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Biocatalysis — key to sustainable industrial chemistry
Roland Wohlgemuth
The ongoing trends to process improvements, cost reductions and increasing quality, safety, health and environment requirements of industrial chemical transformations have strengthened the translation of global biocatalysis research work into industrial applications. One focus has been on biocatalytic single-step reactions with one or two substrates, the identification of bottlenecks and molecular as well as engineering approaches to overcome these bottlenecks. Robust industrial procedures have been established along classes of biocatalytic single-step reactions. Multi-step reactions and multi-component reactions (MCRs) enable a bottom-up approach with biocatalytic reactions working together in one compartment and recations hindering each other within different compartments or steps. The understanding of the catalytic functions of known and new enzymes is key for the development of new sustainable chemical transformations.
Address Sigma–Aldrich, Industriestrasse 25, CH-9470 Buchs, Switzerland Corresponding author: Wohlgemuth, Roland (roland.wohlgemuth@sial.com)

omical, energy saving, and environment-friendly production procedures. The global needs for clean manufacturing technologies, nonrenewable raw materials, management of hazardous chemicals and waste present new research challenges to both chemistry and biotechnology. These sciences are taking up these challenges and the initiatives in Green/sustainable chemistry [2,3] and white/industrial biotechnology [4] have emerged in their disciplines independently. It is therefore of crucial importance for the success of implementation and translation of science and technology into standard industrial practice to develop a common chemistry–biotechnology interface. One common opportunity for improvement and invention is the current use of protecting groups for overcoming nonselective and incompatible reactivities in synthesis and biomimetic as well as enzyme-catalyzed synthesis can provide the selectivities needed to overcome barriers [5]. The manufacturing of molecular complexity from simple starting materials with a minimum number of steps, avoiding protection–deprotection loops and orientation towards function of the product attract much interest and biocatalytic process steps are well positioned for contributing to the solutions of the above-mentioned challenges [6]. The creation of sustainable value by viable industrial processes and synthetic pathways requires not only research progress in chemistry and biotechnology, but in addition the integration of research from molecular and engineering sciences, thereby enabling a large range of industrial biotransformations [7–10]. As reaction development serves different practical needs, progress in the working areas single-step reactions, multi-step reactions, and multi-component reactions (MCRs) will be discussed in the following sections. Despite the enormous achievements in the chemical synthesis of organic compounds, once believed to be accessible only by biological processes and ‘vital forces’, over the past two centuries, many present state-of-the-art processes are highly inefficient [3]. This and additional boundary conditions like safety, health and environment issues in industrial processes have revitalized the interest in the discovery/invention of novel biocatalytic reactions and reaction methodologies, which have been evolved by nature to achieve highly efficient and selective transformations. Therefore the section on the development of new biocatalytic reaction methodology addresses this important industrial innovation area.

Current Opinion in Biotechnology 2010, 21:713–724 This review comes from a themed issue on Chemical biotechnology Edited by Phil Holliger and Karl Erich Jaeger Available online 26th October 2010 0958-1669/$ – see front matter # 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. DOI 10.1016/j.copbio.2010.09.016

Introduction
The creation of value-added products by chemical transformations has contributed significantly to the quality of life over the centuries and has reached a high level, but it has been suggested that many of the stoichiometric reactions in current use should be replaced by catalytic processes [1]. Although catalytic tools are not only a cornerstone of our present economy and society, but also a key feature of basic life processes, most of the catalysts used in the automotive, fuel refining, and chemical industries consist either of inorganic, organometallic or of organic catalysts in heterogeneous form, as for example, catalysts involved in pollutant removal from the exhaust leaving the car engines. The use of biocatalysts in chemical transformations has really taken off with the focus on safe, healthy, resource efficient and econwww.sciencedirect.com

Industrial biocatalytic single-step reactions
The early success of single biocatalytic reaction steps in classical organic synthesis schemes has led to an
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increasing number of established industrial processes and continues to be a useful approach for the introduction of biocatalysis into industrial practice. The discovery and development of novel biocatalytic reaction steps can thereby focus on overcoming synthetic bottleneck reactions and improving the performance of existing chemical reactions according to industrial requirements. Biocatalytic versions of reactions which are impossible or impractical by existing chemistry tools generate high interest and stimulate further process research and development work in industry.

active nitrile products in high yields and excellent enantioselectivities [20].
Amination reactions

Oxidation and reduction reactions

Oxidations and reductions catalyzed by oxidoreductases have progressed towards the tools of choice (Figure 1) due to their improved performance with respect to reaction selectivity, safety, health, and environment aspects. Selective introduction of one or two oxygen atoms by biocatalysts has continued to attract a lot of industrial interest. Among the reactions introducing one oxygen atom, selective asymmetric hydroxylations, epoxidations, and Baeyer–Villiger oxidations [11–13,14] have made significant progress and are of interest for the oxyfunctionalization of inexpensive organic building blocks. Selective biocatalytic oxidations of one out of several hydroxygroups, as for example, in alcohols and sugars, continue to be of industrial interest since the thirties of the last century and have additional sustainability benefits compared to the classical chemical oxidations [7]. Since classical chemical oxidations often use stoichiometric oxidants in excess, the selective removal of remaining oxidants is decisive for the product quality and enzymatic methods have become standard practice in production. Depending on the enzyme properties and the cofactor recycling system, both the oxidative and the reductive directions of an oxidoreductase application are of interest [15,16]. Sustainable enzymatic reductions of aldehydes and ketones are reliable, scalable and inexpensive routes to optically active alcohols and have been extensively employed in organic synthesis despite the vast number of asymmetric reductions [17]. Even in the area of the reduction of carbon–carbon double bonds, where catalytic hydrogenation with hydrogen gas in autoclaves is performed routinely, new asymmetric biocatalytic reductions of activated alkenes bearing an electron-withdrawing group have become interesting methods for preparing the corresponding saturated products in up to >99% ee and for side stepping the use of hydrogen gas [18]. High enantioselectivity was also observed for the asymmetric reduction of activated a,b-unsaturated enones catalyzed by pentaerythritol tetranitrate reductase for reaction product stereogenic centers at the beta-carbon atom [19]. Enoate reductases have also been used for the conversion of a series of a,b-unsaturated nitriles to the optically
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As in nature, industrial biocatalytic aminations have been performed by the two different routes of transamination and reductive amination. The use of amino acid dehydrogenases in reductive amination of prochiral precursors continues to play an important role in the enzymatic production of D-enantiomers and L-enantiomers of both natural and non-natural amino acids. Transaminases have obtained increased interest for the asymmetric synthesis of amines from prochiral ketones [21–24] and amination is becoming a key reaction (Figure 2) in industrial biotransformations [9]. New routes to nonchiral amines are also of interest and a new biocatalytic transamination of pyridoxal-50 -phosphate has been achieved with complete conversion [25]. The efficiency of the manufacturing process for the antidiabetic compound sitagliptin has been greatly improved by replacing the Rh(Jobiphos)catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation of an enamine at high pressure with a direct transaminase-catalyzed amination of prositagliptin ketone [26]. The best engineered enzyme could convert 200 g/l prositagliptin ketone to sitagliptin with an excellent ee of >99.95%. A 53% productivity increase, 19% waste reduction, elimination of heavy metals, cost reductions and avoiding specialized high-pressure hydrogenation equipment have been found as specific advantages of the biocatalytic process [26].
Glycosylation reactions

As selective chemical glycosylation reactions require a substantial synthetic effort involving various protecting group chemistries in organic solvents, the use of glycosyltransferases for coupling glycosyl donors to nonprotected acceptors in aqueous media (Figure 3) continues to attract a lot of interest [27–29]. Methods based on the application of glycosyltransferases are currently recognized as being the most effective for the preparation of complex and highly pure oligosaccharides [30]. The trihexosylceramides Gb3 and iGb3 have been synthesized by specific galactosyltransferases using lactosylceramide as acceptor [31]. Sialyltransferases have been used in chemoenzymatic or whole-cell approaches for the synthesis of a large library of sialoside standards and derivatives [32]. Carbohydrate-based drug design makes use of various glycosyltransferases for the production of novel glycosylated compounds, as no single universal glycosyltransferase has been found [33]. The final hexose to be transferred from the NDP-hexose to the aglycon can thereby be diversified by a variety of enzymes like dehydratases, epimerases and aminotransferases.
Hydrolysis and reverse hydrolysis reactions

On the basis of the vast number of established enzymatic reactions using hydrolases in aqueous and nonaqueous systems, this area has become well established and new
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Figure 1

Selected biocatalytic oxidation and reduction reactions. The cyclohexanone-monooxygenase-catalyzed Baeyer–Villiger oxidation of bicycloheptenone has been applied industrially by Sigma–Aldrich with the substrate-feed-product-recovery-technology (SFPR) using Optipore L-493 as adsorber for high space-time yield [14].

applications appearing in various fields of organic chemistry can build on this experience (Figure 4). The largescale availability of many hydrolases like acylases, amidases, esterases, lipases, proteases and their ease of use without any cofactors has been a key factor for the rapid growth of this reaction class in industry [34]. The robustness and scalability of these reactions with standard equipment have been useful for resolutions, deracemizations, desymmetrizations in early steps or mild
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deprotections in late steps of a synthesis. The complete conversion of a substrate into one product of high enantiomeric purity is particularly attractive, as for example, in desymmetrizations of prochiral diols or diesters. Inexpensive acyl donors like acids or simple esters are preferred for cost-sensitive productions, but require tools to drive reactions to completion. Lipase-catalyzed acylations with activated acyl donors like enol esters and acid anhydrides are practically irreversible. Lipase-catalyzed
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Figure 2

Selected biocatalytic amination reactions. The transaminase-catalyzed asymmetric amination of prositagliptin ketone to sitagliptin has been applied industrially by Merck. Abbreviations: PLP = pyridoxal-50 -phosphate; MBA = (S)-a-methylbenzylamine.

polymerization in an organic solvent or one bulk monomer is advantageous in reducing energy consumption and in polymerizing multifunctional monomers or monomers which undergo side reactions or are degraded under process conditions [35]. The enzymatic resolution of a substrate with a remote stereogenic center has been realized in the first enantioselective synthesis of (S)monastrol [36]. An interesting high yield synthesis of 12-aminolauric acid from v-laurolactam has been developed by enzymatic transcrystallization using v-laurolactam hydrolase from Acidivorax sp. [37]. This method has been chosen because of low conversion ratios by the use of organic solvents and biphasic systems. Enzymatic
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transcrystallization starts with the addition of crystalline substrate to the aqueous reaction medium, which dissolves the substrate up to its solubility limit, and the enzymatic reaction can then give the soluble product, which will crystallize, when the product concentration from the enzymatic conversion exceeds the product solubility. Overall, the process resembles a SFPR system [11], where the crystalline substrate is converted into crystalline product in a highly efficient and environmentfriendly process without organic solvent, acid or alkali. A nitrilase-catalyzed kinetic resolution of 2-cyano-1,4-benzodioxane and 2-cyano-6-formyl-1,4-benzodioxane to optically active 1,4-benzodioxane-2-carboxylic acids
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Figure 3

Selected biocatalytic glycosylation reactions representing the enormous potential of glycosyltransferases for future industrial applications.

enables mild and enantioselective nitrile hydrolysis without damage to labile functional groups like the formyl group [38].
Carbon–carbon formation reactions and carbon–carbon bond cleaving reactions

The formation and cleavage of carbon–carbon bonds is of prime importance for constructing the carbon skeleton not only in synthetic organic chemistry, but also in the
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metabolic pathways of living cells. Among the great variety of enzymes, hydroxynitrile lyases, aldolases, and transketolases have attracted much interest (Figure 5). Hydroxynitrile lyases have been valuable for manufacturing enantiopure target cyanohydrins from aldehydes, as versatile bifunctional building blocks for chemical synthesis [39]. Strategies for overcoming reaction limitations and suppression of nonenzymatic side reactions combine approaches from enzyme and reaction
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Figure 4

Selected biocatalytic hydrolysis and reverse hydrolysis reactions. A recombinant novel isoform of pig liver esterase termed alternative pig liver esterase (APLE) has been applied industrially by DSM.

engineering [40]. Crude hydroxynitrile lyase has also been used for the enantioselective cyanohydrin synthesis in a microreactor [41]. Biocatalysis by means of aldolases offers a unique stereoselective and green tool to perform carbon–carbon bond formation or cleavage. Recent advances in aldolase-catalyzed stereoselective carbon– carbon bond formation reactions are valuable for generating molecular diversity and for synthetic improvements from small chiral polyfunctional molecules to highly
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complex oligosaccharide analogs [42]. Aldolase-catalyzed carbon–carbon bond formation has been used for the large-scale synthesis of a chloromethyl-substituted, a,b-unsaturated d-lactone [43]. The synthetic potential of thiamin diphosphate-dependent enzymes for asymmetric carboligations, such as asymmetric crossbenzoin condensations, has been extended appreciably and a variety of enantiomerically pure 2-hydroxyketones have been synthesized by enzymatic carbon–carbon
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Figure 5

Selected biocatalytic carbon–carbon bond formation reactions. The double aldol condensation of acetaldehyde with chloroacetaldehyde catalyzed by deoxyribose-5-phosphate aldolase (DERA-aldolase) has been applied industrially by DSM in the production of chiral lactones.

bond ligation of aldehydes [44]. The use of benzaldehyde lyase and benzoylformate decarboxylase in recombinant Escherichia coli resting cells in a MTBE/aqueous buffer biphasic medium has improved substrate solubility and extractive workup [45]. Another route to enantiomerically pure 2-hydroxy-ketones is the enzymatic chain elongation of aldehydes by a two-carbon unit, which can be catalyzed by transketolase and driven to completion by the use of the irreversible C2-ketol donor bhydroxypyruvate [46–48].
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A novel biocatalytic carbon–carbon bond formation reaction equivalent to Friedel–Crafts alkylation has been catalyzed by methyltransferases using S-adenosyl-Lmethionine and analogs [49]. A very broad range of acceptor substrates including cyclic and open-chain ketones as well as diketones and a-ketoesters and b-ketoesters have been found in the first enzymatic asymmetric intermolecular aldehyde–ketone crosscoupling reaction, using the thiamine-dependent enzyme YerE [50]. Changing the substrate specificity of the
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Figure 6

Scheme of a biocatalytic multi-step and a biocatalytic multi-component reaction.

carbon–carbon bond forming enzyme tyrosine phenol lyase has been key for replacing the cumbersome chemical multi-step synthesis of nonnatural 3-substituted tyrosine derivatives by a single-step biocatalytic synthesis with complete conversion and excellent enantioselectivity, starting from the corresponding phenol precursor, pyruvate and ammonia [51].

Industrial biocatalytic multi-step reactions
Multi-step processes coupling two or more biocatalytic reactions in one pot (Figure 6) are attractive because of the reduction in the number of process steps, productivity improvements and overcoming thermodynamic barriers [66]. One-pot synthetic methods involving multiple bond formation steps such as domino, tandem or cascade reactions eliminate also time-consuming recovery and purification steps. Biocatalytic reactions have thereby been combined with other chemical or biocatalytic reactions. A prominent two-step example is the conversion of cephaCurrent Opinion in Biotechnology 2010, 21:713–724

losporin C to 7-aminocephalosporanic acid by D-amino acid oxidase and cephalosporin acylase. The synthesis of atorvastatin has been achieved by the biocatalytic reduction of ethyl-4-chloroacetoacetate using a ketoreductase-catalyzed reaction as the first step and a halohydrin-dehalogenase-catalyzed substitution reaction of the chlorosubstituent with the cyano-group [52]. Another two-step reaction sequence has been used in the conversion of an aromatic alkene to a chiral 2-hydroxy ketone. The carbon– carbon double bond in the olefin trans-anethole to para-anisaldehyde has been cleaved biocatalytically with a Trametes hirsuta extract and with molecular oxygen as oxidant. The second reaction step catalyzed the condensation of para-anisaldehyde to acetaldehyde by the enantiocomplementary C–C bond forming enzymes benzaldehydelyase and benzoylformatedecarboxylase, respectively, to yield either (R)-2-hydroxy-1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-propanone or (S)-2-hydroxy-1-(4-methoxyphenyl)-propanone [53].
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Natural product synthesis and modification by biocatalytic multi-step reactions is of much interest because of the challenges in large-scale production of bioactive small molecules from natural sources or by total synthesis. Many opportunities exist for preparing a wide range of natural product variants due to the substrate flexibility of the pathway enzymes. The bottom-up assembly of plant biosynthetic pathways in microorganisms is of interest for exploring the fascinating capabilities of the individual enzymes as well as for facilitating scalable production platforms for the synthesis of natural and unnatural alkaloids [54]. The optimization of biocatalytic pathways to macrotetrolides is highly attractive, because chemical synthesis of compounds like nonactin has not been competitive for large-scale production [55]. This is related to the exquisite selectivity and orthogonality of biocatalytic functional group transformations, which enables the organization of multi-step reactions in defined reaction spaces in an analogous way as in biological cells, cell compartments or multi-enzyme machineries. The achievements of biocatalytic multi-step reactions serve as gold standard for the reaction development in organic chemistry [4].

developed for the high-yield synthesis of 3,4-dihydropyrimidine-2-(1H)-ones, consisting of the condensation of urea or thiourea with a substituted benzaldehyde and a 1,3-ketoester at room temperature in aqueous phosphate buffer pH 7.0 and using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as biocatalyst [59].

Development of new biocatalytic reaction methodology
Industrial applications aim at stable processes with robust, simple and sustainable operation and product recovery as well as high molecular economy [60–63]. The search for new biocatalytic reaction methodology is experiencing a boost by progress in a number of relevant areas like the connection between the broad set of natural product biosynthetic reactions and the genes that encode them [64] or the tremendous progress in engineering enzymes by directed evolution [65]. Whether the reaction is performed on a small or large scale, the confinement or localization of enzymes in a certain reaction space, while retaining their catalytic activities under process conditions, is key. Expanding the organic chemistry of enzyme-catalyzed reactions and interfacing the enzyme reactions with classical chemical reactions in this reaction space, with no need for using protecting groups, is promising [66]. A concise approach to the synthesis of all 24 hexoses and 5-deoxy-hexoses, still ongoing, is based on a range of biocatalysts which interconvert polyols and ketoses, aldose isomerases for the equilibration of ketoses and aldoses, and D-tagatose-3epimerase for the C-3 equilibration of a wide range of substrates like ketoses, deoxysugars, and C-branched sugars [67]. An interesting biocatalytic domino reaction between phenol and various cyclic 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds yielded annulated benzofurans, using the enzymes tyrosinase and laccase from Agaricus bisporus [68]. The capturing and activation of carbon dioxide by enzymes has obtained increased interest [69], as on the one hand the chemistry of direct carboxylation reactions is underdeveloped and on the other hand many carboxylating and decarboxylating enzymes are occurring widely in nature. The novel continuous flow enzymatic carboxylation of pyrrole to pyrrole-2-carboxylate by immobilized Bacillus megaterum represents an interesting green engineering approach [70]. Salicylic acid decarboxylase from Trichosporon monilliforme has been discovered to catalyze the enzymatic Kolbe–Schmitt reaction from phenol to salicylic acid [71]. 3,4-Dihydroxybenzoate decarboxylase from Enterobacter cloacae enabled the mild regioselective carboxylation of catechol to 3,4-dihydroxy-benzoic acid with 3 M potassium hydrogencarbonate at 308C [72].

Industrial biocatalytic multi-component reactions
While the tactics of step-by-step reactions is based on a cascade of subsequent functional group transformations, the goal for MCRs is to construct several bonds between the components by a parallel operation of different reactions with completely independent reactivity and selectivity. MCRs are therefore step-efficient procedures converging towards the product and avoiding protecting group chemistry. MCRs enable building molecular complexity directly from more than two components. Although MCRs like the Strecker reaction are important industrial reactions in organic chemistry, the development of biocatalytic MCRs (Figure 6) has only recently attracted interest. A novel lipase-catalyzed direct Mannich reaction in water has been discovered, involving aniline, a nonenolizable substituted benzaldehyde as electrophile and the enolizable acetone as a source of nucleophile [56]. A sequence of a biocatalytic desymmetrization of a 3,4-substituted meso-pyrrolidin with monoamine oxidase N from Aspergillus niger and the use of the resulting enantiopure 1-pyrrolin as component in an Ugi-type 3-component reaction has been performed in two separate operations in order to achieve the best yields, diastereomeric ratio and ee values [57]. An interesting approach towards a biocatalytic asymmetric Strecker reaction has combined transimination with imine-cyanation in a double dynamic covalent system under thermodynamic control and subsequently coupled in a one-pot process with lipasecatalyzed transacylation under kinetic control [58]. A biocatalytic Biginelli 3-component reaction has been
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Conclusions
Biocatalytic single-step reaction platforms developed over the last years have progressed rapidly in the industrial
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production environment and many more methodologies developed at the research scale are waiting to be applied and to be scaled up. Discovery and development of novel biocatalytic single-step reactions continues to be important, especially in areas where no direct functional group transformation is known or where the known chemical transformation is lacking safety, selectivity or sustainability. The innate selectivity and orthogonality advantage of biocatalytic reactions bears a lot of potential for major improvements in multi-step reactions. Attention needs to be paid to both the molecular and the engineering aspects of the architecture of such biocatalytic multi-step systems. Whatever route is selected, key to further advances in sustainable chemical reactions is the development of novel biocatalytic reaction methodologies, which are modular, scalable, and compatible with the development of chemical reactions. The science, technology and industry of chemical synthesis and catalysis on the other hand is accepting established biocatalytic reaction platforms, because of the need for method and route simplification, molecular economy, safety, health, and environment improvements. Therefore the knowledge building in industrial biocatalysis and its practical implementation is key for value creation in a future bioeconomy.

13. Torres Pazmino DE, Dudek HM, Fraaije MW: Baeyer–Villiger monooxygenases: recent advances and future challenges. Curr Opin Chem Biol 2010, 14:138-144. 14. Wohlgemuth R, Woodley JM: Asymmetric Baeyer–Villiger  reactions using whole-cell biocatalysts. In Large-scale Asymmetric Catalysis. Edited by Blaser HU, Federsel HJ. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH; 2010. A summary of the first large-scale biocatalytic Baeyer–Villiger oxidations and the bottlenecks that have been overcome. 15. Richter N, Neumann M, Liese A, Wohlgemuth R, Eggert T, Hummel W: Characterisation of a recombinant NADPdependent glycerol dehydrogenase from gluconobacter oxydans and its application in the production of Lglyceraldehyde. ChemBioChem 2009, 10:1888-1896. 16. Richter N, Neumann M, Liese A, Wohlgemuth R, Weckbecker A, Eggert T, Hummel W: Characterization of a whole-cell catalyst co-expressing glycerol dehydrogenase and glucose dehydrogenase and its application in the synthesis of L-glyceraldehyde. Biotechnol Bioeng 2010, 106:541-552. 17. Huisman GW, Liang J, Krebber A: Practical chiral alcohol manufacture using ketoreductases. Curr Opin Chem Biol 2010, 14:122-129. 18. Hall M, Stueckler C, Hauer B, Stuermer R, Friedrich T, Breuer M, Kroutil W, Faber K: Asymmetric bioreduction of activated C C bonds using Zymomonas mobilis NCR enoate reductase and old yellow enzymes OYE 1–3 from yeasts. Eur J Org Chem 2008, 9:1511-1516. 19. Fryszkowska A, Toogood H, Sakuma M, Gardiner JM, Stephens GM, Scrutton NS: Asymmetric reduction of activated alkenes by pentaerythritol tetranitrate reductase: specificity and control of stereochemical outcome by reaction optimisation. Adv Synth Catal 2009, 351:2976-2990. 20. Kosjek B, Fleitz FJ, Dormer PG, Kuethe JT, Devine PN: Asymmetric bioreduction of a,b-unsaturated nitriles and ketones. Tetrahedron: Asymmetry 2008, 19:1403-1406. ¨ 21. Hohne M, Bornscheuer UT: Biocatalytic routes to optically active amines. ChemCatChem 2009, 1:1-11. 22. Zhu D, Hua L: Biocatalytic asymmetric amination of carbonyl functional groups — a synthetic biology approach to organic chemistry. Biotechnol J 2009, 4:1420-1431. 23. Koszelewski D, Tauber K, Faber K, Kroutil W: v-Transaminases for the synthesis of non-racemic a-chiral primary amines. Trends Biotechnol 2010, 28:324-332. 24. Ward J, Wohlgemuth R: High-yield biocatalytic amination reactions in organic synthesis. Curr Org Chem 2010, 14:1914-1927. 25. Schell U, Wohlgemuth R, Ward JM: Synthesis of pyridoxamine 50 -phosphate using an MBA: pyruvate transaminase as biocatalyst. J Mol Catal B: Enzym 2009, 59:279-285. 26. Savile CK, Janey JM, Mundorff EC, Morre JC, Tam S, Jarvis WR,  Colbeck JC, Krebber A, Fleitz FJ, Brands J et al.: Biocatalytic asymmetric synthesis of chiral amines from ketones applied to sitagliptin manufacture. Science 2010, 329:305-309. A variety of enzyme engineering techniques have been applied to the creation of a transaminase biocatalyst with the required properties and activity toward the prositagliptin ketone. This has resulted in an efficient biocatalytic trans-amination process to replace a rhodium-catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation for the large-scale manufacturing of the antidiabetic compound sitagliptin. 27. Chokhawala HA, Huang S, Lau K, Yu H, Cheng J, Thon V, HurtadoZiola N, Guerrero JA, Varki A, Chen X: Combinatorial chemoenzymatic synthesis and high-throughput screening of sialosides. ACS Chem Biol 2008, 3:567-576. 28. Wohlgemuth R: Tools and ingredients for the biocatalytic synthesis of carbohydrates and glycoconjugates. Biocatal Biotransformation 2008, 26:42-48. 29. Wanga Z, Gilbert M, Eguchi H, Yu H, Cheng J, Muthanad S, Zhou L, WangPG, Chen X, Huang X: Chemoenzymatic syntheses of tumor-associated carbohydrate antigen Globo-H and www.sciencedirect.com

References and recommended reading
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10. Ghisalba O, Meyer HP, Wohlgemuth R: Industrial biotransformation. In Encyclopedia of Industrial Biotechnology. Edited by Flickinger MC. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley; 2010. 11. Alphand V, Wohlgemuth R: Applications of Baeyer–Villiger monooxygenases in organic synthesis. Curr Org Chem 2010, 14:1928-1965. ´ 12. Hilker I, Gutierrez MC, Furstoss R, Ward J, Wohlgemuth R, Alphand V: Preparative scale Baeyer–Villiger biooxidation at high concentration using recombinant Escherichia coli and in situ substrate feeding and product removal process. Nat Protoc 2008, 3:546-554. Current Opinion in Biotechnology 2010, 21:713–724

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stage-specific embryonic antigen 4. Adv Synth Catal 2008, 350:1717-1728. 30. Weijers CAGM, Franssen MCR, Visser GM: Glycosyltransferase catalyzed synthesis of bioactive oligosaccharides. Biotechnol Adv 2008, 26:436-456. Review on the effective application of glycosyltransferases for the preparation of complex and highly pure oligosaccharides. 31. Adlercreutz D, Weadge JT, Petersen BO, Duus JØ, Dovichi NJ, Palcic MM: Enzymatic synthesis of Gb3 and iGb3 ceramides. Carbohydr Res 2010, 345:384-388. 32. Chen X, Varki A: Advances in the biology and chemistry of sialic  acids. ACS Chem Biol 2010, 5:163-176. A sialic acid review including recent advances in chemoenzymatic synthesis as well as large-scale E. coli. 33. Luzhetskyy A, Mendez C, Salas JA, Bechthold A: Glycosyltransferases, important tools for drug design. Curr Top Med Chem 2008, 8:680-709. 34. Wohlgemuth R: Large-scale applications of hydrolases in biocatalytic asymmetric synthesis. In Large-scale Asymmetric Catalysis. Edited by Blaser HU, Federsel HJ. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH; 2010. 35. Gross RA, Ganesh M, Lu W: Enzyme-catalysis breathes new life into polyester condensation polymerizations. Trends Biotechnol 2010, 28:435-443. ¨ 36. Blasco MA, Thumann S, Wittmann J, Giannis: A, Groger H: Enantioselective biocatalytic synthesis of (S)-monastrol. Bioorg Med Chem Lett 2010, 20:4679-4682. 37. Fukuta Y, Komeda H, Yoshida Y, Asano Y: High yield synthesis of  12-aminolauric acid by ‘enzymatic transcrystallization’ of vlaurolactam using v-laurolactam hydrolase from Acidivorax sp. T31. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2009, 73:980-986. An interesting high-yield enzymatic hydrolysis of v-laurolactam by vlaurolactam hydrolase from Acidivorax sp. has been developed. Crystalline v-laurolactam, added to the enzyme solution, has been converted to crystalline 12-aminolauric acid with the high volume yield of >200 g/l, high purity and >97% conversion. 38. Benz P, Muntwyler R, Wohlgemuth R: Chemoenzymatic synthesis of chiral carboxylic acids via nitriles. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 2007, 82:1087-1098. 39. Purkarthofer T, Skranc W, Schuster C, Griengl H: Potential and capabilities of hydroxynitrile lyases as biocatalysts in the chemical industry. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2007, 76:309-320. 40. Andexer JN, Langermann JV, Kragl U, Pohl M: How to overcome limitations in biotechnological processes—examples from hydroxynitrile lyase applications. Trends Biotechnol 2009, 27:599-607. 41. Koch K, van den Berg RJF, Nieuwland PJ, Wijtmans R, Schoemaker HE, van Hest JCM, Rutjes FPJT: Enzymatic enantioselective C–C-bond formation in microreactors. Biotechnol Bioeng 2008, 99:1028-1033. 42. Clapes P, Fessner WD, Sprenger GA, Samland AK: Recent progress in stereoselective synthesis with aldolases. Curr Opin Chem Biol 2010, 14:154-167. ¨ 43. Wolberg M, Dassen BHN, Schurmann M, Jennewein S,  Wubbolts MG, Schoemaker HE, Mink D: Large-scale synthesis of new pyranoid building blocks based on aldolase-catalysed carbon–carbon bond formation. Adv Synth Catal 2008, 350:1751-1759. Large-scale aldolase-catalyzed carbon–carbon bond formation, based on a reaction discovered by CH Wong and coworkers, has permitted the highly stereoselective synthesis of substituted d-lactones. ¨ 44. Muller M, Gocke D, Pohl M: Thiamin diphosphate in biological chemistry: exploitation of diverse thiamin diphosphatedependent enzymes for asymmetric chemoenzymatic synthesis. FEBS J 2009, 276:2894-2904. 45. Dominguez e Maria P, Stillger T, Pohl M, Kiesel M, Liese A, ¨ Groger H, Trauthwein H: Enantioselective C–C bond ligation using recombinant Escherichia coli-whole-cell biocatalysts. Adv Synth Catal 2008, 350:165-173. www.sciencedirect.com

46. Wohlgemuth R: C2-ketol elongation by transketolasecatalyzedasymmetric synthesis. J Mol Catal B: Enzym 2009, 61:23-29. 47. Shaeri J, Wright I, Rathbone EB, Wohlgemuth R, Woodley JM: Characterization of enzymatic D-xylulose 5-phosphate synthesis. Biotechnol Bioeng 2008, 101:761-767. 48. Wohlgemuth R, Smith MEB, Dalby PA, Woodley JM: Transketolases. In Encyclopedia of Industrial Biotechnology. Edited by Flickinger MC. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley; 2010. 49. Stecher H, Tengg M, Ueberbacher BJ, Remler P, Schwab H,  Griengl H, Gruber-Khadjawi M: Biocatalytic Friedel–Crafts alkylation using non-natural cofactors. Angew Chem Int Ed 2009, 48:9546-9548. The SAM-dependent methyltransferases NovO from Streptomyces spheroides and CouO from Streptomyces rishiriensis, cloned and expressed in E. coli, have been shown to accept modified cofactors and to catalyze the synthesis of a range of monosubstituted methylated, allylated, propargylated and benzylated arenes with excellent regioselectivity. ¨ ¨ 50. Lehwald P, Richter M, Rohr C, Liu HW, Muller M: Enantioselective  intermolecular aldehyde–ketone cross-coupling through an enzymatic carboligation reaction. Angew Chem Int Ed 2010, 49:1-5. The thiamindiphosphate-dependent enzyme YerE has been shown to catalyze the asymmetric cross-coupling of aldehydes and ketones to chiral teriary alcohols. 51. Seisser B, Zinkl R, Gruber K, Kaufmann F, Hafner A, Kroutil W:  Cutting long syntheses short: access to non-natural tyrosine derivatives employing an engineered tyrosine phenol lyase. Adv Synth Catal 2010, 352:731-736. The laborious and time-consuming multi-step synthesis of 3-substituted tyrosine derivatives has been replaced by a single biocatalytic one-step reaction using an engineered tyrosine phenol lyase. 52. Ma SM, Gruber J, Davis C, Newman L, Gray D, Wang A, Grate J, Huisman GW, Sheldon RA: A green-by-design biocatalytic process for atorvastatin intermediate. Green Chem 2010, 12:81-86. 53. Kurlemann N, Lara M, Pohl M, Kroutil W, Liese A: Asymmetric synthesis of chiral 2-hydroxy ketones by coupled biocatalytic alkene oxidation and C–C bond formation. J Mol Catal B: Enzymatic 2009, 61:111-116. 54. Leonard E, Runguphan W, O’Connor S, Jones Prather K: Opportunities in metabolic engineering to facilitate scalable alkaloid production. Nat Chem Biol 2009, 5:292-300. 55. Jani P, Emmert J, Wohlgemuth R: Process analysis of macrotetrolide biosynthesis during fermentation by means of direct infusion LC–MS. Biotechnol J 2008, 3:1-7. 56. Li K, He T, Li C, Feng XW, Wang N, Yu XQ: Lipase-catalyzed direct Mannich reaction in water: utilization of biocatalytic promiscuity for C–C bond formation in a ‘one-pot’ synthesis. Green Chem 2009, 11:777-779. ¨ 57. Znabet A, Ruijter E, Decanter FJJ, Kohler V, Helliwell M, Turner NJ,  Orru RVA: Highly stereoselective synthesis of substituted prolyl peptides using a combination of biocatalytic desymmetrization and multicomponent reactions. Angew Chem Int Ed 2010, 49:5289-5292. A highly diastereoselective Ugi-multicomponent reaction of optically active 3,4-disubstituted 1-pyrrolines, obtained by monoamineoxidase N-catalyzed desymmetrization of the corresponding meso-pyrrolidines, with isocyanides and carboxylic acids has been developed for the synthesis of substituted prolylpeptides. 58. Pornrapee V, Ramstrom O: Dynamic asymmetric multicomponent resolution: lipase-mediated amidation of a double dynamic covalent system. J Am Chem Soc 2009, 131:14419-14425. 59. Kumar A, Maurya RA: An efficient baker’s yeast catalyzed synthesis of 3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2-(1H)-ones. Tetrahedron Lett 2007, 48:4569-4571. 60. Wohlgemuth R: Modular and scalable biocatalytic tools for practical safety, health and environmental improvements in the production of speciality chemicals. Biocatal Biotransformation 2007, 25:178-185. Current Opinion in Biotechnology 2010, 21:713–724

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61. Wohlgemuth R: Tools and ingredients for the biocatalytic synthesis of metabolites. Biotechnol J 2009, 9:1253-1265. 62. Tao J, Xu JH: Biocatalysis in development of green pharmaceutical processes. Curr Opin Chem Biol 2009, 13:43-50. 63. Wohlgemuth R: Green production of fine chemicals by isolated enzymes. In Biocatalysis for Green Chemistry and Chemical Process Development. Edited by Tao JA, Kazlauskas RJ. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley; 2010. 64. Walsh CT, Fischbach MA: Natural products version 2.0: connecting genes to molecules. J Am Chem Soc 2010, 132:2469-2493. 65. Reetz MT: Directed evolution of enantioselective enzymes: an  unconventional approach to asymmetric catalysis in organic chemistry. J Org Chem 2009, 74:5767-5778. An excellent perspective on the principles, strategies and methods of the directed evolution of enantioselective enzymes and their successes and future challenges in their applications as asymmetric catalysts in organic chemistry. 66. Wohlgemuth R: Interfacing biocatalysis and organic synthesis. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 2007, 82:1055-1062. 67. Rao D, Best D, Yoshihara A, Gullapalli P, Morimoto K,  Woemaid MR, Wilson FX, Izumori K, Fleet GWJ: A concise approach to the synthesis of all twelve 5-deoxyhexoses: D-tagatose-3-epimerase — a reagent that is both specific and general. Tetrahedron Lett 2009, 50:3559-3563.

An interesting equilibration of 5-deoxy-D-fructose to 5-deoxy-D-psicose and of 5-deoxy-L-psicose to 5-deoxy-L-fructose, providing substrates for the preparation of all D-5-deoxy-aldohexoses and L-5-deoxy-aldohexoses. 68. Leutbecher H, Hajdok S, Braunberger C, Neumann M, Mika S, Conrad J, Beifuss U: Combined action of enzymes: the first domino reaction catalyzed by Agaricus bisporus. Green Chem 2009, 11:676-679. ¨ ¨ 69. Glueck SM, Gumus S, Fabian WMF, Faber K: Biocatalytic carboxylation. Chem Soc Rev 2010, 39:313-328. 70. Matsuda T, Marukado R, Koguchi S, Nagasawa T, Mukouyama M, Harada T, Nakamura K: Novel continuous carboxylation using pressurized carbon dioxide by immobilized decarboxylase. Tetrahedron Lett 2008, 49:6019-6020. 71. Yoshida T, Inami Y, Matsui T, Nagasawa T: Regioselective carboxylation of catechol by 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate decarboxylase of Enterobacter cloacae P. Biotechnol Lett 2010, 32:701-705. 72. Kirimura K, Gunji H, Wakayama R, Hattori T, Ishii Y: Enzymatic Kolbe–Schmitt reaction to form salicylic acid from phenol: enzymatic characterization and gene identification of a novel enzyme, trichosporon moniliiforme salicylic acid decarboxylase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2010, 394: 279-284.

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