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Chapter 5: What will I do to engage students?

In the Classroom Students are having difficulty paying attention. The teacher must do something to re-engage students as to stand up and stretch. Games that have the content of the unit as their focus. Questions: students are never quite sure whom he will call. Three types of engagement: behavioral, emotional and cognitive. Engagement: students attending to the instructional activities occurring in class. Oxygen is essential for brain function, and enhanced blood flow increase the amount of oxygen transported to the brain. Physical activity is a reliable way to increase blood flow, and hence oxygen, to the brain. The part of the brain that processes movement is the same part of the brain that processes learning. The teacher needs to keep the activity moving and avoid interruptions to the activity flow by using good pacing. Pacing is particularly important during transitions from one activity to another. Teacher enthusiasm and intensity affect students energy levels and enhance engagement. They tap into our sense of curiosity and anticipation. Curiosity and anticipation are known as appetitive states because they stimulate the mental appetite. Psychological principle known as clozentropy. Human beings tend to fill in the blanks. The self system controls what we decide to attend to. The self represents the hierarchy of goals that we have built up. I self represents the source of more enduring, natural, and higher- order selfconcept (general). It is the composite of everything we find personally interesting and valuable. The focal point of human attention Me self is the source of motivation and self- regulatory strategies (specific). Stressful events lead to the secretion of hormones that are deleterious to not only learning but well- being in general. If pressure becomes too intense or prolonged, thinking and learning are inhibited. Pressure should be at the right level of intensity and for the right duration of time. Pressure can be generated during questioning. Moderate chance of being called on to answer a question, it will likely raise their level of attention. When controversy is not too strong, such as in the form of a structured debate, it can enhance learning. Controversy strategies include eliciting divergent opinions on an issue and then inviting students to resolve their discrepancies though sustained discussion. The opportunity to compete can add excitement to classroom activities. Games involving missing information. -Whats the question? -Name that category -Talk a mile a minute -Classroom Feud

Research and Theory

Stimulus for High energy engagement

Missing information

The self

Mild pressure

Mild controversy and competition

Action steps Action step 1. Use games that focus on academic content.

Action step 2. Use inconsequential competition Action step 3. Manage questions and response rates.

Action step 4. Use physical movement.

Action step 5. Appropriate pacing Action step 6. Demonstrate intensity and enthusiasm for content.

Action step 7. Engage student in friendly controversy. Action step 8. Opportunities for students to talk about themselves. Action step 9. Provide unusual information.

Is done in the spirit of fun (principle of mild pressure). A teacher might play games two or three times a week and assign 5, 4, 3, 2, and 1 point and give a minimal reward to stimulate fun. Wait time -Post- teacher- question wait time: three seconds for a student to respond. Students take a moment to think. -Within- students pause time: Students should be provided with adequate time to think during such pauses. -Post- student- response wait time: a few seconds helps focus attention and sharpen students thinking. -Teacher pause time: Allow students a few seconds to process what was just presented. -Impact pause time: sense of anticipation. Response cards: Engage all students when asking questions. The teacher ask a question (true/false, multiple choice, fill in the blanks format) and each student in class records his or her answer individually. Response chaining: Ask a question to which a specific student responds. The whole class vote regarding the accuracy. The teacher selects another student to correct or complete the answer given. Choral response: The purpose is to review an important generalization or principle about which there seems to be some confusion based on repeating the statement. Physical movement enhances students engagement because it increases their energy. Stand up and stretch. Body representations (acting out). Give one, get one (stand and find a partner with whom he compares notes). Vote with your feet. Pacing involves transitions from one activity to another. Transitions between these content segments should have an internal logic. Importance of verbal and non verbal behavior to communicate intensity and enthusiasm for content. Reserved for those situations that are critical for students learning. We mean that teachers identify their own reason for viewing a topic as interesting, meaningful, or important and project these reason to the students when teaching about the topic. Dialogue regarding topics about which they have different opinions. People like to talk about themselves and those things that interest them. Create situations that allow them to talk about their interests. Relate academic content to their interests. Tend to capture ones attention. Students can be asked to bring in interesting facts about the topic of a lesson or unit. Connecting fun facts.

Summary What will I do to engage students?

Stimulate students.

High energy.

Missing information.

The self system.

Mild pressure.

Mild controversy and competition.

Action steps.

Physical movement.

Challenge students thinking.

Stimulate their attention to the task at hand.