece of dry ice • Rubber stopper • Thermometer • 100 mL graduated cylinder Safety Dry ice sublimes at –78. where m is the mass of a given amount of gas. weigh it and determine the volume. plot temperature (x-axis) versus pressure (y-axis). you can’t simply tare the balance and add carbon dioxide. make the x-axis range from –300°C to 100°C.5°C. In this experiment. and axes labels (with units).  Use the “Add Trendline” function to draw a best-fit line using a linear regression algorithm. and give the equation for the line. the molar mass (MM) of a gas is equal to the mass of a given amount of gas divided by the number of moles in that amount of gas. Carbon dioxide and water are not considered hazardous. that is the temperature of the dry ice in this experiment. Symbolically. Make sure there is enough room in the graph to be able to extrapolate the graph back at least a hundred degrees. V is the gas volume. so all fluids can be poured down the sink. the number of moles of a gas is equal to the mass of a given amount of gas divided by the gas’s molar mass. give the graph a good title. so do not pick up the dry ice with your bare hands. the temperature and pressure of the gas and the volume of the space. Of course. use a paper towel. It will cause burns upon prolonged or repeated exposure to bare skin.

write this value in your data table and also cite the reference. 10. note the temperature in your data table. 2. After the last bit of dry ice is gone. Using the flask. Record this value in your data table. Analysis: Prepare a results table. use a piece of towel paper as shown. 8. Show the work for each calculation for trial one.Procedure 1. Record how you determined the value for the volume. Remove the rubber stopper and obtain a small piece of dry ice. standard deviation and percent error for the class data. 9. along with the first initial and last name of each student in the pair. Put the dry ice into the flask. calculate the molar mass of carbon dioxide. Push the rubber stopper firmly into the flask (not so firmly that the stopper won’t come back out). Calculate the mass of the air in the flask from the information you have. Look up the density of air in g/mL from any resource. Do not handle the dry ice with your bare hands. you will have to determine its volume. please ask the instructor. 4. about one-third the size of the rubber stopper. Determine your average molar mass and the percent error of your average molar mass. Allow the dry ice to sublime completely. 12. do not move or shake the flask. and record the value in your data table. . then the mass of the carbon dioxide gas in the flask. and enter this value on the calculation table. If you are not sure how to set the barometer or to read a Vernier scale. Do not put the stopper on the flask just yet. 6. make sure they are dry. Immediately place the thermometer inside the flask (you don’t need the rubber stopper anymore) and. 11. firmly stopper the flask and weigh it. 7. Repeat this experiment two more times for a total of 3 trials. Note this value in your data table. Obtain the Erlenmeyer flask and rubber stopper. Calculate the mass of the flask alone. Take into account the rubber stopper’s volume! Write the volume in your data table. Each pair of students will record their three calculated molar masses on the computer in the front of the lab. water and graduated cylinder. using the reference value of 44.01 g/mol for carbon dioxide. Weigh this on the balance. after it settles. A 250 mL Erlenmeyer flask is never exactly 250 mL. Finally. determine the volume of the flask to the nearest tenth of a milliliter. 5. Measure the atmospheric pressure in the room by reading the barometer on the wall. Use Excel to determine the mean. 3.

Discuss which Gas Law the linearity of your graph confirms? 2.  Clearly show your final result (the value of absolute zero in °C?) Respond in detail to the following questions: 1. What assumption did you make about the behavior of air as you extrapolated the data to absolute zero? Why did you have to make this assumption? How good of an assumption is it? Part 2  Submit your data. sample calculations and results from both your data and the class data  Write an Abstract . The gas inside the ball of the pressure-measuring device is air.Post-lab Assignment Part 1:  Submit your data table and Excel graph.

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