May 2010

The new Hollywood 7.2 Foreword 1.“the father of the Story Film” 4. The Hollywood sign 5. Hollywood during the War Years 10. The Golden Age of Hollywood 9. The beginning of Hollywood 2. The growing film industry 6. The movie of S. The name ”Hollywood” 3. Stars Conclusion Bibliography . The beginning of the Academy Awards 8. Porter .

of nightclubs. to nowadays stars. art. and some far away. beginning with the first human evidence in this area (the Gabrielino Indians) in 1800. giving birth to a new world. the center of all kinds of media production. sleaze. Here. and still are. the American Dream burst bigger than anything. But nowhere and nothing frees our fantasies and stirs our hopes and fears. fighting against crime. gradually following its evolution. a world in which any dream can come to reality. of beauty. Actually. Hollywood is a segment of Los Angeles. movies were. to the internet and television. The word Hollywood conjures the outstanding images of Sunset Strip. I tried to present the history of the Hollywood’s movie industry.3 Foreword I have always been fascinated by the Hollywood’s world. made in different locations. Hollywood being often referred to as a “state of mind”. glamour. poverty. the first movie companies in Hollywood. USA. the movie industry. some nearby. like that unparallel word: “Hollywood”. from film. Hollywood is a town like any other. almost a century ago. special effects. California. extraordinary people – stars of the gaudiest illumination. La Brea Avenue. movie palaces. Today Hollywood is the symbol of the Dream Factory and the world’s first movie industry. . a world of mixture between reality and glittering fantasy. Cahuenga Boulevard. Hollywood’s real location being in the mind of movie lovers. Of course. Hollywood Boulevard.

wound up in the hands of a family who built a tar refinery. Somehow it seems fitting that frontier Hollywood should evoke surreal images like this one: hundreds of camels roaming free in the Hollywood Hills right through 1900 2. the native Gabrielinos vanished with hardly a trace. Before Hollywood became an entertainment mecca. Mexico controlled California until the Mexican War of 1947. By 1870. In 1853.. is one of the few reminders of their founding presence. grain to subtropical bananas and pineapples. a Spanish priest noted Indian villages with their brush huts scattered in the canyons. to Los Angeles County. Until the mid-1800. Daeida. the vast reaches and resources of California belonged to Mexico. When the United States defeated Mexico in the Mexican War of 1847. God-fearing man and woman settled in to create a like-minded community. home to a Cahuenga Valley ranch. an agricultural community flourished in the area with thriving crops. After the first Spanish pueblo of Los Angeles was established. citrus groves and… stray camels. In the middle of a sundrenched nowhere. lost their sprawling estates to farmers from the East. Hollywood was basically a frontier town complete with Westward Ho. After the war. straight out of central casting. in the area now known as Hollywood. pioneers. a sober. It also had its share of flamboyant settlers. The first recorded human residents of 'Hollywood' were the Gabrielino Indians. George arrived in the Cahuenga Valley with a drove of camels imported from Turkey. The Beginning of Hollywood There was a time when the only stars in Hollywood were found in the night skies. Writing in his diary of 1769.. Rancho La Brea. arching over quiet farms and adobes. who made a fortune in real estate even though he had lost the use of his legs due to typhoid fever. "Cahuenga". known as the La Brea Tar Pits.”Hollywood”! The The name „Hollywood has its origin in a Easter summer. it was home of pioneers.4 1. Mexican landowners were replaced by farmers from the East. one adobe hut stood on the site that became Hollywood. including one named “Greek George". the original Mexican landowners. During the 19th century. with the help of some slippery laws. George simply set the camels loose. Harvey Henderson Wilcox of Kansas. woolly mammoths and dinosaurs. meaning "little hills" in their language. and his wife. name. Workers of the tar beds unearthed the bones and teeth of prehistoric saber-toothed cats. The family eventually gave the remarkable fossil beds. . including the new owners of Rancho La Brea (now Hollywood). Adobes were replaced with wood frame houses with porches and windmills. cowboys and the occasional bandit. When the Mexican War broke out.

lining it and the other wide dirt avenues with pepper trees. 1903. Hollywood's first laws paint a telling portrait of the culture in those early days. one of the most famous towns in the world got its name. but the bushes did not last. Liquor was prohibited except as a medical prescription. Harvey Wilcox soon drew up a grid map for a town. a lack of school facilities and a growing sentiment for prohibition. but service was infrequent and the trip took two hours. Herds of more than 2000 hogs or sheep were . Hollywood. with a population of 100. the first official appearance of the name Hollywood. to Fairfax on the west. Daeida raised money to build two churches. They imported some English holly because of the name Hollywood. Wilcox bought 160 acres (0. Daeida was so elated with the name that she "borrowed" it for her ranch in the Cahuenga Valley.000 people at the time. and he built his house smack in the middle of a fig orchard. The streets were not getting the attention in proportion to the tax being levied by the county. Mrs. a newspaper. the vote was eighty-eight for incorporation and seventy-seven against.5 moved to Los Angeles from Topeka in 1883. By 1900. The name in fact was coined by Daeida Wilcox (1861–1914) who travelled by train to her old home in the east. The election for city hood was held on November 14. coming from imported English holly then growing in the area are incorrect. On the train. Shortly after the turn of the century. lay seven miles (11 km) east through the citrus groves. he carved out Prospect Avenue (later Hollywood Boulevard) for the main street.6 km²) of land in the countryside to the west of the city at the foothills. Accounts of the name. a petition was submitted to the Los Angeles Board of Supervisors requesting the incorporation of the City of Hollywood. With his wife as a constant advisor. With that simple exchange. the residents of the Cahuenga Valley were faced with three pressing problems. bicycles and velocipedes were prohibited on sidewalks. when she returned home she prevailed on her husband to name their property Hollywood. Los Angeles. and from the top of the Santa Monica Mountains on the north to DeLongpre and Fountain avenues on the south. After all the ballots were counted. In August. Hollywood also had a post office. Wilcox met a woman who described her summer home in Ohio named after a settlement of Dutch immigrants from Zwolle called "Hollywood”. 1887. a school and a library. He thought it would be a perfect site for a community that would reflect his conservative beliefs. in the Cahuenga Valley at. what is now. cattle and mules were no to be driven through Hollywood streets in herds of more than 200. and began selling lots. In 1886. A single-track streetcar line ran down the middle of Prospect Avenue from Los Angeles. Hollywood became a city of the sixth class with geographic boundaries extending from Normandie on the east. Hollywood Blvd. and horses. and Cahuenga Ave. which he filed with the county recorder's office on February 1. 1903 with voting lasting until 5:00 PM. a hotel and two markets. along with a population of 500 people.

The system was called "the Hollywood boulevard. who in 1898 had patented an improved Beadnell projector with a steadier and brighter image.6 banned if unattended by a "competent man". Hollywood became part of Los Angeles. a new trolley car track running from Los Angeles to Hollywood up Prospect Avenue was opened. held in 1910. Inventor and former projectionist Edwin S. including his use of close-ups to tell an entertaining story.the "Father of the Story Film" "Moving pictures" were increasing in length. Real estate developers were tempting Easterners to Hollywood with promises of sun. The six-minute narrative film combined re-enacted scenes and documentary footage. schools. . At Edison's Company. Porter was one of the resident Kinetoscope operators and directors at the Edison Company Studios in the early 1900s. Elaborate rail lines crisscrossed the Cahuenga Valley. 14-scene.. Annexation to the City of Los Angeles would assure the burgeoning community of adequate water. Porter (1869-1941). The Life of an American Fireman (1903). and was dramatically edited with inter-cutting between the exterior and interior of a burning house. Hollywood’s population had grown too rapidly for the then existing water and municipal facilities. Edison was actually uncomfortable with Porter's editing techniques. But Hollywood remained basically a sleepy town. With the combination of film editing and the telling of narrative stories. Porter produced one of the most important and influential films of the time to reveal the possibility of fictional stories on film. approximately 10-minute long The Great Train Robbery (1903) . he experimented with longer films. taking on fluid narrative forms. City hood for Hollywood only lasted six years." It cut travel time to and from Los Angeles drastically. Hotels.set many milestones at the time. His visual film. and was responsible for directing the first American documentary or realistic narrative film. was also using film cameras to record news events. 1905 1907 The intersection of Hollywood and Highland 3. was an overwhelming victory for was based on a real-life train heist and was a loose adaptation of a popular stage production. In 1904. who worked in different film genres. wide boulevards and palatial homes. Hardly the live-it-up tinsel town it would become in two short decades. and not particularly artistic by today's standards . and being edited for the first time. Porter . Hollywood Hotel. churches and extravagant residences popped up. sewage and municipal services. with no inkling of what was so soon to come. The Films of Edwin S. The film was the one-reel. The election..

Most early films were not much more than short. each facing south. California. 1923. 4. The sign is now a registered trademark and cannot be used without the permission of the Hollywood Chamber of Commerce.J. but garnered increasing recognition after its initial purpose had been fulfilled.2 m) high white letters. The film also included exterior scenes. chases on horseback. a camera pan with the escaping bandits. which was located between Highland Avenue and Vine. The sign is a frequent target of pranks and vandalism. It was not intended to be permanent.7 In an effective.and is still going . scary. a bandit shot his gun directly into the audience. The sign was officially dedicated on July 13. that a land syndicate he was involved in make a similar sign to advertise their land. In the course of that event. Thomas Fisk Goff (1890-1984) designed the sign. The sign company owner. which also manages the Walk of Fame. and was studded with some 4000 light bulbs. H. Porter also developed the process of film editing . full-screen closeup (placed at either the beginning or at the end of the film at the discretion of the exhibitor)." They contracted the Crescent Sign Company to erect thirteen letters on the hillside. Real estate developers Woodruff and Shoults called their development "Hollywoodland" and advertised it as a "superb environment without excessive cost on the Hollywood side of the hills. Each letter of the sign was 30 feet (9 m) wide and 50 feet (15 m) high. and has undergone periodic restoration over the years. He suggested to his friend Harry Chandler. The Hollywoodland Real Estate Group unleashed one of history's brashest and longest-lived promotions. filmed stage productions or records of live events.Hollywood Sign is a famous landmark in the Hollywood area of Los Angeles." and its purpose was to advertise a new housing development in the hills above the Hollywood district of Los Angeles. actors that moved toward (and away from) the camera. Some sources say its expected life was to be about a year and a half the Sign has survived eight decades . the owner of the Los Angeles Times. The Hollywood Sign In 1923. spelling out the name of the area in 50-foot[1] (15. It was created as an advertisement in 1923. The original "Hollywoodland" sign in the 1920s The sign from the Hollywood Hills The sign originally read "HOLLYWOODLAND. a Sign was born .a crucial film technique that would further the cinematic art. Whitley had already used a sign to advertise his development Whitley Heights. and a camera mounted on a moving train.

waiting for a phone call that never came. it opted not to replace the light bulbs. Eventually the first "O" splintered and broke off resembling a lowercase "u". While Kothe was not injured. as was the "H". In 1978. . glamour. Louis B. offering to remove the last four letters and to repair the rest. The Growing Film Industry Businessmen soon became interested in the burgeoning movie industry. The new version of the sign was unveiled on Hollywood's 75th anniversary. money. the Hollywood Chamber of Commerce stepped in." during the early 1940s. exhibitors.8 strong. or distributors in nickelodeons: Adolph Zukor. Marcus Loew. actress Peg Entwistle committed suicide by jumping to her death from the letter "H". dreaming to fame. At the beginning The Hollywood Sigh simbolized the the dreams and the hopes of the young actors from all over the world. and the third "O" fell down completely leaving the severely dilapidated sign reading "HuLLYWO D". as she saw the sign as a symbol of the industry that had rejected her. as seen in many historical pictures. Refurbishment.700 apiece to sponsor replacement letters made of Australian steel. Peg was a young girl longing to create herself an astonishing career. as workers stripped the letters back to their metal base and repainted them white. Carl Laemmle. Some of the biggest names in the film business got their start as proprietors. to exhibitors. the 1928 Ford Model A was destroyed. the Chamber set out to replace the intensely deteriorated sign with a more permanent structure. The 1949 effort gave it new life. films (and the necessary projection machinery and equipment) were sold. William Fox. donated by Bay Cal Commercial Painting[. but spent most of the brutally hot summer of '32 just hanging around her uncle's house.8 m) wide. They realized that further profits could be derived from new systems of distribution. not rented. 5. women. but the wooden and sheet metal sign continued to deteriorate in the open air of the Hollywood Hills.7 m) high and ranged from 31 to 39 feet (9. Because the city dictated that all subsequent illumination would be at the cost of the Chamber. the original 1923 sign was put up for sale on eBay by producer/entrepreneur Dan Bliss. began again in November 2005. guaranteed to last for many years (see Donors section below). According to the summer 2006 edition of "The Beachwood Voice. Sam Goldwyn (originally named Goldfish) . before a live television audience of 60 million people. The magical world of movies did not embrace this graduate of the world-famous Thater Guild. She did some auditions. Albert Kothe (the sign's official caretaker) caused an accident that destroyed the letter "H". Jesse Lasky. and stumbled off the cliff behind the "H". These new letters were each 45 feet (13.[3] Bliss sold the sign to artist Bill Mack. At first. lost control of the vehicle. investors.the Warner brothers.3 to 11. 1978. November 14. Mayer. Also in 2005. In September of 1932. and children. In 1949. Nine donors gave $27. and by expanding the film audience to the middle-class. As a sign of revolt Peg climbed 50 feet up a workman's ladder to the top of the "H" and plunged five stories into the dark night below. Kothe was driving his car up to the top of Mount Lee drunk.

Film replaced farm and frontier.Hollywood Boulevard were subdivided and developed as housing for the enormous numbers of workers that movie-making required. and then in 1904 founded the Pittsburgh-based Duquesne Amusement & Supply Company (the precursor to Warner Bros. Pictures) to distribute films. and Jack) opened their first theatre. The Hollywood landscape changed dramatically as the town struggled to keep up with the demands of a swelling population and booming industry. Grauman's Egyptian Theater celebrated the rage of all things Egyptian that had begun with the recent unearthing of King's Tut's tomb. Pennsylvania in 1903. cinema owner William Fox was one of the first (in 1904) to form a distribution company (a regional rental exchange).. The needs of this thriving new industry created radical changes in the communitycausing a clash between older and newer residents. 7. A mélange of sphinxes. The new Hollywood By 1913.9 As film production increased. that bought shorts and then rented them to exhibitors at lower rates. The Beginning of the Academy Awards . It wasn't long before nearly all the homes along the Boulevard were replaced by commercial buildings linking the three corners. Just a few years later. Grauman out did his exotic extravaganza with his new Chinese Theatre. The ornamental Spanish Colonial Revival style reflected Hollywood's self-conscious extravagance while the new Art Deco and Moderne styles fit the community's aspirations for glamour and sophistication. and at Vine. Hollywood's familiar skyline of multi-storied hotels and apartments appeared. Banks.. clubs and movie palaces sprang up. Restaurants. The Warner brothers (Harry. Real banks and business were booked on weekends for film hold-ups. in New Castle. catering to the demands of the burgeoning film industry. Acres of agricultural land south of what-is-now. Hollywood also boasted of the most extraordinary "movie palaces" in the country. The imported pagodas and authentic rare Chinese artifacts wowed the public and guaranteed him a place in Hollywood history. columns and murals. Hollywood was in the midst of what has been justly labeled an overnight transformation. Cahuenga. the Cascade. with directors conveniently recasting the horses and cows in their many westerns. Movie studios literally operated out of barns. The population boomed. High-rise commercial buildings began to spring up along Hollywood Boulevardthree competing realestate interests caused concentrations of development at Highland. The film business turned Hollywood on its ear. 6. Sam. Albert. temples. and the streets were roped off for car crashes. Grauman's was unveiled in 1922 on Hollywood Boulevard. Movie studios were literally sharing space in Hollywood barns with bemused livestock.

Private lives became public property. a new 'sound' was on the rise. In the first year of the Academy Awards' presentations. Wellman's Wings (1927) for Best Production and Sunrise (1927) for Best Unique and Artistic Picture (a category that was immediately dropped). It was the era in which the silent period ended. By 1930 radio programming had evolved from its primitive crystal set beginnings. Scott Fitzgerald (1896–1940).10 The non-profit organization. and there was a sense that anything could be bought. and technicians arrived from Europe to work for the studios. separate awards (not known as Oscar quite yet) were given for Best Production (now termed Best Picture). historical biopics. with many silent film stars not making the transition to sound (e. socialrealism films. By 1933. lighthearted screwball comedies. These films were the only silent films ever to win the Academy Award for 'Best Picture'. declared ineligible for the Best Picture award. Dorothy Parker (1893– 1967). newspaper-reporting films. William A. especially in decreased movie theatre attendance. Hollywood became a playground for celebrities eager to get themselves noticed. westerns and horror to name a few). and Norma Talmadge). directors.g. KNX. Although it wasn't the broadcasting capital. to be conspicuous you would have to drive a flesh-pink Mercedes-Benz with a sun porch on the roof and three pretty girls sunbathing. Hollywood's radio pioneers were relentless in their . In 1932 Hollywood's first three station. Talented actors. As crimewriter Raymond Chandler (1888–1959) put it: "In L. coming at the end of a cycle of films about WWI. The 30s was also the decade of the sound and color revolutions and the advance of the 'talkies'. and William Faulkner (1897–1962) made the journey west to work in pictures. The Golden Age of Hollywood The 1930s decade (and most of the 1940s as well) has been nostalgically labeled "The Golden Age of Hollywood" (although most of the output of the decade was black-and-white). Wings (1927). KHJ and KFI hit the waves.. featured exciting aerial combat sequences and starred Clara Bow and a young actor named Gary Cooper. and the further development of film genres (gangster films. As ever. The Jazz Singer (1927). the economic effects of the Depression were being strongly felt. There were two "Best Picture" winners: the financially successful anti-war film.A. to recognize and reward excellence within the film industry. Famous writers like F. musicals. and then distributed them in mid-May of 1929 for films opening between August-1927 and late July-1928. The AMPAS organization established the Academy Awards in the late 1920s and first announced them in February 1929. the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS) was founded in 1927 with Douglas Fairbanks as president. Vilmy Banky. people outdid one another with brash displays of wealth. was given a special award for revolutionizing the industry." Meanwhile. John Gilbert. 8.

The founder of KNX once managed to broadcast a murder trial after his reporters were thrown out of the courtroom. as they had done during the Depression years of the 30s. Vying for recognition. especially following the late 1941 attack on Pearl Harbor by the Japanese. whether as combatants. educators. regulation of talent agents. Hollywood's most profitable year in the decade was 1946. and coordinated its efforts with the film industry to record and photograph the nation's war-time activities. Jimmy Steewart and Victor Mature quickly enlisted. served as an important propaganda agency during World War II. special effects. newsreel or short film-makers. like every other aspect of life. The US government's Office of War Information (OWI). Sea shots were prohibited from Seattle to San Diego. the guild finally received its first union-shop contract in 1937. 9. was one of the first rooms on the West Coast to broadcast a live orchestra via radio.a full decade and more after the rise of sound film production. or morale-boosters. in 1933. now that the technical challenges of the early 30s sound era were far behind. with all-time highs recorded for theatre attendance. documentary. World War II impacted every aspect of film production in Hollywood. actors were ordered to take a 50% pay cut because of falling profits at the box office. Advances in film technology (sound recording. residuals. fund-raisers for relief funds or war bonds. Hollywood During the War Years The early years of the 40s decade were not promising for the American film industry. Studio trucks transported troops instead of movie sets. cinematography and use of color) meant that films were more watchable and 'modern'. and safety standards on the set as major provisions. Tinseltown aided in the defensive mobilization. It was then that a small group of actors decided to organize. However. producing many war-time favorites. When the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor on December 7th the entertainment industry became a fulltime war industry. while wartime restrictions and shortages dramatically changed the way movies were made. The world was headed toward rearmament and warfare in the early to mid-1940s. and having stars (and film industry employees) enlist or report for duty. The Coconut Grove on Wilshire Boulevard. lighting. propagandists. Hollywood film production rebounded and reached its profitable peak of efficiency during the years 1943 to 1946 . entertainers. The government seized the nation's supply of rolling stock. and the resultant loss of foreign markets.11 promotional zeal. pension and health plans. Stars like Clarck Gable. Distant or exotic locations were no longer and option. Films took on a more realistic rather than escapist tone. and the movie industry. Even so. They formed a self-governing guild that today we know as Screen Actors Guild. formed in 1942. In the Hollywood of the 1930's. and train shots were . playground to the glitterati. It included wage increases. actors could expect little more than $15 a day working under the harshest conditions. Following the end of the war. responded to the national war effort by making movies. during the darkest days of the Depression.

Returning soldiers outnumbered civilians in downtown Hollywood ten to one. the star system defined the American movie. left American moviemaking as the leader of the pack. washed dished and sang. Glenn Wallichs built his famous Wallichs' Music. Marlene Dietrich cut take. shelter and entertain them. The busyboys: Fred MacMurray.The Hollywood Studio Club provided refuge for the would-be starlets for decacades. glamorous addresses. air raid blackouts eliminated all night filming. the film industry had created a new "gold rush" town. and 150. By pioneering marketing strategies coupled with album design. Donna Reed and Kim Novak passed through its doors on their way to the spot light. 800 stayed with Mom on a week night 1.000 loaves of bread. Stars By 1916.000 pieces of cake 10. Nails were counted at each studio. On average. War drew Hollywood together as a close-knit family. from all over the globe. which. there were no lavish historical epics and no expensive car chases or crashes.12 nixed.000 soldiers a month devoured 4. infamous clubs. 1. In 1940. 100. that it sold more records than any store west of Chicago. and. Illinois. the company went on to become one of the top three in the industry. They slept in parks and theater lobbies. Nation was made during World War I. With the downsizing of the movie industry. John Loder and John Garfield. Returning soldiers swelled the city's population. Movies places. to profit form this upcoming trend. All 6000 radio and screen entertainers volunteered.200 on weekends. Barbara Eden. Would-be stars and would-be studios crashed and burned while a new breed of super-stars and all-powerful studios emerged. as much as anything. Like never before. Out of necessity. Lavish sets were a casualty of materials shortages. During WWII. until "Mom" Lehr's Hollywood Guild and Canteen began offering them a bed and three meals a day. Certainly the great dream factories like MGM. Wallich's popularity with his record store spurred him to partner with Johnny Mercer two years later to form Capitol Records. Warners and Fox were the disseminators of the celluloid . The similar-sounding Hollywood Canteen catered to 2000 servicemen who would jam the club each night for free food. The record store became so popular with students from both Hollywood and Fairfax high schools. Stars as Marilyn Monroe. in one short decade. drink and top Big Bands. space psychodramas and the Age of Film Noir replaced the grand and costly extravaganzas of years past. Basil Rarhbone. music became the craze to the ears of the nation. Olivia de Havilland and Greer Garson played hostess. Hollywood could shape the world through radio and the record industry. Hollywood was luring hopeful tar and starlets. and Hollywood pulled together to feed. erasing the distinction between stars and regular people. and high-rise skyline sprung up like wild flowers changing the landscape forever. young girls and boys seeking for celebrity. Betty Grable. Hollywood boasted famous names like Mary Pickford and Charles Chaplin. while derailing the European cinema. Studios hoarded their precious two punds of hairpins a month. Until 1920.500 pounds of coffee. and sets were made so that a post office could be quickly turned into an airport. Hollywood's most famous names volunteered their time and services in the name of the war effort.

Addresses like the Garden Court or The Chateau Elysee took on the glamour of stars like Gable and Lombard who resided there. Hollywood theatre By 1920. and 20 major Hollywood studios were churning out fare for their insatiable appetites. Rumors of stars making $3000 a week in Hollywood lured the average Joe and Josephine. There were magazines and books devoted to them.ONLY FIVE REACHED THE TOP!" Dozens of small studios were engaged in a cutthroat battle for survival. That spot was thereby nicknamed "Gower Gulch". many went home disappointed and broke.000 people who started at the screen's ladder of fame -. hoping that they would be picked by directors on Hollywood Boulevard and earn big bucks. With a frenzy gold rush on Hollywood. who was earning $15 elsewhere. After the First World War. the Chamber of Commerce felt obliged to take out newspaper ads warning: "Don't try to break intro the movies in Hollywood. Out of 100. photos of them to cut out and kiss. Actors lived in fantasy homes in Hollywood (and later Beverly Hills). Small studios set up shop near Sunset and Gower. murders. American royalty. Tallulah Bankhead and Clara Bow called it home. truly. Of course. but then. Films produced were of mediocre standard. It may save disappointments. Many went bust as quickly as they surfaced. suicides and drunken revelries. as now. orgies. but the fame that came with being an actor was the driving force that kept the stars working.13 champagne. The stars held gala bashes to die for — Harvey Wilcox's dream of a nice temperate village in the fig grove had given way to a pretty good replica of Gomorrah — and wore clothes that were more swell than a bee's knees. People were thrilled simply to drive by these castles.' Many people believed this and moved from their hometown to Hollywood. The most infamous address in this infamous town was the Garden of Allah at 8150 Sunset. "Poverty Row. They were. divorces. fights. . Hundreds of "movie cowboys" and assorted extras would linger on that corner. Opening night in 1921 kicked off with a decadent 18-hour party that had troubadours playing madrigals from the middle of the pool. Soon Americans had heard of the 'Hollywood mythology' . The party raged for 32 years. people usually chose what they would pay to see by whose name was on the marquee. hoping beyond hope they might catch sight of a Theda Bara or a Tom Mix. and is still referred to that nickname by Los Angelinos today. If those walls could talk. 40 million Americans were going to the movies each week. they would tell of robberies. feverish for a casting call. John O'hara.'You can move to Hollywood and change your life. Hollywood's population grew at breakneck pace: from 5000 in 1910 to 36000 by 1920. and their high mortality rate led to the nickname. Stars were not free to seek their own contracts during these years and very often stars would be "loaned" by one studio to another.

S. the word "Hollywood" is often used as a metonym for the American film and television industry.. Due to its fame and cultural identity as the historical center of movie studios and stars. effects. a vibrant. postproduction. U.A. props. is a district in Los Angeles. California. progressive urban area that looks forward to a new era of pride and glory among stars.14 Conclusion Today Hollywood has established itself as the single center of film and television industry. as established by the California Legislature (AB 588) Hollywood . The Boundaries of Hollywood. and lighting companies) remain in Hollywood. situated west-northeast of Downtown. but significant ancillary industries (such as editing. Today much of the movie industry has dispersed into surrounding areas such as Burbank and the Westside.

It is a popular destination for nightlife and tourism. The New Encyclopaedia Britannica” – volume V. Assembly Bill 588 was approved by the Governor on August 28. 2006. On February 16. and Vine Street intersect Hollywood Boulevard and Sunset Boulevard. Currently. but does have an appointed official that serves as "honorary mayor" for ceremonial purposes only. Grant has held this position for decades. Helen Hemingway Benton.237 .000. Since this is a non-elected. Cahuenga Blvd. the "mayor" is Johnny Grant. Assembly Members Goldberg and Koretz introduced a bill to require the State to keep specific records on Hollywood as though it were independent. This bill was unanimously supported by the Hollywood Chamber of Commerce and the LA City Council. north of Melrose Avenue. Bibliography 1. The commercial. and host the Academy Awards. Hollywood does not have its own municipal government. William Benton. honorary position. The population of the district (including Los Feliz) as of the 2000 census was 208. and the cities of Burbank and – Online Encyclopaedia . The border is shown at the right. http/en. and home to the Walk of Fame.wikipedia. Although it is not the typical practice of the City of Los Angeles to establish specific boundaries for districts or neighborhoods. The population of the district is estimated to be about 300. and transportation center of Hollywood is the area where La Brea Avenue. Note that this includes all of Griffith Park and Los Feliz—two areas that were hitherto generally considered separate from Hollywood by most Angelinos. and Barham Blvd. For this to be done. the boundaries were defined.15 Many historic Hollywood theaters are used as venues and concert stages to premiere major theatrical releases. 2005. As a portion of the City of Los Angeles. Highland Avenue. cultural. south of Mulholland Dr. Cahuenga Boulevard. and can be loosely described as the area east of Beverly Hills and West Hollywood. Hollywood is a recent exception.. 1768. Laurel Canyon. and west of the Golden State Freeway and Hyperion Avenue. and now the district of Hollywood has official borders.. 15TH edition 2.

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