TEACHING GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS

“TEACHING GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS THROUGH NATURAL APPROACH”
MUHAMMAD ILYAS N.I.M: 11842006 SEMESTER/CLASS: II/B SUBJECT: METHODS OF TEFL LECTURE: Dr. Hj. R.A NOER DODDY IRMAWATY, M.Hum

GRADUATE PROGRAM ENGLISH EDUCATION DEPARTMENT AHMAD DAHLAN UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA

improving students’ achievement. direct method. This results in bored. Language teachers who adopt this definition focus on grammar as a set of forms and rules.“TEACHING GRAMMAR FOR BEGINNERS THROUGH NATURAL APPROACH” ABSTRACT Many people. including language teachers. method and so on. This results in bored. The result of this paper showed that the changes either in the way of thinking of the students in the classroom through natural approach in language teaching is very effective and bring the easy ways to understand the materials in English lesson. INTRODUCTION Grammar is central to the teaching and learning of languages. but consistently make errors when they try to use the language in context. There are also methods applied in teaching grammars for beginners such as grammar translation method (GTM). and natural method. For this purpose. disaffected students who can produce correct forms on exercises and tests. but consistently make errors when they try to use the language in context. . there can be in the approach. there are many strategies to make learners or students interested in the lesson. There are many ways to build up the interest. audio lingual method. disaffected students who can produce correct forms on exercises and tests. hear the word "grammar" and think of a fixed set of word forms and rules of usage. Language teachers who adopt this definition focus on grammar as a set of forms and rules. They associate "good" grammar with the prestige forms of the language. It is also one of the more difficult aspects of language to teach well. such as those used in writing and in formal oral presentations. making English lesson more exciting especially in teaching grammar for beginners level. and "bad" or "no" grammar with the language used in everyday conversation or used by speakers of non prestige forms. They teach grammar by explaining the forms and rules and then drilling students on them. They teach grammar by explaining the forms and rules and then drilling students on them. This paper is supposed to give contribute to teacher to be more creative in developing their teaching learning process to create good atmosphere.

Teaching of Grammar has always remained a controversial subject as the method and material adopted in teaching it. Believing that children acquire their first language without overt grammar instruction. Each succeeding grammatical item has to be based on the previous ones taught earlier in the class. The communicative competence model balances these extremes. A teacher should begin from the simple grammatical items and proceed towards the complex ones. learners learn their mother tongue intuitively. The model recognizes that overt grammar instruction helps students acquire the language more efficiently. and use the language in communication activities. Teaching Grammar Teaching of Grammar has always remained a controversial subject as the method and material adopted in teaching it. Other language teachers. but it incorporates grammar teaching and learning into the larger context of teaching . DISCUSSIN A.Before initiating a teaching program. It is culturally and environmentally inherited by them. a teacher should provide constant practice to the students in creating and using sentences based on the grammatical forms and structures in various day-today situations of their lives. influenced by recent theoretical work on the difference between language learning and language acquisition. In an L1 situation. L1 learners learn their mother tongue intuitively but for L2 learners. They assume that students will absorb grammar rules as they hear. tend not to teach grammar at all. they expect students to learn their second language the same way. a teacher must know whether he/she is going to teach grammar for beginners. teaching of grammar becomes inevitable in order to acquaint them with the norms of the target language. by carefully selecting the frequently recurring grammatical items and by grading them as per the background of the learners. L1 learners learn their mother tongue intuitively but for L2 learners. Thus. teaching of grammar becomes inevitable in order to acquaint them with the norms of the target language. read. This approach does not allow students to use one of the major tools they have as learners: their active understanding of what grammar is and how it works in the language they already know.

. For students to be able to perform both in oral and written discourse equally well. This is especially so when the term ‘use the language’ refers not only to the students’ using the language in oral discourse where “creativity and anomalies are accepted” (Alwasilah 2001: 46) as long as the language is intelligible. language output is not . B. Teaching Grammars for Beginners English learning materials for beginning level English learning including grammar. ] 2001:37). i. It aims to foster naturalistic language acquisition in a classroom setting. this brief paper aims to explore possible ways to integrate both employing instructional strategies that are expected to “enhance learners’ ability to notice aspects of English [its grammar] that might otherwise escape their attention while engaged in communication [talking about a topic]” (Schmidt 1990 quoted by Larsen-Freeman in Carter and Nunan [eds. Efforts are also made to make the learning environment as stress-free as possible. but they are also able to utilize the language well with regards to its grammar. etc. we should start with devising ways to enable those students to be able to do that at the classroom instructional level. C.students to use the language. Given the two mainstreams of teaching contrasted here. that is. reference. understood by the listener.e. Instructors using this model teach students the grammar they need to know to accomplish defined communication tasks. grammar-based versus topic-based teaching with their own strengths and weaknesses. In the natural approach. writing. Teaching students English should result in the students’ being able to use the language to express themselves. listening. and places decreased importance on conscious grammar study and explicit correction of student errors. but also to their using the language in written form where ideas are more rule-governed than freely expressed. Being able here should be taken to mean that not only can the students use the language to communicate with other people in daily life whenever possible. quizzes and a free online course as well as free lesson plans for ESL EFL teachers. vocabulary. and to this end it emphasizes communication. Teaching Grammar for Beginners through Natural Approach Natural approach is a method of language teaching developed by Stephen Krashen and Tracy Terrell in the late 1970s and early 1980s. reading.

games. The natural approach has become closely associated with Krashen's monitor model. and it is often seen as an application of the theory to language teaching. but allowed to emerge spontaneously after students have attended to large amounts of comprehensible language input. and other realia serve as the focal point for questions. There is a gradual progression from Yes/ No questions. Charts. there are some differences. advertisements. but they are expected to respond to teacher commands and questions in other ways. The teacher talks slowly and distinctly. To minimize stress. Students are not expected to use a word actively until they have heard it many times. These include command-based activities from Total Physical Response.those that focus on meaningful communication rather than language form are emphasized. the teacher provides comprehensible language and simple response opportunities. such as students sharing their favorite music. Pair or group work may be employed. activities which focus on personalizing language. Techniques recommended by Krashen and Terrell are often borrowed from other methods and adapted to meet the requirements of Natural Approach theory. to questions that students can answer using words they have heard used by the teacher. particularly Terrell's view that some degree of conscious grammar study can be beneficial. talk moves to class members. through either-or questions. Teacher talk focuses on objects in the classroom and on the content of pictures. "Acquisition activities" . and when the students' competence permits. Direct Method . as with the Direct Method. When learners are ready to begin talking in the new language. pictures. The syllabus focuses on activities which Terrell sees as promoting subconscious language acquisition. asking questions and eliciting one-word answers. He divides these activities into four main areas: content activities. Types of learning and teaching activities From the beginning of a class taught according to the Natural Approach. followed by whole-class discussion led by the teacher. emphasis is on presenting comprehensible input in the target language. Despite this perception. and problem-solving activities. learners are not required to say anything until they feel ready. such as learning a new subject in the target language.forced.

A casual observer might not be aware of the philosophy underlying the classroom techniques he or she observes. The language acquirer is seen as a processor of comprehensible input. and what linguistic expressions to use in speaking. and even situation-based practice of structures and patterns. students involve themselves in role play and games. Central to these changing roles are learner decisions on when to speak. students can act out physical commands. what to speak about.g.activities in which mime.. point to pictures. minimizes learner anxiety. . Group-work activities are often identical to those used in Communicative Language Teaching. In the pre-production stage students "participate in the language activity without having to respond in the target language" (Krashen and Terrell 1983: 76). Learners' roles are seen to change according to their stage of linguistic development. use single words and short phrases. What characterizes the Natural Approach is the use of familiar techniques within the framework of a method that focuses on providing comprehensible input and a classroom environment that cues comprehension of input. gesture. students respond to either-or questions. How are you? What's your name?). In the speech-emergent phase. where sharing information in order to complete a task is emphasized. There is nothing novel about the procedures and techniques advocated for use with the Natural Approach. identify student colleagues from teacher description. Learner roles There is a basic assumption in the Natural Approach that learners should not try to learn a language in the usual sense. and so forth. and context are used to elicit questions and answers. fill in charts. and maximizes learner self-confidence. The acquirer is challenged by input that is slightly beyond his or her current level of competence and is able to assign meaning to this input through active use of context and extra linguistic information. contribute personal information and opinions. and participate in group problem solving. and use fixed conversational patterns (e. In the early-production stage. The extent to which they can lose themselves in activities involving meaningful communication will determine the amount and kind of acquisition they will experience and the fluency they will ultimately demonstrate. For example.

2. the Natural Approach teacher creates a classroom atmosphere that is interesting. .e. decide with the teacher the relative amount of time to be devoted to them and perhaps even complete and correct them independently. and providing subject matter of high interest to students. First. the teacher is the primary source of comprehensible input in the target language. The Natural Approach demands a much more center-stage role for the teacher than do many contemporary communicative methods. Learners are expected to participate in communication activities with other learners. Teacher roles The Natural Approach teacher has three central roles. Although communication activities are seen to provide naturalistic practice and to create a sense of camaraderie. not correcting student errors. This is achieved in part through such Natural Approach techniques as not demanding speech from the students before they are ready for it. they may fail to provide learners with well-formed and comprehensible input at the I + 1 level. Where learning exercises (i. Second. and in which there is a low affective filter for learning. Decide when to start producing speech and when to upgrade it. In this role the teacher is required to generate a constant flow of language input while providing a multiplicity of nonlinguistic clues to assist students in interpreting the input. which lowers the affective filter." arid the teacher is the primary generator of that input. 3. Provide information about their specific goals so that acquisition activities can focus on the topics and situations most relevant to their needs.Learners have four kinds of responsibilities in the Natural Approach classroom: 1. grammar study) are to be a part of the program.. 4. They should learn and use conversational management techniques to regulate input. Krashen and Terrell warn of these shortcomings but do not suggest means for their amelioration. Take an active role in ensuring comprehensible input. friendly. "Class time is devoted primarily to providing input for acquisition.

5. organization. and expectations of the method. but allowed to emerge spontaneously after students have attended to large amounts of comprehensible language input. and places decreased importance on conscious grammar study and explicit correction of student errors. Appling natural approach makes the process of teaching and learning more interesting and useful for English learners especially for beginners. In Courchãene. (1984). Applied Linguistics. and contexts. The teacher is seen as responsible for collecting materials and designing their use. and to this end it emphasizes communication. R. the natural approach aims to foster naturalistic language acquisition in a classroom setting. content. according to Krashen and Terrell. Krashen’s monitor and Occam’s razor. Gregg. since in many cases these will violate student views of what language learning and teaching are supposed to be. language output is not forced. K. Comprehension and the acquisition of grammatical knowledge in a second language. R. the teacher must choose and orchestrate a rich mix of classroom activities. are based not just on teacher perceptions but on elicited student needs and interests. (1992). . because according to Stephen Krashen and Tracy Terrell.Finally. In the natural approach. involving a variety of group sizes. the Natural Approach teacher has a particular responsibility to communicate clearly and compellingly to students the assumptions. REFERENCES Ellis. 79100. CONCLUSION The use of natural approach in teaching grammar for beginners aims to increase the students’ achievement especially in grammar ability. As with other non-orthodox teaching systems. These materials. Comprehension-based second language teaching. Efforts are also made to make the learning environment as stress-free as possible.J. Ottawa : University of Ottawa Press.

D. Washington.1.) Georgetown University Round Table on Languages and Linguistics 1991. 26. The effect of formal grammar teaching: Still peripheral.: Georgetown University Press. S. The applied linguist and the foreign language teacher: Can they talk to each other? Australian Review of Applied Linguistics. Another educator comments .D. California State Department of Education. (1995). Krashen.3.D.C. TESOL Quarterly. Krashen. S. 18. Hove: Language Teaching Publications. London: Prentice Hall Europe. Lewis. 409-431. Krashen. In James E. M. 1-16.Kramsch. S.51-79). Teaching issues: Formal grammar instruction. (1991). 722-725. . Bilingual education and second language acquisition theory. No. T. S. (p. No. & Terrell. TESOL Quarterly. In Schooling and language minority students: A theoretical framework. Krashen. S. (1983). (1993b).D. (1993a). The natural approach: Language acquisition in the classroom. C.D. 26. (1993). . Alatis (ed. . 409-411 Krashen. . D. The input hypothesis: An update.D. 2. The Lexical Approach: The state of ELT and a way forward. (1981).

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