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Under the guidance of

Prof. Y. M. PATIL





We hereby present the project on “ E-WASTE ” We express our sincere vote of thanks to project guide

Prof. Y. M. PATIL in Civil Engineering Dept. R.I.T. Sakharale, for giving personal attention and valuable guidance and taking interest in completing this project. We express our gratitude to them for providing necessary facilities for the completion of project. We give special thanks to Prof. Kavade Sir , HOD of Mechanical Engineering Department for his encouragement. We would like to thank our principal Dr. Mrs. S. S. Kulkarni for her active co- operation and encouragement. We once again thankful to all those, who directly or indirectly help us in completing this project and making it pleasurable knowledgeable experience.

Thanking You,




K. E. Society’s

Rajarambapu Institute of Technology,

This is to certify that following students of S.E. mechanical Engineering have successfully completed the Project report entitled

In the partial fulfillment of Degree in the Mechanical Engineering, of “Shivaji University, Kolhapur” during academic year 2010-2011. Submitted By:. Beloshe Amit S. Chavan Nilesh N. Gokhale Abhijeet E Birajdar Deepak D.

GUIDE Prof. Patil Y. M.. Civil Engg. Dept.

HOD Prof. Kavade M V. Mechanical Engg. Dept.

Principal Dr. Mrs. Kulkarni S.S. R.I.T




Kolhapur or any other University. M. This work is humbly submitted to SHIVAJI UNIVERSITY as Project under the curriculum. I the undersigned give surety that any such copy is liable for punishment in any way the University deem to fit . Place: Rajaramnagar Date: E-WASTE ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 4 . PATIL The empirical findings in this project are based on data collected by me. Y.DECLARATION I the undersigned here by declare that this project entitled “GROWTH OF E-WASTE IN INDIA” is original work prepared by us under the guidance of Prof. The matter presented in this project is not copied from any source.This work has not been submitted to the award of any degree or diploma either to Shivaji University.

HAZARDS IN E-WASTE? EXPORT OF E-WASTE………………………………………………….20 E-WASTE MANAGEMENT………………………………………………25 METHODS OF DISPOSAL OF E-WASTE………………………………..SOURCES OF E-WASTE? 3.WHAT IS E-WASTE? 2.METHODS OF DISPOSAL OF E-WASTE? 4.33 E-WASTE ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 5 ..27 CASE STUDY………………………………………………………………29 CONCLUSION…………………………………………………………….6 INTRODUCTION ………………………………………………………..14 1.8 1..EFFECTS OF E-WASTE CONSTITUENTS ON HEALTH E-WASTE THE INDIAN CONTENT…………………………………….12 EFFECT ON ENVIORNMENT AND HUMAN HEALTH…………….32 REFFERENCES…………………………………………………………….INDEX: PAGE NO: ABSTRACT …………………………………………………………….7 E-WASTE…………………………………………………………………..

and Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs).ABSTRACT Electronic waste or E-waste is the most rapidly growing waste problem in the world. It is a crisis not only of quantity but also a crisis born from toxic ingredients such as the lead. cadmium. This seminar focuses on the various occupational an environmental hazard associated with e-wastes and the role played by industrialized countries like the USA in aiding this phenomenon. Large businesses. Electronic waste is generated by three major sectors. The seminar also explores the significance of e-waste in the Indian context and suggests frameworks and models for tackling the issue. mercury. viz. Continued negligence from all quarters has led to this issue snowballing into a major environmental issue today. Individuals and small businesses. E-WASTE ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 6 . and governments. This seminar tries to explore the reasons for the same and suggest recommendations to tackle this problem and tries to find the solutions. Today Asia is a very vulnerable destination for the world's ewaste. institutions. Even developed countries like the USA have tried to skirt the problem.flame retardants that pose both an occupational and environmental health threat. beryllium. and brominated.

it is growing at an exponential pace. Environmental issues and trade associated with E-waste at local. cadmium. E-WASTE ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 7 . As the garbage pile gets higher and the environmental conscience sharpens. trans boundary and international level has driven many countries to introduce interventions. the amount of waste generated was considered small enough to be diluted in the environment. it equals 1% of total solid waste generation and is expected to grow to 2% by 2010. Electronic waste or E-waste is the most rapidly growing waste problem in the world. it accounts 1% to 3% of the total municipal waste generation. “replacement market” in developed countries and “high obsolescence rate” make E-waste as one of the fastest waste stream. mercury. In developing countries. In USA. In China and India. It is a crisis not only of quantity but also a crisis born from toxic ingredients such as the lead. historically. With massive industrialization and urbanization. beryllium. E-waste is growing three times faster than average annual municipal solid waste generation. In European Union. it is now recognized that producing waste at this rate is no longer acceptable. currently. In developed countries.flame retardants that pose both an occupational and environmental health threat. the quantity of waste generated increased manifold.01% to 1% of the total municipal solid waste generation. it ranges 0. though annual generation per capita is less than 1 kg. The increasing “market penetration” in developing countries.INTRODUCTION A decade back. E-waste is one of the fastest growing waste streams in the world. A recent source estimates that total amount of E-waste generation in EU ranges from 5 to 7 million tones per annum or about 14 to 15 kg per capita and is expected to grow at a rate of 3% to 5% per year. and brominated.

The benefits of the IT revolution has been proved and well enumerated. E-WASTE ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 8 . combined with rapid product obsolescence. discarded electronics or E-waste. Given the sheer magnitude of e-waste generated each year. or recycled. copiers. VCRs. the rates of obsolescence are extreme." Computers. E-waste is generated at an alarming rate: Due to the rapidly evolving technology. televisions. WHAT IS E-WASTE? E-waste is a popular. The electronics industry is the world‟s largest and fastest growing manufacturing industry. 2. informal name for electronic products nearing the end of their "useful life. refurbished. is now the fastest growing waste stream in the industrialized world. the problems that these toxins present increase exponentially as they progressively pollute the environment and threaten to enter the food chain. contaminants and toxic chemicals are generated and released into the ground or air. Many of these products can be reused. stereos. and as a consequence of this growth. Unfortunately. E-waste is hazardous: The vast amount of computers. thereby producing much higher volumes of waste in comparison to other consumer goods. E-waste has become a problem of crisis proportions because of two primary characteristics: 1. When electronics are dumped in landfills. or when the waste is incinerated. But just beneath the glamorous surface of the benefits and the wealth created by the information technology revolution looms a darker reality. mobile phones and the like that are disposed of every year all contain a variety of toxic substances. and fax machines are common electronic products. electronic discards is one of the fastest growing segments of our nation's waste stream. Vast resource consumption and waste generation are increasing at alarming rates.E-WASTE The last decade has seen tremendous growth in the field of information technology all over the world. televisions.

SOURCES OF E-WASTE Electronic waste is generated by three major sectors  Individuals and small businesses  Large businesses. Thus. institutions. and computers in particular. and government: Large corporate and institutional users upgrade employee computers regularly. and governments  Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs). are often discarded by households and small businesses. and must be disposed of. E-WASTE ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 9 . say every 3-4 years. electronic equipment. Individuals and Small Businesses: Due to the new technologies. not because they are broken but simply because new technology has left them obsolete or undesirable. Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM): OEMs generate E-waste when units coming off the production line don‟t meet quality standards. the rate of obsolescence is very high. Such corporate policies lead to huge amounts of e-waste. Large corporations. institutions.

there will never be incentives to minimize hazardous waste at the source. This forestalls the necessary innovation to solve environmental problems through design. creating a major disincentive to finding true solutions upstream for the problems they create. cadmium. The impact of waste may be broadly classified into two categories: 1. These heavy metals are mostly toxic and heavy exposure to them can cause diseases like silicosis. As long as one can cheaply dump their waste problems on poorer economies. pulmonary edema and even death in some cases. Upstream Impacts: Hazardous waste trade allows waste generators to externalize their costs. Downstream Impacts: Hazardous waste trade is fundamentally unjust and environmentally damaging since it victimizes the poor. respiratory irritation. burdening them with toxic exposure and environmental degradation.HAZARDS IN E-WASTE E-waste contains a witches‟ brew of toxic substances. tin etc. Some of the potentially hazardous metals that are part of this e-waste are lead. e- E-WASTE ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 10 . 2. This is especially egregious when victims get little benefit from the industrialization that created the waste in the first place. barium.

Phosphors Mercury Phthalate plasticizer. Antimony. Antimony. Lead. refractory ceramic fiber Possible Hazardous Content E-WASTE ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 11 . Mercury.Possible Hazardous Substances in Components Component Metal Motor \ Compressor Cooling Plastic Insulation Glass CRT LCD Rubber Wiring / Electrical Concrete Transformer Circuit Board Fluorescent Lamp Incandescent Lamp Heating Element Thermostat Mercury Lead. asbestos. Flame Retardants Lead. BFR Phthalate plasticizer. Phosphorus. BFR Insulation ODS in foam. Beryllium. BFR ODS Phthalate plasticize. BFR Mercury.

Mercury Ozone depleting substances BFRs.S. HCFC. Lithium.75 million computer units went to recyclers in the U. This is the equivalent of a tightly stacked pile of computer waste one acre square and 674 feet high -. the total amount would equate to 10.a height more than twice the height of the Statue of Liberty from ground to torch! E-WASTE ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 12 . HC External electric cables BFRs Lead.S. concludes that in the year 2002. Cadmium. other unknown substances 25mm) HOW MUCH E-WASTE IS EXPORTED? The answer to how much e-waste is actually exported is anybody‟s guess. there have been some serious studies which provide estimates of the amount of U. HFC.2 million units.BFR – containing plastic Batteries CFC. plasticizers Electrolyte Capacitors (over L/D Glycol. Based on this estimate. and with a rate of 80% moving offshore to Asia. 12. computers that go or will go to recyclers each year. One such study compiled by the Graduate School of Industrial Administration of Carnegie Mellon University. However.

The same is true for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from condensers. Now water is being transported from faraway towns to cater to the demands of the population. E-WASTE ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 13 . Hong Kong a thriving area of illegal e-waste recycling is facing acute water shortages due to the contamination of water resources. Computer wastes that are landfilled produces contaminated leachates which eventually pollute the groundwater. in rivers. It has been found that significant amounts of lead ion are dissolved from broken lead containing glass. if disposed on the ground causes acidification of soil. Acids and sludge obtained from melting computer chips. Mercury will leach when certain electronic devices. This is due to disposal of recycling wastes such as acids. both polybrominated dlphenyl ethers (PBDE) and cadmium may leach into the soil and groundwater. When brominated flame retardant plastic or cadmium containing plastics are landfilled. Improperly monitored landfills can cause environmental hazards. Incineration of e-wastes can emit toxic fumes and gases. such as the cone glass of cathode ray tubes. thereby polluting the surrounding air. sludge etc. For example. such as circuit breakers are destroyed. Guiyu. gets mixed with acid waters and are a common occurrence in landfills.EFFECTS ON ENVIRONMENT AND HUMAN HEALTH Disposal of e-wastes is a particular problem faced in many regions across the globe.

several countries exhorted the need for a global agreement to address the problems and challenges posed by hazardous waste. International outrage following these irresponsible activities led to the drafting and adoption of strategic plans and regulations at the Basel Convention. The toxic fall-out from open air burning affects both the local environment and broader global air currents. "toxic traders" began shipping hazardous waste to developing countries. In view of the ill-effects of hazardous wastes to both environment and health. depositing highly toxic by products in many places throughout the world. gathers statistical data. PCDDs-polychlorinated dibenzodioxins. such as the extremely toxic dioxins and furans (TCDD tetrachloro dibenzo-dioxin. E-WASTE ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 14 . The Convention secretariat. When exposed to fire. facilitates and implementation of the Convention and related agreements. The most dangerous form of burning e-waste is the open-air burning of plastics in order to recover copper and other metals. the vaporization of metallic mercury and dimethylene mercury. In addition. Also. PBDDs-polybrominated dibenzo-dioxin and PCDFspoly chlorinated dibenzo furans) from halogenated flame retardant products and PCB containing condensers can be emitted. Table summarizes the health effects of certain constituents in e-wastes. If these electronic items are discarded with other household garbage. both part of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) is also of concern. Switzerland. It also provides assistance and guidelines on legal and technical issues. metals and other chemical substances. in Geneva. a tightening of environmental regulations in industrialized countries led to a dramatic rise in the cost of hazardous waste disposal. and conducts training on the proper management of hazardous waste. in the late 1980s. uncontrolled fires may arise at landfills and this could be a frequent occurrence in many countries. Searching for cheaper ways to get rid of the wastes.Not only does the leaching of mercury poses specific problems. the toxics pose a threat to both health and vital components of the ecosystem.

printed circuit Mercury (Hg) boards  Chronic damage to the brain. Corrosion protection of untreated Hexavalent  Asthmatic bronchitis.     Chip resistors and semiconductors Cadmium (CD) Toxic irreversible effects on human health. Teratogenic. blood systems and kidney damage. Causes neural damage. Affects brain development of children. E-WASTE ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 15 .EFECTS OF E-WASTE CONSTITUENT ON HEALTH Source of e-wastes Constituent Health effects  Solder in printed circuit boards. glass panels and gaskets in computer monitors Lead (PB)  Damage to central and peripheral nervous systems.  Relays and switches. Accumulates in kidney and liver. Respiratory and skin disorders due to bioaccumulation in fishes.

Interfere with regulatory hormones Disrupts endocrine system functions Plastic housing of electronic equipments and circuit boards. It causes Cabling and computer housing Plastics including PVC     Reproductive and developmental problems. Burning produces dioxin. Carcinogenic (lung cancer) Inhalation of fumes and dust. Damage to heart. Motherboard Beryllium (Be)  E-WASTE ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 16 . Skin diseases such as warts.and galvanized steel plates. decorator or hardener for steel housings chromium (Cr) VI  DNA damage. liver and spleen. Immune system damage. Brominated flame retardants (BFR) Short term exposure causes: Front panel of CRTs Barium (Ba)     Muscle weakness. Causes chronic beryllium disease or beryllicosis.

the Indian PC industry are growing at a 25% compounded annual growth rate.0. hardware accounted for nearly 50% of total IT revenues while software's share was 22%.8 percent in 200304. 19. 1999). the software industry has been growing at a compound annual growth rate of over 46% (supply chain management. respectively.E-WASTE: THE INDIAN CONTEXT The Electronics industry has emerged as the fastest growing segment of Indian industry both in terms of production and exports. for example. the IT industry is prime mover with an annual growth rate of 42.7 and 57.7 per cent in 1998-99 to 61. and 2003-04.6 per cent in 2000-01. consumption rates and higher obsolescence rate leads to higher generation of electronic waste E-WASTE ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 17 . The scenario changed by 1994-95. about 431 thousand notebooks and 89 thousand servers. 2002-03. and the opening up of Indian markets together with which there was a change in India's import policies vis-à-vis hardware leading to substitution of domestically produced hardware by imports. Within this segment. The increase of electronic products. This growth has significant economic and social impacts.4% between 1995 and 2000. By the end of financial year 2005-06. with hardware share falling to 38% and software's share rising to 41%. This shift in the IT industry began with liberalization. The share of software services in electronics and IT sector has gone up from 38. As per MAIT estimates. Since the early 1990s. India had an installed base of 4. Output of computers in value terms.64 million desktops. A review of the industry statistics show that in 1990-91. increased by 36.

Ten states generate 70% of the total e-waste generated in India.00 tones. Delhi. This is expected to exceed 8. Madhya Pradesh and Punjab in the list of e-waste generating states in India. There are two small WEEE/Ewaste dismantling facilities are functioning in Chennai and Bangalore. West Bengal.Sixty-five cities in India generate more than 60% of the total e-waste generated in India. Mumbai ranks first followed by Delhi. Ahmedabad. Gujarat. Karnataka. 00. Bangalore. Hyderabad. Kolkata. Among top ten cities generating e-waste. Uttar Pradesh. The increasing obsolescence rates of electronic products added to the huge import of junk electronics from abroad create complex scenario for solid waste management in India. Maharashtra ranks first followed by Tamil Nadu. Pune. Andhra Pradesh.000 tones by 2012. Surat and Nagpur. The e-waste inventory based on this obsolescence rate and installed base in India for the year 2005 has been estimated to be 146180. There is no large scale E-WASTE ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 18 .(e-waste). Chennai.

4 per cent. India now also has to manage the waste being dumped by other countries. When compared to the USA. the Indian IT industry has recorded a CAGR (Compounded Annual Growth Rate) of more than 42. The Indian economy has been growing at a fast rate for the last decade. In India. the Indian configuration of 5 PCs per 500 people does not represent any sign of massive rise in PCs‟ obsolescence rate. That year witnessed a shift from in economic policy in turn triggering off an increase in the consumption pattern.38 million are either 486s or below. which is already a mammoth task in India. Over the last five years. internal consumption and electronics export industries have emerged as the fastest growing segment of Indian industry. 1. PVC wires. keyboards. This period also witnessed a shift in the E-WASTE ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 19 . Due to the hazards involved. which are not only very expensive. typewriters. the disposal and recycling of computer waste in the country has become a serious problem since the methods of disposal are very rudimentary and pose grave environmental and health hazards. particularly computer waste. The recycling of computer waste requires sophisticated technology and processes. after 1990. has become more complicated by the invasion of e-waste. The problems associated with e-waste in India started surfacing after the first phase of economic liberalization. The biggest source of PC scrap are foreign countries that export huge quantities of computer waste in the form of monitors. However. printers. most of the recyclers currently engaged in recycling activities do not have this expensive technology to handle the waste. In the IT action plan.organized e-waste recycling facility in India and the entire recycling exists in un-organized sector. But of the nearly 5 million PCs in India. etc. from 5 per 500 people to 1 for 50 people. conventional disposal in landfills. In addition. disposing and recycling E-waste has serious legal and environmental implications. This envisages applying IT in every walk of the economic and social life of the country. Computer scrap is managed through various management alternatives such as product reuse. by 2008. This growth has been on the back of globalization and the IT revolution. which is almost double the growth rate of IT industries in many of the developed countries. These materials are complex and difficult to recycle in an environmentally sound manner even in well-developed countries. besides handling its own computer waste. Solid waste management. In terms of production. incineration and recycling. but also need specific skills and training for the operation. the government has targeted to increase the present level of penetration. CPUs.

pattern of governance. This shift is marked by the application of information technology in a big way in all areas. have lead to an addition of wide gamut of e-waste churned out from Indian households. These developments. Indigenous as well as imported computer waste has lead to the emergence of a thriving market of computer waste products and processing units for material recovery in different parts of India. E-WASTE ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 20 . along with indigenous technological advancement. from different parts of the world. commercial establishments. Solid waste management. conducted under the pretext of obtaining „reusable‟ equipment or „donations‟ from developed nations. So trade in ewaste is camouflaged and is a thriving business in India. which is already a mammoth task in India. into the waste stream. has become more complicated by the invasion of e-waste. It ushered in an era of infrastructure reform and e-governance. industries and public sectors. particularly computer waste to India.

g. 1991  Batteries (Management and Handling) Rules. 2000 and 2002 Unfortunately. e. Being capital goods. old computers imported as a donation to educational or charitable institutions come under the „capital goods‟ category. 2001  The National Environmental Tribunal Act. same Exim code as new computers under chapter 84 of the Indian Customs Tariff Act. Exporters sometimes club old and junk computers along with new ones. Over the years. 1989/2000/2002  MoEF Guidelines for Management and Handling of Hazardous Wastes. none of these regulations deal directly and specifically with e-waste. Flexible interpretations of the rules framed by the DGFT. Flexibility in the interpretation of rules. India needs to have strong rules and regulations in place. Loopholes in the Current Legal System There are no specific laws or guidelines for electronic waste or computer waste. 1995  Bio-Medical Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules. 1998  Municipal Solid Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules. they are then under the free list and access various tax benefits. the government has instituted a number of regulations for better management of hazardous waste in the country. This enables the Customs Authorities to take on-the-spot decisions and provide rules exemption There is no Exim code for trade in second-hand computers for donation purpose or for resale.1995  The Public Liability Act.1991  Guidelines for Safe Road Transport of Hazardous Chemicals.Regulations To combat the ever growing e-waste problem. Some of these regulations are given below: Hazardous Wastes (Management and Handling) Rules. make a distinction between capital goods and non-capital goods. E-WASTE ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 21 .

The society. Well-trained workers. who are fully protected by the law to seek advice and take action to protect their health and the environment without fear of reprisal E-WASTE ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 22 . poor awareness and reluctance on part of the governments and the corporate to address the critical issues. Corporate .policy makers 3. A plan of action for ewaste management has to address the above mentioned issues in order to come up with a sustainable solution.R&D teams 4. General compliance with occupational health and safety standards Observance of health and safety standards in the workplace is important for protecting workers from exposure to toxics. These are: the environmental effects of resource consumption and materials disposal from the production of IT products. and the development of more enduring customer relationships through the provision of full product life-cycle services. Government . lack of funds. represented by NGOs and Environmental activists/scientists 2. It is also a powerful indicator of broader compliance with environmental requirements. Media .E-WASTE MANAGEMENT The current e-waste management and disposal methods suffer from a number of drawbacks like inadequate legislations. Transparency and accountability to the public Handling large amounts of e-waste poses risks of toxic contamination to workers and surrounding communities if conducted carelessly. The most important participants/stake holders in any action plan would be: 1. the most basic criterion that employees and citizens should rightfully expect from any recycling operation is that it be open to public inspection.for awareness and public education The extension of customer support services by the IT industry to cover the management of redundant IT equipment from the commercial sector could help tackle two related environmental and economic concerns. Thus.

Operations that expose workers to hazards also frequently fail to protect communities around their facilities from dangerous emissions. Based on the baseline studies strategies for e-waste management should be developed at national and subregional levels. legal and administrative capabilities of countries and promoting the use of environment friendly designs and marketing methods. we must quickly develop the infrastructure required to handle huge volumes of e-waste. such a network would include environmental scientists. Capacity building activities such as training and awareness programs will also be carried out to enhance the knowledge on e-waste management. As the nation responds to this growing challenge to waste management systems and the environment. Seldom does an industrial facility with a well-managed occupational health and safety program. Establishment of a consultative group: A group of people for e-waste management to undertake consultative work has to be established. The knowledge base will include guidelines and good practices on e-waste management. violate environmental standards. and workers who are fully empowered to initiate corrective actions. How do we build this new segment of our economy so that it is thriving.from their employer. are the most effective environmental protection. sustainable and independent of the public treasury? . Typically. Preparing studies and creating a plan of action: Baseline studies will include inventories and existing technical as well as policy measures for e-waste management. Use of best recycling practices and their potential for wide adoption by the private sector Electronic waste is a fairly new category of resource recovery. Government representatives and corporate. Building capacity and a knowledge base: It is proposed to establish a knowledge base on ewaste in order to promote the quantitative base. To control and or prevent the potential damage of e-wastes: Enhancing the technical. The group of people will assess the needs and help in preparing a thorough study. knowledge sharing and capacity building programs for a proposed e-waste disposal system. NGOs. Successfully implemented projects can help in sharing the best practices. E-WASTE ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 23 .

mostly by small businesses and households. Over time the e-waste leads to certain amount of chemical and metal leaching. which escape to the atmosphere and contaminate it. E-waste is most often dumped into landfills. 2. the e-waste is burnt in incinerators. Incineration: Sometimes.METHODS OF DISPOSAL OF E-WASTE The e-waste that is generated is usually disposed of in the following ways: 1. Landfill: A landfill is a disposal area where garbage is piled up and eventually covered with dirt and topsoil. E-WASTE ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 24 . Incineration often leads to the formation of harmful toxic gases like dioxins and furans. This can very often lead to groundwater contamination.

rates are still low. etc.3. cathode E-WASTE ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 25 . These older units obviously have a limited life span and end up as waste sooner or later in these developing countries. are not willing to take computers for recycling unless the owner is willing to pay them to take it. the costs of recycling are high. However. crushed and finally sorted into discreet product streams. After all possibilities for re-use have been exhausted and a computer is slated for disposal. it is sent for recycling. Recycling: In order to combat the environmental impact of improper electronic waste disposal. 2. most recyclers. By this is meant that the old raw materials are reclaimed to be made use of in making new products. non-ferrous metal fractions. The salient features of these technologies are given below. Best Available Technology Best available technologies (BAT) have been described by highlighting the existing WEEE treatment process in Switzerland (Europe) and Japan. 4. The process combines manual and machine procedures. But while recycling is growing in popularity. granulates of mixed plastics. due to the costs of dealing with the disposal of non-recyclable parts and the expense of dealing carefully with the toxic waste components of old computers. many organizations have opted to recycle their old technology. 1. The E-waste is at first cut. Re-use: About 3%-5% of the computers that have been discarded by their users are reused. PC and TV casing components (consisting of wood and plastics). Often nonworking old computers are repaired and resold for a profit in developing countries. These streams consist of scrap iron. Thus. Re-use constitutes direct second-hand use or use after slight modifications are made to the original functioning equipment memory upgrades.

and fine particulates (dust). and multiple pulverizations by milling using magnetic and eddy current separation systems. copper cables. components containing organic pollutants such as batteries and condensers. eddy current separators are almost exclusively used for waste reclamation where they are particularly suited to handling the relatively coarse sized feeds of size > 5 mm. 3. Currently. E-WASTE ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 26 . in particular. The analysis of the best available technology shows that the process uses a combination of magnetic and electric conductivity based separation. Further. The machine processes include breaking of / crushing the equipment in a hammer mill. recent developments show that eddy current separation process has been designed to separate small particles. It has been reported that eddy current separation leads to more than 90 % recovery of non-ferrous metals from the E-waste. mainly as a result of the introduction of rare earth alloy permanent magnets capable of providing very high field strengths and gradients. However. low-intensity drum separators are widely used for the recovery of ferromagnetic metals from non-ferrous metals and other non-magnetic wastes. Literature cites that magnetic separation leads to recovery of about 90% to 95% of ferrous metal from E-waste.ray tubes. there have been many advances in the design and operation of highintensity magnetic separators. printed circuit boards. the crushed material is separated according to density. The research publications sites that magnetic separators. granulate size and magnetic properties. Over the past decade.

Recoverable quantity of elements in a PC Elements Plastics Lead Aluminum Germanium Gallium Iron Tin Copper Barium Nickel Zinc Vanadium Beryllium Gold Europium Tritium Ruthenium Cobalt Palladium Manganese Silver Antinomy Bismuth Chromium Cadmium Selenium Content (% of Content total weight) (Kg) 23 6 14 0.005037984 0 0 0 0 0.0016 6.0063 0.88 0.60 0.00 Recycling efficiency (%) 20% 5% 80% 0% 0% 80% 70% 90% 0% 0% 60% 0% 0% 99% 0% 0% 80% 85% 95% 0% 98% 0% 0% 0% 0% 70% Recoverable weight of element (kg) 1.0016 0.00 0.00362984 0.71 3.0002 0.00 0.0002 0.00 0.0094 0.0157 0.8503 2 0.00 0.57 0.0315 0.23 0.0157 0.00007752 0 0.0003 0.01 0.08389248 0 0 4.01 0.0157 0.00 0.0063 0.00 0.00 0.0016 0.00 0.0016 0.00030464 E-WASTE ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 27 .25069408 0.0013 20 1 7 0.00 5.0094 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.25 1.00034816 0.08566368 3.69614576 0 0 0.0315 0.27 1.35979072 0 0 0.45453312 0.19188512 1.85 0.00 0.00 0.000430848 0 0 0.0189 0.

six million tons of waste electronic and electric equipment (WEEE) were generated.Mercury Arsenic Silica 0. the IZM researchers have developed an automated repair and disassembly line.representatives from leading companies are presenting updates on the use of lead-free soldering. simply to meet the demand for spare parts.0022 0.00 6. September 6-8 .00 0.0013 24. But a more economical alternative is re-using entire components in new products. Together with colleagues from the Technical University Berlin.77 0% 0% 0% 0 0 0 4. An additional challenge facing the industry is the requirement to eliminate the use of lead in electronic equipment as of 2006. initially targeting the automobile electronics industry as E-WASTE ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 28 . This has prompted the EU to implement regulations to stem this growing tide. who are developing and testing the reliability and environmental impact of lead-free systems. Beginning next year. At the world's largest international conference devoted to environmental protection in the electronics industry . recovering the copper and precious metals and converting the plastic into energy. and in the European Union. although at present the logistics of this effort have yet to be finalized in many countries. as well as strategies for the ecological and economically viable management of electronic waste. in most cases through incineration.Electronic goes Green 2004 . This includes conventional interconnection technologies such as surface mounted devices (SMD) and state-of-the-art techniques. The classic approach to the disposal of old electronic equipment is shredding. manufacturers will be required to take back and recycle old equipment. electronic refuse is growing three times as fast as household waste. In 2000 alone.8803 0. including wafer level bumping and flip chip packaging. Green solution to e-waste Industrial nations around the world are struggling with a vast weight of electronic Berlin. Among them are researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Reliability and Microintegration IZM in Berlin.

At Karad. Satyam Computers S N Electricals Mr. We get information is as followsName of Shop Place Owner Disposal of Scrap Payal Electronics Gandhi Chauk. Islampur. Near S T Stand. the recycling of these materials is done and remaining is disposed E-WASTE ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 29 . Islampur. Mr. Patil Satish. Lalwani And Sons. Mr. Islampur Azad Chauk. Bhatt Manoj. Sold to dealer of Karad Sold to dealer of Karad Sold to dealer of Karad Sold to dealer of Karad Lalwaani Eletronics Mr. Islampur. Naikad Shashikant. S T Stand Road.CASE STUDY Survey of E-Waste: Under this subject we visited Islampur city and made a survey of about amount and disposal of e-waste products.

offers a close to sustainable solution. the disposal and recycling systems suffer from an inherent lack of proper regulations and monitoring systems. An end of lifecycle service approach. So “BE AWARE. “a proper awareness” is a highly needed among all. if integrated with environment friendly product designs and marketing methods. A sustainable solution for ewaste disposal and recycling systems should take into account the interests of all the stakeholders. To save the world from this. In developing countries. E-waste is a big toxic ocean. which has become popular in the recent past. BE ALERT & BE SECURE!” E-WASTE ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 30 . Further it is a duty of every living being to save the nature from these dangerous breakdowns.CONCLUSION: The e-waste disposal methods prevalent in the advanced countries today are heavily dependent on the non-recyclable parts being dumped into the developing countries.

metro-region. 5. 3.REFERENCES: 1. E-WASTE ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 31 . CENTRAL POLLUTION CONTROLE BOARD. October/November 2002.D. SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT .org/library_docs/recycling .gov/Electronics/WhatisEwaste . 2. http://www.ciwmb. 4. SOLID WASTE &