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History Paper 2 IB Study Guide Hitler is right wing. Stalin and Mao are left wing.

Mao Rise: Japan was the dominant power in Asia because it defeated Russia in 1905. China was involved in WWI purely for the Shandong Peninsula, but the peninsula went to Japan at the Paris Peace Conference. On May 4th, Chinese people protested against the Treaty of Versailles. The result was the CPC, of which Mao was a part. The CPC formed an alliance with the GMD to reduce foreign influence and eliminate warlord power. Mao focused on peasants. Mao set up the Jiangxi Soviet and had an independent force with peasant mass support and a strong military force against the GMD. Mao became the CPC leader in 1931. Civil war erupted between Maos Red Army and Chiang Kai-Sheks White Army of capitalists. The Red Army won, and Mao became dictator. (Note: In 1935 during the Long March, Mao gained a lot of power at the Zunyi Conference. He became the head of military and was allowed to apply his guerrilla tactics.) Economic Policies: Poorer peasants benefited the most. Mao used economic policies to prove that Chinese Communism would be a success. Mao introduced land reform to take land away from the rich and distribute it to poor peasants, winning him many peasant supporters. Many landlords were killed during peasant revolts, allowing Mao to get rid of the opposition. Mao studied Stalins Five Year Plans and decided to implement them, emphasizing the Western nature of China. Mao wanted quick industrialization, so he took money from the Soviets, leading to impressive results, but not enough money was put into agriculture. The transition to group farms was terrible wealthier peasants didnt want to share tools with lesser peasants. Mao moved peasants to even larger cooperatives. Mao believed the CPC was holding him back, because families were paid for what they contributed to cooperative farms, which he found somewhat capitalist. Mao wanted the land to be controlled by the state and to eliminate private ownership. Mao encouraged civil engineering projects like the building of the Nanjing Bridge to cause China to appear successful and powerful. Maintaining Control: Mao said he wanted to get rid of waste and government efficiency, but he was actually aiming to get rid of the upper and middle classes. Mao wanted to see only a Communist party. The CCP used the Korean War to show Chinas power and justify internal repression. Party members were watched closely, and people were encouraged to report close friends and family if they saw any suspicious activity. Mao may have used the 1957 Hundred Flowers campaign to help keep control. Mao allowed people to criticize Communist policies. However, when people started complaining about Mao as well as the policies, he became irritated. Mao started an anti-rightist campaign. People that criticized Mao had to admit they were wrong or be re-educated. Mao used the Cult of Personality to secure future generations loyalty. Mao used the Red Guards, too, using the rebellious nature of teens to his advantage and getting them to follow his bidding.

Cult of Personality: Maos Cultural Revolution helped him establish his cult, but Mao feared his own decline, so he wanted to reassert himself. This is evident in his Yangtze River swim, where he wanted to prove he was still young and capable. Mao wanted a classless society so that everybody would just support him. Mao wanted to purge members of the CCP that didnt support him. China was pushed into turmoil. China saw a suffering economy and the closure of many schools. Red Guard units fought each other because of minor differences in policy. Zhou Enlai pushed for a return to the normal China. Meanwhile, Mao encouraged music praising himself, and the Little Red Book was published, containing quotations from Mao that people were required to memorize. Mao historiography: 1. Michael Lynch claims that Mao used fear and uncertainty to a great extent to stay in power and denounces this. 2. Jonathan Spence says that the Five Year Plans were not at all adequate due to their agricultural failure. 3. Jonathan Spence says the Hundred Flowers Campaign wasnt a simple plot it was an inconclusive movement that failed due to a lack of proper organization. 4. John Halliday says the Hundred Flowers Campaign was a plot to reveal Maos opposition and purge them. 5. Wilson says Mao was initially successful because he won the hearts of the peasants. Stalin Rise: Stalin was elected to the central committee of the Bolshevik party. He did not take a leading role in the October revolution. Lenins health deteriorated, which increased Stalins confidence. After Lenin died, Stalin made him into a godlike figure and emphasized his friendship with Lenin. Lenin indicated in his will that Stalin was too powerful and had to be removed from his general secretary position, but Stalin prevented this from being read. Stalin told Trotsky the wrong funeral date so that hed miss Lenins funeral and lose favor. Stalin used his general secretary position to put people in power that supported him. Stalin joined forces with Zinoviev and Kamenev to get rid of Trotsky. With Trotsky gone, Zinoviev and Kamenev expressed dislike for the New Economic Plan (see economic section). Stalin expelled Zinoviev, Kamenev, and Trotsky. Later, Stalin began to oppose the NEP while Bukharin supported it. Bukharin was thus voted off the Politburo. Stalin had risen as most powerful. Economic Policies: The NEP helped Stalin rise to power. It was a concession to the peasants. Grain was a vital resource because it fed the population and helped obtain foreign currency. Most farmers were subsistence farmers. The NEP let peasants sell grain for profit. Thus, the peasants became richer, and the kulak class was rebuilt. The NEP soon failed due to overproduction and low prices of grain, so Stalin stopped supporting it. Stalins Five Year Plans set goals and brought industry under state power. Gosplan was created for the government to determine

(unrealistic) production quota. The Five Year Plans increased production, but there were problems. Some ex-peasants were used as skilled workers to operate machinery but were given no training. The quality of goods was poor. Stalin wanted to move to collectivization, where peasants worked together in group farms to produce goods. Many peasants hated the idea and destroyed some of their own crops and livestock to keep from giving them up. Starvation occurred Stalin stopped pushing collectivization, but just during a harvest so some food could be harvested. After the harvest, he pushed collectivization again. Maintaining Control: Stalin used Kirovs death to eliminate his opposition through purges. He accused people of ridiculous plots to murder Kirov. Stalin eliminated his threats this way, including leading Communist party members and members of the army. Stalin held public show trials to make sure people confessed. People confessed because they were tortured. Vyshinsky was Stalins close ally, and he was chief prosecutor. He presented lots of evidence. Kirov was Stalins opposition because he defeated Stalin in the Party Congress, so some say Stalin organized Kirovs murder and used the repercussions to get rid of his other opposition. Stalin also rewrote history to maintain control, telling the public he played a large role in the October Revolution, which was a lie. Cult of Personality: Stalin made filmmakers and artists create works of art that revered him and showed him close to Lenin. Stalin had to approve all works of art. The 1936 constitution appeared to give people more rights, so more people supported Stalin, but the constitution was never followed. Stalin rewarded followers and hard workers, giving them incentive. The pyramid structure of the system was such that workers wanted to rise near the top (Stalin) to get benefits. Under Stalin, women were given equal education and rights to employment. There was an improvement in health care and quality of life. Stalin Historiography: 1. Robert Conquest is part of the Liberal School and said Stalin rose to power because he was shrewd and had weak opponents, such as Trotsky, who underestimated him. 2. EH Carr takes an approach related to structuralism, saying Stalin rose to power due to the post as general secretary and the structure of the party. 3. M Levin takes the ideological approach, saying Stalin changed his policies so that he was always in favor. An example is how he quickly changed viewpoints on the NEP when necessary. 4. Robert Conquest is a Liberal and says Stalin wasnt necessary for the modernization of Russia. 5. The determinist school says Stalin was necessary for the modernization of Russia.

Cold War The U.S. and USSR had conflicting ideologies. The US wanted to establish free markets. The USSR wanted to secure its borders. Dean Acheson said that the US and USSR emerged as the two world powers post-WWII. 1. France and Britain couldnt defeat Germany 2. US became #1 air force power, USSR #1 land force. 3. Each thought its own ideology defeated fascism. Wartime Conferences: a) Yalta, 1945: Agreement on UN, Soviet agreement to join war against Japan, the three countries pledged support for free elections for Eastern Europe. b) Between conferences: Roosevelt was replaced by Truman (who had a harsher policy). Germany surrendered unconditionally. Churchill was replaced by Atlee. The Red Army occupied a lot more territory. The US successfully tested the first atomic bomb. c) Potsdam, 1945: Truman didnt think the USSR was honoring the promise of free elections properly and wanted a new Polish government. The Red Army began to seem like an Army of Occupation. Kennans Long Telegram a) Kennan was a key US diplomat in Moscow and reported that the USSR: i) Wanted to advance Stalinist ideology ii) Was cruel and repressive and justified this by perceiving nothing but evil in the outside world iii) Was extremely hostile to the west Churchills Iron Curtain Speech, 1946 a) Churchill said Moscow was too controlling. b) The Soviet reaction was strong: i) Withdrew from IMF ii) Increased anti-West propaganda iii) The speech overall hardened opinions on both sides. Truman Doctrine, 1947 a) Truman said the US had a responsibility to support free people trying to resist control from outside pressures. b) This was a radical change from the previously isolationist policy; it was in response to the unstable situation in Greece. c) The USSR saw it as evidence of the USs will to expand its sphere of influence. d) LaFeber: The Truman Doctrine allowed the US to blame all internal problems on the USSR. Marshall Plan, 1947 a) The new Secretary of State wanted to help economies of Western Europe. b) The US asked to see recipients financial records, so the USSR denied the plan.










c) The USSR said this was an example of dollar imperialism the USSR felt the US was establishing a European empire. d) LaFeber: The Marshall plan soon led to military alliances. e) USSR responded with the Molotov Plan: i) COMECON linked Eastern bloc countries to Moscow. (1) Cominform was the Communist Information Bureau. The West was scared it would spread Communism to Western Europe. (2) Stalin: thought Europe would divide into Two Camps. Before Iron Curtain speech, Stalin had delivered his own two camps speech. Red Army occupation of Eastern Europe, 1945-1947 a) The USSR created a satellite empire using: i) Soviet military power ii) Salami tactics (claiming to create anti-fascist parties, slowly chopping off all parties until only the Communist core was left) b) US saw the occupation as evidence of Soviet expansion. c) Prompted Kennan to release Mr. X article, where he said the US must continue to regard USSR as a rival. Czechoslovakian Coup, 1948 a) Czechoslovakia expressed interest in the Marshall plan. b) Non-Communist members of the coalition government were forced to resign. c) Czech president Benes was forced to resign due to heavy pressure from Moscow. Berlin Crisis, 1948 a) The postwar powers failed to unify Germany: b) The Berlin Blockade: i) Berlin was divided into 4 regions for the 4 powers, but it lay within the Soviet occupation zone. ii) Stalin put transport restrictions on Berlin, and he soon blockaded it, even though Berlin was dependent on the west. iii) US and British planes flew in vital supplies of food and coal. Stalin ended the blockade. iv) Results: (1) The division of Germany (Neither side wanted to take the gamble that the entire Germany would fall to the other.) (2) The formation of NATO and the Warsaw Pact, two opposing forces Who was responsible?? a) Orthodox View: USSR was responsible. USSR was too expansionist due to suspicion of West and need to follow Marxist theory, which encouraged expansion. US had to act defensively. Schlesinger says one cant ignore the madness of Stalin in an analysis. b) Revisionist View: US was responsible. William Appleman Williams says the motivies of the US were linked to the needs of capitalism Communist containment was because

the US wanted to secure markets for free trade and penetrate Eastern Europe. Revisionists say Stalin was a practical leader. Alperovitz says Japan was already defeated, and US use of nuclear bombs was used to warn and intimidate Soviets. c) Post-Revisionist View: Neither can be held responsible. Gaddis says the Cold War grew out of complex external and internal developments including searches for security, ideological needs, etc. Misperceptions play a role. d) Gaddis states that if not for Stalin, the Cold War would not have occurred. e) Tocqueville says the conflict was one of balance of power. Cold War Goes Global: 1) Balance of power shifted in favor of USSR: USSR got its own nuclear bomb, China fell to Communist forces of Mao 2) NSC-68 warned that all Communist activity could be traced back to Moscow. a) Suggested an immediate increase in military strength and spending b) Encouraged aid to all countries perceived to be resisting Communism c) Revisionists say NSC-68 was an excuse for US expansionism. 3) Korean War a) Example of Soviet expansionism North Koreans assumed to be acting under orders of Stalin b) UN troops and US troops actually took action. The US wanted to try a rollback policy to liberate North Korea from Communist rule, but the US failed.