# Atoms to Ecosystems

Behavior of Gases

PURPOSE:   Extrapolate some pressure-temperature data to determine the Celsius degree value of absolute zero Calculate the molar mass of carbon dioxide gas using the ideal gas law.

Pre-Lab Assignment Determine the molecular weight of a gas if 1.053 g of the gas occupies a volume of 1.000 L at 25 °C and 752 mm Hg Part 1: Absolute Zero This part is done as a class demonstration, but write it up as a lab. Materials and methods: Obtain five different temperature baths, large enough to accommodate the bulb of the pressure-measuring device. The five baths should be: • A cylindrical Dewar flask, half-filled with liquid nitrogen (LN2); temperature = –195.8°C • A cylindrical Dewar flask, half-filled with a slurry made from acetone (CH3COCH3) and dry ice; temperature = –78.0°C • A beaker, half-filled with ice water; temperature = 0.0°C • A beaker, half-filled with room temperature water; temperature = TBD • A beaker, half-filled with boiling water; temperature = 100.0°C For further research on how cold various cooling solutions are, check out http://www2.uni-siegen.de/~pci/versuche/english/v105-2.html Procedure: Prepare the baths as described. Using the computer’s LoggerPro software and the data logger attached to the pressure-measuring device, monitor the pressure as the bulb of the device is set sequentially into each of the five baths. When the pressure has reached an equilibrium value, record it in your notebook in a table similar to the one below: Bath Liquid nitrogen Dry ice/acetone slurry Ice water Room temp. water Boiling water 100.0 Temperature (°C) –195.8 –78.0 0.0 Pressure

moles) of gas and T is the gas temperature. Usual rules apply. . One complication is that weighing the carbon dioxide gas is hard. you will fill a flask full of carbon dioxide. Recall that R is the ideal gas constant. n is the amount (in this case. To put it another way. MM = m/n. you can find the molar mass of a pure gaseous substance by measuring the mass of gas in a certain space. You will need to figure out the mass of the air inside the flask and subtract that off of the mass of the flask in order to get just what the flask weighs. whose value can be found in nearly any reference. Part 2 Molar Mass of CO2 Introduction: The ideal gas law gives the relationship between the characteristic properties of a gas: PV = nRT where P is the gas pressure. Combining the previous two equations: MM = mRT/PV In other words. The ideal gas law can be algebraically rearranged so that it is solved for the number of moles of gas: n = PV/RT.Analysis:  Using Excel. In other words. pressure and temperature of the carbon dioxide and calculate the molar mass of carbon dioxide using the equation above. Materials • 250 mL Erlenmeyer flask • Electronic balance • Barometer (attached to classroom wall) • Small piece of dry ice • Rubber stopper • Thermometer • 100 mL graduated cylinder Safety Dry ice sublimes at –78. where m is the mass of a given amount of gas. weigh it and determine the volume. plot temperature (x-axis) versus pressure (y-axis). you can’t simply tare the balance and add carbon dioxide. make the x-axis range from –300°C to 100°C.5°C. In this experiment. and axes labels (with units).  Use the “Add Trendline” function to draw a best-fit line using a linear regression algorithm. and give the equation for the line. the molar mass (MM) of a gas is equal to the mass of a given amount of gas divided by the number of moles in that amount of gas. Carbon dioxide and water are not considered hazardous. that is the temperature of the dry ice in this experiment. Symbolically. Make sure there is enough room in the graph to be able to extrapolate the graph back at least a hundred degrees. V is the gas volume. so all fluids can be poured down the sink. the number of moles of a gas is equal to the mass of a given amount of gas divided by the gas’s molar mass. give the graph a good title. so do not pick up the dry ice with your bare hands. the temperature and pressure of the gas and the volume of the space. Of course. use a paper towel. It will cause burns upon prolonged or repeated exposure to bare skin.