WIRE LESS CONTROLLED LAND MINE DETECTION ROBO-VEHICLE

RECEIVER PART
POWER SUPPLY

LAND MINE DETECTOR

M
BUZZER

C
RF RECEIVER

U
MOTOR DRIVER

ANTENNA ROBO-VEHICLE

TRANSMITTER

POWER SUPPLY

ANTENNA SWITCHES

M C U
RF TRANSMITTER

(Block diagram)

currently, very little technology is used in real-world demining activities. active programs by the u.s. army in both land mine detection sensor development and systems integration are evaluating new technologies, incrementally improving existing technologies, increasing the probability of detection, reducing the false alarm rate, and planning out usable deployment scenarios. through iterative design/build test cycles, and blind and scored testing at army mine lanes, steady progress is being made.

2. Ground 3. IC. The current requirement of each device or load must be added to estimate the final capacity of the power supply. Unregulated voltage in 2. And as well as required for drivers and amplifiers and IR transmitters and receivers. . The voltage levels required for operating the devices is +5volt. Ground 3. The basic requirement for designing a power supply is as follows.Hardware Used  Power supply section Pinout of the 7805 regulator IC. Regulated voltage out The power supply designed for catering a fixed demand connected in this project. 1. Unregulated voltage in 2. 1. Here +5 Volts required for operating microcontroller. Regulated voltage out Pinout of the 7812 regulator 1.

2. 1. The Regulator section used here is configured with a series regulator LM78XX the XX represents the output voltage and 78 series . though the rectifier designed is a full wave bridge rectifier but the voltage across the load is a half wave rectified output. Out Put Voltage = +5Volt. In case of small power supply peak value method is quit economical. for a particular value of DC output the input AC requirement is appreciably less. the average value method and peak value method. The capacitor value is decided so that it will back up for the voltage and current during the discharging period of the DC output. In this method the DC output is approximately equal to Vm. A full wave bridge rectifier is designed using two diodes and the output of the rectifier is filtered with a low pass filter. In this case the output with reference to the center tap of the transformer is taken in to consideration. 3. As it is estimate the requirement of power is approximately as follows. Step down section Rectifier Section Regulator section Design principle: There are two methods for designing power supply.The power supply always specified with one or multiple voltage outputs along with a current capacity. Capacity = 1000mA The power supply is basically consisting of three sections as follows.

The output remains constant within this range of voltage. diodes IN 4007. 50 Hz ac signal is given as input to the primary of the transformer and the secondary of the transformer is given to the bridge rectification diode.” Transformer is an electromechanical static device which transformer electrical energy from one coil to another without changing its frequency”. The o/p of the IC regulator is given to the LED through resistors to act as indicator. The output remains constant within this range of voltage. Circuit Explanations: .When ac signal is given to the primary of the transformer. due to the magnetic effect of the coil magnetic flux is induced in the coil (primary) and transfer to the secondary coil of the transformer due to the transformer action.indicates the positive voltage regulator 79 series indicates the negative regulator for power supply. IC 7805.In this we are using Transformer (12-0-12) v / 1mA. Here the diodes are . The positive regulator works satisfactorily between the voltage XX+2 to 40 Volts DC. Circuit connection: . Here 230V. LED & resistors. The positive output of the bridge rectifier is given as i/p to the IC regulator (7805) through capacitor (1000uf/25v).

Which removes the unwanted ac signal and thus a pure dc is obtained. the LED glows ON state. To overcome this effect. The secondary coil of the transformer is given to the diode circuit for rectification purposes. a low pass filter is connected to the o/p of the diodes (D1 & D2). and the o/p are obtained from the pin no-3. . The o/p the full wave rectifier is given as input to the IC regulator through low pass filter with respect to GND and thus a fixed o/p is obtained. During the +ve cycle of the ac signal the diodes D1 conduct due to the forward bias of the diodes and diodes D2 does not conduct due to the reversed bias of the diodes.”Voltage regulation is a circuit that supplies a constant voltage regardless of changes in load current. Here we need a fixed voltage. The o/p of the IC regulator (7805) is given to the LED for indication purpose through resistor. The output of the bridge rectifier is not a power dc along with rippled ac is also present. Due to the forward bias of the LED. Similarly during the –ve cycle of the ac signal the diodes D2 conduct due to the forward bias of the diodes and the diodes D1 does not conduct due to reversed bias of the diodes.” This IC’s are designed as fixed voltage regulators and with adequate heat sinking can deliver output current in excess of 1A. that’s for we are using IC regulators (7805).connected to the two +12volt output of the transformer.

1 IC7805 3 330R +5VDC 2 12-0-12 LED 230VAC 50Hz - + IN4007 GND ATMEGA32 MICROCONTROLLER Features POWER SUPPLY SECTION .

1 Compliant) Interface – Boundary-scan Capabilities According to the JTAG Standard – Extensive On-chip Debug Support  Flash – Programming of Flash. EEPROM. 1149. and Lock Bits through the JTAG Interface .000 Flash/100. Low-power AVR  8-bit Microcontroller  Advanced RISC Architecture – 131 Powerful Instructions – Most Single-clock Cycle Execution – 32 x 8 General Purpose Working Registers – Fully Static Operation – Up to 16 MIPS Throughput at 16 MHz – On-chip 2-cycle Multiplier  High Endurance Non-volatile Memory segments – 32K Bytes of In-System Self-programmable Flash program memory  8-bit – 1024 Bytes EEPROM – 2K Byte Internal SRAM  Microcontroller – Write/Erase Cycles: 10.000 EEPROM – Data rete ntion: 20 years at 85°C/100 years at 25°C  (1 )  with 32K Bytes – Optional Boot Code Section with Independent Lock Bits  In-System Programming by On-chip Boot Program  In-System  True Read-While-Write Operation – Programming Lock for Software Security  Programmable  JTAG (IEEE std. High-performance. Fuses.

Powerdown.5. Standby  and Extended Standby  I/O and Packages – 32 Programmable I/O Lines – 40-pin PDIP. 10x. Peripheral Features – Two 8-bit Timer/Counters with Separate Prescalers and Compare Modes – One 16-bit Timer/Counter with Separate Prescaler. 44-lead TQFP. or 200x – Byte-oriented Two-wire Serial Interface – Programmable Serial USART – Master/Slave SPI Serial Interface – Programmable Watchdog Timer with Separate On-chip Oscillator – On-chip Analog Comparator  Special Microcontroller Features – Power-on Reset and Programmable Brown-out Detection – Internal Calibrated RC Oscillator – External and Internal Interrupt Sources – Six Sleep Modes: Idle.5V for ATmega32A  Speed Grades .7 . Power-save. Compare Mode. and Capture  Mode – Real Time Counter with Separate Oscillator  –Four PWM Channels – 8-channel. ADC Noise Reduction. and 44-pad QFN/MLF  Operating Voltages – 2. 10-bit ADC  Summary • 8 Single-ended Channels • 7 Differential Channels in TQFP Package Only • 2 Differential Channels with Programmable Gain at 1x.

By executing powerful instructions in a single clock cycle.16 MHz for ATmega32A  Power Consumption at 1 MHz. 25 C for ATmega32A – Active: 0.– 0 .6 mA – Idle Mode: 0. Pin Configurations .Achieves throughputs approaching 1 MIPS per MHz allowing the system designed to optimize power consumption versus processing speed.2 mA – Power-down Mode: < 1 µA Overview The ATmega32A is a low-power CMOS 8-bit microcontroller based on the AVR enhanced RISC Architecture. 3V. the ATmega32A .

PIN DESCRIPTION .

.PC0) .PA0) Port A serves as the analog inputs to the A/D Converter.Port B also serves the functions of various special features of the ATmega32 Port C (PC7. GND Ground.. Port B pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated. The Port B pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active. they will source current if the internal pull-up resistors are activated. even if the clock is not running. Port A also serves as an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port. As inputs. Port B (PB7. The Port B output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability.PB0) Port B is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit).. Port pins can provide internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). When pins PA0 to PA7 are used as inputs and are externally pulled low. even if the clock is not running. The Port A pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active. Port A (PA7.VCC Digital supply voltage. if the A/D Converter is not used. The Port A output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability.

The minimum pulse length is 0. PC3(TMS) and PC2(TCK) will be activated even if a reset occurs. The Port C pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active. Port D also serves the functions of various special features of the ATmega32. Port D (PD7. even if the clock is not running.PD0) Port D is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). Port D pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated. the pull-up resistors on pins PC5(TDI).1 vcc. The Port C output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability. The Port D pins are tri-stated when a reset condition becomes active. If the JTAG interface is enabled. even if the clock is not running. XTAL1 . Port C pins that are externally pulled low will source current if the pull-up resistors are activated.. The Port D output buffers have symmetrical drive characteristics with both high sink and source capability. even if the clock is not running. RESET Reset Input. Shorter pulses are not guaranteed to generate a reset.Port C is an 8-bit bi-directional I/O port with internal pull-up resistors (selected for each bit). As inputs. A low level on this pin for longer than the minimum pulse length will generate a reset. Port C also serves the functions of the JTAG interface and other special features of the ATmega32. As inputs.

AREF AREF is the analog reference pin for the A/D Converter.5 LSB Integral Non-linearity • ±2 LSB Absolute Accuracy • 13 . XTAL2 Output from the inverting Oscillator amplifier. If the ADC is used.260 μs Conversion Time • Up to 15 kSPS at Maximum Resolution • 8 Multiplexed Single Ended Input Channels • 7 Differential Input Channels • 2 Differential Input Channels with Optional Gain of 10x and 200x(1) • Optional Left adjustment for ADC Result Readout • 0 . ADC • 10-bit Resolution • 0. AVCC AVCC is the supply voltage pin for Port A and the A/D Converter.VCC ADC Input Voltage Range . it should be connected to VCC through a low-pass filter.Input to the inverting Oscillator amplifier and input to the internal clock operating circuit. It should be externally Connected to VCC. even if the ADC is not used.

If 200x gain is used. providing amplification steps of 0 dB (1x). The single-ended voltage inputs refer to 0V (GND). The ADC has a separate analog supply voltage pin. The ADC contains a Sample and Hold circuit which ensures that the input voltage to the ADC is held at a constant level during conversion. ADC0 and ADC3. while any other ADC input can be selected as the positive input terminal. Two of the differential inputs (ADC1. AVCC. The ADC is connected to an 8-channel Analog Multiplexer which allows 8 single-ended voltage inputs constructed from the pins of Port A.The ATmega16 features a 10-bit successive approximation ADC. If 1x or 10x gain is used..3 V from VCC. The device also supports 16 differential voltage input combinations. The differential input channels are not tested for devices in PDIP Package. 20 dB (10x). or 46 dB (200x) on the differential input voltage before the A/D conversion.• Selectable 2. Seven differential analog input channels share a common negative terminal (ADC1). ADC2) are equipped with a programmable gain stage. . 8-bit resolution can be expected. 7-bit resolution can be expected. See the paragraph “ADC Noise Canceler” on page 213 on how toconnect this pin. This feature is only guaranteed to work for devices in TQFP and QFN/MLF Packages . AVCC must not differ morethan ±0.56V ADC Reference Voltage • Free Running or Single Conversion Mode • ADC Start Conversion by Auto Triggering on Interrupt Sources • Interrupt on ADC Conversion Complete • Sleep Mode Noise Canceler Note: 1.

the differential gain stage amplifies the voltage difference between the selected input channel pair by the selected gain factor. Any of the ADC input pins.Internal reference voltages of nominally 2. The internal voltage reference may thus be decoupled by an external capacitor at the AREF pin to improve noise immunity.56V reference voltage may be connected to the AREF pin by writing to the REFSn bits in the ADMUX Register. as well as GND and a fixed band gap voltage reference. The ADC is enabled by setting the ADC Enable bit. If single ended channels are used. The analogue input channel and differential gain are selected by writing to the MUX bits in ADMUX. If differential channels are selected. Optionally. Voltage reference and input channel selections will not go into effect until ADEN is set. The voltage reference may be externally decoupled at the AREF pin by a capacitor for better noise performance.56V or AVCC are provided On-chip. the gain amplifier is bypassed altogether. so it . ADEN in ADCSRA. AVCC or an internal 2. This amplified value then becomes the analogue input to the ADC. The minimum value represents GND and the maximum value represents the voltage on the AREF pin minus 1 LSB. Operation The ADC converts an analogue input voltage to a 10-bit digital value through successive approximation. can be selected as single ended inputs to the ADC. The ADC does not consume power when ADEN is cleared. A selection of ADC input pins can be selected as positive and negative inputs to the differential gain amplifier.

ADSC. ADCL must be read first. then ADCH. the result is presented right adjusted. ADCH and ADCL. the interrupt will trigger even if the result is lost. but can optionally be presented left adjusted by setting the ADLAR bit in ADMUX. it is sufficient to read ADCH. By default.is recommended to switch off the ADC before entering power saving sleep modes. and a conversion completes before ADCH is read. This means that if ADCL has been read. Starting a Conversion A single conversion is started by writing a logical one to the ADC Start Conversion bit. Once ADCL is read. When ADC access to the Data Registers is prohibited between reading of ADCH and ADCL. ADC access to Data Registers is blocked. The ADC has its own interrupt which can be triggered when a conversion completes. to ensure that the content of the Data Registers belongs to the same conversion. neither register is updated and the result from the conversion is lost. ADC access to the ADCH and ADCL Registers is re-enabled. The ADC generates a 10-bit result which is presented in the ADC Data Registers. This bit stays high as long as the conversion is in . When ADCH is read. If the result is left adjusted and no more than 8-bit precision is required. Otherwise.

with 2 motor in each channel. I have driven 4 motors of 250mA using L293D. Alternatively. If the trigger signal still is set when the conversion completes. the ADC will finish the current conversion before performing the channel change.e. If a different data channel is selected while a conversion is in progress. Note that an Interrupt Flag will be set even if the specific interrupt is disabled or the global interrupt enable bit in SREG is cleared. This provides a method of starting conversions at fixed intervals. Now . The trigger source is selected by setting the ADC Trigger Select bits.progress and will be cleared by hardware when the conversion is completed. a conversion can be triggered automatically by various sources. the edge will be ignored. a new conversion will not be started. If another positive edge occurs on the trigger signal during conversion. the Interrupt Flag must be cleared in order to trigger a new conversion at the next interrupt event Motor drivers L293D L293D has two channels. you can connect two motors to the same bridge. A conversion can thus be triggered without causing an interrupt. i. ADATE in ADCSRA. ADTS in SFIOR When a positive edge occurs on the selected trigger signal. Auto Triggering is enabled by setting the ADC Auto Trigger Enable bit. However. the ADC prescaler is reset and a conversion is started.

remember that VIL should not be less than -. TROUBLESHOOTING L293D: 1.2v .5 to 36V (>VSS)( it should be greater than or equal the supply voltage.8v) If you want to use PWM to control L293D then apply PWM output to the chip inhibit of the IC.8. so here i am explaining things in more detail.3 to VC) VC ≥7 V (2. Make sure that IC is inserted properly into breadboard.90. You can verify it using continuity test in the multi-meter.5V).4) VOL Low-level output voltage (1.3 to 1. 1. I have seen too many post about the problems occurring L293D. VCC2 − 1.2 A for L293D) Maximum VC – 4. how to connect L293D in circuit so that it won't create any problems to you. Insert IC into the breadboard.3 to 7 V) VIL High-level input voltage( a voltage which L293D takes input as LOW(0)) (-. L293D costs around Rs. Test .3V output side(output of L293D to motor) VOH High-level output voltage (VCC2 − 1. L293B are available. Remember all these parameters when you connect L293D in circuits.vss) input side(input to L293D from parallel port or microcontroller) VIH High-level input voltage( a voltage which L293D takes input as HIGH(1)) VC ≤7 V (2.let's see the ratings of L293D Output Current 1 A Per Channel (600 mA for L293D) Peak Output Current 2 A Per Channel (1. if you use it use 4 external protection diodes.

Remember Vss should be in the range of 4.continuity between the pins of the IC and the holes of the breadboard. Now connect ground at Pins 4. If you get a beep then you can sure that IC is fitted strongly into breadboard and the portion of breadboard you are using is good. Remember if you use multiple supplies.9 7. 9.5V to 7V 4. Now Vss and Gnd applying is over. 3. In the following explanation I refer '1' as +5V (Vss) and '0' as ground. Apply Vss=5V (Pin 16) . Chip enable pins are pin1. 8. 2. you should short circuit all grounds and this ground is applied to the Pins. 5. 6. For testing the IC you can apply Vc=Vss=5V. The following test are done for each channels separately. You should be thorough with the steps you are taking. 13. 5. . to make sure that nothing goes wrong. When you connect the motor you should apply Vc>Vss or may it can be equal also. I have tested it. Test the continuity in the 16 pins of the IC and the breadboard holes. Apply Vc at Pin8. 12. Here we are trying to use both channels. Now apply +5V to chip enable pins. at least test both channels of the IC so that we can test whether IC is good or not. The first thing to apply when you connect an IC is applying Vcc and ground.

applying Vss and Vc wrongly (this can sometimes cause problems to IC). 15. . If your IC is not working. IC not inserted properly. Apply Input1=0 and Input2=1 and check voltages at output1 and output2. Remember your multimeter's one lead should be ground. absence of common ground. repeat steps 1-13 to make sure IC is bad. 11. 14. Then output1=output2=Vc. 16. This is the braking case. the most problems occurring are breadboard problems. Suppose if you got output1=Vc and output2=0. Then output1=0 and output2=Vc. then you can use two LED's to see outputs. motor will rotate in opposite direction. Both should be zero at this condition. 12. Then you should get one output= Vc and other output = 0. Apply Input 1 = Input 2 =0(reground) and connect multimeter to output 1 and ground of the circuit. Apply Input1=1 and Input2=0 and check voltages at output1 and output2. Apply Input1=1 and Input2=1 and check voltages at output1 and output2. not disabling chip inhibit. If you are applying Vc=Vss = +5V. That is this case is should be reverse of the previous case. Test conditions 10-13 for both channels to test the IC is good. Now test output1 and output2 voltages. You should test it thoroughly so that a repetition is not needed. 13.10.

17. Now you can assure that the output is high impedance. first test the motor is working with the desired VC by applying VC and ground directly to the two leads of the motor. you can test high impedance using an LED. L293d has a thermal shutdown function. The apply 5V to the anode of the LED and apply output to the cathode through a series resistor of 330 ohm. then connect the motor. 18. Before connecting motor to the outputs of L293D. When chip inhibit is enabled. So see it is working in all conditions of the circuit and robot Metal Detecting Sensor Detects metal objects upto 7 cm giving active low . Now also LED won't glow. 19. Confirm this first. LED will not glow. ie chip is not working the outputs will be high impedance. First connect the cathode of LED to ground through a series resistor of 330ohm and test the output.

To test sensor you only need power the sensor by . turn preset until the LED is weakly lit and just becomes off. Black wire is Ground. Active with logic “0” Dimensions : 52x71 mm Full SMD design Using the Sensor Connect regulated DC power supply of 5 Volts. metal studs. To set maximum sensitivity. Detection Indicator LED and Buzzer Digital output. Next middle wire is Brown which is output and Red wire is positive supply. Turn sensitivity pre-set until the LED is about to light. cables. These wires are also marked on PCB.output with LED indication & buzzer on detecting metal. Applications Detect presence of any metallic object Locate pipes. … Avoid disasters when drilling holes in walls Great project for novices Your own unique application Interface with any microcontroller Specifications Detection range adjustable up to 7 cm Operation range varies according to size of the metallic object Power Supply : 5V DC Power Consumption: 50mA max. When adjusting sensitivity move away from any metal object.

Bring the metal object nearby the PCB coil and the LED will lit up and output becomes 0V. You can leave the output wire as it is. The output is active low and can be given directly to microcontroller for interfacing applications.connect two wires +5V and GND. Operation . When LED is off the output is at 5V.

3V PCB Mount Piezo Buzzer .The heart of this sensor is the inductive oscillator circuit which monitors high frequency current loss in coil. the output current will flow more. Output signal is determined by supply current changes. With an external tuned circuit they act as oscillators. Output signal level is altered by an approaching metallic object. On the other hand. the current will be decrease when the object is far from the searching coil. The circuit is designed for any metallic body detection by detecting the variations in the high frequency Eddy current losses. Independent of supply voltage. If the metal object is near the searching coil. this current is high or low according to the presence or the absence of a close metallic object.

Pin Spacing .5mm High.7. 8. Features        Resonant Frequency: 4. Low current consumption and loud sound output.5mm RF TRANSMITTER .Compact PCB Mount Buzzers in AC and DC type.18Vdc Rated Current: 5mA @ 5Vdc Sound Pressure Level: 70dB @ 3Vdc Weight: 1 gram Dimensions: 12mm Diameter.500Hz Rated Voltage: 3Vdc (DC input) Operating Voltage: 3 . ideal for use with Microcontrollers and Control Systems.

TLP434A Ultra Small Transmitter Diagram . multi path interference. RF is affected by material like steel. RF technology evolution challenges:     Higher frequency utilization Higher bit rates and thus larger BW’s RF is affected by absorption. wall. window glass etc. RF communications are typically support 1200 to 9600 baud.Introduction Radio Frequency Technology Radio Frequency (RF) in the range of 3 Hz and 30 GHz. Recently developed modulation schemes and spread spectrum technologies are achieving up to 19.200 baud. RF Network Configuration:      System Identification Should be unique Channel / Frequency Should have minimal interference with other systems Data Rates. Flexible and scalable modular architecture. EMI etc. Radio based on frequency convertible platforms. Increased integration to fit new standards and frequencies in the same cabinet Co-sitting capabilities with other standards requires high performance transmitters and receivers.

12 VDC RF Transmitter Specifications Application Circuit .Frequency 315. 418 and 433.92 Mhz Modulation Operation Voltage Pin Specifications Pin 1: GND Pin 2: Data In Pin 3: Vcc Pin 4: Antenna (RF output) : ASK : 2 .

Typical Key-chain Transmitter using HT12E-18DIP. Recently developed modulation schemes and spread spectrum technologies are achieving up to 19. . wall. RECEIVER Introduction Radio Frequency Technology: Radio Frequency (RF) in the range of 3 Hz and 30 GHz.200 baud. RF communications are typically support 1200 to 9600 baud. RF technology evolution challenges:     Higher frequency utilization Higher bit rates and thus larger BW’s RF is affected by absorption. RF is affected by material like steel. window glass etc. multi path interference. EMI etc. a Binary 12 bit Encoder from Holtek Semiconductor Inc.

Co-sitting capabilities with other standards requires high performance transmitters and receivers.3 . Flexible and scalable modular architecture.92 MHz Modulation Supply Voltage Output : ASK : 3.6. 418 and 433.0 VDC : Digital & Linear . RF Network Configuration:      System Identification Should be unique Channel / Frequency Should have minimal interference with other systems Data Rates RLP434A SAW Based Receiver Diagram Frequency 315. Increased integration to fit new standards and frequencies in the same cabinet.Radio based on frequency convertible platforms.

Pin Specifications Pin 1: Gnd Pin 2: Digital Data Output Pin 3: Linear Output /Test Pin 4: Vcc Pin 5: Vcc Pin 6: Gnd Pin 7: Gnd Pin 8: Antenna RF Receiver Specifications .

it will experience a force proportional to the current in the conductor. when this is then placed in an external magnetic field. while green represents a magnet or winding with a "South" polarization).Application Circuit Typical RF Receiver using HT12D-18DIP. Motor In any electric motor. As you are well aware of from playing with magnets as a kid. A currentcarrying conductor generates a magnetic field. a Binary 12 bit Decoder with 8 bit uC HT48RXX from Holtek Semiconductor Inc. . South and South) repel. Let's start by looking at a simple 2-pole DC electric motor (here red represents a magnet or winding with a "North" polarization. opposite (North and South) polarities attract. operation is based on simple electromagnetism. and to the strength of the external magnetic field. while like polarities (North and North. The internal configuration of a DC motor is designed to harness the magnetic interaction between a current-carrying conductor and an external magnetic field to generate rotational motion.

The geometry of the brushes. field magnet(s). The above diagram shows a common motor layout -. . the polarities of the energized winding and the stator magnet(s) are misaligned. The rotor consists of windings (generally on a core). In most common DC motors. and the rotor will rotate until it is almost aligned with the stator's field magnets. Given our example twopole motor.axle.this includes the motor casing. rotor (a. and energize the next winding. The rotor (together with the axle and attached commutator) rotates with respect to the stator. driving it to continue rotating. The stator is the stationary part of the motor -. commutator contacts. and rotor windings are such that when power is applied. commentator.a. leading to a "flip" of the rotor's magnetic field. the windings being electrically connected to the commutator. as well as two or more permanent magnet pole pieces. stator. the external magnetic field is produced by high-strength permanent magnets1. and brushes.Every DC motor has six basic parts -.. the rotation reverses the direction of current through the rotor winding.k. armature).with the rotor inside the stator (field) magnets. the brushes move to the next commutator contacts. As the rotor reaches alignment.

Yet another disadvantage of such a simple motor is that it would exhibit a high amount of torque "ripple" (the amount of torque it could produce is cyclic with the position of the rotor). though. this avoids "dead spots" in the commutator. Meanwhile. with a two-pole motor. DC motors will always have more than two poles (three is a very common number). . This would be bad for the power supply.In real life. waste energy. and damage motor components as well.e. there is a moment where the commutator shorts out the power supply (i. both brushes touch both commutator contacts simultaneously). if the rotor is exactly at the middle of its rotation (perfectly aligned with the field magnets).. You can imagine how with our example two-pole motor. In particular. it will get "stuck" there.

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