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# Chapter 2 - Pressure

PRESSURE
INTRODUCTION In this chapter we will consider an important class of problems in which the fluid is either at rest or moving in such a manner that there is no relative motion between adjacent particles. In both instances there will be no shearing stresses in the fluid, and the only forces that develop on the surfaces of the particles will be due to the pressure. The absence of shearing stresses greatly simplifies the analysis There are no shearing stresses present in a fluid at rest.

Chapter 2 - Pressure

PRESSURE The term pressure is used to indicate the normal force per unit area at a given point acting on a given plane within the fluid mass of interest. The equations of motion (Newton's second law, (F=ma) in the y and z directions are, respectively.

## ay 2 xyz xyz Fz = p z xy p s xs cos g = az 2 2

Fy = p y xz p s xs sin =

xyz

Chapter 2 - Pressure

where ps, py, and pz are the average pressures on the faces, and are the fluid specific weight and density, respectively, and ay, az the accelerations. Note that a pressure must be multiplied by an appropriate area to obtain the force generated by the pressure. Since we are really interested in what is happening at a point, we take the limit as x, y, and z approach zero (while maintaining the angle ), and it follows that
p y = p z = ps

The pressure at a point in a fluid at rest is independent of direction. We can conclude that the pressure at a point in a fluid at rest, or in motion, is independent of direction as long as there are no shearing stresses present. This important result is known as Pascal's law named in honor of Blaise Pascal (16231662),

Chapter 2 - Pressure

## BASIC EQUATION FOR PRESSURE FIELD

For liquids or gases at rest the pressure gradient in the vertical direction at any point in a fluid depends only on the specific weight of the fluid at that point.
dp =0 dx dp =0 dy dp = dz

Chapter 2 - Pressure

INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOW

h=

p1 p 2 g

Chapter 2 - Pressure

Chapter 2 - Pressure

STANDARD ATMOSPHERE

Chapter 2 - Pressure

MEASUREMENT OF PRESSURE The pressure at a point within a fluid mass will be designated as either an absolute pressure or a gage pressure. Absolute pressure is measured relative to a perfect vacuum (absolute zero pressure), whereas gage pressure is measured relative to the local atmospheric pressure.

Chapter 2 - Pressure

## A barometer is used to measure atmospheric pressure.

mercury barometer
p atm = gh + p vapor

Chapter 2 - Pressure

MANOMETRY A standard technique for measuring pressure involves the use of liquid columns in vertical or inclined tubes. Pressure measuring devices based on this technique are called manometers. The mercury barometer is an example of one type of manometer, but there are many other configurations possible, depending on the particular application. Three common types of manometers include the piezometer tube, the U-tube manometer, and the inclined-tube manometer.

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Chapter 2 - Pressure

PIEZOMETER TUBE

p = gh + p o p A = 1 h1 = 1 gh1

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Chapter 2 - Pressure

U-TUBE MANOMETER

p A = 2 gh2 1 gh1

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Chapter 2 - Pressure

INCLINED-TUBE MANOMETER

## p A pB = 2 gl 2 sin + 3 gh3 1 gh1

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Chapter 2 - Pressure

MECHANICAL AND ELECTRONIC PRESSURE DEVICES A Bourdon tube pressure gage uses a hollow, elastic, and curved tube to measure pressure.

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