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Sunday July 22, 2007 ■ CatholicNews
“halal” certiﬁcation and “daʼwah”(missionary) activities – Construction and administration of mosques – Administration of “madrasahs” (Islamic schools) and Islamic education – Issuance of “fatwas” (religious rulings) – Provision of ﬁnancial relief to poor and needy Muslims – Provision of developmental grants to organizations while Muslim women have the option to pray at home or in the mosque. If the women choose to go to a mosque, they pray in a separate wing from the men. Some Muslim women choose not to wear a headscarf (“hijab” or “tudong”) all the time but they are required to wear it for prayer in reverence to God, just as most men also cover their heads with a prayer cap (“kopiah” or “songkok”). Every mosque has a directionniche in one of its walls to indicate the direction of Mecca. Most mosques have elaborate domes, minarets, and prayer halls that often reﬂect Arabic architecture.
By Sister Wendy Ooi, fsp
MAJLIS UGAMA ISLAM Singapura (MUIS), or the Islamic Religious Council of Singapore, was set up in 1968, when the Administration of Muslim Law Act (AMLA) came into effect. MUISʼ mission is to broaden and deepen the Singaporean Muslim Communityʼs understanding and practice of Islam. It advises the President of
Singapore on all matters relating to Islam in Singapore, oversees the interests of Singaporeʼs Muslim community, and promotes religious, social, educational, economic and cultural activities according to the principles and traditions of Islam. The principal functions of MUIS are: – Administration of “zakat” (almsgiving), “wakaf” (endowment), pilgrimage affairs,
Muslims worship in a mosque (“masjid” in Arabic). The primary purpose of the mosque is to serve as a place of prayer but mosques are also important to the Muslim community as a meeting place and a place of study. There are about 70 mosques in Singapore today. Before 1968, all the mosques in Singapore were set up by the local Muslim communities themselves. When MUIS was established, it took responsibility for the building and administration of new mosques. Although the overall supervision of post-1968 mosques comes under MUIS, there are mosques that are run by other organizations such as the Muslim Trust Fund Association. Mosques are managed and maintained by their respective committees. These committees engage in fundraising projects and are appointed by MUIS. Muslim workers in Singapore also contribute monthly from their CPF to the Mosque Building and Mendaki Fund which has helped build new mosques in satellite towns. In the 1980s the World Muslim League based in Saudi Arabia also contributed a signiﬁcant sum of money to various mosques in Singapore through Jamiyah Singapore, the Muslim missionary society of Singapore. Muslim men gather each Friday to pray in a mosque
One of the biggest feasts Muslims celebrate is “Iid Al-Fitri” (also known as Hari Raya Puasa), which marks the end of the fasting month of Ramadan. They start their celebration by praying in the mosque in the morning and follow on with visiting elders, relatives and friends. On “Id Al-Adha” (Hari Raya Haji) Muslims recall the sacriﬁce of Ishmael, the son of Abraham. (In the Bible, Issac was sacriﬁced.) To commemorate this event, Muslims sacriﬁce goat, sheep, cattle or camel and distribute the meat to the poor, friends and family. This feast coincides with the pilgrimage to Mecca during the second week of the 12th lunar month. Other Islamic feasts include Muhammadʼs birthday and the anniversary of the day Muslims believe Muhammad had a miraculous journey to Jerusalem and ascended to heaven.
Islamist terrorism is often in the news, and itʼs news that is not restricted to just Iraq and the Middle East or Afghanistan. In recent weeks, we have been told that some Muslim doctors and engineers had planted bombs in Britain with the intent to kill large numbers of people, and even in Singapore a lawyer has been detained for terrorist activities. The Pakistani Government has had to storm a mosque in Islamabad which had been seized by Islamist militants. Who are these people and what groups do they belong to? Find out with Sister Wendy Ooi, fsp
Suﬁsm is a mystical form of Islam adopted by some Muslims within both the Sunni and Shiʼite groups. Suﬁs generally believe that following the Islamic law is only the ﬁrst step on the path to perfect submission. They focus on the internal or more spiritual aspects of Islam, such as perfecting oneʼs faith and subduing oneʼs own ego.
THERE ARE TWO major denominations of Muslims – Sunni and Shiʼite. The two groups share essential beliefs but have sharp political differences. Their split arose in the early days of Islam over differences regarding Muhammadʼs successors as “caliph” (leader). One group believed that the leadership should remain within Muhammadʼs family, and that leaders are spiritually, not politically, chosen. They were known as the Shiat-Ali, or “partisans of Ali”, after the prophetʼs cousin and son-in-law Ali, whom they favoured as caliph. In time, they came to be known as Shiʼites. Another group accepted the legitimacy of the caliphate of Abu Bakr, a close conﬁdant and disciple
of Muhammad. They were known as Sunnis. “Sunni” is derived from the Arab word for followers and means “followers of the prophet”. Sunni Islam is the larger denomination comprising 85 percent of Muslims. Within the Sunni denomination are four schools – Maliki, Shaﬁʼi, Hanaﬁ, and Hanbali. Every one of the four accept the validity of the others. Sunni Islam is less centralized than Shiʼite Islam. In most countries a “mufti” (a scholar and interpreter of the law) is appointed to give advice to Muslims based on the “sharia” (Islamic law). This is useful as not all Muslims understand the Qurʼan in its original Arabic and they might interpret matters differently in speciﬁc situations,
leading to disputes, which a respected leader, the mufti, can offer advice on. The mufti in Singapore is Syed Isa Semait. Large Shiʼite communities are found in Iran, Iraq, Lebanon and Bahrain. The Shiʼites have a more centralized and hierarchical clergy than the Sunnis. All practising Shiites nominally observe the advice of an “ayatollah” (a top cleric) on Islamic law. “Ayatollah” means “sign of God”. Generally, in most countries, Shiʼite and Sunni Muslims live in harmony and pray together in the same mosques, like in Singapore. Most Muslims would agree that the current civil war between the two denominations in Iraq is a political struggle between extremists rather than a religious struggle.
The teaching of Islam emphasizes respect and goodwill towards different races and religions. In the Qurʼan, Christians and Jews are referred to as “ahl al-kitab” (people of the book) but, more speciﬁcally, in Arabic, the word “ahl” refers to family. True Muslims thus have a high respect for Christians and Jews. Service to humanity is seen as service to God with no distinction between men since God makes no distinction in showing his kindness to all mankind. Prophet Muhammad is quoted as saying, “Be kind and God will show kindness to you.”
WAHHABISM IS A movement named after Muhammad Ibn Abd al Wahhab (1703–1792). It started in Saudi Arabia and is the dominant form of Islam also in Qatar and, recently, Western Iraq and Pakistan. (It should be noted however that there exists also in these countries many nonextremist, peaceful Muslims.) The term Wahhabi is rarely used by members of this group today. They prefer the term “Salaﬁ”. Wahhabi or Salaﬁ theology advocates a puritanical and legalistic stance in matters of faith and religious practice. Wahhabis see themselves as a movement to restore Islam from what they perceive to be innovations, superstitions, deviances, heresies and idolatries. Muhammad Ibn Abd alWahhab was known to have used force and even put fellow Muslims to the sword in the attempt to enforce his own interpretation of Islam. Consequently, it is believed, his own brother, Sulayman Ibn Abd al-Wahab, an elite Sunni scholar, rejected him. Since its foundation, about 200 years ago, the Wahhabis have been rejected by the rest of the Muslim world as their extremist views are contradictory to Islam, which is a religion of peace and moderation. Both the Al-Qaeda and Taliban have their roots in Wahhabism.
Al-Qaeda is the name given to an international alliance of militant Islamist organizations established in 1988 by Osama bin Laden. He oversees the movementʼs ﬁnances and, with Ayman al-Zawahiri, provides ideological and strategic guidance. Al-Qaedaʼs objectives include the elimination of foreign
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