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BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING

UTPRESS Cluj-Napoca, 2011

Editura U.T.PRESS Str. Observatorului nr. 34 C.P. 42, O.P. 2, 400775 Cluj-Napoca Tel.:0264-401999; Fax: 0264 - 430408 e-mail: utpress@biblio.utcluj.ro http://www.utcluj.ro/editura Director: Consilier editorial: Prof.dr.ing. Daniela Manea Ing. Călin D. Câmpean

Copyright © 2011 Editura U.T.PRESS Reproducerea integrală sau parţială a textului sau ilustraţiilor din această carte este posibilă numai cu acordul prealabil scris al editurii U.T.PRESS. Multiplicarea executata la Editura U.T.PRESS. ISBN 978-973-662-641-8 Bun de tipar: 25.05.2011 Tiraj: 100 exemplare

**BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING
**

By Doina Verdes

THE CONTENTS

**CHAPTER 1 THE SEISMICITY OF THE TERRITORY
**

1.1 Introduction 1.2 Seismicity 1.3 The earthquake and the types of seismic waves 1.4 Measures of Earthquake Size 1.5 Record of the ground motion 1.6 Significant earthquakes produced in the world

**CHAPTER 2 THE ANALYSIS OF SEISMIC RESPONSE OF SINGLE DEGREE OF FREEDOM SYSTEM
**

2.1 Modeling the buildings 2.2 The degrees of freedom 2.3 The Response Spectrum Analysis 1

2.4 The relative displacement response 2.5 The response spectrum and the pseudospectrum 2.6 Response to seismic loading: step-by-step methods 2.7 The Beta Newmark Methods 2.8. The seismic response of the SDOF nonlinear system using the step by step numerical integration 2.9 The energy balance procedure 2.10 Seismic response spectra of the SDOF inelastic systems

**CHAPTER 3 ANALYSIS OF SEISMIC RESPONSE MULTIDEGREE OF FREEDOM SYSTEMS
**

3.1Vibration Frequencies and Mode Shapes 3.2 Earthquake Response Analysis by Mode Superposition 3.3 Response Spectrum Analysis for Multi-degree of Freedom Systems 3.4 Step-by-Step Integration

**CHAPTER 4 METHODS OF SEISMIC ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURES
**

4.1 Introduction 4.2 Lateral force method of analysis Romanian Code P100/1-2006 4.3 Lateral force method of analysis - EC8 4.4 Time - history representation 4.5 Non-linear static (pushover) analysis

2

**CHAPTER 5 EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT DESIGN
**

5.1 Introduction 5.2 Performance Based Engineering 5.3 Performance Requirements and Compliance Criteria 5.4 The guiding principles governing the conceptual design against seismic hazard

**CHAPTER 6 INELASTIC DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR
**

6.1 Introduction 6.2 Global and local ductility condition 6.3 Ductility of reinforced concrete elements (local ductility) 6.4 Requirements for ductility of reinforced concrete frames 6.5 The damages of the reinforced concrete frames under seismic loads

**CHAPTER 7 DESIGN CONCEPTS FOR EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURES
**

7.1 Energy dissipation capacity and ductility 7.2 Structural types 7.3 Design criteria at Ultimate Limit State (ULS) 7.4 The Global Ductility 7.5 Design criteria at Safety Limit State (SLS) 7.6 Structural types with stress concentration 7.7 The local effect of infill masonry 3

**CHAPTER 8 NONSTRUCTURAL ELEMENTS
**

8.1 Defining nonstructural elements 8.2 Earthquake effects on buildings and nonstructural elements 8.3 Interstory displacement 8.4 The performances of nonstructural elements 8.5 Protection Strategies 8.6 Nonstructural design approaches for cladding 8.7 Prefabricated wall panels 8.8 Precast Concrete Cladding 8.9 Cladding which increase the seismic energy dissipation 8.10 Examples of damages

**CHAPTER 9 THE STRUCTURAL CONTROL OF SEISMIC RESPONSE
**

9.1. Introduction 9.2. The control of structural response 9.3. Passive control system 9.4 The base isolation system 9.5 The energy dissipation systems 9.6 Advanced Technology Systems (9A) 9.7 Active structural Control (9B)

**REFERENCES THE TEST ON SHAKE TABLE OF A HIGH BUILDING MODEL EQUIPPED WITH FRICTION DAMPERS
**

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BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING

By Doina Verdes

CHAPTER I

THE SEISMICITY OF THE TERRITORY

Contents

1.1 Introduction 1.2 Seismicity 1.3 The earthquake and the types of seismic waves 1.4 Measures of earthquake size 1.5 Record of the ground motion 1.6 Significant earthquakes produced in the world

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1.1 Introduction The detailed study of earthquakes and earthquake mechanisms lies in the province of seismology, but in his or her studies the earthquake engineer must take a different point of view than the seismologist Seismologists have focused their attention primarily on the global or long-range effects of earthquakes and therefore are concerned with very small amplitude ground motions which induce no significant structural responses.

.

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Engineers, on the other hand, are concerned mainly with the local effects of large earthquakes, where the ground motions are intense enough to cause structural damage

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1.2

Seismicity.

The seismicity of a region determines the extent to which earthquake loadings may control the design of any structure planned for that location. The principal indicator of the degree of seismicity is the historical record of earthquakes that have occurred in the region. Because major earthquakes often have had disastrous consequences, they have been noted in chronicles dating back to the beginning of civilization. The earthquake occurrences are not distributed uniformly on the surface of the earth; instead they tend to be Concentrated along well-defined lines which are knownto be associated with the boundaries of “plates” of the earth’s crust.

Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 6

**Fig. 1.1. Global distribution of seismicity*
**

*http://geology.about.com

Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 7

Europe seismic map * *http://geology.com Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 8 .Fig 1.about.2.

-outer core is a layer of similar density. . . 1. Structure of the Earth 0 24 Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 9 . .next is a solid thick envelope of lesser density around.Structure of the Earth The earth consists of several discrete concentric layers: -the inner core. is a very dense solid thought to consist mainly of iron.the rather thin layer at the earth’s surface called the crust. Crust Mantle 6370 500 0 20 00 0 50 Outer core (liquid) Inner core (solid) Fig.3.the core that is called the mantle. but thought to be a liquid because shear waves are not transmitted through it.

Although the asthenosphere represents only a small fraction of the total thickness of the mantle. *AFPS Brochure Fig. it is because of its highly plastic character that the lithosphere does move as a single unit. instead it is divided into a pattern of plates of various sizes.4 The mantle is divided into a pattern of plates * Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 10 . called the asthenosphere. Below that. 1.the mantle is considered to consist of two distinct layers: the upper mantle together with the crust form a rigid layer called the lithosphere. and it is the relative movements along the plate boundaries that cause the earthquake occurrence patterns. however. the layer. is thought to be partially molten rock consisting of solid particles incorporated within a liquid component.

Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 11 . it has become apparent that the rock near the surface of the earth is not as rigid and motionless as it appears to be. and by its “dip”. the angle from horizontal of a line drawn on the fault surface perpendicular to this intersection line. relative sliding motions were developed between the opposite side of the rupture surface creating what is called a geological fault. The orientation of the fault surface is characterized by its “strike”. There is ample evidence in many geological formations that the rock was subjected to extensive deformations at a time when it was buried at some depth. When such ruptures occurred. the orientation from north of its line of intersection with the horizontal ground surface.Earthquake Faults From the study of geology.

California Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 12 . San Andreas fault.Fig. 1.5.

1.Fig. California [21] Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 13 . San Andreas fault.6.

7 Types of fault slippage * Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 14 .*BSSC California 2001 Fig 1.

3 The earthquake and the types of seismic waves The important fact about any fault rupture is that the fracture occurs when the deformations and stresses in the rock reach the breaking strength of the material. and the point on the ground surface directly above the focus is called the epicenter. 1. The point on the fault surface where the rupture first began is called the earthquake focus.1. These displacement waves passing any specified location on the earth constitute what is called an earthquake. Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 Fig.8. Accordingly it is associated with a sudden release of strain energy which then is transmitted through the earth in the form of vibratory elastic waves radiating outward in all directions from the rupture point. The earthquake focus characteristics 15 .

The types of seismic waves Two types of waves may be identified in the earthquake motions that are propagated deep within the earth: “P” waves. thus inducing shear deformations. Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 16 . in which the material particles move along the path of the wave propagation inducing an alternation between tension and compression deformations. in which the material particles move in a direction perpendicular to the wave propagation path. The “S” or Secondary wave designation refers correspondingly to the fact that these shear stress waves travel more slowly and therefore arrive after the “P” waves. The “P” or Primary wave designation refers to the fact that these normal stress waves travel most rapidly through the rock and therefore are the first to arrive at any given point. and “S” waves.

P-wave S-wave surface wave

1

2

3

Fig. 1.9 The time of seismic waves arrival

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The surface waves

When the vibratory wave energy is propagating near the surface of the earth rather than deep in the interior, two other types of waves known as Rayleigh and Love can be identified. The Rayleigh surface waves are tension-compression waves similar to the “P” waves except that their amplitude diminishes with distance below the surface of the ground. Similarly the Love waves are the counterpart of the “S” body waves; they are shear waves that diminish rapidly with the distance below the surface.

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Fig. 1.10 The types of seismic waves [21]

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Reflection at the surfaces

Earthquake focus

Mantle Core

Seismograph station Refraction at the core

Fig. 1. 11 The seismic waves travel into the earth

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1.4

Measures of Earthquake Size

The most important measure of size from a seismological point of view is the amount of strain energy released at the source, and this is indicated quantitatively as the magnitude. By definition, Richter magnitude is the (base 10) logarithm of the maximum amplitude, measured in micrometers (10-6 m) of the earthquake record obtained by Wood-Anderson seismograph, corrected to a distance of 100 Km. This magnitude rating has been related empirically to the amount of earthquake energy released E by the formula: log E = 11.8 + 1.5 M in which M is the magnitude. By this formula, the energy increases by a factor of 32 for each unit increase of magnitude. More important to engineers, however, is the empirical observation that earthquakes of magnitude less than 5 are not expected to cause structural damage, whereas for magnitudes greater than 5, potentially damaging ground motions will be produced.

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The magnitude of an earthquake by itself is not sufficient to indicate whether structural damage can be expected. This is a measure of the size of the earthquake at its source, but the distance of the structure from the source has an equally important effect on the amplitude of its response. The severity of the ground motions observed at any point is called the earthquake intensity; it diminishes generally with the distance from the source, although anomalies due to local geological conditions are not uncommon. The oldest measures of intensity are based on observations of the effects of the ground motions on natural and man-made objects. The standard measure of intensity for many years has been the Modified Mercalli (MM) scale. This is a 12-point scale ranging from I (not felt by anyone) to XII (total destruction). Results of earthquakeintensity observations are typically compiled in the form of isoseismal maps.

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**Modified Mercalli (MM) Intensity Scale
**

I. No felt by people. VII. People are frightened; it is II. Felt only by a few persons at difficult to stand. Automobile drivers rest,especially on upper floors of notice the shaking. Hanging objects buildings. quiver. Furniture breaks. Weak chimneys break. Loose bricks, III. Felt indoors by many people. stones, tiles, cornices, unbraced Feels like the vibration of a light parapets, and architectural truck passing by. Hanging ornaments fall from buildings. objects swing. May not be Damage to masonry D. recognized as an earthquake. IV. Felt indoors by most people … and outdoors by a few. Feels like XI. Most masonry and wood the vibration of a heavy truck structures collapse. Some bridges passing by. Hanging objects destroyed. swing noticeably XII. Damage is total. Large rock V. Felt by most persons masses are displaced. Waves are indoors and outdoors; sleepers seen on the surface of the ground. awaken. Liquids disturbed, with Lines of sight and level are distorted. some spillage. Small objects Objects are thrown into the air. displaced or upset; VI. Felt by everyone. Many people are frightened, some run outdoors. People move unsteadily. Dishes, glassware, and some windows break. Doina Verdes

Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 23

The seismic scale grades: MSK 1964; EMI; MM; JAPAN; RUSSIA

MSK 1964 EMI (PS69) MERCALLI MODIFIED 1956 JAPAN RUSSIA

I I I 0 I

II II II I II

III III III II III

IV IV IV III IV

V V V

VI VI VI IV

VII VII VII V VII

VIII VIII VIII

IX IX IX VI

X X X

XI XI XI VII

XII XII XII

V

VI

VIII

IX

X

XI

XII

maximum acceleration of the soil mouvement 0.002g 0.004g 0.008g 0.015g 0.020g 0.030g 0.130g 0.200g 0.300g 0.500g 1.000g

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10,000,000x10

18

Largest earthquake Nuclear bomb

1,000,000x10

18

1964 Alaska earthquake 1906 San Francisco earthquake Daily U.S. electrical energy consumption

1976 Guatemala earthquake

Energy (ergs)

**1971 San Fernando earthquake 1983 Coalinga earthquake Atomic bomb 1,000x10
**

18

100x10

18

1978 Santa Barbara earthauake

10 x 10

18

1 x 10

18

4

5

6

Se ism ic e ne rgy

10,000x10

18

1980 Italy earthquake

7

of ea rth qu ak es

100,000x10

18

8

9

Richter magnitude

Fig. 1.12 Earthquakes: Magnitude/energy

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The three components of ground motion recorded by a strongmotion accelerograph provide a complete description of the earthquake which would act upon any structure at that site. However, the most important features of the record obtained in each component, from the standpoint of its effectiveness in producing structural response, are the amplitude, the frequency content, and the duration. The amplitude generally is characterized by the peak value of acceleration or sometimes by the number of acceleration peaks exceeding a specific level. The frequency content can be represented roughly by the number of zero crossings per second in the accelerogram and the duration by the length of time between the first and the last peaks exceeding a given threshold level. It is evident, however, that all these quantitative measures taken together provide only a very limited description of the ground motion and certainly do not quantify its damage-producing potential adequately

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Fig, 1.13 Seismoscop – Antic China

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Seismographs The motion of the ground is recorded during earthquakes by instruments known as seismographs. These instruments were first developed around 1890, so we have recordings of earthquakes only since that time. Today, there are hundreds of seismographs installed in the ground throughout the world, operating as part of a worldwide seismographic network for monitoring earthquakes and studying the physics of the earth.

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Seismograms

records of soil displacements produced by seismographs, called seismograms, are used in calculating the location and magnitude of an earthquake.

l

M

L

**Fig. 1.14 The principle of seismoscop
**

Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 29

and the mass-spring system is called accelerometer. To record this type of ground shaking requires a different type of instrument. two horizontal and one vertical. Seismographs are designed to record small displacements caused by distant earthquakes and are used by seismologists interested in locating hypocenters. and studying the mechanics of earthquakes – the kind of shaking that causes damage. estimating magnitudes. three seismometers must be built into each seismograph. To completely record this motion.5 Record of the ground motion The motion of the ground at any point is three-dimensional. Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 30 . Such instruments are called accelerographs. and generate three corresponding seismograms. which means that the point moves in space and not merely in a plane or in a straight line. These seismometers move in three perpendicular directions. one that measures ground acceleration instead of ground displacement.1.

15 North-south component of horizontal ground acceleration recorded at El Centro. but its mathematical characteristics are quite different. known as an accelerogram. Acceleorgraphs do not have a continuous recording system. has the general appearance of a seismogram.Accelerogram-Accelerograph The record generated. as seismographs do. Califonia during the Imperial Valey Irrigation district of 18 May 1940 Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 31 . they are triggered by an earthquake and operate form batteries (because the power often is disrupted during an earthquake).1. Fig. instead.

Fig.16 The accelerogram Vrancea March 1977 Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 32 . 1.

1.6 Significant earthquakes and tsunamis produced in the world Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 33 .

Fig. 1.17 Annual number of earthquakes recorded in the 20th century * *according with the NEC/US GS Global Hypocenter Data Base Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 34 .

Occured at night in the densely populated region around Xian.5 1531 Jan.000 Greatest natural disaster in history. Asia Minor.000 1455 Dec. on the Gulf of Corinth. Variously reported as occuring in 1201 or 1202 with over a million deaths (which is highly improbable). 35 . Many villages destroyed and thousands of deaths when houses collapsed.000 8. 1202 May 20 Middle East 30.000 30. Many peasants living in caves were killed. Thousands of landslides on the hillsides. which consists of soft rock.23 Italy Portugal. was destroyed. Syria. and Azerbai-jan.C.Date 780 B.26 1556 Jan.000 square miles. Sicily.C. Shaanxi Province 40. 373 B. Shaanxi Province Greece Magni tude Deaths Remarks Widespread destruction west of Xian Helice. Armenia. Location China.0 830. Naples badly damaged. including Egypt. Felt over an area of 800. Much of the city slid into the sea. Lisbon China.

Fig. Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 36 . mentioning the 1731 earthquake. Portugal. 1.18 View of an old tile fresco placed on a house wall from Sintra.

A.2 8. many killed when churches collapsed and fire ravaged the city.9 1897 June 12 1906 Apr. Large tsunami killed many.000 All Saints’ Day.500 Large fault scarp formed (vertical displacement 35 feet.1 1783 Feb.000 80. San Francisco 8. Calcutta Portugal. but then in Peru).3 60.5 7. Great fire burned much of the city.000 8. 300.3 0 1737 Oct. Large ground displacements.200 Tsunami. Much building damage in Shillong.. Lisbon Italy.000 Catania destroyed. 700 San Andreas fault ruptured for 270 miles. 37 . Many buildings destroyed.18 India.1626 July 30 1667 Nov. Shandong Province Turkey Sicily Japan.000 First earthquake to be investigated scientifically. 25. 15.5 1868 Aug. Tokyo region India. 1.11 1755 Nov.1 3 1891 Oct. Assam U.28 Italy. 7. Nobi Plain 8.300 Also known as Mino-Owari earthquake (Mino and Owari Provinces are now part of Gifu Prefec-ture). 50.9 1703 Dec. 1668 July 25 1688 July 5 1693 Jan. Naples Azerbaijan China.000 Damage along Aegean coast.S. Calabria Chile and Peru Japan.000 Large tsunami devasted Arica (now in Chile.6 8.5 70.000 Widespread destruction throughout province. 5.000 50.7 8. 60.

1908 Dec28 1920 Dec. 180 miles away. El Asnam Mexico. Major damage over a large area. 8.1 6 1923 Sept. 8. including Tokyo and Yokohama. 1. Khorasan 7. 10 1946 Dec.3 1940 Nov. south of Shikoku Island Japan.5 58.3 1931 Feb. 1968 Aug31 Iran (eastern).6 200.100 About 60. 1.4 7.4 1. Assam (eastern) Algeria.000 people homeless. Guerrero 7.9 1957 July 8 New Zealand.9 5. Large tsunami inundated coastal regions. 99.1 China. Great tsunami. 21 1948 June 28 1950 Aug.8 7.000 Messina destroyed.3 8.400 Only known instance of a person being crushed in a ground fissure.8 7.000 Severe damage to buildings in Bucharest. Fukui Prefecture India. 38 .360 Known as the Nankai earthquake.7 6. 150 Damage in region along border with Tibet Landslides and floods. Vrancea district Japan.240 El Asnam (then Orléansville) destroyed 68 Tall buildings damaged in Mexico City. 8. Hawke Bay Romania. 15 1954 Sept.3 12. Ningxia Province Japan. 225 Many buildings damaged in Napier.000 Many landslides covered villages and towns. Great fire in Tokyo. Tokyo 7.300 Known as Kanto earth-quake.

6.000 people in Ranrahirca and Yungay.570 Many buildings collapsed in Bucharest. Liaoning Province. Four aftershocks on same day with magnitudes 6. Heavy damage. Extensive damage. Tangshan 1977 Romania. May31 Chimbote 1975 Feb.000 Greatest earthquake disaster in the Western Hemisphere.15 southern Montenegr o 7. Haicheng 1976 China.000 Major industrial city totally destroyed. 7. Mar.8 7.3 67.4 Vrancea district 1979 Yugoslavia Apr.5.8 7. and 6. 1.0. 39 . 1. Huge landslide on Mt. 243. Huascarán buried 18.0 156 Near the Adriatic coast.2 7.300 Earthquake successfully predicted and population evacuated. July Hebei 28 Province. 7. About 800.0.4 China.000 people home-less.1970 Peru. but many lives saved.1.

500 deaths 240. the major was on 11 march with 9M -explosion hit a petrochemical plant 11 March 2011 Tohoku Japan trench 9 -Major damage in the Fukushima nuclear plant -Four trains were missed along the coast Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 40 .0 on the same day.8 Damages to buildings and bridges 6. and continued with a further three earthquakes greater than M 6.000 commercial buildings were severely damaged Began on 9 March with a M 7.000 Major damage.000 250.2.17 January Northdrige USA Kobe Japan Sumatra M 6. deaths The tsunami waves damaged the coast 1994 1995 26 Decem ber 9 2004 2009 Aquila Italy 6.000 residences and deaths 30.3 308 Several buildings collapsed deaths 1500 injuried 12 January 2010 Haiti 7 316.

300 deaths) Remarks Several large waves washed ashore in Portugal. Tsunami in Sagami Bay struck the shore 5 minutes after the earthquake. between Java and Sumatra). 1896 June 15 1923 Sept.Date 1755 Nov.3 (99. maximum wave height 15 meters. Spain. and Morocco. great fire in Tokyo.6 (60. in the Atlantic Ocean). earthquake of magnitude 7. including Tokyo and Yokohama. Known as the Kanto earthquake (epicenter in Kanto Plain).1 41 . Tsunami killed 160 people. Many lives lost by drowning. volcanic earthquake of magnitude 7.5 (27. Great tsunami felt in harbors around the world.27 Origin Lisbon. earthquake of magnitude 8.2 1883 Aug.000 deaths) Japan (Tokyo and vicinity).000 deaths) Japan (off the Sanriku coast). volcanic eruption (36. earthquake of magnitude 8. maximum wave height 10 meters. Portugal (off the coast.000 deaths) Island of Hawaii (south slope of Mauna Loa). Major damage and many deaths in Lisbon from tsunamis Local tsunami destroyed many houses and killed 46 people Violent explosion of Krakatoa volcano.1 Significant tsunamis produced in the world 1868 Apr. Tsunami caused much damage and loss of life on nearby islands. Major damage over a large area.7 Island of Krakatoa (in the Sunda Strait. Numerous villages entirely destroyed by tsunami.

17 Philippine Islands (Moro Gulf). Wave height 5 meters on Sanriku coast of Japan. 2004 December 26 Sumatra islands magnitude 8.1 Origin Aleutian Islands (south of Unimak Island in the Aleutian trench).Date 1946 Apr. but every country on the shore of the Indian Ocean was also affected 2011 March 11 Tohoku earthquake was a massive earthquake with magnitude 9 Japan trench -10m wave struck the port of Sendai. near the coast. carrying ships. earthquake of magnitude 8. Hawaii (96 deaths).8 (53 deaths) Tsunami struck the coasts. and Japan (120 deaths).5 (2. Arauco Province (along the continental shelf. earthquake of magnitude 8. 1960 May 22 Chile.hitting Hawaii and the US West Coast Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 42 .000 more people died. Minor damage in California (one death in Santa Cruz) 1956 July 9 Greece (Dodecanese Islands). earthquake of magnitude 7. Major damage and 240. 1976 Aug. earthquake of magnitude 7. from Thailand to Tanzania.500 deaths) Major damage and many deaths from tsunami. Local tsunami in Chile.0 About 47.5 (173 deaths) Remarks Major damage in Hilo. south of Conception).230 deats) Major damage in Hilo (61 deaths). vehicles and other debris inland -The tsunami rolled across the Pacific at 800km/h .0 (6. when the tsunami struck without warning during the next few hours.000 people died The worst part of it washed away whole cities in Indonesia.

Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 43 .1.7 Seismic hazard in Romania The seismic hazard in Romania is due to contribution of two factors : (i) the major contribution of subcrustal seismic zone Vrancea (ii) others contributions due to the surface seismic zone contributions spread to country territory.

8 6.3 7.3 6.1 6.5 6.4 26.4 7.8 45.5 6.5 7.6 7.5 26.2 7.9 6.2 6.7 26.3 6.5 26. 1994 I w1 7 6 8 7 7 6 7/8 9 7/8 7 6/7 8/9 8 8 7 6.4 Mw 6.4 6.4 6.7 6.Romanian earthquakes Data 1903 1904 1908 1912 1934 1939 1940 1940 1945 1945 1948 1977 1986 1990 1990 13 Septemrie 6 Februarie 6 Octombrie 25 Mai 29 Martie 5 Septembrie 22 Octombrie 10 Noiembrie 1 Septembrie 9 Decembrie 29 Mai 4 Martie 30 August 30 Mai 31Mai 08:02:7 45.7 6.3 7.8 45.8 7.47 26.5 7 6.8 45.5 7.5 7.7 45.7 I 6.4 6.3 5.7 6.1 6.0 7.6 26.3 6.5 26.6 6.6 26.5 6.8 6.6 7.7 26.8 45.7 6.7 6.4 6. N E Long.3 Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 ° 26.9 45.3 5.8 6.2 7.7 45.5 45.0 6.0 6.8 45. H Adâncimea focarului. 1980 Mws 5.5 6 8 7 8 6 7 9 7.3 6.7 02:49:00 21:39:8 18:01:7 20:06:51 06:02:00 06:37:00 01:39:07 15:48:26 06:08:45 04:48:55 19:22:15 4 21:28:37 3 10:40:06 2 00:17:49 3 45.1 6.8 6. km >60 75 150(12 5) 80(90) 90 120 122 140150* 75 80 130 109 133 91 79 Catalogul RADU C.8 26.89 ° Ora (GMT) h:m:s Lat.5 27.9 45.1 M M Catalogul MARZA.8 7.30 26.0 5.2 6.7 45.2 7.6 6.1 6.2 6.0 6.5) 45.90 26.5 9 - .7 (45.3 6.8 45.2 26.

corresponds to the reference return period chosen by the same authority. chosen by the National Authority for each seismic zone. National territory is subdivided into seismic zones.The design acceleration and seismic zones of Romanian territory 1. depending on the local hazard. 2. By definition. i. the value of the reference peak ground acceleration on rock or firm soil ag. The reference peak ground acceleration.e. 3.the hazard is described in terms of a single parameter. To this reference average return period for Romanian territory is call “the design soil acceleration” Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 45 . the hazard within each zone is assumed to be constant.

19 Romanian seismic network Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 46 . 1.Fig.

20 Seismic zones of Romanian territory depending on soil design acceleration ag for seismic events with average return period (of magnitude) IMR = 100 years Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 47 . 1.The design acceleration. for each zone of seismic hazard corresponds to an average return period of reference equal 100 years. Fig. Conforming the Romanian Code P100/1-2006.

The control period and the design accelerations of some Romanian cities [22] Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 48 .

16 1. s TC . 1. These values characterize synthetically the frequencies composition of the seismic movement.6 2 Fig.The control period The local soil conditions are described by values of control period TC of the response spectrum for the specific location. The average interval of return earthquake magnitude IMR=100 years For the ultimate limit stage TB .10 1. s TD .07 0. The control period represents the border between the zone of the maximum values in the spectrum of absolute accelerations and the zone of maximum values in the spectrum of relative velocity.0 3 0. s Values of control periods 0.7 3 0.21 Control periods for Romanian territory Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 49 . TC is expressed in the seconds.

Fig.22 The map of the Romanian territory with the zones on terms of TC for the horizontal components of the seismic movements due to earthquakes having the IMR=100 years. Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 50 .1.

BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING By Doina Verdes .

CHAPTER 2 THE ANALYSIS OF SEISMIC RESPONSE OF SINGLE DEGREE OF FREEDOM SYSTEM Doina Verdes Doina Verdes BASICS OFOF SEISMICAL ENGINEERING BASICS SEISMICAL ENGINEERING 2011 2011 2 .

3 The Response Spectrum Analysis 2.1 Modeling the buildings 2.10 Seismic response spectra of the SDOF inelastic systems Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMICAL ENGINEERING 2011 3 .5 The response spectrum and the pseudospectrum 2.Contents 2.6 Response to seismic loading: step-by-step methods 2. The seismic response of the SDOF nonlinear system using the step by step numerical integration 2.4 The relative displacement response 2.2 The degrees of freedom 2.8.9 The energy balance procedure 2.7 The Newmark Beta Methods 2.

1 Modeling the buildings Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMICAL ENGINEERING 2011 4 .2.

or panels which can significantly increase the stiffness of the framed structure.the stiffness and damping characteristics The model of building can contain the resistance system involved into vertical and lateral loads. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMICAL ENGINEERING 2011 • • • 5 .the distribution of inertial characteristics: mass of the levels.Dynamic models • • Dynamic model of the resistance structure It has to describe the behavior to seismic action. material . connected trough slabs (horizontal diaphragms) The deformability model of the structure can involve also the beamcolumn connection and /or structural walls. It has to represent adequately : . joints. inertia moments of the level mass .the general configuration – geometry. the model can be done also by structural elements with nonstructural elements – ex: the partition walls.

• The behavior of the material of structural elements could be linear-elastic (a) or nonlinear (b) a. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMICAL ENGINEERING 2011 b. 6 .

m k. ξ The model for a frame multiple spans Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMICAL ENGINEERING 2011 7 .The distribution of inertial characteristics: mass of the levels. ξ The model for a single span frame m k. inertia moments.

Fn F1 The model for a multilevel framed system Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMICAL ENGINEERING 2011 8 .

the concentrated mass. . Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMICAL ENGINEERING 2011 9 .2. The methods to obtain the dynamic model are: .the system with finite elements.2 The degree of freedom The degree of freedom (DOF) is by definition: the number of pendulum which block the movement of the mass.

How can be appreciate the degrees of freedom? a. The case of an bridge The horizontal translations of the mass of bridge’s deck The translations along the axis O-x and O-y => Two degrees of freedom Doina Verdes Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMICAL ENGINEERING BASICS OF SEISMICAL ENGINEERING 2011 2011 10 .

b. The case of one level building Simplified model: Three degrees of freedom due to horizontal translations and rotation on the vertical axis of the mass (concentrated at the roof level) Important assumptions: The building has rigid foundation slab The movement of soil due to seismic excitation is synchronic Doina Verdes Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMICAL ENGINEERING BASICS OF SEISMICAL ENGINEERING 2011 2011 11 .

c. The case of one level building subjected to foundation's rotation Results in one degree of freedom Doina Verdes Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMICAL ENGINEERING BASICS OF SEISMICAL ENGINEERING 2011 2011 12 .

Linear Elastic Calculus System FA(t) FS(t) k 1 c 1 y(t) & y (t ) b. FS= Elastic force FA= Damping force K = Stiffness C = damping coefficient y(t)= displacement & y (t ) =velocity Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMICAL ENGINEERING 2011 . a.

Non-linear Calculus System Tangenta la curbă Tangenta la curbă FA(t) FS(t) FA1 Fs1 ∆Fs Fs0 y(t) yo ∆y y1 & y0 Secanta la curbă ∆FS FA0 ∆ y (t ) & & y1 & y (t ) Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMICAL ENGINEERING 2011 14 .

Buildings with heavy shear walls and heavy cladding or partitions have greater damping than lightly clad skeletal structures. the form of the structure. Large-amplitudes post-elastic vibration is more heavily damped than small-amplitude vibration. and the nature of the vibration. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMICAL ENGINEERING 2011 15 . the nature of the subsoil.Level of damping in different structures The damping varies with: the materials used.

with normal floors and cladding Steel frame. welded. welded. with all walls of flexible construction Steel frame. with normal floors and cladding Concrete frame. with all walls of flexible construction Concrete frame. with stiff cladding and all internal walls flexible Concrete frame. bolted.Damping coefficient in different structures Type of construction Steel frame. with concrete or masonry shear walls Concrete and/or masonry shear wall buildings Timber shear walls construction Damping ν ξ percentage of critical 2 5 10 5 7 10 10 15 Doina Verdes Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMICAL ENGINEERING BASICS OF SEISMICAL ENGINEERING 2011 2011 16 .

2. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMICAL ENGINEERING 2011 17 .3 The Response Spectrum Analysis Response spectrum analysis is the dominant contemporary method for dynamic analysis of building structures under seismic loading.

Typical SDOF system subjected to base seismically excitation unidirectional translation yg(t) Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMICAL ENGINEERING 2011 18 .

The equilibrium of the forces based on D’Alembert low Fi (t ) + FD (t ) + Fe (t ) = 0 Fi (t)= the inertia force FD (t)= the damping force Fe (t)= the elastic force (1) Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMICAL ENGINEERING 2011 19 .

Fi (t ) = m( &&g + &&) y y & FD (t ) = cy (2) (3) Fe (t ) = ky (4) m= the mass of system c= the viscous damping cœfficient k= the stifness Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMICAL ENGINEERING 2011 20 .

The equation of equilibrium becomes: & m&&(t ) + cy (t ) + ky (t ) = − m&&g (t ) y y (5) (6) & m&&(t ) + cy (t ) + ky (t ) = − FS (t ) y The frequency equation &&(t ) + 2ωξy (t ) + ω 2 y (t ) = − &&g (t ) & y y ω = k /m (7) ξ = c/2mω Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMICAL ENGINEERING 2011 21 .

The general solution of the seismic equilibrium equation is: y(t ) = A exp −ξωt sin ωt +ϕ + 1 mω D t y ∫0 − m&&g (τ )sin ω D (t −τ )exp[−ξω (t −τ )]dτ (8) The first term represents the free vibration of the system The second term represents the forced vibrations under seismic action. Neglecting the free vibrations contribution due to the quick damping of these the solution becomes: y (t ) = 1 mω D ∫ − m&y& (τ )sin ω (t − τ )exp[− ξω(t − τ )]dτ 0 g D t (9) Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMICAL ENGINEERING 2011 22 .

4 The relative displacement response The relative displacement response of the frame to a single component of ground acceleration yg(t) may be expressed in the time domain by means of the Duhamel integral y (t ) = 1 mω D ∫ − m&y& (τ )sin ω (t − τ )exp[− ξω(t − τ )]dτ 0 g D t (9) Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMICAL ENGINEERING 2011 23 .2.

the critically damper coefficient ξ = c/ccr c= the viscous damping coefficient ccr = critically damping coefficient ξ = 0.y(t) – the mass displacement ω D – the circular damped frequency ξ .02 … 0.1 m= the mass &&g (τ ) = the ground acceleration at timeτ y ω = k/m (10) ξ = c/2mω (11) Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMICAL ENGINEERING 2011 24 .

as is permissible for small damping ratios usually representative of real structures (say ξ < 0.10). and when it is noted that the negative sign has no real significance with regard to earthquake excitation. this equation can be reduced to: y (t ) = ∫ &y& (τ )sin ω (t − τ )exp[− ξω (t − τ )]dτ ω 0 g 1 t (12) Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMICAL ENGINEERING 2011 25 .When the difference between the damped and the undamped frequency is neglected.

North – south component of horizontal ground acceleration El Centro 1940 Doina Verdes Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMICAL ENGINEERING BASICS OF SEISMICAL ENGINEERING 2011 2011 26 .

2.5 The response spectrum and the pseudospectrum The response spectrum used in seismical engineering are: .the absolute acceleration spectrum .the displacement spectrum Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMICAL ENGINEERING 2011 .the velocity spectrum .

(12). one obtains the corresponding relative velocity time-history & y (t ) = ∫ &&g (τ ) cos ω (t − τ ) exp[− ξω (t − τ )]dτ y 0 t − ξ ∫ &&g (τ )sin ω (t − τ ) exp[− ξω (t − τ )]dτ y 0 t (13) Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMICAL ENGINEERING 2011 28 .• Taking the first time derivative of Eq.

(12) and (13) into the forced-vibration equation of motion.Further. written in the form &&t (t) = -2ωξy (t ) − ω 2 y(t) & y one obtains the total acceleration relation: &&t (t ) = ω 2ξ − 1 ∫ &&g (τ )sin ω (t − τ ) exp[− ξω (t − τ )]dτ y y 2 0 ( ) t − 2ωξ ∫ &&g (τ ) cos ω (t − τ ) exp[− ξω (t − τ )]dτ y 0 t (14) Doina Verdes Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMICAL ENGINEERING BASICS OF SEISMICAL ENGINEERING 2011 2011 29 . substituting Eqs.

These will be denoted herein as : Sd(ξ . (12). and .The absolute maximum values of the response given by Eqs.the spectral relative displacement. and (14) are called: . Sa(ξ . (13). Sv(ξ . respectively.ω). .the spectral relative velocity. Doina Verdes Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMICAL ENGINEERING BASICS OF SEISMICAL ENGINEERING 2011 2011 30 .the spectral absolute acceleration.ω).ω).

it is usually necessary to calculate only the so-called pseudo-velocity spectral response Spv(ξ . ω ) (16) 31 Doina Verdes Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMICAL ENGINEERING BASICS OF SEISMICAL ENGINEERING 2011 2011 . it is seen that (15) y (t ) = ω ∫0 1 t &&g (τ )sin ω (t − τ ) exp[− ξω (t − τ )]dτ y (12) S d (ξ . ω ) = 1 ω S pv (ξ .As will be shown subsequently. (12).ω) defined by t && (τ ) sin ω (t − τ ) exp[− ξω (t − τ )]dτ S pv (ξ . ω ) ≡ ∫ y g 0 max Now from Eq.

ω ) ≡ ∫ y g 0 max (17) t && (τ )sin ω (t − τ )dτ S pv (0. (13) and (15) that (for ξ = 0) t && (τ ) cos ω (t − τ )dτ S v (0.and from Eqs. ω ) ≡ ∫ y g 0 max (18) Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMICAL ENGINEERING 2011 32 .

ω ) ≡ ∫ &&g 0 max Doina Verdes Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMICAL ENGINEERING BASICS OF SEISMICAL ENGINEERING 2011 2011 (19) 33 . Also from Eq. For damped systems.which are identical except for the trigonometric terms.ω) differ very little numerically.20. It has been demonstrated by Hudson that Sv(0 . except in the case of very long period oscillators. i. (14) for ξ = 0 that &&t (t ) = ω 2ξ − 1 ∫ &&g (τ )sin ω (t − τ ) exp[− ξω (t − τ )]dτ y y 2 0 ( ) t − 2ωξ ∫ &&g (τ ) cos ω (t − τ ) exp[− ξω (t − τ )]dτ y 0 t ω t v (t )sin ω (t − τ )dτ S a (0. very small values of ω.ω) and Spv(0 . the difference between Sv and Spv is considerably larger and can differ by as much as 20 percent for ξ = 0.e.

ω ) = ωS pv (ξ . we are able to use the approximate relation S a (ξ . ω ) (19) It can be shown that Eq.• thus.20. from Eq. (19) is very nearly satisfied for damping values over the range 0 < ξ < 0. ω ) = ω S pv (0 . therefore. (19). S a (0 .ω ) (20) with little error being introduced. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMICAL ENGINEERING 2011 34 .

ω ) Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMICAL ENGINEERING 2011 (23) 35 .ω). This quantity is particularly significant since it is a measure of the maximum spring force developed in the oscillator f s . ω ) = ωS pv (ξ . max = kS d (ξ . ω ) = mS pa (ξ .• The entire quantity on the right hand side of Eq. (20) is called the pseudo-acceleration spectral response and it is denoted herein as Spa(ξ . ω ) (22) S pa (ξ . ω ) = ω 2 mS d (ξ . ω ) = 1 ω S pv (ξ . ω ) (21) • The other response spectra can be easily obtained there from using the relations S d (ξ .

ω) using Eqs. it is possible to calculate the corresponding discrete values of Spv(ξ .• As indicated above these response quantities depend not only on the ground motion time-history but also on the natural frequency and damping ratio of the oscillator.ω) using Eq. (22) and (23). (22) and to calculate corresponding values of Sd(ξ . • Thus for any given earthquake accelerogram.ω) and Spa(ξ . by assuming discrete values of damping ratio and natural frequency. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMICAL ENGINEERING 2011 36 . respectively.

• displacement response spectra. California. 1940 (N S component).ω) • plotted as functions of frequency (or functions of period T = 2π/ω) for discrete values of damping ratio are called • pseudo-velocity response spectra. If plotted in linear form.3. • respectively.ω). earthquake of May 18.• • • • Graphs of the values for Spv(ξ . Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMICAL ENGINEERING 2011 37 .ω). for the El Centro. each type of spectra must be plotted separately similar to the set of Spv(ξ . Sd(ξ . and Spa(ξ .T) shown in Figure 2. and • pseudo-acceleration response spectra.

a) Ground acceleration (El Centro) b) The deformation response of three SDF systems T=0.5 s a c) deformation response spectrum ξ =2% T=1 s ξ =2% T=2 s ξ =2% b c Doina Verdes Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMICAL ENGINEERING BASICS OF SEISMICAL ENGINEERING 2011 2011 38 .

This may be accomplished by taking the log (base 10) of Eqs. (22) and (23) it is possible to present them all in a single plot. ω ) + log ω (25) Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMICAL ENGINEERING 2011 39 . ω ) = log S pv (ξ .However. due to the simple relationships existing among the three types of spectra as given by Eqs. ω ) = log S pv (ξ . ω ) − log ω (24) Combined D-V-A RESPONSE SPECTRUM for El Centro 1940 ground motion log S pa (ξ . (24) and (25) to obtain log S d (ξ .

Combined D-V-A response spectrum for El Centro ground motion Doina Verdes Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMICAL ENGINEERING BASICS OF SEISMICAL ENGINEERING 2011 2011 40 .

ω) and Eq.From these relations.ω) as the ordinate and logω as the abscissa. it is seen that when a plot is made with log Spv(ξ. Thus. ω ) = &&g (t ) max y [ ] (26) ω →0 [ ] (27) Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMICAL ENGINEERING 2011 41 .ω). Eq. ω ) = y g (t ) max lim S pa (ξ . When interpreting such plots. a four-way log plot allows all three types of spectra to be illustrated on a single graph. it is important to note the following limiting values: ω →0 lim S d (ξ . (25) is a straight line with slope of – 45° for a constant value of logSpa(ξ. (24) is a straight line with slope of +45°for a constant value of logSd(ξ.

These limiting conditions mean that all response spectrum curves on the four-way log plot. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMICAL ENGINEERING 2011 42 . say ξ = 0.20. approach asymptotically the maximum ground displacement with increasing values of oscillator period (or decreasing values of frequency) and the maximum ground acceleration with decreasing values of oscillator period (or increasing values of frequency) for typical values of damping ratio.

Combined D-V-A RESPONSE SPECTRUM for El Centro 1940 with different damping coefficient values Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMICAL ENGINEERING 2011 43 .

these response spectra show directly the extent to which real SDOF structures (with specific values of damping ratio and natural period) respond to the input ground motion.In fact. the maximum amount of elastic deformation produced by an earthquake is a very meaningful indication of ground motion intensity. Therefore. The only limitation in their application is that the response must be linear elastic because linear response is inherent in the Duhamel integral. Nevertheless. as damage involves inelastic (nonlinear) deformations. such response spectra cannot accurately represent the extent of damage to be expected from a given earthquake excitation. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMICAL ENGINEERING 2011 44 .

5 sec as the spectrum intensity: SI (ξ ) ≡ ∫ 2. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMICAL ENGINEERING 2011 45 . Housner originally introduced such a measure of ground motion intensity when he suggested defining the integral of the pseudo-velocity response spectrum over the period range 0. such response spectra indicate the maximum deformations for all structures having periods within the range for which they were evaluated. the integral of a single response spectrum over an appropriate period range can be used as an effective measure of ground motion intensity. this integral can be evaluated for any desired damping ratio. hence. Housner recommended using ξ = 0. T )dT (28) As indicated.20.1 S pv (ξ .5 0.1 < T < 2. however.Moreover.

Once the shapes of these common normalized spectra have been developed. appropriate scaling factors are applied representing the intensity levels of the peak free-field surface ground accelerations (PGA) produced by the design and maximum probable earthquakes.Usually.ω ) = 1 g (29) and then later to scale them down to the appropriate peak acceleration levels representing the design and maximum probable earthquakes. (27) becomes: ω →0 lim S pa (ξ . taking into consideration local soil conditions. Thus. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMICAL ENGINEERING 2011 46 . it has been common practice to first normalize the intensity of these design spectra to the 1 g peak acceleration level so that Eq. it is assumed that the shapes of the design spectra are the same for both the design and maximum probable earthquakes but than they differ in intensity as measured by peak ground acceleration.

BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING By Doina Verdes .

CHAPTER 2 THE ANALYSIS OF SEISMIC RESPONSE OF SINGLE DEGREE OF FREEDOM SYSTEM Doina Verdes Doina Verdes BASICS OFOF SEISMICAL ENGINEERING BASICS SEISMICAL ENGINEERING 2011 2011 2 .

8.7 The Beta Newmark Methods 2.Contents 2.5 The response spectrum and the pseudospectrum 2.2 The degrees of freedom 2.1 Modeling the buildings 2. The seismic response of the SDOF nonlinear system using the step by step numerical integration 2.4 The relative displacement response 2.9 The energy balance procedure 2.6 Response to seismic loading: step-by-step methods 2.3 The Response Spectrum Analysis 2.10 Seismic response spectra of the SDOF inelastic systems Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 3 .

2.6 Response to seismic loading: step-by-step methods Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 4 .

• There are many different step-by-step methods. The step-by step procedure is suited to analysis of nonlinear response in earthquake engineering. The response during each step then is calculated from the initial conditions (displacement and velocity) existing at the beginning of the step and from the history of loading during the step.The step-by step procedure • A severe earthquake will induce inelastic deformation in a code-designed structure. Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 5 . but in all of them the loading and the response history are divided into a sequence of time intervals or ‘steps’.

hence the nonlinear analysis actually is a sequence of linear analyses of a changing system. including changes of mass. and causing them to change in accordance with any specified form of behavior from one step to the next. Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 6 . and there is no need to combine response contribution within the step. • Any desired degree of refinement in the nonlinear behavior may be achieved in this procedure by making the time steps’ short enough.The response for each step • Thus the response for each step is an independent analysis problem. also it can be applied to any type of nonlinearity. and damping properties as well as the more common nonlinearities due to changes of stiffness. Nonlinear behavior may be considered easily by this approach merely by assuming that the structural properties remain constant during each step.

Step-by-step methods The simplest step-by-step method for analysis the SDOF system is based on the exact solution of the equation of motion for response of a linear structure to a loading that varies linearly during a discrete time interval. The essential concept is represented by the following equations: Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 7 . The general numerical approach to step-by step dynamic response analysis makes use of integration to step forward from the initial to the final conditions for each time step. between this points. it is assumed that the slope of the load curve remains constant. usually defined by significant changes of shape in the actual loading history. The loading history is divided into time intervals. The other step-by-step methods employ numerical procedures to approximately satisfy the equation of motion during each time step using numerical differentiation or numerical integration.

and the change of displacement depends on the corresponding velocity integral. it is necessary first to assume how the acceleration varies during the time step. The change of velocity depends on the integral of the acceleration history. Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 8 .& & y1 = y0 + ∫ h 0 & y (τ )dτ (1) y1 = y0 + ∫ h 0 & y(τ )dτ (2) which express the final velocity and displacement in terms of the initial values of these quantities plus an integral expression. this acceleration assumption controls the variation of the velocity as well and thus makes it possible to step forward to the next time step. In order to carry out this type of analysis.

2. In the Newmark formulation. but also may be applied in several other versions. which includes the preceding method as a special case. (1.2)] for the final velocity and displacement are expressed as follows: & & y1 = y0 + (1 − γ )h&&0 + γh&&1 y y 1 & 0 + − β h 2 &&0 + β h 2 &&1 y1 = y 0 + h y y y 2 h=time step h = ti+1 – ti Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 (3) (4) (5) 9 .7 The Newmark Beta Methods A more general step-by-step formulation was proposed by Newmark. the basic integration equation [Eqs.

• It is evident in Eq. there is no artificial damping if γ = 1/2. it was noted that the factor γ controlled the amount of artificial damping induced by this step-by-step procedure. the factor β similarly provides for weighting the contributions of these initial and final accelerations to the change of displacement. Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 10 . • From study of the performance of this formulation. so it is recommended that this value be use for standard SDOF analyses. (3) that the factor γ provides a linearity varying weighting between the influence of the initial and the final accelerations on the change of velocity.

The constant variation of acceleration during the incremental h time Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 11 .

The variation of acceleration during the incremental h time interval c. β= 1/8 Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 12 . β= 1/6 e.

thus the Newmark β = 1/6 method is also known as the linear acceleration method.55 T ti ti+1 h t (6) Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 13 . The linear acceleration method is only conditionally stable referring the incremental value of time step: h=t –t i+1 i &&s (t ) y Conditions for step time &&si +1 y h p 3/π T &&si y h p 0.These results also may be derived by assuming that the acceleration varies linearly during the time step between the initial and final values of ÿ and ÿ1.

55 i-1 i i+1 Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 14 .Coeficient β= 1/6 (γ = 1/2) • β = 1/6 ( γ = 1/2). &&si −1 y ∆h h &&si y ∆h h &&si +1 y h/T ≤ √3/π = 0.

) (7) h & & y1 = y0 + ( &&0 + &&1 ) y y 2 (8) h2 h2 & &&0 + &&1 y1 = y0 + y0 h + y y 3 6 (9) Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 15 .Linear variation of acceleration during time interval “h” β = 1/6 (for γ = ½.

Step 1 & m&&1 (t ) + c(t ) y1 (t ) + k (t ) y1 (t ) = m&&s1 (t ) y y (10) (11) h & & y1 = y0 + ( &&0 + &&1 ) y y 2 h2 h2 & y1 = y0 + y0 h + &&0 + &&1 y y 3 6 (12) Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 16 .

STEP 1 • Initial moment: ground acceleration is =0 and the response in accelerations. velocity and displacement & y0 = 0 &&0 = 0 y y0 = 0 h & y1 = ( &&1 ) y 2 (13) h &&1 y1 = y 6 2 (14) Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 17 .

13 and 14 h h2 &&1 = −m&&1s m&&1 + c &&1 + k y y y y 2 6 &&1 = −m&&1s y y 1 h h2 m+c +k 2 6 (15) (16) & y1 = −m&&1s y 1 h ⋅ h h2 2 m+c +k 2 6 (17) 1 h2 y1 = −m&&1s y ⋅ h h2 6 m+c +k 2 6 Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 (18) 18 .The displacement and velocity increments using eq.

which are known either from the values at the end of the preceding time increment or as initial conditions of the response at time t = 0. and the specified properties of the system. the above described explicit linear acceleration analysis procedure consists of the following operations which must carried out consecutively in the order given: Using the initial velocity and displacement values & yo and y0.Summary of the Linear Acceleration Procedure For any given time increment. (2) Finally. evaluate the velocity and displacement at the end of the time increment. (1) Determine the displacement and velocity increments using Eqs. (13 and 14). Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 19 .

Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 20 . and the period T of vibration of the structure. The time increment must be short enough to permit the reliable representation of all these factors. the last one being associated with the free-vibration behavior of the system. • The factors which must be considered in the selection of this interval: the complexity of the nonlinear damping and stiffness properties. • As with any numerical-integration procedure the accuracy of this step-by-step method will depend on the length of the time increment h.Linear systems can also be treated by this same procedure. which becomes simplified due to the physical properties remaining constant over their entire time-histories of response.

the digitalised accelerogram The equation of equilibrium at the time step t1 & m&&1 (t ) + c(t ) y1 (t ) + k (t ) y1 (t ) = m&&s1 (t ) y y c(t) – the damping coefficient k(t) – the stiffness (1) The coefficients c(t) and k(t) are variable time depending Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 21 .2.8 The seismic response of the SDOF nonlinear system using the step by step numerical integration We have to know: • .the behavior of the material done by the diagram (the model can be elastic-linear or nonlinear) • .

The symmetrical elastic-plastic model b. The asymmetrical elastic-plastic model c.The calculus model for the non-elastically behavior of the material a. The bilinear elastic-plastic model Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 22 .

The stiffness b.The nonlinear system FS(t) Tangent FA(t) Tangent FA1 Fs1 ∆Fs Fs0 y(t) yo Secant ∆ FA FA0 ∆y y1 a. The damping Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 23 .

&&s (t ) y &&si +1 y &&si y ti ti+1 ∆h t The digitalized accelerograme Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 24 .

The linear acceleration method is only conditionally stable referring the incremental value of time step &&s (t ) y h = ti+1 – ti &&si+1 y Conditions for step time to &&si y h p 3/π T ti ti+1 h t h p 0.We assume that the acceleration varies linearly during the time step between the initial and final values of ÿ0 and ÿ1.55 T (2) Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 25 . thus the Newmark β = 1/6 method is also known as the linear acceleration method.

The incremental form of the seismic equation During the incremental time step h the system behavior is elastically ∆FI + ∆FD + ∆FS = ∆F ef ∆FI (t ) = FI (t + h ) − FI (t ) = m∆&&(t ) y & ∆FD (t ) = FD (t + h ) − FD (t ) = c∆y (t ) ∆FS (t ) = FS (t + h ) − FS (t ) = k∆y (t ) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) ∆Fef (t ) = Fef (t + h ) − Fef (t ) = m∆&&s (t ) y & m∆&&(t ) + c∆y (t ) + k∆y (t ) = − m∆&&s (t ) y y The equation can be solved using the β Newmark integration method Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 26 .

9 The energy balance procedure • Is based on the comparison of two energies which are found on the structure during the earthquake: • The input energy into structure by the earthquake • The energy dissipated or stored by the structure The equation of energy balance is useful if it can be computed in each step of integration • Assumption: the induced energy is computed for an elastic linear system mS v Ei = 2 2 (9) • Sv is the pseudo-velocity spectrum Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 27 .2.

The energy balance equation EI = EE +EH = (EES + EK )+ (EHξ + EHµ) • • • • • • • EI = Input Energy EE = Elastic energy of the system EH = Energy due to deformations EES= Energy elastic strains EK = Kinetic energy EHξ = Energy dissipated by the damping EHµ= Energy dissipated by the plastic deformation (10) Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 28 .

By reaching the maximum deformation of the structural elements. Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 29 .All types of energy are computed in the moment of structure collapse The collapse may be produced by: The fatigue at a reduced number of cycles. By the overturning effect due to the large lateral displacements.

5) 2 Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 (12) 30 .the seismic design force Fy ∆y C ∆Ue ∆ ∆u ∆ ECAP = 1 FC ∆ C + FC (∆U − ∆ C ) = FC ∆ C (ρ D − 0.The energetic procedure based on the ultimate displacements ECAP=Ep+EH (11) F FE Elastic behavior Elastic-plastic behavior Fy .

10 Seismic response spectra of the inelastic systems The spectrum one obtains from elastical spectrum by ductility factors.2. The energia of the nonlinear system is equal with the energy of the linear elastically system. F Fe Fy=F=Fpl Fcp ii) ∆c ∆y ∆u (∆e max) ∆ Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 31 . These can be computed using two proceedings : i) The spectral displacement of the nonlinear system is equal with those of a linear system.

i) The spectral desplacement of the nonlinear system is equal with those of a linear system The displacements in the ultimate stage are: ∆e max= ∆u F Fy Fe Fc = = ∆y ∆u = mS a Fe Fe Fy=Fcp pl F =F (13) ρd ρd ∆∆c y Sa – Elastic acceleration spectrum. ρd – desplacement ductility factor Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 ∆u (∆e max) ∆ 32 .

The energy of the nonlinear system is equal with the energy of the linear elastical system F 1 1 ∆ C FC + (∆ u − ∆ e ) FC = ∆ e Fe 2 2 Fc = 1 2ρ d − 1 F e= mS a 2ρ d − 1 Fe (14) Fc=F Fy=Fp pl The spectral response for the elasticplastic systems one obtains by dividing elastic spectrum to the ductility factor ρ d or by the equation 2ρ d − 1 ∆c ∆y ∆u (∆e max) ∆ Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 33 .

To determine strength demands.Newmark inelastic Spectrum (for pseudo acceleration)* The Newmark-Hall spectrum may be converted into an “inelastic design response spectrum” by making the appropriate adjustments.1) in the short period *Source: FEMA Instructional Material (equal energy) Complementing FEMA 451 Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 34 . the spectrum is divided by ductility in the higher period (equal displacement) realm but is divided by (2µ .

5. 4. 8. Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 35 . 2.Elastic-plastic response spectrum for El Centro 1940 with 5% damping coeficient and ductilities 1. 1.

BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING By Doina Verdes .

CHAPTER 3 ANALYSIS OF SEISMIC RESPONSE MULTIDEGREE OF FREEDOM SYSTEMS .

3 Response Spectrum Analysis for Multi-degree of Freedom Systems 3.2 Earthquake Response Analysis by Mode Superposition 3.1Vibration Frequencies and Mode Shapes 3.Contents 3.4 Step-by-Step Integration Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 3 .

Each story mass represents one degree-of-freedom each with an equation of dynamic equilibrium.3.1. Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 4 . consider a three story-building (Figure 3.1 Introduction • In the dynamic analysis of most structures it is necessary to assume that the mass is distributed in more than one discrete lump.). For most buildings the mass is assumed to be concentrated at the floor levels and to be subjected to lateral displacement only. • To illustrate the corresponding multi-degree-of-freedom analysis.

2 ua.3 Mode 1 Mode 2 Mode 3 Shapes of vibration due to mode 1 to 3 Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 5 .3 Hypothesis .2 ub.3 yb(t) &&g y ub.mc Axis of reference mb ma yc(t) uc.1 ua.1 ub.1 uc.the mass is assumed to be concentrated at the floor levels .the mass is assumed to be subjected to lateral displacement only (the building base is very rigid and the ground movement is assumed to be synchronically.2 uc. in the same phase) Each mass has 2 DOF Due to two Horizontal Translations and rotation ya(t) ua.

The equations of dynamic equilibrium FI a + FDa + FS a = Fa (t ) [1] FI b + FDb + FSb = Fb (t ) FI c + FDc + FSc = Fc (t ) [2] [3] Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 6 .

The inertia forces in equation (1) are: && FI a = ma ⋅ u a && FI b = mb ⋅ ub [4] [5] [6] && FI c = mc ⋅ u c Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 7 .

y Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 [8] 8 .The inertia forces in matrix form: F1a ma F1b = 0 F 0 1c 0 mb 0 0 0 mc && u a && ub u &&c [7] or more generally: FI = M ⋅ && y FI is the inertia force vector. M is the mass matrix and && is the acceleration vector.

• In more generalized shape co-ordinate systems. giving no coupling between the masses. This is a prime reason for using the lumped-mass method. coupling generally exists between the coordinates. complicating the solution.• It should be noted that the mass matrix is of diagonal form for a lumped sum-system. Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 9 .

The elastic forces in equation (1) depend on the displacement and using stiffness influence coefficients they may be expressed: FS a = k aa u a + k ab u b + k ac u c FSb = k ba u a + k bb u b + k bc u c F = k u + k u + k u ca a cb b cc c Sc [9] Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 10 .

k is the stiffness matrix and u is the displacement vector [11] The stiffness matrix k generally exhibits coupling and will be best handled by a standard computerized matrix analysis.In matrix form FSa k aa FSb = k ba F k Sc ca k ab k bb k cb k ac k bc k cc u a ub u c [10] or more generally: FS = k ⋅ u F S is the elastic force vector. Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 11 .

c is the damping matrix and & yo is the velocity vector.By analogy with the expression (9). [12] In general it is not practicable to evaluate c and damping is usually expressed in terms of damping coefficients. Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 12 . (10) and (11) the damping forces may be expressed & FD = c ⋅ y F D is the damping force vector.

(8).Using the Eqs. (11) and (12) the equation of dynamic equilibrium (1) may be written generally as: FI + FD + FS = F (t ) which is equivalent to [13] && & && Mu + cu + ku = − mu g (t ) [14] Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 13 .

Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 14 .3.2 Vibration Frequencies and Mode Shapes • The dynamic response of a structure is dependent upon the frequency (or period T) and the displaced shape • The first step in the analysis of a MDOF system is to find its free vibration frequencies and mode shapes. In free vibration there is no external force and damping is taken as zero.

• The equation of motion (14) becomes: && Mu + ku = 0 [15] Making the necessary steps of calcullus on obtains: ˆ ˆ ku − ω 2 Mu = 0 [16] the eigenvalue equation and is readily solved for ω by standard computer programs Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 15 .

Eq. Because of orthogonality properties of mode shapes.• An important simplification can be made in equations of motion because of the fact that each mode has an independent equation of exactly equivalent form to that for a single degree of freedom system. Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 16 . (14) can be written T φ n F (t ) 2 & & Y&n + 2ξ nω nYn + ω n Yn = T φ n Mφ n Yn is a generalized displacement in mode n leading to the actual displacement and ønT is the row mode vector corresponding to the column vector øn.

(14) for each mode. (15) becomes: Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 17 . and the total response is then obtained by superposing the modal effects.Earthquake Response Analysis by Mode Superposition • The dynamic analysis of a multi-degree-of-freedom system can be simplified to the solution of Eq. • In terms of excitation by earthquake ground motion üg(t) Eq.

where Yn is a generalized displacement in mode n leading to the actual displacement and T is the row mode vector corresponding to the Φn column vector øn.2 & & Y&n + 2ξω nYn + ω n Yn = Ln && u g (t ) T φ n Mφ n [16] The response of the n–th mode at any time demands the solution of Eq for Yn(t). Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 18 .

This may be done by evaluating the Duhamel integral: Ln 1 Yn (t ) = T ⋅ φ n Mφ n ω n ∫ t 0 && u g (σ )e −ξω n (t −σ ) dσ [17] Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 19 .

Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 20 .• This displacement of floor (or mass) i at t is then obtained by superimposing the response of all modes evaluated at this time t: u i = ∑ φ inYn (t ) n =1 N [18] where øin is the relative amplitude of displacement of mass i in mode n. and it is normally sufficiently accurate to superimpose the effects of only the first few modes. • It should be noted that in structures with many degrees of freedom most of the vibration energy is absorbed in the lower modes.

The earthquake forces • The earthquake forces in the structure may then be expressed in terms of the effective accelerations && (t ) = ω 2Y (t ) Yn eff n n from which the acceleration at any floor i is 2 &&in eff (t ) = ω n φ inYn (t ) u [19] [20] and the earthquake force at any floor “i” is 2 & qin (t ) = mi ω n φinY& (t ) n Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 [ ] [21] 21 .

1 max + u a . Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 22 .2 max + u a . the earthquake forces in the total structure may be expressed in matrix form as: 2 2 2 u a max ≈ u a . having first determined the modal response amplitudes.3 max [ ] 1 2 [22] the entire history of displacement and force response can be defined for any multi-degree of freedom system.Superimposing all the modal contributions.

R (t) First mode Time u 1max Second mode Time u 2max Nth mode Time u n max Superimposing all the modal contributions Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 23 .

3 Response Spectrum Analysis for Multidegree of Freedom Systems • As with single degree-of-freedom structures considerable simplification of the analysis is achieved if only the maximum response to each mode is considered rather than the whole response history. • If the maximum value Yn max of the Duhamel equation (17) is calculated.3. the distribution maximum displacement in that mode is: Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 24 .

San is the spectral acceleration for mode n.u n max = φ nYn max Ln S vn = φn T ⋅ φ n Mφ n ω n [23] and the distribution of maximum earthquake forces in that mode is: q n max = Mφ nω Y 2 n n max Ln = Mφ n T ⋅ S an φ n Mω n [24] Where Svn is the spectral velocity for mode n. (23) and (24) enable the maximum response in each mode to be determined Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 25 . Eqs.

The best that can be done in a response spectrum analysis is to combine the modal responses on a probability basis.2 max + u a . As an example the maximum deflection at the top of a three-story structure (three masses) would be: 2 2 2 u a max ≈ u a . Various approximate formula for superposition are used.1 max + u a . they cannot be combined to give the precise total maximum response. the most common being the Square Root of Sum of Squares (SRSS) procedure.• As the modal maxima do not necessarily occur at the same time.3 max [ ] 1 2 [25] Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 26 . not necessarily have the same sign.

Exemple of a three stories frame Response Spectrum Analysis [21] Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 27 .

Solutions for System in Undamped Free Vibration Mode Shapes for Idealized 3-Story Frame Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 28 .

Concept of Linear Combination of Mode Shapes (Transformation of Coordinates) U=ФY Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 29 .

In general. The damping matrix (which is not involved in eigenvalue calculations) will be diagonalized as shown only under certain conditions. C will be diagonalized if it satisfies the Caughey criterion: CM-1K = KM-1C Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 30 .Orthogonality conditions The orthogonality condition is an extremely important concept as it allows for the full uncoupling of the equations of motion.

Development of uncoupled Equations of motions Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 31 .

The explicit form Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 32 .

Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 33 . some mathematical entity is required to represent natural damping.Modal Damping Matrix • For structures without added dampers. • The two types of damping shown herein allow for the uncoupling of the equations. the development of an explicit damping matrix. is not possible because discrete dampers are not attached to the dynamic DOF. C. • An arbitrary damping matrix cannot be used because there would be no guarantee that the matrix would be diagonalized by the mode shapes. However.

Rayleigh proportional Damping Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 34 .

Response Spectrum Method Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 35 .

Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 .

they cannot be combined to give the precise total maximum response.1 max + u a . Various approximate formula for superposition are used.2 max + u a . The best that can be done in a response spectrum analysis is to combine the modal responses on a probability basis.• As the modal maxima do not necessarily occur at the same time. As an example the maximum deflection at the top of a three-story structure (three masses) would be: 2 2 2 u a max ≈ u a . not necessarily have the same sign.3 max [ ] 1 2 [25] Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 37 . the most common being the Square Root of Sum of Squares (SRSS) procedure.

Between each interval the properties of the structure are modified to match the current state of deformation. Therefore. the nonlinear response is obtained as a sequence of linear responses of successively differing system.3. during each of which the structure is assumed to be linearly elastic.4 Step-by-Step Integration Generally the response history is divided into very short time increments. In each time increment the following computation are made: Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 38 .

(14) may be written: && & M∆u + c(t )∆u + k (t )∆u = ∆F (t ) Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 [26] 39 . Changes of displacement are computed assuming the accelerations to vary linearly during the interval. These changes of displacement are added to the displacement state of the beginning of the interval to give the displacement at the end of the interval. based on the state of displacement existing at the beginning of the increment. For this purpose Eq. Stresses appropriate to the total displacement are computed. In the above procedure the equations of motion must be integrated in their original form during each time increment.• • • • • The stiffness of the structure for that increment is computed.

Tangenta la curba FS(t) ∆FI + ∆FD + ∆FS = ∆F ef Secanta la curba Fs1 ?Fs Fs0 y(t) yo ∆FI (t ) = FI (t + h ) − FI (t ) = m∆&&(t ) y ? y y1 & ∆FD (t ) = FD (t + h ) − FD (t ) = c∆y (t ) ∆FS (t ) = FS (t + h ) − FS (t ) = k∆y (t ) ∆FS &&s (t ) y &&si +1 y ∆y y1 ∆Fef (t ) = Fef (t + h ) − Fef (t ) = m∆&&s (t ) y &&si y ti ti+1 ∆h t & m∆&&(t ) + c∆y (t ) + k∆y (t ) = −m∆&&s (t ) y y Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 40 .

the shortest period) associated with the system eigenproblem.e.8 &&g y &&gi +1 y (6) &&gi y ti ti+1 t h where TN is the vibration period of the highest mode (i..• In order to avoid instability in the response calculated by these equations the length of the time step must be limited by the condition 1 h≤ TN 1. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMICAL ENGINEERING 2011 41 .

• The determination of k for each increment is the most demanding part of the analysis.• where • k(t) is the stiffness matrix for the time increment beginning at the time t. Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 42 . • The integration may be obtained applying the procedure ß Newmark. • ∆u is the change in displacement during the interval. as all the individual member stiffness must be found each time or their current state of deformation.

**Modal Analysis Equivalent Lateral Force Procedure
**

Empirical period of vibration • Smoothed response spectrum • Compute total base shear,, as if SDOF • Distribute T along height assuming “regular” geometry • Compute displacements and member forces using standard procedures

Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011

43

BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING

By Doina Verdes

CHAPTER 4.

METHODS OF SEISMIC ANALYSIS OF STRUCTURES

Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011

Contents

• 4.1 Introduction • 4.2 Lateral force method of analysis Romanian Code P100/1-2006 • 4.3 Lateral force method of analysis- EC8 • 4.4 Time - history representation • 4.5 Non-linear static (pushover) analysis

Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011

4.1 Introduction

The many methods for determining seismic forces in structures fall into two distinct categories: • Equivalent static force analysis; • Dynamic analysis. The three main techniques currently used for dynamic analysis are: Direct integration of the equation of motion by stepby-step procedures; Normal mode analysis; Response spectrum techniques.

Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011

• a) the “lateral force method of analysis” for common buildings • b) the “modal response spectrum analysis", which is applicable to all types of buildings. As alternative to a linear method, a non-linear methods may also be used, such as: • c) non-linear static (pushover) analysis; • d) non-linear time history (dynamic) analysis

Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011

**The Equivalent Lateral Force Procedure
**

• Empirical computation of vibration period • Smoothed response spectrum • Compute total base shear seismic force • Distribute the base shear seismic force along height assuming “regular” geometry • Compute displacements and member forces using standard procedures

Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011

**5.2 Lateral force method of analysis
**

Code P100/1-2006 procedure

• The design acceleration for each zone of seismic hazard corresponds to an average return period of reference equal 100 years. • The zonation of soil design acceleration ag of Romanian territory for seismic events with average return period of magnitude is noted: IMR = 100 years

Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011

The zonation of Romanian territory depending on soil design acceration a for seismic events with average return period (of magnitude) IMR = 100 years

g

Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011

The control period and the ag for Romanian territory (part of the table [22])

**Basic representation of the seismic action
**

• The earthquake motion at a given point of the surface is generally represented by an elastic ground acceleration response spectrum, henceforth called “elastic response spectrum”. • The horizontal seismic action is described by two orthogonal components considered as independent and represented by the same response spectrum.

Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011

Shape of horizontal elastic response spectrum of accelerations for Vrancea sources a), b), c) and Banat d)

a)

TC = 0.7s

b)

TC = 1.0 s

c)

TC = 1.6s

d)

TC = 0.7s

**Design spectrum for non-linear analysis
**

• The capacity of structural systems to resist seismic actions in the non-linear range generally permits their design for forces smaller than those corresponding to a linear elastic response.

Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011

FS(t) FA(t) k 1 c 1 y(t) Linear elastic behavior & y (t ) Stiffness Nonlinear elastic behavior Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 Damping .

0 otherwise • γI the importance factor Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 . for each horizontal direction in which the building is analysed. the value of which is equal to: • λ = 0. • m total mass of the building.1) Fb = γI Sd (T1) m λ where: • Sd (T1) ordinate of the design spectrum at period T1. above the foundation or above the top of a rigid basement.Base shear force • The seismic base shear force Fb. or λ = 1.85 if T1 < 2 TC and the building has more than two storeys. • λ correction factor. • T1 fundamental period of vibration of the building for lateral motion in the direction considered. is determined as follows: (4.

The deformed shape for the 1st mode: a. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 b. Computed by methods of structural dynamics b. approximated by horizontal displacements increasing linearly along the height of the building Fn sn Fi si zn zi sn si F1 s1 z1 s1 a. .

Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 . • Alternatively.The fundamental period of vibration period T1 • For the determination of the fundamental period of vibration period T1 of the building.2) • where: • u . in m. expressions based on methods of structural dynamics (e. by Rayleigh method) may be used. the estimation of T1 (in s) may be made by the following expression: T1 = 2 u (4.lateral elastic displacement of the top of the building.g. due to the gravity loads applied in the horizontal direction.

050 for all other structures • 0.075 for moment resistant space concrete frames and for eccentric braced • 0.085 for moment resistant space steel frames • H height of the building.Determination of the fundamental vibration periods T1 • For the determination of the fundamental vibration periods T1 of both planar models of the building.fundamental period of building. • C t is function of the structure type • 0.3) . expressions based on methods of structural dynamics (e. by Rayleigh method) may be used for buildings with heights up to 40 m the value of T1 may be approximated by the following expression: Where: • T1 .g. in s. in m. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 T1 = Ct ⋅ H 3/ 4 (4.

4) • For the horizontal components of the seismic action the design spectrum. • is defined by the following expressions [EC8]: Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 . Sd(T).Design spectrum • design spectrum for the accelerations Sd(T) is an: Inelastic response spectrum •Which can be obtained with the equation : β0 S d (t ) = a g [1 + q −1 TN T] (4.

6) .Case “a” 0 p T ≤ TB (4.5) β0 −1 q S d (T ) = a g 1 + ⋅T TB Case “b” T the vibration period ag soil design acceleration q behavior factor Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 T > TB β (T ) S d (T ) = a g q (4.

T vibration period of a linear single-degree-of-freedom system. ß0 amplification factor of maximum horizontal acceleration of the soil by the structure. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 . ag design ground acceleration on type A ground (ag). TC limits of the constant spectral acceleration branch.ß(T) elastic response spectrum. TD value defining the beginning of the constant displacement response range of the spectrum. TB.

s TD. s T C.7 3 0 . s V a lu e s o f c o n tro l p e rio d s 0 .0 3 0 .1 0 1 .Values of control periods for Romanian territory Table 4.1 T h e a v e ra g e in te rv a l o f re tu rn e a rth q u a k e m a g n itu d e IM R = 1 0 0 y e a rs F o r th e u ltim a te lim it s ta g e T B.1 6 1 .6 2 Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .0 7 0 .

The behaviour factor q • The behaviour factor q is an approximation of the ratio of the seismic forces. that the structure would experience if its response was completely elastic with 5% viscous damping. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .still ensuring a satisfactory response of the structure.with a conventional elastic response model . to the minimum seismic forces that may be used in design .

5 1.85 6. 5.25 3 3 3 3 2.00.00 Structuri cu pere i cupla i Flexibil la torsiune(nucleu) 4.66 4.00 3. Dual Structuri cu cadre preponderente 4.00 4.92 (1/Ψ) 5.25 4.40 3 3 3 3 6.025.00 4. 4. 5.75 5.60 Structuri cu doi pere i în fiecare direc ie 3.00.725.90 2. Cadre DCM P100-1/2006 4.375 2 2 2 2 5.5 4.75.40 6.75.85 Structuri cu pere i preponderen i - 3.25 4.00.90 5.40 6.86 Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 23 .725 4.00 4.375. 5.60 Clădiri cu mai multe niveluri şi cu mai multe deschideri 4. - 3. 6.95 DCH Table 4.2 P100-1/2006 5.75 P100.00 3 3 3 3 4.Behaviour factors for horizontal seismic action Nr.375 5. 6. 5. Pendul inversat 3.00 4.25.crt Sistem strctural Clădiri cu un nivel Clădiri cu mai multe niveluri şi cu o singură deschidere EC8 3. Pere i Structuri cu mai mul i pere i 4.375 3 3 3 3 5.00 4.00 3. 4.60 2 2 1. 6.30 1.025 EC8 4.

00 6.50 4 4 2. asociate cu cadre contravântuite în X şi alternante 4. 6.5. 2.46.00. 3. Cadre duale Cadre necontrav.00 1.00.00 2.00 6.00 Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 24 .00.5. 5.00 3 3 5.00. 5.50 Structuri parter 1.54.00.5 2. 5. 4 4 2.94. 2.50 5.20.8 6.20.50. 4. 6. 5.8 4 2.00 2. 5. Pendul inversat Structuri cu nuclee sau pere i de beton Cadre necontrav.00. 5.00.Nr.00. Cadre necontravântuite Structuri etajate Contravântuiri cu diagonale întinse Contravântuiri cu diagonale in V 4 4 4 2 2 4 4 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 2 2 4 4 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4. 4.5 2.00 2. Cadre contravântuite excentric 4. 2.crt Sistem strctural EC8 4 DCM P1001/2006 2. asociate cu cadre contravântuite excentric - 4 - 6.00 3 3 6.00 2.50 P10092 (1/Ψ) 2. 2. 4 DCH EC8 P1001/2006 2.5. Cadre contravântuite centric 3. 2.50.88 4 4 6.5 6.5 6. 4 5.00.88 4. 5.00. 5.

7) • The fundamental mode shapes in the horizontal directions of analysis of the building may be calculated using methods of structural dynamics or • may be approximated by horizontal displacements increasing linearly along the height of the building. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .Distribution of the horizontal seismic forces Fb = γI Sd (T1) m λ (4.

The deformed shape for the 1st mode Fn sn Fi si zn zi sn si F1 s1 z1 s1 a. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 b. .

sj displacements of masses mi. to the two planar models. Fb seismic base shear according to expression (4. si. Fi = Fb ⋅ mi ⋅ si ∑m ⋅s i i =1 n (4.The seismic action effects shall be determined by applying. mj storey masses Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .8) i where: Fi horizontal force acting on storey i.1 ). mj in the fundamental mode shape. mi. horizontal forces Fi to all storeys.

zj heights of the masses. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 . Fi i The horizontal forces Fi shall be distributed to the lateral load resisting system assuming rigid floors.9) i zi. mi. mj above the level of application of the seismic action (foundation or top of a rigid basement).• When the fundamental mode shape is approximated by horizontal displacements increasing linearly along the height. the horizontal forces Fi are given by: Fi = Fb ⋅ mi ⋅ zi ∑m ⋅ z i i =1 n (4.

11) .10) e=0. the accidental torsion effects referred may be determined as the envelope of the effects resulting from the application of static loadings. • Whenever a spatial model is used for the analysis.05Li Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 (4. consisting of sets of torsion moments Mai about the vertical axis of each storey i: Mai = eai Fbi (4.Torsional effects if lateral stiffness and mass are symmetrically distributed in plan • If the lateral stiffness and mass are symmetrically distributed in plan and unless the accidental eccentricity is taken into account .

Mx torsional moment applied at storey i about its vertical axis. e 1x – the accidental eccentricity on o-x axis e 1y – the accidental eccentricity on o-y axis CM – the center of mass Fbx – the seismic force on o-x direction Fby – the seismic force on o-y direction Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .

Reason for Consideration of Accidental Torsion [22] Fk. in “n” th mode of vibration Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .n Fk.n – the seismic level force at k level .

13) e 0ix .e 1iy = the accidental eccentricity Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 (4.12) (4.The case of “natural” eccentricity Mtx=Tbx e ix Mty=Tby e iy e ix .e 0iy = the distance between the center of masse and center of rigidity at level “i” e 1ix .15) .14) (4.e iy = the “natural” eccentricity (4.

16) (4.The distribution of seismic force to structural vertical elements (4.17) Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .

Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .Ground conditions The construction site and the nature of the supporting ground should normally be free from risks of: • ground rupture. • slope stability and • permanent settlements caused by liquefaction or densification in the event of an earthquake.

19) .3 Lateral force method of analysis.5.EC8 • This type of analysis may be applied to buildings whose response is not significantly affected by contributions from higher modes of vibration.18) (4. • These requirements are deemed to be satisfied in buildings which fulfil the two following conditions: a) they have fundamental periods of vibration T1 in the two main directions smaller than the following values where TC is given in Codes’ Tables. b) they meet the criteria for regularity in elevation T 1≤ 2 s T1 ≤ 4TC Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 (4.

the value of which is equal to: • λ = 0.Base shear force • The seismic base shear force Fb.85 if T1 < 2 TC and the building has more than two storeys. • λ correction factor.0 otherwise • γI the importance factor Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 . above the foundation or above the top of a rigid basement. is determined as follows: (4. • T1 fundamental period of vibration of the building for lateral motion in the direction considered.20) Fb = γI Sd (T1) m λ where: • Sd (T1) ordinate of the design spectrum at period T1. for each horizontal direction in which the building is analysed. • m total mass of the building. or λ = 1.

22) Where: Sd(T) ordinate of the design spectrum. is defined by the following expressions: (4.23) q behaviour factor.The design spectrum • For the horizontal components of the seismic action the design spectrum. T B. β lower bound factor for the spectrum Values of the parameters S.21) (4.24) T C. (4. Sd(T). and T D are given in following tables Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 . (4.

Type 2 Values of the parameters describing the Type 1 elastic response spectrum Values of the parameters describing the Type 2 elastic response spectrum . Type 1 Elastic response spectrum.Elastic response spectrum.

Classification of subsoil classes EC8 .

the effective modal mass of the 1st (fundamental) mode is smaller – on average by 15% . T vibration period of a linear single degree of freedom system.than the total building mass. TD value defining the beginning of the constant displacement response range of the spectrum. ξ damping correction factor with reference value ξ =1 for 5% viscous damping Factor λ accounts for the fact that in buildings with at least three storeys and translation degrees of freedom in each horizontal direction.• • • • • • • • • Where: Se (T) ordinate of the elastic response spectrum. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 . TB. S soil parameter. ag design ground acceleration (ag = agR γI). k modification factor to account for special regional situations. TC limits of the constant spectral acceleration branch.

Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 . the capacity of the structure to dissipate energy. henceforth called ''design spectrum''.Design spectrum for elastic analysis The capacity of structural systems to resist seismic actions in the non-linear range generally permits their design for forces smaller than those corresponding to a linear elastic response. This reduction is accomplished by introducing the behaviour factor q. is taken into account by performing an elastic analysis based on a response spectrum reduced with respect to the elastic one. through mainly ductile behaviour of its elements and/or other mechanisms. To avoid explicit inelastic structural analysis in design.

Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .with a conventional elastic response model . to the minimum seismic forces that may be used in design . that the structure would experience if its response was completely elastic with 5% viscous damping.The behaviour factor q • The behaviour factor q is an approximation of the ratio of the seismic forces.still ensuring a satisfactory response of the structure.

are given for the various materials and structural systems and according to the relevant ductility classes in the various Parts of EN 1998. • The value of the behaviour factor q may be different in different horizontal directions of the structure. although the ductility classification must be the same in all directions.• The value of the behaviour factor q. which also accounts for the influence of the viscous damping being different from 5%. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .

the values are standard function of structure type and the capacity of energy dissipation Example the EC8 formula for reinforced concrete buildings where: q 0 basic value of the behavior factor dependent on the type of the structural system k w factor reflecting the prevailing failure mode in structural systems (4.q the factor of structure behavior.25) Basic value of q 0 of behavior factor for systems regular in elevation Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .

• The reference method for determining the seismic effects is the modal response spectrum analysis. using a linear-elastic model of the structure and the design spectrum. • Depending on the structural characteristics of the building one of the following two types of linearelastic analysis may be used: Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .

Horizontal elastic response spectrum (1) For the horizontal components of the seismic action. the elastic response spectrum ß(T) is defined by the following expressions for damping correction factor for 5% viscous damping (2) If for special cases a viscous damping ratio different from 5% is to be used. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 . this value will be given in the relevant Part of EN 1998.

27) Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .Case “a” T ≤ TB ( β 0 − 1) β (T ) = 1 + T TB Case “b” (4.26) TB p T ≤ TC β (T ) = β 0 (4.

Case “c” TC p T ≤ TD TC β (T ) = β 0 T Case “d” (4.27) T f TD TCTD β (T ) = β 0 2 T (4.28) Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .

on its value and importance for the public safety and on the possibility of casualties in case of collapse Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .Importance categories and importance factors Buildings are generally classified into 4 importance categories. which depend on the size of the building.

e. not belonging to the other categories Buildings of minor importance for public safety. etc. Buildings whose seismic resistance is of importance in view of the consequences associated with a collapse. etc.g. e. assembly halls. II III IV Ordinary buildings. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .3 Importance category I Buildings Buildings whose integrity during earthquakes is of vital importance for civil protection. schools. fire stations. hospitals. e.g.cultural institutions etc.g.Table 4. power plants. agricultural buildings.

By definition.e. • the hazard within each zone is assumed to be constant. • (2) For most of the applications of EN 1998. the value of the reference peak ground acceleration on rock or firm soil agR. the hazard is described in terms of a single parameter. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 . depending on the local hazard. national territories shall be subdivided by the • National Authorities into seismic zones.Seismic zones • For the purpose of EN 1998. i.

• Additional parameters required for specific types of structures are given in the relevant Parts of EN 1998. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 . chosen by the National Authorities for each seismic zone. corresponds to the reference return period chosen by National Authorities. • The reference peak ground acceleration.

• The description of the seismic motion may be made by using artificial accelerograms and recorded or simulated accelerograms. the seismic motion shall consist of three simultaneously acting accelerograms.5. • When a spatial model is required.history representation • The seismic motion may also be represented in terms of ground acceleration time-histories and related quantities (velocity and displacement).4 Time . Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 . The same accelerogram may not be used simultaneously along both horizontal directions.

• As a minimum.Non-linear methods • The mathematical model used for elastic analysis shall be extended to include the strength of structural elements and their post-elastic behaviour. . In reinforced concrete and masonry buildings. the elastic stiffness of a bilinear force-deformation relation should correspond to cracked sections. bilinear force – deformation envelopes should be used at the element level.

Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 . Trilinear envelopes. which take into account pre-crack and post-crack stiffnesses. the elastic stiffness of a bilinear relation should be the secant stiffness to the yield-point.Bilinear force – deformation relation of the element Zero post-yield stiffness may be assumed. are allowed. expected to exhibit post-yield excursions during the response. If strength degradation is expected In ductile elements.

5 Non-linear static (pushover) analysis Pushover analysis is a non-linear static analysis under constant gravity loads and monotonically increasing horizontal loads. It may be applied to verify the structural performance of newly designed and of existing buildings for the following purposes: a) to verify or revise the overstrength ratio values αu/α1. b) to estimate expected plastic mechanisms and the distribution of damage. c) to assess the structural performance of existing or retrofitted buildings. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .5.

• For buildings complying with the regularity the analysis may be performed using two planar models. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 . one for each main horizontal direction.• Buildings not complying with the regularity criteria shall be analysed using a spatial model. in which structural walls are dominated by shear. each storey may be analysed independently. • For low-rise masonry buildings.

“modal” pattern. proportional to lateral forces consistent with the lateral force distribution determined in elastic analysis Lateral loads shall be applied at the location of the masses in the model. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 . based on lateral forces that are proportional to mass regardless of elevation (uniform response acceleration) .Lateral loads The vertical distributions of lateral loads which should be applied are at least two : − “uniform” pattern. The torsion due to accidental eccentricity shall be considered.

perfectly plastic force – displacement relationship. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .Plastic mechanism Determination of the idealized elasto .

The relation between base shear force and the control displacement (the “capacity curve”) should be determined by pushover analysis for values of the control displacement ranging between zero and the value corresponding to 150% of the target displacement. the lower value of overstrength factor obtained for the two lateral load distributions should be used. The control displacement may be taken at the centre of mass at the roof of the building. When the overstrength (αu/α1) should be determined by pushover analysis. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 Capacity curve Overstrength factor .

Target displacement is defined as the seismic demand in terms of the displacement of an equivalent single-degree-of-freedom system in the seismic design situation.Plastic mechanism The plastic mechanism shall be determined for both lateral load distributions. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 Target displacement . The plastic mechanisms should comply with the mechanisms on which the behaviour factor q used in the design is based.

BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING By Doina Verdes .

CHAPTER 5 EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT DESIGN Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .

1 Introduction 5.3 Performance Requirements and Compliance Criteria 5.Contents 5.2 Performance Based Engineering 5.4 The guiding principles governing the conceptual design against seismic hazard Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 3 .

• Cost. which may be reduced to the criteria: • Function. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 . • Reliability.5.1 Introduction • The basic principle of any design is that the product should meet the owner’s requirements.

reliability concerns various technical factors relating to serviceability and safety. and because of the normal constraints on cost. • As the above three criteria are interrelated. compromises with function and reliability generally have to be made Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .Reliability • While the terms function and cost are simple in principle.

and contents. • The required reliability is achieved if enough of the elements of the design behave satisfactorily under the design earthquake. architectural elements.• The term reliability is used here in its normal language qualitative sense and in its technical sense. where it is a quantitative measure of performance stated in terms of probabilities (of failure or survival). Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 . equipment. The elements that may be required to behave in agreed ways during earthquakes include structure.

Up to the mid-1980s it was common practice to design normal structures or equipment to meet two criteria: (1) in moderate. rare earthquakes the structure or equipment could be damaged but should not collapse. frequent earthquakes the structure or equipment should be undamaged. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 . (2) in strong.

the assumption being made that.• The main intention of the second of these criteria was to save human lives. and “frequent” have varied from place to place. “moderate”. in so doing. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 . “rare”. it could be deemed that criterion (1) would automatically be satisfied. while the definition of the terms “strong”. design has generally only been carried out explicitly for criterion (2). • Indeed. and have tended to be rather imprecise because of the uncertainties in the state-of-the-art.

Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 . • Design forces are based on the assumption that a significant amount of inelastic behavior will take place in the structure during a design earthquake. maintain function.In our days the Seismic requirements provide minimum standards for use in building design to maintain public safety in an extreme earthquake. • Seismic requirements do not necessarily limit damage. or provide for easy repair.

• The buildings survival in large earthquakes depends directly on the ability of their resistance systems to dissipate hysteretic energy while undergoing (relatively) large inelastic deformations. • In contrast. wind-resistant structures are designed to remain elastic under factored forces. • Specified code requirements are intended to provide for the necessary inelastic seismic behavior.For reasons of economy and affordability. the design forces are much lower than those that would be required if the structure were to remain elastic. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .

5.2 Performance Based Engineering Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .

e. . .preliminary numerical design.conceptual overall design. Quality assurance during construction (NOT in the last point).Selection of performance design objectives The three phases of the design process of the entire building system. .final design and detailing. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 . i.. The acceptability checks of the designs arrived at in the above three phases.

STRUCTURAL SYSTEM.PERFORMANCE BASED ENGINEERING CHECK SUITABILITY OF THE SITE DISCUSS WITH CLIENT THE PERFORMANCE LEVEL AND SELECT THE MINIMUM PERFORMANCE DESIGN OBJECTIVES SITE SUITABILITY ANALYSIS (USE MICROZONATION MAP • USE PERFORMANCE MATRIX • SERVICEABILITY UNDER MINOR EARTHQUAKES • FUNCTIONALITY UNDER MODERATE EARTHQUAKES • STRUCTURAL STABILITY UNDER EXTREME EARTHQUAKES CONDUCT CONCEPTUAL OVERAL DESIGN. STRUCTURAL MATERIALS AND NONSTRUCTURAL COMPONENTS USE GUIDELINES NO ACCEPTABILITY CHECKS OF CONCEPTUAL OVERAL DESIGN USE PEER REVIEW Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 . SELECTING CONFIGRATION STRUCTURAL LAYOUT.

NUMERICAL PRELIMINARY DESIGN DESIGN TO COMPLY SIMULTANOUSLY WITH AT LEAST TWO LIMIT STATES (Ultimate limit states. Serviceability limit states) •USE LINEAR AND NONLINEAR STATIC PUSHOVER DINAMIC TIME HISTORY ANALYSIS METHODS •USE PEER REVIEW •USE LINEAR AND NONLINEAR -STATIC PUSHOVER AND -DINAMYC TIME HISTORY ANALYSIS METHODS •EXPERIMENTAL DATA AND •INDEPENDENT REVIEW •USE LINEAR AND NONLINEAR -STATIC PUSHOVER AND -DINAMYC TIME HISTORY ANALYSIS METHODS •EXPERIMENTAL DATA AND •INDEPENDENT REVIEW NO ACCEPTABILIT Y CHECKS OF PRELIMINARY DESIGN YES FINAL DESIGN AND DETAILING NO ACCEPTABILITY CHECKS OF FINAL DESIGN AND DETAILING YES QUALITY ASSURANCE DURING CONSTRUCTION MONITORING. MAINTENANCE AND FUNCTION Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .

•slope stability and •permanent settlements caused by liquefaction or densification in the event of an earthquake. The collapse of a bridge placed on the seismic fault during the earthquake Taiwan 1999 Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .Site suitability analysis of the selected site (Ground conditions) The construction site and the nature of the supporting ground should normally be free from risks of: •ground rupture.

Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .1989 Earthquake in Loma Prieta. Bridge failure. California.

7s Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .Site suitability analysis of the selected site Romanian Territory the design acceleration and Control period TC of the soil Elastic response spectra for horizontal components of soil movement (Romanian Territory ) TC = 0.

3 Performance Requirements and Compliance Criteria i) Selection of performance design objectives SEAOC Vision 2000. 1999 ii) Conforming Eurocode 8 iii) Conforming P100/2006 Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .5.

1999) Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .Seismic performance design matrix (SEAOC Vision 2000.

Building Performance Levels and Ranges* Source: FEMA Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451 Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .

Total costs for different performance design objectives Conforming SEAOC Vision 2000. 1999 Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .

Quality assurance during construction • Maintenance (modification and repairs) • Monitoring of occupancy (function) • Evaluation of seismic vulnerability of existing buildings • Seismic upgrading of existing hazardous buildings • Massive education and information dissemination programs Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .

Performance requirements and compliance criteria Conforming: EUROCODE 8 and P100/2006 Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .

Fundamental requirements Structures in seismic regions shall be designed and constructed in such a way. each with an adequate degree of reliability: No collapse requirement Damage limitation requirement Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 . that the following requirements are met.

Requirement No collapse : The structure shall be designed and constructed to withstand the seismic action without local or global collapse.a. thus retaining its structural integrity and a residual load bearing capacity after the seismic events. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 . The reference seismic action is associated with a reference probability of excedance in 50 years and a reference return period.

IZMIT Earthquake. 1999 Turkey Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .

Requirement: Damage limitation The structure shall be designed and constructed to withstand a seismic action having a larger probability of occurrence than the seismic action used for the verification of the “no collapse requirement”. without the occurrence of damage and the associated limitations of use (the costs of which would be disproportionately high in comparison with the costs of the structure itself).b. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .

Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 . Reliability differentiation is implemented by classifying structures into different importance categories.The Codes Target reliabilities for the “no collapse requirement” and for the “damage limitation requirement” are established by the National Authorities for different types of buildings or civil engineering works on the basis of the consequences of failure.

Importance classes for buildings cf EC8 Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .

. corresponding to states beyond which specified service requirements are no longer met. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .Ultimate limit states are those associated with collapse or with other forms of structural failure which may endanger the safety of people.Compliance Criteria In order to satisfy the fundamental requirements the following limit states shall be checked : .Serviceability limit states are those associated with damage occurrence.

Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .The structural system shall be verified as having the resistance and ductility. The resistance and ductility to be assigned to the structure are related to the extent to which its nonlinear response is to be exploited.

• a symmetrical structural layout.If the building • configuration is symmetrical or quasi-symmetrical. well distributed in-plan. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 . is an obvious solution for the achievement of uniformity. • The use of evenly distributed structural elements increases redundancy and allows a more favourable redistribution of action effects and widespread energy dissipation across the entire structure.

In framed buildings the ratio of the actual storey resistance to the resistance required by the analysis should not vary disproportionately between adjacent storeys. Within this context the special aspects of masonry infilled frames have to be treated. from the base to the top. without abrupt changes. Both the lateral stiffness and the mass of the individual storeys remain constant or reduce gradually. if setbacks at different heights are present. structural walls or frames. like cores.Criteria for regularity in elevation All lateral load resisting systems. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 . to the top of the relevant zone of the building. run without interruption from their foundations to the top of the building or.

− the method of analysis. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 . This distinction has implications on the following aspects of the seismic design: − the structural model. which can be either a simplified response spectrum analysis (lateral force procedure) or a multi-modal one.Criteria for structural regularity Building structures for the purpose of seismic design. are distinguished as regular and non-regular. − the value of the behaviour factor q. which can be either a simplified planar or a spatial one.e. i. non-regular distribution of over strength in elevation (exceeding the limits). which can be decreased depending on the type of non-regularity in elevation.: geometric non-regularity (exceeding the limits ).

e. regularity in plan may still be considered satisfied provided that these set-backs do not affect the floor in-plan stiffness and that. The plan configuration is compact. If in plan set-backs (re-entrant corners or edge recesses) exist. for each set-back.With respect to the lateral stiffness and mass distribution.. the area between the outline of the floor and a convex polygonal line enveloping the floor does not exceed 6 % of the floor area. i. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 . the building structure is approximately symmetrical in plan with respect to two orthogonal axes. at each floor is delimited by a polygonal convex line.

The application of this paragraph should be considered for the global behaviour of the building.The in-plane stiffness of the floors is sufficiently large in comparison with the lateral stiffness of the vertical structural elements. The slenderness η=Lx/Ly of the building in plan is not higher than 4. I. notably as concerns the stiffness of lateral branches. H. C. so that the deformation of the floor has a small effect on the distribution of the forces among the vertical structural elements. In this respect. the L. X plane shapes should be carefully examined. which should be comparable to that of the central part. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 . in order to satisfy the rigid diaphragm condition.

The deflected shapes of the individual systems under horizontal loads are not very different. This condition may be considered satisfied in case of frame systems and wall systems. like cores. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 . for the classification of structural regularity in plan and for the approximate analysis of torsional effects. run without interruption from the foundations to the top of the building. In general.A simplified definition. structural walls or frames. is possible if the two following conditions are satisfied: All lateral load resisting systems. this condition is not satisfied in dual systems.

The foundation elements and the foundation-soil interaction It shall be verified that both the foundation elements and the foundation-soil are able to resist the action effects resulting from the response of the superstructure without substantial permanent deformations. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .

the structural system is connected to the base slab. This complex ground excitation acts on stiff.Modeling Procedures for Embedded Structures* The actual soil-foundation structure system is excited by a wave field that is incoherent both vertically and horizontally and which may include waves arriving at various angles of incidence. Stewart and Salih Tileylioglu Civil & Environmental Engineering Department. which in turn interact with a flexible and nonlinear soil medium having a significant potential for energy dissipation. These complexities of the ground motions cause foundation motions to deviate from free-field motions. Finally. *INPUT GROUND MOTIONS FOR TALLwalls asWITH SUBTERRANEAN LEVELS Authors: Jonathan P. foundation walls and the base slab. and possibly to basement BUILDINGS well. UCLA Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 . but non-rigid.

The first is a direct approach. This problem is difficult to solve from a computational standpoint. . Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 . foundation. and soil system is set up and excited by a complex and incoherent wave field.There are two classical methods for modeling the problem soil – foundationstructure. and hence the direct approach is rarely used in practice.a computational model of the full structure.

Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .

soil flexibility and damping. Foundation . the complex soil-foundation-structure interaction problem is divided into three steps: Kinematic interaction.In the second approach (referred to as the substructure approach). Foundation flexibility and damping. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .

Substructure approach to solution of soil-foundation-structure interaction using rigid foundation or flexible foundation assumption Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .

Structure with foundation flexibility .θ g = the foundation rotation u s = the foundation translation a. Rigid foundation b.flexibility and damping) Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .

Both overturning and sliding stability shall be considered. Influence of second order effects In the analysis the possible influence of second order effects on the values of the action effects shall be taken into account Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .Overturning and sliding stability • The structure as a whole shall be checked to be stable under the design seismic action.

4 The guiding principles governing the conceptual design against seismic hazard Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .5.

structural simplicity − bi-directional resistance and stiffness.The guiding principles governing the conceptual design against seismic hazard are: − uniformity. symmetry and redundancy . − diaphragmatic behaviour at storey level. − torsional resistance and stiffness. − adequate foundation Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .

b. c. d. f. .The form in plan recommended in seismic design a. e.

provided that these joints are designed against pounding of the individual units. If necessary. uniformity may be realised by subdividing the entire building by seismic joints into dynamically independent units. allows short and direct transmission of the inertia forces created in the distributed masses of the building. if fulfilled in-plan.• Uniformity is characterised by an even distribution of the structural elements which. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .

well distributed in-plan. The use of evenly distributed structural elements increases redundancy and allows a more favourable redistribution of action effects and widespread energy dissipation across the entire structure. is an obvious solution for the achievement of uniformity. since it tends to eliminate the occurrence of sensitive zones where concentrations of stress or large ductility demands might prematurely cause collapse.Uniformity in the development of the structure along the height of the building is also important. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 . a symmetrical structural layout. If the building configuration is symmetrical or quasisymmetrical.

Many of the successful realizations aesthetic • Symmetry is desirable for much the same reasons.Symmetry • In seismic area it has to be searched building shapes as simplest and symmetric as possible. Lack of symmetry produces torsion effects which are sometimes difficult to asses and can be very destructive. It is worth pointing out that symmetry is important in both directions in plan and in elevation as well. in plan as much as in elevation. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .

Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 a. g.• The introduction of deep reentrant angles into the facades of buildings introduces complexities into the analysis which makes them potentially less reliable than simple forms. e. . T-. d. and should be used with the appropriate attention to analysis and design. L-. c. • External lifts and stairwells provide similar dangers. Buildings of H-. f. and Yshape in plan have often been severely damaged in earthquakes. b. h.

the above referred distance may be reduced by a factor of 0.Seismic joint condition Buildings shall be protected from earthquake-induced pounding with adjacent structures or between structurally independent units of the same building. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 . If the floor elevations of the building or independent unit under design are the same as those of the adjacent building or unit.7 (EC8).

∆= ∆ 1+ ∆ 2+20 mm Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .This is deemed to be satisfied if the distance from the boundary line to the potential points of impact is not less than the maximum horizontal displacement of the adjacent parts according to expression.

Building separation to avoid pounding Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .

or a series of isolated footings. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 . depending on whether the foundation structure is continuous. These variations may be due to out. which are likely to be most pronounced along bridges where depth to bedrock may change from zero to very large.of-phase effects or to differences in geological conditions.Length in plan Structures which are long in plan naturally experience greater variation in ground movement and soil conditions over their length than short ones. and whether the superstructure is continuous or not. The effects on structure will differ greatly.

• Continuous foundations may reduce the horizontal response of the superstructure at the expense of push-pull forces in the foundation itself. Such effects should be allowed for in design. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 . either by designing for the stressed induced in the structure or by permitting the differential movements to occur by incorporating movement gaps.

Shape in elevation Very slender structures and those with sudden changes in width should be avoided in strong earthquakes areas. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 h<4L1 h>4L1 L1 a. L2 b. b. L1 a. h>4L1 . Height/width ratios in excess of about 4 lead to increasingly uneconomical structures and require dynamic analysis for proper evaluation of seismic responses.

and modern earthquake codes have special requirements for them. If such a shape is required in a structure it is best designed using dynamic earthquake analysis. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 . generally imply a step in the dynamic response characteristics of the structure at that height. in order to determine the stress concentrations at the notch and the shear transfer through the horizontal diaphragm below the notch.Sudden changes in width of a structure. such as setbacks in the facades of buildings.

b. (setback occurs below 0. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .15H) d.Criteria for regularity of buildings with setbacks (EC8) a. c.

For comparison. aspect ratios in excess of about 6 become uneconomical. Also higher mode contributions may add significantly to the seismic response of the superstructure.Very slender buildings have high column forces and foundation stability may be difficult to achieve. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 . in the design of latticed towers for wind loadings.

Uniform and continuous distribution of strength and stiffness This concept is closely related to that of simplicity and symmetry. The structure will have the maximum chance of surviving an earthquake if: The load bearing members are uniformly distributed. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .

No principal members change section suddenly. All beams are free of offsets.The structure is as continuous (redundant) and monolithic as possible. .All columns and walls are continuous and without offsets from roof to foundation.Reinforced concrete columns and beams are nearly the same width. a. Columns and beams are coaxial . . Yes Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 No . b.

The criteria for the stiffness of a structure fall into three categories. i. may need to be satisfied. the stiffness is required: Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .Appropriate stiffness In designing constructions to have reliable seismic behavior the design of structures to have appropriate stiffness is an important task which is often made difficult because so many criteria.e. often conflicting.

- To create desired vibration characteristics of the structure (to reduce seismic response, or to suit equipment or function); - To control deformations (to protect structure, cladding, partitions, services); - To influence failure modes In qualification of the above recommendations it can be said that while they are not mandatory they are well proven, and the less they are followed the more vulnerable and expensive the structure will become.

Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011

1971 San Fernando Valley Earthquake “Soft story” failure of the Hospital building [21]

Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011

• While it can readily be seen how these recommendations make structures more easily analysed and avoid undesirable stress concentrations and torsions. • The restrictions to architectural freedom implied by the above sometimes make their acceptance difficult. Perhaps the most contentious is that of uninterrupted vertical structure, especially where cantilevered facades and columns supporting shear walls are fashionable.

Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011

But sudden changes in lateral stiffness up a building are not wise: first because even with the most sophisticated and expensive computerized analysis the earthquake stresses cannot be determined adequately, and second, in the present state of knowledge we probably could not detail the structure adequately and the sensitive spots even if we knew the forces involved.

Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011

**Stiffness to control deformation
**

Deformation control is important in enhancing safety and reducing damage and thus improving the reliability of construction in earthquakes. The stiffness levels required to control damaging interaction between: - structure, - cladding, - partitions, - and equipment This vary widely, depending on the nature of components and the function of the construction.

Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011

• A word of warning should be given here about the effect of non-structural elements on the structural response of buildings. • The non-structure, mainly in the form of partitions, may enormously stiffen an otherwise flexible structure and hence must be allowed for in the structural analysis

Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011

**Stiffness to suit required vibration characteristics
**

It would be desirable in general to avoid resonance of the structure with the dominant period of the site as indicated by the peak in the response spectrum. For example, short-period (stiff, low-rise) structures are good for long-period sites, i.e. those sites where the local soil is soft and deep enough to filter out much of the high-frequency ground motion, as in Mexico City.

Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011

Similarly taller, more flexible structures will suit rock sites. Unfortunately, in terms of conventional construction, often it will not be possible to arrange the structure to benefit in this respect. In industrial installations it may be necessary to have very stiff structures for functional reasons or to suit the equipment mounted thereon, and this will of course overrideany preference for seismic performance.

The Nyigata earthquake, Japan

Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011

Adequate foundation

With regard to the seismic action the design and construction of the foundations and of the connection to the superstructure shall ensure that the whole building is excited in a uniform way by the seismic motion. For structures composed of a discrete number of structural walls, likely to differ in width and stiffness, a rigid, box-type or cellular foundation, containing a foundation slab and a cover slab should generally be chosen. For buildings with individual foundation elements (footings or piles), the use of a foundation slab or tie-beams between these elements in both main directions is recommended.

Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011

However, if we turn to new techniques and technologies, notably the use of base isolation, is often possible to greatly modify the horizontal vibration characteristics of a structure whether it is inherently stiff or flexible above the isolating layer.

Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011

BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING

By Doina Verdes

CHAPTER 6

INELASTIC DYNAMIC BEHAVIOR

Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011

2

Contents

6.1 Introduction 6.2 Global and local ductility condition 6.3 Ductility of reinforced concrete elements (local ductility) 6.4 Requirements for ductility of reinforced concrete frames 6.5 The damages of the reinforced concrete frames under seismic loads

Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011

3

and the nature of the loading. varying with the member size and shape. • In contrast to the simple linear response model.Inelastically behavior • Most structures for economical resistance against strong earthquakes must behave inelastically. the pattern of inelastic stress-strain behavior is not constant. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 4 . the materials used.

1Introduction The characteristics of inelastic dynamic behavior: •Plasticity. Force – deformation diagram Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 5 .6. •Ductility. •Stiffness degradation. •Strain hardening and strain softening. •Energy absorption.

The ductility The ductility of a member or structure may be defined in general terms by the ratio deformation at failure / deformation at yield: FS Fe Elastoplastic system deformation at failure ρ= deformation at yield Fy yy ye yu y In various uses of this definition. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 6 . ρd. rotation. . “deformation” may be measured in terms of : deflection. ρθ or curvature ρφ.

Multilinear.Mathematical models for non-linear seismic behavior The problems involved in establishing usable mathematical stressstrain models are obvious. such as: • Elastoplastic. Degrading stiffness. Bilinear. Ramberg-Osgood Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 7 . Degrading stiffness b. Trilinear. It follows that many hysteresis models have been developed. Pinched loops. • Ramberg-Osgood. a.

Hysteretic behaviour Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 8 .

Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 9 .

Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 10 .

but excessive stiffness loss can lead to collapse. • The more energy dissipated per cycle without excessive deformation.Ductility and Energy Dissipation Capacity cycles of inelastic deformation without significant loss of strength. • Some loss of stiffness is inevitable. the better the behavior of the structure. • The structure should be able to sustain several Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 11 .

structures can be designed for force levels significantly lower than would be required for elastic response. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 12 .The art of seismic-resistant design is in the details • With good detailing.

Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 13 .

Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 14 .Level of damping in different structures Damping varies with: the materials used. Large-amplitudes post-elastic vibration is more heavily damped than small-amplitude vibration. and the nature of the vibration. the nature of the subsoil. the form of the structure. Buildings with heavy shear walls and heavy cladding and partitions have greater damping than lightly clad skeletal structures.

bolted. with all walls of flexible construction Steel frame. with all walls of flexible construction Concrete frame.Type of construction Steel frame. with concrete or masonry shear walls Concrete and/or masonry shear wall buildings Timber shear walls construction Damping ν percentage of critical 2 5 10 5 7 10 10 15 Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 15 . welded. with normal floors and cladding Steel frame. welded. with stiff cladding and all internal walls flexible Concrete frame. with normal floors and cladding Concrete frame.

Source FEMA [25] Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 16 .

The requirements are deemed to be satisfied if: a) plastic mechanisms obtained by pushover analysis are satisfactory.6. b) global.these ensure the intended configuration of plastic hinges avoiding brittle failure modes.capacity design provisions in order to obtain the hierarchy of resistance of the various structural components . Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 17 . interstory and local ductility and deformation demands from pushover analyses (with different lateral load patterns) do not exceed the corresponding capacities.the structural system .2 Global and local ductility condition It shall be verified that both the structural elements and the structure as a whole possess adequate ductility. c) brittle elements remain in the elastic region. .specific material requirements. Ductility depends on: .

In multi-story buildings formation of a soft story plastic mechanism shall be prevented. as such a mechanism may entail excessive local ductility demands in the columns of the soft story. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 18 .

or political decisions.Construction materials Reliability of construction in earthquakes is greatly affected by the materials used for the constituent elements of structure. High strength/weight ratio. and equipment. as the choice may be dictated by local availability or local construction skill. Homogeneity. cost constrains. It is seldom possible to use the ideal materials for all elements. Ease in making full strength connections Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 19 . Orthotropy. Particulary in terms of earthquake resistance the best materials have the following properties: High ductility. architecture.

The stress-strain diagrams for steel stress strain Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 20 .

• For tall buildings steelwork is generally preferable.Choosing the material • To choose between steel and in situ reinforced concrete for medium-rise buildings. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 21 . is arguably little as long as they are both well designed and detailed. • The choice of construction material is important in relation to the desirable stiffness. • Depending on the stage of countries developing it should have special problems in selecting building materials. are not suitable. availability. and technology. but must be detailed with great care. from the points of view of cost. though each case must be considered on its merits. • Timber performs well in low-rise buildings partly because of its high strength/weight ratio. • if a flexible structure is required then some materials. such as masonry.

of course. steelwork is used essentially to obtain flexible structures. may enormously stiffen an otherwise flexible structure and hence must be allowed for in the structural analysis. • Concrete. • A word of warning should be given here about the effect of nonstructural materials on the structural response of buildings. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 22 . mainly in the form of partitions. • The non-structure.• On the other hand. can readily be used to achieve almost any degree of stiffness. although if greater stiffness is desired diagonal bracing or reinforced concrete shear panels may sometimes be incorporated into steel frames.

2.3 Ductility of Reinforced concrete elements (local ductility) The factors which influence the local ductility of reinforced concrete elements: • • • • The influence of the reinforcing ratio from tensioned zone The influence of the reinforcing ratio from compressed zone The influence of the reinforcing ratio of transversal reinforcement The influence of the effort type Bending moment Axial force Shear force Combination of efforts: M+N. M+N+T Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 23 .

The effort-deformation relationship for RC elements εc2 .deformation at max effort εcu2 .ultimate deformation fcd .Compression resistance Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 24 .

ultimate deformation Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .deformation at max effort.Diagram of admissible deformations on the limit state A – limit deformation at limit tension of the reinforcement B – limit deformation at the concrete compression C – limit deformation of concrete compression εc2 . εcu2 .

What is the influence on the ductility of the reinforcing ratio from tensioned zone? P P L G1 G2 h AS1 AS2 h Both beams have the same Concrete class b AS1 > AS2 b Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 26 .

The influence of the reinforcing ratio from tensioned zone M M M Mu1. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 ρФ = CURVATURE DUCTILITY COEFICIENT 27 . do not lead to increasing of ductility. Mu2 My1 My2 Φu ρΦ = Φy Φ u1 ρ Φ1 = Φ y1 Φu2 ρΦ = Φ y2 Φ Φ y2 Φ y1 Φu1 Φu2 Φ y1 f Φ y 2 ρ Φ1 p ρ Φ 2 The increasing of the reinforcement ratio of the transversal tensioned reinforcement.

The influence of the reinforcing ratio of transversal reinforcement G1 A S2 G2 h A S3 M Craking of concrete covering layer h A S1 Mu1 My1 Mu2 A S1 b b Φ Φy1 Φy2 Φu1 Φu2 AS2<AS3 ρ Φ1 = Φ u1 Φ y1 Φu2 Φ y2 Increasing of the reinforcement ratio of the transversal reinforcement one Obtains the increasing of the ductility Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 ρΦ2 = Φ y1 = Φ y 2 ⇒ ρ Φ 2 f ρ Φ1 28 .

The influence of transversal reinforcement ratio AS2 AS3 Craking of concrete covering layer h AS1 AS1 h M Mu1 My1 Mu2 B1 B2 b b Φ B1 Fisurarea si expulzarea betonului din zona comprimata d d Φy1 Φy2 Φu1 Φu2 d ρ Φ1 = ρΦ2 = Φ u1 Φ y1 Φu2 Φ y2 d/2 d/2 B2 Etrieri indesiti 5/23/2011 Φ y1 = Φ y 2 ⇒ ρ Φ 2 f ρ Φ1 29 Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .

1994.(some of columns emphasize DUCTILITY) Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 30 .Collapse of the Parking building during Northridge earthquake.

4 Requirements for ductility of reinforced concrete frames Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 31 .6.

the following condition should be satisfied ∑M C ≥ 1.Detailing for local ductility The specifications from EC8 recommend to satisfy the requirement at all beam-column joints of frame buildings. including frame-equivalent ones in the meaning.3∑ M B Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 32 . with two or more stories.

ΣMB sum of moments at the center of the joint corresponding to development of the design values of the resisting moments of the beams framing into the joint. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 33 . The minimum value of column resisting moments within the range of column axial forces produced by the seismic design situation should be used.ΣMc sum of moments at the center of the joint corresponding to development of the design values of the resisting moments of the columns framing into the joint.

as well as from both sides of any other cross-section liable to yield in the seismic design situation.The regions of a primary beam up to a distance lcr =hw (where hw denotes the depth of the beam) from an end cross-section where the beam frames into a beam column joint. shall be considered as critical regions. the regions up to a distance of 2hw on each side of the supported vertical element should be considered as critical. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 34 . In primary beams supporting discontinued (cutoff) vertical elements.

The conformation of the critical zones of RC frames Beam Column Column Beam Critical regions 35 Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .

Beams .Detaling for local ductility Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 36 .

24dbw.Critical regions of beams • Within the critical regions of primary beams. 225mm. 8dbL} where dbL is the minimum longitudinal bar diameter • The first hoop is placed not more than 50 mm from the beam end section Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 37 . hoops satisfying the following • conditions shall be provided: • a) The diameter dbw of the tiers is not less than 6 mm. • b) The spacing “s” of tiers does not exceed (EC8): s = min{hw/4.

Column Beam P100-2006 The diameter of the tiers dbw ≥ 6 mm High ductility class (H) Medium ductility class (M) Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 38 .

Detailing of columns for local ductility The total longitudinal reinforcement ratio ρl shall not be less than 0. In symmetrical cross-sections symmetrical reinforcement should be provided (ρ = ρ’). Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 39 .04.01 and not more than 0.

for reasons of integrity of beam-column joints. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 40 .Confinement of concrete core •At least one intermediate bar shall be provided between corner bars along each column side. The minimum cross-sectional hc dimension of columns shall not be less than 250 mm.

in the absence of more precise information. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 41 .5hc .• The regions up to a distance lcr from both end sections of a primary column shall be considered as critical regions. lcl / 6. 600mm} Where: • hc largest cross-sectional dimension of the column. may be computed as follows: • lcr = max{1. The length of the critical region lcr . • The distance between consecutive longitudinal bars restrained by hoops or cross-ties does not exceed 150 mm. • lcl clear length of the column.

The detailles of column cross section reinforcement Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 42 .

Detailing of beam-column joint for local ductility The confining of joint concrete by periphery reinforcement and introducing of hoops double or simple. • The reinforcement like mesh or supplementary bars avoiding the stress concentration and obtaining of uniform distributions of stresses • The anchorage of longitudinal reinforcement from beam and columns outside of the joint. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 43 .

The beam – column joint stresses Exterior column Interior column Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 44 .

by a concrete prism between the compressed corners of the joint • ii. The concrete resistance can be calculate : N≤mRCbh' Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 45 . through the connecting mechanism due to the horizontal hoops and compressed concrete prisms a.The transmission of shear force to the joint • i. b.

The joint design Corner d) Roof Interior e) Roof Exterior f) Roof Corner Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 46 .

The joint reinforcement design Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 47 .

The reinforcement of the joints Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 48 .

The critical regions are at a distance from the joint [4] Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 49 .

The reinforcement bars anchorage [4] Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 50 .

The reinforcement bars anchorage [4] Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 51 .

6.5.The damages of the reinforced concrete frames under seismic loads Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 52 .

The damaged columns Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 53 .

The damaged columns Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 54 .

The “ductile columns” The effect of short column Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 55 .

The damage of beamcolumn joints and the effects on the buildings Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 56 .

Inelastic response occurs through structural damage (yielding). building codes use inelastic response procedure. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 57 .How to Deal with Huge Earthquake Force? Isolate structure from ground (base isolation) Increase damping (passive energy dissipation) Allow controlled inelastic response Historically.

BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING By Doina Verdes .

CHAPTER 7 DESIGN CONCEPTS FOR EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT REINFORCED CONCRETE STRUCTURES Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .

6 Structural types with stress concentration 7.Contents 7.3 Design criteria at Ultimate Limit State (ULS) 7.7 The local effect of infill masonry Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 3 .2 Structural types 7.1 Energy dissipation capacity and ductility 7.5 Design criteria at Safety Limit State (SLS) 7.4 The Global Ductility 7.

7. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 4 .1 Energy dissipation capacity and ductility The design of earthquake resistant concrete buildings shall provide an adequate energy dissipation capacity to the structure without substantial reduction of its overall resistance against horizontal and vertical loading.

is introduced to account the energy dissipation capacity. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 5 .Behaviour factors for horizontal seismic action The behaviour factor q.

Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 6 .7.equivalent). f) torsionally flexible system. d) system of large lightly reinforced walls. c) ductile wall system (coupled or uncoupled). e) inverted pendulum system. concrete buildings may be classified to one type of structural system in one horizontal direction and to another in the other.2 Structural types and behaviour factors accordingly P100 and EC8 Concrete buildings may be classified to one of the following structural types according to their behaviour under horizontal seismic actions: a) frame system. b) dual system (frame.or wall. Except for those classified as torsionally flexible systems.

or wallequivalent) Braced frame frames moment frame diafragmes Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 7 .Frame system Dual system (frame.

Ductile wall system (coupled or uncoupled) Inverted pendulum system Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 8 .

for all or major portions of the vertical loads. Bui Building Frame System — A structural system with an essentially complete space frame providing support for vertical loads. Seismic force resistance is provided by shear walls or braced frames. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 9 .Structural types conforming the code SEI-ASCE 7-02 Bearing Wall System — A structural system with bearing walls providing support. Shear walls or braced frames provide seismic force resistance.

Moment-resisting frames provide resistance to lateral load primarily by flexural action of members.MomentMoment-Resisting Frame System — A structural system with an essentially complete space frame providing support for gravity loads. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 10 .

The total seismic force resistance is to be provided by the combination of the moment frame and the shear walls or braced frames in proportion to their rigidities. and shear walls or braced frames.Dual System — A structure system with an essentially complete space frame providing support to vertical loads. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 11 . the moment frame must be capable of resisting at least 25% of the design seismic forces. Seismic force-resistance is provided by moment-resisting frames. For a dual system.

Bulding Performance Levels and Range [21] Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 12 .

3 Design criteria at Ultimate Limit State (ULS) Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 13 .7.

Ductility c.Strength b. Limitation of interstorey drifts e. Seismic joints d.The Ultimate Limit State (ULS) The requirements : a. Foundation resistance a. Strenght Ed < Rd Second order effect has to be known Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 14 .

Ductility Definition of ductility ρ ρ =δ u /δ y Deformation control Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 15 .b.

the disposal of ties and transversal reinforcement Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 16 .the decrease of the tensioned reinforcement .the increase of the concrete class .Local ductility The local ductility can be increased by: .the confinement of concrete from the compressed zone .the increase of the compressed reinforcement .

Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 17 .the loss of the reinforcement anchorage and the destroying of the adherence in the continuity zones .The prevention of brittle failure It must prevent: .the failure of tensioned zones The nonstructural mechanism for energy dissipation The infill walls – masonry panels.the failure due to shear forces .

Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 18 .Design concepts Low dissipative structural behaviour Dissipative structural behavior a. b.

Dissipative Structural Behavior Elastically response Inelastically response Design code response q= behaviour factor Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 19 .

brittle elements should be prevented to reach the elastic limit. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 20 .The behaviour factor “q” depends on : Ductility Redundancy Overstrenght Inelastic deformations are constrained to appear in certain areas called dissipative zones. to obtain ductile elements: ductility class H and class M (EC8 and P100/2006) A structure has both ductile and brittle elements . Rules are specified in the codes.

40 3 3 3 3 6.025 EC8 4. Dual Structuri cu cadre preponderente 4.40 6. - 3.00 4. 6.375 5.60 2 2 1.75.75.75 P100. Pendul inversat 3.00 Structuri cu pere i cupla i Flexibil la torsiune(nucleu) 4.00 3.025.00 4.725 4.75 5.25. 5.00 4.crt Sistem strctural Clădiri cu un nivel Clădiri cu mai multe niveluri şi cu o singură deschidere EC8 3.375 3 3 3 3 5.92 (1/Ψ) 5.5 1.85 6. Pere i Structuri cu mai mul i pere i 4.25 4.00.95 DCH P100-1/2006 5.60 Clădiri cu mai multe niveluri şi cu mai multe deschideri 4.90 5.Behaviour factors for horizontal seismic action Nr. 5.375 2 2 2 2 5. 4.85 Structuri cu pere i preponderen i - 3.5 4. 5.00 4.66 4.25 4. 6. Cadre DCM P100-1/2006 4.00 4.90 2. 4.00 3.00. 5.00.30 1. 6.25 3 3 3 3 2.86 Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 21 .725.375.60 Structuri cu doi pere i în fiecare direc ie 3.40 6.00 3 3 3 3 4.

2.88 4 4 6.20.00 6. 5. asociate cu cadre contravântuite în X şi alternante 4. 6.00.50. 5.46.00 6.00 2. 5.00 3 3 5.50 4 4 2.00.88 4.00. 2. 5.00 3 3 6. 5. 3. 5. Cadre contravântuite excentric 4. Pendul inversat Structuri cu nuclee sau pere i de beton Cadre necontrav.50 5. 2. 4.50 P10092 (1/Ψ) 2.8 4 2.5.Nr. 4 5.5 6.00.5.00.94. Cadre necontravântuite Structuri etajate Contravântuiri cu diagonale întinse Contravântuiri cu diagonale in V 4 4 4 2 2 4 4 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4 4 2 2 4 4 2 2 2 2 4 4 4 4. Cadre duale Cadre necontrav. 4 DCH EC8 P1001/2006 2. Cadre contravântuite centric 3.00 2.00. 4 4 2.00.50 Structuri parter 1. 5.00 2. 5. 4.00 2. 2. 2.00.20.8 6. asociate cu cadre contravântuite excentric - 4 - 6.5 2.crt Sistem strctural EC8 4 DCM P1001/2006 2.50.00 1. 6.5 6.54.5 2.00.00 Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 22 .00.5.

c. Limitation of interstory drifts F The interstory drift δ Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 23 .

The story drift ∆X is the parameter which can give the appropriateness of the general stiffness of the structure Story drift computation Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 24 .Drift requirements The structure must have sufficient stiffness.

δx and δx-1 .Story drift • The structure being designed must have sufficient stiffness as stated before. ∆x . The lateral deflection δx at the center of mass of level x must be computed from: ∆x= δx . defined as the different of the lateral deflections at the top and bottom of the story x under consideration. The traditional procedure to judge the appropriateness of the general stiffness of the structure has been story drift.δx-1 Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 (11) 25 . respectively.

because there is an additional lateral deflection introduced by the overturning effect caused by the gravity loads displacing along with the structure which is not taken into account by the first-order analysis procedure.P-∆ effect P-∆ effect must be taken into account. Current analysis are "firstorder methods. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 26 . In a flexible structure this leads to error." This means that during analysis equilibrium is stated on the undeformed structure.

P-∆ effect For inelastic systems: Reduced stiffness and increased displacements Including P .∆ Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 27 .

ϑ= Px ∆ Vx h sx C d • If the stability coefficient obtained from Equation at any story and direction is equal or greater than 0.10 all forces and displacements obtained from analysis must be adjusted for this effect. the additional overturning effect corresponds to the gravity load. This is an analysis problem caused by the way equilibrium is stated.•Therefore. P multiplied by the lateral relative deflection. •This is the reason for the name P-∆. The way to deal with it is to find the magnitude of the error by using a stability coefficient θ. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 28 .

Vx is the seismic story shear force acting at story x.0.1. ignore P-delta effects Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 29 . Cd is the lateral deffection amplification factor given in Code for each of seismic lateral-force resisting systems. When computing Px no individual load factor need exceed 1. hsx is the story height of story x. ∆ is the design story drift occurring simultaneously with Vx . hsx=hx – hx-1 .Px ∆ ϑ= Vx h sx C d Where: Px is the vertical design load at and abowe level. If Θ < 0.

025 hsx 0.015 hsx Structure Structures for stories or less with interior walls. ceilings and exterior wall system that have been designed to accommodate story drifts All other structures 0.020 hsx 0.010 hsx Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 30 . partitions.Allowable Story Drift for Reinforced Concrete Structures conf UBC Seismic Use Group I II III 0.020 hsx 0.015 hsx 0.

2. Vtot total seismic storey shear. the second-order effects may approximately be taken into account by multiplying the relevant seismic action effects by a factor equal to 1/(1 .θ). Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 31 .Conforming P100 2006 Ptot d r θ= ≤ 0.1 < θ < 0. dr design interstorey drift.10 Vtot h Where: θ interstorey drift sensitivity coefficient. h interstorey height. Ptot total gravity load at and above the storey considered in the seismic design situation. If 0. The value of the coefficient θ shall not exceed 0.3.

Separation of buildings with different dynamic characteristics -allow independent vibrations -limit the effect of collisions Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 32 .

025h Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 33 .Limitation of interstorey drift at ULS (P100/2006) Prevention of of loss of life due to total fialure of nonstructural elements Displacement analysis ds=cqde Check of interstory drift at ULS d ULSs = c q d re < d ULSra =0.

Analysis methods Equivalent lateral force analysis Modal response spectrum analysis Linear response history analysis Nonlinear response history analysis Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 34 .

4 The Global Ductility (The Capacity of Energy Consumption) a) The structural mechanism of seismic energy consumption – the plastification mechanism .7.the plastic zones of the framed structure are at the end of the beams and have small values in the columns.the potential plastic hinges are uniform distributed on the structure . or do not exist at all. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 35 .

the lateral displacements due to the ductility requirements are sufficiently reduced to avoid the danger of stability loss. or do not increase substantially the second order effect Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 36 .the plastic zones of the shear walls are in the coupling beams or.. if these do not exist. . in the base of the walls.

Avoid undesirable mechanism Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 37 .

Undesirable mechanism – level story damage [ ] Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 38 .

Behaviour under seismic excitation inelastic response of a RC frame [21] Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 39 .

Behaviour under seismic excitation inelastic response of a RC frame [ 21 ] Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 40 .

Ordinary Concrete Moment frame [ 21] Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 41 .

Intermediate Concrete Moment frame [ 21] Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 42 .

Special Concrete Moment frame [21] Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 43 .

5) Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 44 .5 Design criteria at Safety Limit State SLS Maintain function of a building by limiting degradation of nonstructural elements and building facilities Displacement analisys at SLS (P100/2006) : d s= ν q d e ds lateral displacement at SLS de lateral displacement of the story level under seismic loads ν reduction factor (0.7.4-0.

7.6 Structural types with stress concentration Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 45 .

b. c. fewer columns is significantly weaker or more flexible than the stories above Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 46 . The most serious condition of vertical irregularity is the soft or week level in which one story usually the first with taller.Stress concentration at the first level a.

Stress concentration The soft story collapse mechanism Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 47 .

Collapses of buildings with stress concentrations Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 48 .

The infill masonry placed above a free first story can develop the collapse mechanism (due to the stress concentration) Infill masonry Very stiff Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 49 .

6 The local effects of infill masonry Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .8.

Local effects due to masonry or concrete infills If the height of the infills is smaller than the clear length of the adjacent columns. b) The consequences of the decrease of the shear span ratio of those columns should be appropriately covered. the following measures should be taken: a) The entire length of the columns is considered as critical region and should be reinforced with the amount and pattern of stirrups required for critical regions. c) The transverse reinforcement to resist this shear force should be placed along the length of the column and extend along a length hc Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 51 .

• d) If the length of the column not in contact with the infills is less than 1. and there are masonry walls only on one side of the column (this is e. then the shear force should be resisted by diagonal reinforcement. the case for all corner columns). the entire length of the column should be considered as critical region and be reinforced with the amount and pattern of stirrups required for critical regions. Where the infills extend to the entire clear length of the adjacent columns.g.5hc. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 52 .

should be verified in shear for the smaller of the following two shear forces: i) the horizontal component of the strut force of the infill. as estimated on the basis of the shear strength of bed joints. or ii) the shear force computed assuming that the overstrength flexural capacity of the column.The length lc of columns over which the diagonal strut force of the infill is applied. lc. develops at the two ends of the contact length. taken equal to the horizontal shear strength of the panel. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 53 .

Masonry panel in interaction with the structure The effect of compressed diagonal: .the masonry cracking at the end of compressed diagonal. .the separation of it from the structural elements at the opposite corners Tkj Masonry panel Tjk Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 54 .

The effect of compressed diagonal Actions on beam and column a. 55 . Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 b.

Short column effect Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 56 .

Short column effect Masonry panel Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 57 .

Beam b.Short beam effect Short beam Column Beam Masonry panel Short beam a. Masonry panel Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 58 .

• The contact length should be taken equal to the full vertical width of the diagonal strut of the infill. taking into account the elastic properties and the geometry of the infill and the column. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 59 . Unless a more accurate estimation of this width is made. the strut width may be taken as a fixed fraction of the length of the panel diagonal.

Conclusions referring to system concept Optimal performance one obtains by: Providing competent load path Providing redundancy Avoid configuration irregularities Proper consideration of nonstructural elements Avoid excessive mass Detailing of structural and nonstructural elements for energy dissipation Limiting deformations demands Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 60 .

BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING By Doina Verdes .

CHAPTER 8 NONSTRUCTURAL ELEMENTS Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .

10 Examples of damages Doina Verdes Basics of Seismic Engineering 2011 3 .8 Precast concrete cladding 8.2 Earthquake effects on buildings and nonstructural elements 8.5 Protection Strategies 8.3 Interstory displacement 8.6 Nonstructural design approaches for cladding 8.7 Prefabricated wall panels 8.Contents 8.9 Cladding which increase the seismic energy dissipation 8.4 The performances of nonstructural elements 8.1 Defining nonstructural elements 8.

1 Defining nonstructural elements The general types of nonstructural elements • Architectural elements. are typically built-in nonstructural components that form part of the building which include • Mechanical • Electrical • Telecommunications • Furniture and building contents are nonstructural components belonging to tenants or occupants Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .8. which are typically built-in nonstructural components that form part of the building • Building utility systems.

Design Examples Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .Structural and Nonstructural Elements of a Building Source: FEMA_Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451.

It is important to describe how the behavior of nonstructural elements differentiates nonstructural elements from structural elements. Ideally. • Many types of nonstructural elements can resemble or behave as structural elements. • Their presence within the building can affect the seismic behavior of the building. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 . nonstructural elements are clearly distinguishable from structural elements.Nonstructural elements serve specific purposes • Nonstructural elements are placed in a building to serve specific purposes.

Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .0% Hospital • Nonstructural elements make up most of the building • Earthquake damage to nonstructural elements also makes up the largest percentage of the total cost of damage repair for most earthquakes.0% 44.Investments in building constructions 100% 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% Office Hotel 18.0% 8.0% 48.0% 20.0% Contents Nonstructural Structural 62.0% 17.0% 13.0% 70.

Architectural nonstructural elements • are typically the visible elements of the building. However. such as a partition wall to which a cabinet or shelves are mounted. a ceiling to which a light fixture is supported. • are not permanent and can be moved or removed from the building without affecting the structural safety of the building. sometimes architectural elements are designed by a specialty engineer (specializes in designing exterior cladding panels). Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 . or an exterior cladding panel. • are usually designed by an architect. behind architectural finishes. structural and building systems elements are generally hidden. • architectural elements are often designed to support occasional or light loading.

Architectural elements Architectural nonstructural elements are interior and exterior elements of the building. cladding. from aesthetic ornamentation to partitions that are provided for sound or fire separations. The examples of architectural nonstructural elements. Architectural elements can serve many purposes. which can include exterior elements are: •Parapets and chimneys •Exterior ornamentation •Curtain walls. and glazing And interior elements such as: •Non-load bearing partitions •Ceilings and access floors Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .

potable water. sanitary system. including pumps and piping for fire suppression. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 . • Gas piping. ventilation. including equipment and distribution. • Plumbing system.Building Utility Systems Nonstructural Elements The typical categories are: • Heating. and air conditioning (HVAC) system.

such as hospitals or other special occupancy facilities. • Communications equipment and distribution cabling.• Storage tanks for water or fuel. • Electrical equipment and distribution conduits and cabling. may include other. more specialized systems. or other liquids. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 . • Some buildings. including generators and lighting.

the mechanical or electrical contractor may select the elements of the systems. Building utility systems are usually attached to the building structural elements. boilers.Characteristics of Building Utility Systems Elements • large. Because of their size and weight. heavy equipment. • can be designed by a mechanical or electrical engineer. such as generators. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 . For smaller projects. particularly for large building projects. these elements require specific attention in the structural design of the building to support their weight. and pumps.

8.2 Earthquake effects on buildings and nonstructural elements Building response [ 25 ] Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .

Earthquake Response of the building The floor accelerations due to an earthquake [21] The vibrational characteristics of the building cause the earthquake ground motion to be amplified within the building. For multi-story buildings. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 . there is a difference in the horizontal movement or acceleration of the floors over the height.

The accelerograms recorded to different levels of Sylmar County Hospital during Northridge earthquake. 1994 The accelerographs positions in plan and elevation [4] of the Sylmar County Hospital Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .

1994. presenting the amplification of building response acceleration on the height of the building Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .The accelerograms recorded to different levels of Sylmar County Hospital during Northridge earthquake.

Interaction of Building and Nonstructural Elements The motion of nonstructural elements within a building are influenced by the response of the portion of the building to which they are attached. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .

go along with the movement of the floor. For items that are very rigid and well anchored to the floor of a building. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 . Building codes generally consider an element to be very rigid if the period of vibration of the element is less than 0.06 second. the horizontal response of the element will be Approximately equal to the response of the floor to which it is attached. Very rigid elements therefore.Nonstructural element are very rigid and well anchored The stiffness of each nonstructural element also affects its response to an earthquake.

Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 . • These elements are referred to as flexible elements since they will flex or move differently than the floor to which they are attached.Response of Flexible Nonstructural Elements • Many nonstructural elements are not rigid or are not rigidly attached to the structure.

• The flexibility of the element and/or its attachment to the structure causes the earthquake motion felt by the element to be amplified so that the response of the element is greater than that of the floor to which it is attached. The period of vibration depends on the stiffness of the element and its attachment and the weight of the element Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 . • Similar to building response. the response of flexible nonstructural elements depends on the period of vibration of the element.

Examples of damages to nonstructural elements Exit canopy damage Suspended ceiling damage Source: FEMA_Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451. Design Examples .

Chimney damage Parapet damage Source: FEMA_Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451. Design Examples .

Sliding and overturning SLIDING Nonstructural elements can be characterized as either acceleration sensitive or displacement sensitive. The overturning of the equipment Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 . Those elements that are acceleration sensitive are affected by the horizontal acceleration.

• The nonstructural cladding or sheathing elements in a building are stiffer than the building frame.3 Interstory displacement • Nonstructural elements can also be damaged by the displacement of the building during an earthquake.8. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 . • This is referred to as being displacement sensitive. Most often it is the interstory displacement that can cause damage since nonstructural elements are connected to two adjacent floors of a building. • Nonstructural elements are often placed so that they are attached or restrained by the structural frame of the building.

but not enough to damage the frame – the case of partitions.The interstory displacement “d” may cause the frame to deform enough to make the cladding or sheathing crack. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 . claddings made of soft materials .

The interstory displacement “d” may cause the frame to deform enough to make damage the frame elements – the case of partitions. claddings made of strength materials . Masonry panel Short column effect Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 26 .

Beam b.Short beam effect Short beam Column Beam Masonry panel Short beam a. Masonry panel Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 27 .

4 The performances of nonstructural elements A.8. but the damage is not life-threatening.Operational performance describes nonstructural elements that will continue to perform during and after an earthquake.Life Safety performance describes the condition where nonstructural elements may be damaged due to an earthquake.Immediate Occupancy describes a postearthquake state in which nonstructural elements generally remain available and operable provided power is available. C. B. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .

Hazard Reduced performance describes the condition where nonstructural elements that could pose a hazard to areas of public assembly can be damaged but will not be life-threatening. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 . •Not Considered performance describes the condition where none of the nonstructural elements within a building have been specifically evaluated for seismic hazards. If not considered.D. some nonstructural elements may pose a hazard and some may not be hazardous. but other nonstructural elements could fail.

Building Performance and Levels Ranges [ ] Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 30 .

5 Protection Strategies Improved Structural Performance Improved Nonstructural Performance • Better Engineered Conventional Anchors • Newer Technologies Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .8.

Braces.Equipment with restraints Anchor Bolts or Expansion Bolts Resistant straps. Tendons or Plumber’s Tapes Spring Mounts or Isolators Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .

b. Diagonal braces should be installed between the floor slab and the top of the pedestals. d. a. Bases to concrete slab Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 . Various schemes for cabinets Solutions: a. Diagonal braces and bolt pedestal b. Alternately.Raised floor There are several issues that need to be considered to mitigate the hazard of damage to the raised floor. the pedestal base plates can be rigidly anchored to the structural floor to allow the pedestal to act as a cantilever to resist lateral forces. Place angles around cables opening c. Bold pedestal bases to concrete slab d. c.

Partitions a. Partition free to slide at top but restrained laterally b. Partition doweled at base b. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 . a.

1998) Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .Improved Nonstructural Performance Newer Technologies Semi-active device (Rana and Soong.

Cladding is distinguished from structural wall in that cladding does not support the weight of the floor or structural framing above.8. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .6 Nonstructural design approaches for cladding Building can have several types of nonstructural cladding attached to the exterior of the building. The purpose for the cladding is to provide thermal and acqustic protection and protection from wind and rain.

Prefabricated wall panels • Concrete • GFRC (Glass Fiber Reinforced Concrete) • Steel or Aluminum Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 . Glazing (glass panels) c. Infill masonry b.Common types of cladding are : a.

8.7 Prefabricated wall panels Types of structures which include nonstructural panels • Concrete Frames with Infill Masonry Shear Walls • Concrete Frames with Cladding (window wall or panels) • Steel Moment Frames with Cladding (window wall or panels) • Steel Braced Frames with Cladding (window wall or panels) Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .

Concrete Frames with Infill Masonry Shear Walls Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .

Concrete Frames with Cladding (window wall or panels) Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .

Steel Moment Frames Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .

Steel Braced Frames Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .

8 Precast Concrete Cladding • Precast concrete cladding varies in its relationship to the building structure. in the certain conditions the panels should be involved to dissipate the seismic energy. • Fully integrated structural precast concrete cladding should be treated like any other precast structural element. • Ideally the cladding should be either fully integrated or fully separated.8. with no intermediate conditions. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 . from being fully integrated to being fully separated from frame action.

interacting with the surrounding elements and (b) fully separated ß Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .The assembly panels and R C framed structure: (a) Fully integrated.

Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 . and some interactions of frame and cladding through bending of the connections may have to be accepted. Ductile behavior of the cladding and of its connections to the structure is most important in such cases to ensure that the cladding does not fall from the building during an earthquake or its damage does not produce injuries to building occupants.• For very flexible buildings in strong earthquakes the story drift may be so large as to make full separation difficult to achieve.

a b a. Panel separated Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 . Panel interacting b.

Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .Stiff (shear wall) buildings In stiff (shear wall) buildings the storey drift will generally be small enough to significantly reduce the problem of detailing of connections which give full separation. protection of the cladding from seismic motion is less necessary in stiff buildings. and connections permitting movement through bending may be satisfactory as long as the interaction between cladding and frame can be allowed for in the frame analysis. On the other hand.

Details to separate the claddings from seismic deformations of structure Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .The cladding which is not considered as part of the structure • In flexible beam and column buildings it is desirable to effectively separate the cladding from the frame action. both to protect the cladding from seismic deformations and also to ensure that the structure behaves as assumed in the analysis.

Panel fixed at upper part c.The panels separated from the structure Models tested in the laboratory of Civil Buildings and Foundation Chair. Civil Engineering Faculty of Cluj-Napoca [15] Movement Possibilities • fixed joint a. Panel fixed at bottom part b. Restrains of movements c. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .

Connections of precast claddings to the structure permitting the separation Beam Panel Beam Panel Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .

Laboratory tests on panels equipped with connections to “separate” the panel from the structure [15] Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .

r0 the horizontal gap r0v the vertical gap Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .Gaps • Gaps between adjacent precast units are often specified to be 20 mm to allow for seismic movements and construction tolerances. but gaps dimension may be determined from drift panel calculations.

against fire. and waterproofing. • Such connections and must be designed to carry the gravity and wind loads of the cladding back into the structure as well as to allow the free movement of the frame to take place. phonic. These should be made of corrosion-resistant materials.• The requirements for gaps material-filled joints have to accomplish the insulation: thermal. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .

PROFIL DIN ALUMINIU r v. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .The gap panel .structural element coverings FISIE DE CAUCIUC r vt.

The seismic design of fully separated precast cladding The equivalent static Seismic force conforming the Code P100/2006 [ ] FCNS = γ CNS a g β CNS k z qCNS mcns Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .

where: FCNS horizontal seismic force. acting at the centre of mass of the non-structural element in the most unfavourable direction. β CNS Kz γ CNS q CNS dynamic amplification coefficient KZ = 1 + 2 z H importance factor of the element behaviour factor of the element Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 . mCNS mass of the element.

FCNS ≤ 4 gCNS ag mCNS FCNS ≥ 0.5 Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .75 gCNS ag mCNS Dynamic amplification coefficient βCNS is function of period of vibration of the nonstructural element • rigid components (perioad TCNS ≤0.06 s): β CNS = 2. 06 s): βCNS = 1.0 •flexibile components (period TCNS > 0.

008h for separated elements Ultimate limit state (ULS) d r ULS = c q d r ≤ d r.Relative displacement of the structure dr has to be checked to prevent the damage of the infill panels The recommendations of Code P100/2006 are: Safety limit state (SLS) dr dr SLS = ν q dr≤ dr a F dr a= 0.025h q the behavior factor Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .005h for fragil elements attached to structure dr a= 0. a dr a= 0.

9 Cladding which increase the seismic energy dissipation Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .8.

Panel integrated with the structure • The case of integrated panels gives the effect of interaction panel – structure. • The behavior of the panel is that of an elasto-plastic system. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 . and can contribute at the total stiffness of the frame. increasing it (Fig. • When the partition panels are properly designed they can be used to passively dissipate significant amounts of energy through inelastic hysteretic deformation driven by interstory drift.1). • if it is designed properly may add stiffness to the system and also change the dynamic characteristics of the structure.

It is connected to the beams of the steel frame and effectively stiffness the building against wind load while providing high energy dissipation in larger earthquakes. It consists of a precast panel designed to fit between adjacent pairs of columns and beams of momentresisting steel frames. thus suppressing shear failure modes and creating a stiff energydissipating device. • The panel is divided by slits into a group of vertical ductile beam elements connected by horizontal ductile beams at the top and at the bottom. • Reinforced concrete energy dissipaters Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 . it has been used effectively in a number of tall buildings in Japan.Mutto slitted wall • Developed by Muto in the 1960s.

due to the large energy dissipation capacity related to the considerable size where plastic deformations take place. due to their considerable lateral stiffness and strength. serving as dissipative elements Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 . • Firstly.Shear panels • Shear panels are another type of metal based device used to control the dynamic response of framed buildings. they can be used as basic seismic resistance system under earthquake loading. they are very effective for the seismic protection of structures under strong loading conditions. • In addition. whose dissipative action is activated by interstorey displacements.

serving also as cladding panels.• Steel plate shear walls can be applied in the steel frame buildings with the following arrangements: • -as large panels rigidly and continuously connected along columns and beams of frame mesh. Full bay type Pure shear mechanism Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .

.or as smaller elements installed in the frameworks of a building at nearly middle height of the storey and connected to rigid support members to transfer shear forces to the main frames Partially bay type Bracing type Pillar type Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .

providing that suitable stiffeners are arranged. and a rigid panel-to-frame connecting system is adopted. The majority of practical applications of low-yield shear panels are located in Japan. so to avoid any slipping phenomenon in the recovery characteristic of the system.Implementation of steel panel in the building from Japan The hysteretic behaviour of LYS steel panels is very good. in order to prevent shear buckling. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .

Exemple of separated claddings implementation High rise building in Tokyo. Japan Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .

Concrete cladding Models tested in the laboratory of Civil Buildings and Foundation Chair. Civil Engineering Faculty of Cluj-Napoca [16] Panel A Panel B Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .

Details of panel connection to the structure [ ] Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .

Panel type A cracks pattern Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .

The joint concrete subjected to shear force Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .

The diagrams of panel deformations Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .

• The experimental tests were performed to statically alternant forces. The panel is composed of narrow vertical elements which have keyed vertical joints. the results demonstrated that the system has hight ductility and can dissipate the seismic energy.Conclusions of the experimental program • The passive energy absorbing system consists of special panels which can be placed in the frame’s span. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .

8. Examples of damages of building claddings The claddings fallen down Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .10.

Broken glass panels Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .

Damaged : •infill masonry. •frame joint •glass panels Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .

Damage of partition walls Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 .

•glass panels. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 . •frame columns.Damaged : •infill masonry(parapets).

BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING By Doina Verdes .

CHAPTER 9 THE CONTROL OF STRUCTURAL SEISMIC RESPONSE Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 2 .

6 Advanced technology systems (9A) 9. The types of structural control systems 9.2. Passive control system 9.1.Contents 9.3.4 The base isolation system 9.5 The energy dissipation systems 9. Introduction 9.7 Active structural control (9B) Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 3 .

1 Introduction • Buildings are complex systems in which the resistance structure represents the main mechanical systems.9. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 4 . • The structure interacts with the existing subsystems and responds with the performances imposed by the destination and function.

• The seismic loads are chaotic and to keep the building performances during the earthquakes is a requirement which have driven in last years to new innovative technical solutions. • These confer the possibility of a structural control which in some approaches can be continually and automatically. The structural control can be : • With open loop (non feedback) • With closed loop (with feedback) Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 5 .

Structural control with open loop Passive control of the response • The passive control of the seismic response allows a structural control with an open loop or non feedback. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 6 . • The building is equipped with a seismic isolation system and / or with devices for energy dissipation.

The seismic performances of the structure are nonstop kept during the severe earthquakes. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 7 . which includes at least one closed loop (feedback).Structural control with closed loop (feed back) It is supposing to have in building an active seismic isolation system The active seismic isolation approaches can be the cybernetic systems with active structural control sometimes optimal.

today there are many such devices installed in a wide variety of structures. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 8 . with particular emphasis on seismic response of buildings and bridges. considerable attention has been paid to research and development of structural control devices.How can be controlled the seismic response? Over the last 25 years. Serious efforts have been undertaken to develop the structural control concept into a workable technology.

(b) passive energy dissipation.2 The types of structural control systems Structural control systems can be grouped into three broad areas: (a) base isolation.9. and semi-active control. The base isolation can now be considered a more mature technology with application as compared with the other two. hybrid. and (c) active. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 9 .

and semi-active control INCREASING OF THE ENERGY DISSIPATION CAPACITY Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 10 .THE CONTROL OF THE STRUCTURAL RESPONSE DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF THE BUILDING CONTROL OF THE STRUCTURAL RESPONSE THE SYSTEMS TO CONTROL STRUCTURAL RESPONSE ♦ Base isolation ♦ Passive energy dissipation ♦ Active. hybrid.

The energy balance equation The energy – based approach is way to solve the structural control. The energy balance equation is: EI = EE +EH = (EES + EK )+ (EHξ + EHµ) EI = Energy input EE= Elastic energy of the system EH= Energy due to deformations EES= Energy elastic strains EK= Kinetic energy EHξ = Energy dissipated by the damping EHµ= Energy dissipated by the plastic deformation Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 11 .

Such beam and column members also serve as the principal gravity load–bearing elements. • Inelastic deformations of the structural components should desirably lead to a ductile beam sidesway mechanism. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 12 .• Conventional seismic design is based on preparing the structures to dissipate energy in specially detailed ductile plastic hinge regions at the end of beam members as well as at base of the columns.

THE USE OF TRADITIONAL OR CONVENTIONAL APPROACHES ELASTICAL BEHAVIOR Ei = EE PLASTIC BEHAVIOUR Ei = EE+ EH THE YELDING OF MATERIAL IN CRITICAL ZONES (PLASTIC HINGES) BUILDING GROUND ACCELERATION RESPONSE Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 13 .

to ensure the preservation of life – safety maintained.• Following a strong earthquake damage to these critical regions. • There are a number of situations where such structural behavior may be either unattainable or undesirable. a fixed – base shear frame structure filters the generally broad – band ground excitation into narrow – band responses at various elevations. in condition of structural collapse prevention . Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 14 . plastic hinge regions is to be expected. During an earthquake.

The performance-based design by the use of energy concepts and the energy balance equation [23] CONTROL OF STRUCTURAL RESPONSE THROUGH THE USE OF INNOVATIVE CONTROL OR PROTECTIVE SYSTEMS USE OF SEISMIC ISOLATION SYSTEM CONTROL (DECREASE) OF Ei USE OF PASSIVE ENERGY DISSIPATION CONTROL SYSTEM Ei = EE + ED ACTIVE CONTROL SYSTEM HYBRID HYBRID ISOLATORS AND PASSIVE ENERGY DISSIPATION DEVICES RESPONSE CONTROL STRUCTURES DYNAMIC INTELLIGENT BUILDING SMART STRUCTURAL SYSTEM STRUCTURAL ACTIVE HINGES (STRUCTURAL ROBOTICS) Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 15 .

3 Passive Control systems .Energy Dissipation Systems Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 16 .Base Isolation Systems Passive Control Systems .9.Mass Effect Systems .

sliding layer) as well as flexible elements (multi-rubber bearing. flexible piles). • The practical solving of base isolation can be done by means of sliding or rolling mechanisms (ball bearing. • The seismic isolation devices are usually installed between the foundation and the structure or between two relevant parts of the structure itself.The base isolation system • In the base isolation system. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 17 . increasing the natural period through isolators reduces the acceleration response of the structure. slide plate bearing. double column. as in the case of the suspension buildings.

The mass effect systems • The mass effect systems are based on supplementary masses connected to the structure by means of springs and dampers in order to reduce the dynamic response of the structure. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 18 . The structural response control technology by mass effect mechanism can be principally applied by tuned mass dampers as mass-spring systems and pendulum systems and by tuned liquid dampers systems based on sloshing of liquid. the devices will resonate out of phase with structural motion. dissipating energy by inertia forces applied on the structure by such masses. These devices are tuned to the particular structural frequency so that when that frequency is excited.

**The energy dissipation systems
**

• The energy dissipation systems consist of special devices that act as hysteretic and/or viscous damper, absorbing the seismic input energy and protecting the primary framed structure from damage. • The hysteretic dampers include devices based on yielding of metal and friction, while viscous dampers include both devices operating by deformation of viscoelastic solid and fluid materials (viscoelastic dampers) and the ones operating by forcing fluid materials to pass through orifices (viscous dampers).

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**9.4 The base isolation system
**

Objectives of Seismic Isolation Systems • Enhance performance of structures at all hazard levels by: Minimizing interruption of use of facility (e.g., Immediate Occupancy Performance Level) • Reducing damaging deformations in structural and nonstructural components • Reducing acceleration response to minimize contents related damage

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**The base isolation system with rubber bearings
**

The structures with base isolation systems have the isolation system placed under the main mass of the structure; the design of the system is to change the fundamental periods of the buildings from the site ground period.

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∆a

∆b

a.

b.

**The deformed shape of structure: a. With base isolation, b. Without isolation
**

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The energy that is transmitted to the structure is largely dissipated by efficient energy dissipation mechanisms within the isolation system.

**Effect of Seismic Isolation: Increase Period of Vibration of Structure to Reduce Base Shear [21]
**

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Softer soils tend to produce ground motion at higher periods which in turn amplifies the response of structures having high periods. Thus, seismic isolation systems, which have a high fundamental period, are not well-suited to soft soil conditions.

MOST EFFECTIVE - Structure on Stiff Soil - Structure with Low Fundamental Period (Low-Rise Building)

**Effect of Soil Conditions on Isolated Structure Response
**

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Configuration of a building structure with Base Isolation system [21]

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T=2π/ω ω2=k/m

**The soil conditions in Romania
**

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The behavior of the ruber bearing to sher force

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Types of Seismic Isolation Bearings

Elastomeric Bearings - Low-Damping Natural or Synthetic Rubber Bearing - High-Damping Natural Rubber Bearing - Lead-Rubber Bearing (Low damping natural rubber with lead core) Sliding Bearings - Flat Sliding Bearing - Spherical Sliding Bearing

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**Buildings in the US having base isolation systems
**

Foothill Community Law and Justice Center, Rancho Cucamonga, CA - Application to new building in 1985 - 12 miles from San Andreas fault - Four stories + basement + penthouse - Steel braced frame - Weight = 29,300 kips - 98 High damping elastomeric bearings - 2 sec fundamental lateral period - 0.1 sec vertical period - +/- 16 inches displacement capacity - Damping ratio = 10 to 20% (dependent on shear strain

Source: NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Instructional Materials (FEMA 451B)

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**Example of Seismic Isolation Retrofit U.S. Court of Appeals, San Francisco, CA
**

- Original construction started in 1905 - Significant historical and architectural value - Four stories + basement - Steel-framed superstructure - Weight = 120,000 kips - Granite exterior & marble, plaster, and hardwood interior - Damaged in 1989 Loma Prieta EQ - Seismic retrofit in 1994 - 256 Sliding bearings (FPS) - Displacement capacity = +/-14 in.

Source: NEHRP Recommended Provisions: Instructional Materials (FEMA 451B)

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**The dynamic model of the building equipped with rubber bearings
**

T=2π/ω ω2=k/m ms= the structure mass mb= the base mass ks = the structure stiffness, cs = the structure damping kb = the base stiffness, cb = the base damping ms us

ks , cs m b kb , cb ub ug

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The equation for fixed base b. The equation for isolated base Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 32 .a.

Making the notations: one obtains: Case (a) Case (b) Solving the equations one obtains the seismic response: -the acceleration -the velocity -the desplacement Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 33 .

Reazem din cauciuc cu tole de o el Details of elastomeric bearings Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 34 .

The Seismic Isolation With Penduls [9] Exemple of Pasiv Isolation System with Penduls and Friction Absorbers Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 35 .

Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 36 .

of a four levels building under El Centro accelerogram with and without seismic isolation system with pendulum.Seismic response. time history. ag With seismic isolation system t Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 37 .

are typical energy dissipation systems currently used in steel framed structure.9. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 38 . • panel systems.5 The energy dissipation systems • diagonal bracing. • Both systems are based on metallic-yielding approach and are activated by the relative interstorey drift occurring during the loading process of the structure.

chevron bracing and any other concentric bracing scheme. according to single bracing.Diagonal Bracing Systems • A common way for seismic protecting of both new and existing framed structures is traditionally based on the use of concentric steel members arranged into a frame mesh. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 39 . cross bracing.

due to buckling of the relevant members. which generally causes a poor dissipation behaviour of the whole system. some drawback have to be taken into account. concerning the unfavorable hysteretic behaviour under severe earthquake.Some drawback Even if such systems posses high lateral stiffness and strength for wind loads and moderate intensity earthquakes. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 40 .

which has to be easily accessible and replaceable. in addition to the strengthening of the existing frame.The placing in the conventional bracing system additional special devices • In case of seismic retrofitting. it is necessary to improve the global seismic performance of the structure. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 41 . • This requirement can be achieved by placing in the conventional bracing system additional special devices that dissipate the input energy seismic. It can be made by damping devices placed into the bracings. • Therefore. it is necessary to avoid the mentioned drawback by preventing the buckling and the premature rupture of braces. also in terms of dissipative capacities.

Steel frames with dissipatives zones conforming EC 8 Frames with concentric diagonal bracings (dissipative zones in tension diagonals only) Frames with concentric V bracings (dissipative zones in tension and compression diagonals) Frames with eccentric bracings (dissipative zones in bending or shear links) Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 42 .

Typical dissipative chevron bracing systems Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 43 .

Panel Systems • Shear panels are another type of metal based device used to control the dynamic response of framed buildings. whose dissipative action is activated by interstorey displacements. • In addition. serving as dissipative elements Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 44 . they can be used as basic seismic resistance system under earthquake loading. due to the large energy dissipation capacity related to the considerable size where plastic deformations take place. • Firstly. due to their considerable lateral stiffness and strength. they are very effective for the seismic protection of structures under strong loading conditions.

• Steel plate shear walls can be applied in the steel frame buildings with the following arrangements: • -as large panels rigidly and continuously connected along columns and beams of frame mesh. serving also as cladding panels. Full bay type Pure shear mechanism Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 45 .

or as smaller elements installed in the frameworks of a building at nearly middle height of the storey and connected to rigid support members to transfer shear forces to the main frames Partially bay type Bracing type and Pillar type Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 46 ..

in order to prevent shear buckling. and a rigid panel-to-frame connecting system is adopted. so to avoid any slipping phenomenon in the recovery characteristic of the system. providing that suitable stiffeners are arranged. The majority of practical applications of low-yield shear panels are located in Japan Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 47 .The hysteretic behaviour of LYS steel panels is very good.

Curved steel bars or plates Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 48 .The Use Of Passive Energy Dissipation Systems There are a lot of passive energy dissipation developed after ‘60s. Steel torsion-beam 3. in lead-rubber bearings 2. Lead extrusion devices 4. Lead plugs. Flexural beam dampers 5. following energy dissipaters (dampers) are used with base isolated structures: 1.

Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 49 .

Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 50 . The typical approach designs the structural members so they can absorb earthquake input energy through inelastic cyclic deformation. a structure is subjected to a large amount of energy input. Repairing the damages caused by these inelastic deformations will require significant costs.Supplemental energy dissipation devices • During an earthquake event.

Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 51 . the structural dynamic properties are modified. and the energy dissipation demand on the structural members is reduced. the seismic response is controlled. By adding EDD to the structural system.• In recent years. many buildings or structures have been designed with supplemental energy dissipation devices EDD to absorb some of the vibration energy caused by earthquakes. • Supplemental EDDs have become a popular strategy for designing new buildings or retrofitting existing buildings.

thus suppressing shear failure modes and creating a stiff energy-dissipating device.Reinforced concrete energy dissipaters A notable first entry to this field is the Mutto slitted wall. It consists of a precast panel designed to fit between adjacent pairs of columns and beams of momentresisting steel frames. Developed by Muto in the 1960s. It is connected to the beams of the steel frame and effectively stiffness the building against wind load while providing high energy dissipation in larger earthquakes. it has been used effectively in a number of tall buildings in Japan. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 52 . The panel is divided by slits into a group of vertical ductile beam elements connected by horizontal ductile beams at the top and at the bottom.

Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 53 .

Panel with vertical discontinue slits Panel with vertical continue slits Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 54 .

The panel behavior after the cracking along the vertical slits The stiffness of the teeth form vertical edge Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 55 .

Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 56 .• The stiffness of the panel must be calibrated in respect of required interstory drift of the frame. the seismic response of the structures accordingly the design codes gives large deformations due mainly the post-elastic behavior.

Energy dissipaters in diagonal bracing • Diagonal bracings incorporating energy dissipaters provide a structurally comparable alternative to the Muto slitted wall panel in that they control the horizontal deflections of the frame and also the locations of the damage. A practical example is a sixstorey government office building constructed in Wanganui. Montreal [1] was achieved by incorporating friction dampers in the existing and new bracing. New Zealand. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 57 . • The rehabilitation of Quebec Police Headquarters. in 1980 This building obtains its lateral load resistance from diagonally braced precast concrete cladding panels thus minimizing the amount of internal structure to suit architectural planning. thus protecting both the main structure and the non-structural elements.

Pictures of Buildings in seismic areas Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 58 .

Tokyo . Japan Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 59 .

Tokyo . Japan Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 60 .

California Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 61 .Transamerica building. San Francisco.

Transamerica building. California Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 62 . San Francisco.

Imperial palace. Japan Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 63 .

BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING By Doina Verdes .

CHAPTER 9 THE CONTROL OF STRUCTURAL SEISMIC RESPONSE 2 .

2.1. Introduction 9.3. The types of structural control systems 9.Contents 9.4 The base isolation system 9. Passive control system 9.6 Advanced technology systems (9A) 9.7 Active structural control (9B) 3 .5 The energy dissipation systems 9.

9.6 Advanced Technology Systems Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 4 .

g.Objectives of Energy Dissipation and Seismic Isolation Systems Enhance performance of structures at all hazard levels by: Minimizing interruption of use of facility (e.Immediate Occupancy Performance Level) Reducing damaging deformations in structural and nonstructural components.. Reducing acceleration response to minimize contents related damage Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 5 .

Distinction Between Natural and Added Damping Natural (Inherent) Damping Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 6 .

Added Damping Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 7 .

the hysteretic energy dissipation demand can be reduced if a supplemental (or added) damping system is utilized. The energy balance must be satisfied at each instant in time. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 8 .Alternate source of energy dissipation Seismic damage can be reduced by providing an alternate source of energy dissipation. For a given amount of input energy.

0 Collapse Damage Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 State 9 .0 umax EH (t ) DI (t ) = +ρ uult Fy uult Source: Park and Ang (1985) 0.Reduction in Seismic Damage Energy Balance: Hysteretic Energy EI = ES + E K + ( EDI + E DA ) + EH Inherent Damping Added Damping Damage Index: DI 1.

Damage index values less than about 0. The calibration factor ρ accounts for the type of structural system and is calibrated such that a damage index of unity corresponds to incipient collapse. the time-dependence is in accordance with the timedependence of the hysteretic energy dissipation. This index is one of the first duration-dependent damage indices to be proposed. can be used to characterize the timedependent damage to a structure.Damage index “DI” A damage index “DI”.2 indicate little or no damage. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 10 . For the definition given.

inch-kips Energy (kip-inch) (kip 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 Time.Energy response histories for a SDOF elasto-plastic system subjected to seismic loading 10% damping 200 180 Absorbed Energy. Seconds HYSTERETIC KINETIC + STRAIN 10% Damping DAMPING Damping reduces the hysteretic energy dissipation demand Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 11 .

Inch-Kips Energy (kip-inch) 160 140 120 100 DAMPING 80 60 40 20 0 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 Time. Seconds HYSTERETIC 20% Damping KINETIC + STRAIN An increase in added damping reduces the hysteretic energy dissipation demand by about 57%. Damping reduces the hysteretic energy dissipation demand Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 12 .Energy response histories for a SDOF elasto-plastic system subjected to seismic loading 200 180 Absorbed(kip Energy.

etc.) • Vibration absorbers (tuned mass dampers) Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 13 .Classification of Passive Energy Dissipation Systems Velocity-Dependent Systems • Viscous fluid or viscoelastic solid dampers • May or may not add stiffness to structure Displacement-Dependent Systems • Metallic yielding or friction dampers • Always adds stiffness to structure Other • Re-centering devices (shape-memory alloys.

Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 14 . are generally exclusively velocity-dependent and thus add no additional stiffness to a structure (assuming no flexibility in the damper framing system). the most commonly utilized energy dissipation system.Velocity-dependent systems consist of dampers whose force output is dependent on the rate of change of displacement having the name rate-dependent. Viscous fluid dampers.

systems rateindependent. More accurately. Displacement-dependent systems consist of dampers whose force output is dependent on the displacement and NOT the rate of change of the displacement.Viscoelastic solid dampers exhibit both velocity and displacement-dependence. often call. the force output of displacement-dependent dampers generally depends on both the displacement and the sign of the velocity. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 15 .

Unbonded Brace Dampers. and Friction Dampers Modeling Considerations for Structures with Passive Damping Systems Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 16 .Types of Damping Systems • • • • • Velocity-Dependent Damping Systems : Fluid Dampers and Viscoelastic Dampers Models for Velocity-Dependent Dampers Effects of Linkage Flexibility Displacement-Dependent Damping Systems: Steel Plate Dampers.

Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 17 . Inc.Cross-Section of Viscous Fluid Damper Source: Taylor Devices.

Possible Damper Placement Within Structure Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 18 .

Fluid Damper within Diagonal Brace* San Francisco State Office Building San Francisco. CA Huntington Tower Boston. MA *Source: FEMA Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451 Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 19 .

Harmonic behaviour of fluid damper Source: FEMA Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451 20 .

Advantages of Fluid Dampers High reliability High force and displacement capacity Force Limited when velocity exponent < 1.0 Available through several manufacturers No added stiffness at lower frequencies Damping force (possibly) out of phase with structure elastic forces Moderate temperature dependency May be able to use linear analysis Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 21 .

0) Necessity for nonlinear analysis in most practical cases (as it has been shown that it is generally not possible to add enough damping to eliminate all inelastic response) Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 22 .Disadvantages of Fluid Dampers Somewhat higher cost Not force limited (particularly when exponent = 1.

Vicoelastic dampers* A -A *Source: FEMA Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451 Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 23 .

Advantages of Viscoelastic Dampers High reliability May be able to use linear analysis Somewhat lower cost Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 24 .

Disadvantages of Viscoelastic Dampers Strong Temperature Dependence Lower Force and Displacement Capacity Not Force Limited Necessity for nonlinear analysis in most practical cases (as it has been shown that it is generally not possible to add enough damping to eliminate all inelastic response) Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 25 .

Steel Plate Dampers* (Added Damping and Stiffness System .ADAS) *Source: FEMA Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451 Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 26 .

CA .7 Dampers Within Chevron Bracing Installed in 1992 .Implementation of ADAS System* Wells Fargo Bank. San Francisco.Yield Force Per Damper: 150 kips *Source: FEMA Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451 Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 27 . Constructed in 1967 .Seismic Retrofit of TwoStory Nonductile Concrete Frame.

1993) Experimental Response (Static) (Source: Tsai et al. 1993) Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 28 .Hysteretic Behavior of ADAS Device ADAS Device (Tsai et al.

Advantages of ADAS System and Unbonded Brace Damper Force-Limited Easy to construct Relatively Inexpensive Adds both “Damping” and Stiffness Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 29 .

Disadvantages of ADAS System and Unbonded Brace Damper Must be Replaced after Major Earthquake Highly Nonlinear Behavior Adds Stiffness to System Undesirable Residual Deformations Possible Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 30 .

Friction Dampers: Slotted-Bolted Damper* *Source: FEMA Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451 Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 31 .

Sumitomo Friction Damper (Sumitomo Metal Industries. Japan) Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 32 .

Canada *Source: FEMA Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451 Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 33 . Montreal.Cross-Bracing Friction Damper* Interior of Webster Library at Concordia University.

Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 34 . Under lateral load. This force system causes the rectangular damper to deform into a parallelogram. the structural frame distorts such that two of the braces are subject to tension and the other two to compression. The damper is bolted to the cross-bracing. dissipating energy at the bolted joints through sliding friction.The cross-bracing friction damper consists of cross-bracing that connects in the center to a rectangular damper.

Implementation of cross-bracing friction damper McConnel Library at Concordia University.RC Frames with Flat Slabs .60 Dampers Exposed for Aesthetics Source: FEMA Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451 Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 35 .Two Interconnected Buildings of 6 and 10 Stories .143 Cross-Bracing Friction Dampers Installed in 1987 . Canada . Montreal.

Hysteretic Behavior of Slotted-Bolted Friction Damper Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 36 .

Ideal hysteretic behavior of cross-bracing friction damper Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 37 .

Advantages of Friction Dampers Force-Limited Easy to construct Relatively Inexpensive Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 38 .

Disadvantages of Friction Dampers May be Difficult to Maintain over Time Highly Nonlinear Behavior Adds Large Initial Stiffness to System Undesirable Residual Deformations Possible Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 39 .

Modeling Considerations for Structures with Passive Energy Dissipation Devices Damping is almost always nonclassical (Damping matrix is not proportional to stiffness and/or mass) For seismic applications. system response is usually partially inelastic For seismic applications. viscous damper behavior is typically nonlinear (velocity exponents in the range of 0.5 to 0.8) Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 40 .

BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING By Doina Verdes .

CHAPTER 9 THE CONTROL OF STRUCTURAL SEISMIC RESPONSE Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 2 .

3.7 Active structural control (9B) Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 3 . Introduction 9. The types of structural control systems 9.6 Advanced technology systems (9A) 9.2.Contents 9. Passive control system 9.4 The base isolation system 9.1.5 The energy dissipation systems 9.

9.7 Active structural control systems Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 4 .

Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 5 .

supported by springs with the total linear elastic stiffness k. and a damper with damping coefficient c. Consider the lateral motion of the SDOF model consisting of a mass m.Basic Principles of active control The basic principles are illustrated using a simple single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) structural model. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 6 .

Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 7 . V. The excited model responds with a lateral displacement y(t) relative to the ground which satisfies the equation of motion: & m&&(t ) + cy (t ) + ky (t ) + Vy = − m&&g (t ) y y v(t ) = Vy / m (1) (2) To see the effect of applying an active control force to the linear structure. c.The SDOF system is subjected to an earthquake load. k. equation (1) in this case becomes & m&&(t ) + cy (t ) + ky (t ) + Vy = − m&&g (t ) y y (3) The object of a response-control structure is to reduce these factors by controlling or adjusting m.

Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 8 . e. The advantages associated with active control systems in comparison with passive systems.several can be cited. which can change as a function of the excitation. whereas increased structural safety may be the objective during severe dynamic loading. The form of Vx is governed by the control law chosen for a given application. one may emphasize human comfort over other aspects of structural motion during noncritical times.g.The effect of feedback control The effect of feedback control is to modify the structural properties so that it can respond more favorably to the ground motion.

for example.• among them are (a) enhanced effectiveness in the response control where the degree of effectiveness is. (c) applicability to multi-hazard mitigation situations. by and large. only limited by the capacity of the control systems. (b) relative insensitivity to site conditions and ground motion. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 9 . for motion control against both strong wind and earthquakes. and (d) selectivity of control objectives. where an active system can be used.

• are force delivery devices integrated with real-time processing evaluators/controllers and sensors within the structure. and semi-active structural control systems • are a natural evolution of passive control technologies.Active. • it is reached the stage where active systems have been installed in full-scale structures for seismic hazard mitigation. hybrid. • they act simultaneously with the hazardous excitation to provide enhanced structural behavior for improved service and safety. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 10 .

Italy) Third European Conference on Structural Control (Vienna. USA) First European Conference on Structural Control (Barcelona.Active structural control research 1989 1990 1991 1993 1994 1994 1996 1998 1998 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 US Panel on Structural Control Research (US-NSF) Japan Panel on Structural Response Control (Japan-SCJ) Five-Year Research Initiative on Structural Control (US-NSF) European Association for Control of Structures International Association for Structural Control First World Conference on Structural Control (Pasadena. California.USA) Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 11 . California. Austria) Fourth World Conference on Structural Control (San Diego. Japan) Second European Conference on Structural Control (Paris. Spain) China Panel for Structural Control Korean Panel for Structural Control Second World Conference on Structural Control (Kyoto. France) Third World Conference on Structural Control (Como.

The performance-based design by the use of energy conceptsOFand the energyUSE OF CONTROL STRUCTURAL RESPONSE THROUGH THE balance equation INNOVATIVE CONTROL OR PROTECTIVE SYSTEMS USE OF SEISMIC ISOLATION SYSTEM CONTROL (DECREASE) OF Ei USE OF PASSIVE ENERGY DISSIPATION CONTROL SYSTEM Ei = EE + ED ACTIVE CONTROL SYSTEM HYBRID HYBRID ISOLATORS AND PASSIVE ENERGY DISSIPATION DEVICES RESPONSE CONTROL STRUCTURES DYNAMIC INTELLIGENT BUILDING SMART STRUCTURAL SYSTEM STRUCTURAL ACTIVE HINGES (STRUCTURAL ROBOTICS) Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 12 .

and passive systems do not require any energy input.• Hybrid systems are a combination of active and passive systems. supplying energy to enhance the damping effect of the passive system. semi-active systems require energy to indirectly resist external disturbances by changing the dynamic characteristics of the building structure. • The active systems provide various countermeasures by using the external disturbance signals generated by sensors installed either inside or outside the building. or feedback control. • Active systems require energy to directly resist the external disturbances. in which sensors in the building detect the building's response [ ]. in which sensors outside the building detect disturbance before it reaches the building. Active systems use both feed forward control. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 13 .

Structure with Hybrid Control EXCITATION STRUCTURE WITH PED RESPONSE CONTROL ACTUATORS SENSORS COMPUTER CONTROLER SENSORS Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 14 .

The forces from the control actuator are employed to increase efficiency of the HMD and to increase its robustness to changes in the dynamic characteristics of the structure Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 15 . The ability of this device to reduce structural responses relies mainly on the natural motion of the TMD. An HMD is a combination of a passive tuned mass damper (TMD) and an active control actuator.Hybrid Mass Damper Systems (HMD) The hybrid mass damper (HMD) is the most common control device employed in full-scale civil engineering applications.

The HMD was installed at top to 11th floor and consists of two masses to control transverse and torsional motions of the structure.Implementation of Hybrid Mass Damper Systems Is installed in the Sendagaya INTES building in Tokyo in 1991. while hydraulic actuators provide the active control capabilities. The ice thermal storage tanks are used as mass blocks so that no extra mass was introduced. 1994). Soong et al. 1993. The masses are supported by multistage rubber bearings intended for reducing the control energy consumed in the HMD and for insuring smooth mass movements (Higashino and Aizawa. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 16 ..

1993) Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 17 .Sendagaya INTES building with hybrid mass dampers (Higashino and Aizawa.

1993) Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 18 .Top view of hybrid mass damper configuration (Higashino and Aizawa.

1993) Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 19 .Response time histories (Higashino and Aizawa.

Yao. he proposes the concept of Structural Control. 1972). The author states that it seems the limit in structure size has been reached. in his paper entitled “Concept of Structural Control” (Yao. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 20 .Structural Control. James T. In order to extend these limits without loss of safety. especially closed-loop (feedback) control systems. closed-loop (feedback) In 1972.P. marks the beginning of this new field in Structural Analysis. prof.

BASICS OF ACTIVE CONTROL CONFIGURATION SEISMIC ACTION STRUCTURE Structural Response Control Forces Electrical power Sensors Actuators Sensors Control forces calculation Structure with Active Control Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 21 .

The equation of motion for an n degree of freedom controlled system under seismic action is: Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 22 .The control mechanism is in fact an active bracing system or an active mass damper incorporated into the structure. Optimal active control is a time domain strategy. The data from the surroundings or from long distance sent trough cables. radio and via satellite should be processed by the general and local computers and this way the structures will be better prepared to respond to strong earthquakes. The information network is the infrastructure of very crowded metropolis. which tries to unify the perspective of lifeline systems belonging to an urban community. which should include buildings with dynamic behavior.The Dynamic Intelligent Building Dynamic intelligent building is an important concept of active system. which allows minimizing the energy induced in structure.

c.where: M1 = n x n mass matrix of the structure. f(t) is proportional to the seismic ground acceleration: & Mz (t ) + C1 z (t ) + K1 z (t ) = f (t ) + u (t ) && f (t ) = h1 χ g (t ) where: h1 = n-dimensional vector showing the points of application and the values of inertia The object of a response-control structure is to reduce these factors by controlling or adjusting m. or p. k. f. u(t) = n-dimensional vector of control actions f(t) = n-dimensional vector of external actions. z(t) = n-dimensional vector of generalized displacements. K1 = n x n stiffness matrix. C1 = n x n damping matrix. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 23 .

Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 • • • • 24 . the available structural response-control methods can be classified as follows: Methods based on the control and adjustment of m.The available structural response-control methods According to these basic principles of dynamics. jet or injection devices. such as variable-stiffness and flexible-base mechanisms. such as using reaction walls. Methods based on control and adjustment of k. Methods based on the control and adjustment of p. Methods based on the control and adjustment of c.mass dampers. such as variable damping mechanisms and building-tobuilding connection mechanisms. such as rigid.or liquid.

Such is the case in the active mass damper or active Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 25 .Active Mass Damper Systems Design constraints. such as severe space limitations. can preclude the use of an HMD system.

.Principle of the DUOX system (Nishimura et al. 1993) BUILDING AMD Atachet mass damper TMD Tuned mass damper Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 26 .

The simplified principle: active & passive control Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 27 .

The Kyobashi Seiwa Building in Tokyo Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 28 .

• The control system consists of two AMDs where the primary AMD is used for transverse motion and has a weight of 4 tons. while the secondary AMD has a weight of 1 ton and is employed to reduce torsional motion. the first full-scale implementation of active control technology. is an 11-story building with a total floor area of 423 m2. The role of the active system is to reduce building vibration under strong winds and moderate earthquake excitations and consequently to increase the comfort of occupants in the building. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 29 .The system designed and installed in the Kyobashi Seiwa Building in Tokyo • This building.

in fact. which is critical during seismic events when • The semi-active control devices offer the adaptability of active • control devices without requiring the associated large power sources the main power source to the structure may fail. • semi-active control devices offer the adaptability of active control devices without requiring the associated large power sources. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 30 . many can operate on battery power.Semi-active Damper Systems • Control strategies based on semi-active devices combine the best features of both passive and active control systems.

a full-scale variable-orifice damper in a semi-active variable-stiffness system (SAVS) was implemented to investigate semi-active control at the Kobori Research Complex (Kobori et al.. and can develop a maximum damping force of 1000 kN.• a variable-stiffness device. Kamagata and Kobori. 1994). 1999). Kurata et al. • The semi-active hydraulic dampers are installed inside the walls on both sides of the building to enable it to be used as a disaster relief base in post-earthquake situations (Kobori.. a check valve. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 31 . Each damper contains a flow control valve. 1998. 1993. and an accumulator.

SAVS system configuration (Kurata et al.. 1999) Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 32 .

for example. as shown schematically in Figure 1.Variations of such an HMD configuration include multistage pendulum HMDs. Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 33 . consists of a TMD actively controlled by an auxiliary mass. the tallest building in Japan. the DUOX HMD system which.. which have been installed in. and in the TC Tower in Kaohsiung. for example. 1992).8. the Yokohama Landmark Tower in Yokohama (Yamazaki et al. Taiwan. the Ando Nishikicho Building in Tokyo (Nishimura et al. Additionally.. 1993). has been installed in.

Yokohama Landmark Tower and HMD (Yamazaki et al. 1992) Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 34 ..

Yokohama Landmark Tower and Shinjuku Park Tower Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 35 .

Kajima Shizuoka Building and semi-active hydraulic dampers (Kurata et al.. 1999) Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 36 .

Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 37 . In the absence of an applied field. linear viscous fluid to a semi-solid with a controllable yield strength in milliseconds when exposed to an electric (for ER fluids) or a magnetic (for MR fluids) field.Controllable dampers Two fluids that are viable contenders for development of controllable dampers are: (a) electrorheological (ER) fluids and (b) magnetorheological (MR) fluids. The essential characteristic of these fluids is their ability to change reversibly from a free-flowing. these fluids flow freely and can be modeled as Newtonian.

Schematic of a controllable fluid damper Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 38 .

Full-scale 20-ton MR fluid damper (Dyke et al.. 1998) Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 39 .

The scheme of active control of seismic response Desplacements Traductor Active Tendon System CONDITIONING Actuator .. yg ANALOG DIFERENTIAL SERVO-VALVE CONTROL COMPUTER PC Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 40 .

High rise building in Japan Doina Verdes BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING 2011 41 .

. Pearson Education.. si colectiv . l. Boca Raton. I. New York.. 1985 8. 2008 6. . Bozornia Y.BASICS OF SEISMIC ENGINEERING By Doina Verdes REFERENCES 1. Crainic. Dinamica structurilor si inginerie seismica. Inginerie seismica..1998. Penzien J. Washington. 1997 10. Springer 1997 9. Verdeş D. Reducerea efectelor dinamice asupra constructiilor prin sisteme de protectie aplicate la nivelul fundatiilor. Theory and applications to Earthquake engineering. 2010 3. Proiectarea nodurilor cadrelor de beton în codurile de proiectare actuale. ISBN 0-8247-5934-b. Taranath. D. 1993 5. . Proceedings of 11TH 1 . PhD Thesis. Dungale S. 2007. Wind and Earthquake resistant buildings Structural analisis and design..Dynamic of Structures. Dinamica structurilor. Anil K. UTPRESS. Earthquake Engineering from Engineering Seismology to Performance – Based Engineering. ISBN 0-8493-1439-9.. London. ... ISBN 0-13-156174-X 4..V. Bors. Manea Daniela. Inc. 2007 2. Chopra. 2004 7.C.Resistant Earthquake Design with Rubber. second edition. Ifrim M. Rev AICPS. Bucuresti Editura didactica si pedagogica. EDP 1985 11. Pop I. Bertero. Dynamics of structures. CRC Press. Clough Ray W. John Wiley & Sons. Pasiv System of Seismic Isolation with Penduls and Friction Absorbers. Manea D. Negoita Al... Kelly J..

Seismic Response of Nonstructural Panels Flexible Connected with Structural Elements . 1373 – 1377 18. I. G. FEMA 415 B 2 .4. 2000..12223-721 20. Ltd 22. pag. 17. oct. . 1369-1373. Cluj-Napoca. *** Earquake protection with seismic isolation. TUCluj-Napoca. *** EUROCODE 8 24. vol..European Earthquake Engineering Conference.Risc şi siguranţă la acţiuni seismice. Panels and RC framed Structure. Pop.. Verdeş. and A. D..0) 23. Mc VERRY – An introduction to Seismic Isolation. 1980 13. T. Romania 1993 19. I.. PhD Thesis. Analele Universitatii Ovidius Constanta. 2002 “Passive Dissipation System for Framed Structures”. Panouri neportante . S.T. 1993 14. Dynamic Isolation Systems. – Study of the panels in seismic resisting buildings.H.. ISSN. 12. ISSN. Verdeş. Analele Universităţii Ovidius Constanţa. Verdeş. *** FEMA – NEHRP: Recommended Provisions for New Buildings and Other Structures: Training and Instruction Materials. Cluj-Napoca.Simpozionul international Construcţii 2000. . 281-289. Robinson W. Hybrid.Simpozionul international Construcţii 2000. Soong T. Pop I. John Wiley & Sons. D. D.4. Skiner R. vol. Verdes. Paris. Y. T. ISBN 90 5410 982 3. Pop. Reinhorn. Septembre 9 − 12. 325-328. 2004 15. 973-9350-89-9 21. oct. Nonstructural Performance and Performancebased Earthquake Engineering.M. Soong. France. D.. Rosenblueth – Earthquake Engineering. pag.1993.12223-721 16. Verdeş.. Active. John Wiley & Sons. Berindean O. 2003.. Verdeş D. and Semi-active Structural Control – A Design and Implementation Handbook 2005 John Wiley & Sons.1993. H. Proceedings of the International Conference Constructions 2003 Cluj-Napoca. 775-359-333 DVD rev (3. Iassy Romania.Chu. D.Magnification Factors for Local Seismic Response of Nonstructural Panel . I. ISBN...

***FEMA Instructional Material Complementing FEMA 451 3 . *** P100/2006 Romanian seismic design code 26. ***Earthquake Hazard Mitigation for Nonstructural Elements. FEMA P – 74 CD/ September 2005 28. *** Seismic Design Methodologies for the Next Generation of Codes Balkema/Rotterdam/Bookfield/1997 27.25.

a key liaison between students and EERI.05. California. USA Organised by: EERI Student Leadership Council (SLC) held in conjunction with the 63rd EERI Annual Meeting on February 10th and 11th 2011 at the Hyatt Regency La Jolla. Aventine in San Diego.23. 1 . • To build the awareness of the versatile activities at EERI among the civil engineering students and Faculty as well as the general public and to encourage nation-wide participation in these activities. • To provide civil engineering undergraduate students an opportunity to work on a hands-on project by designing and constructing a cost-effective frame structure to resist earthquake excitations. Competition Objectives • The objectives of the Eighth Annual Undergraduate Seismic Design Competition sponsored by EERI are: • To promote the study of earthquake engineering amongst undergraduate students. • To increase the attentiveness of the value and benefit of the Student Leadership Council (SLC) representatives and officers among the universities for the recruitment and development of SLC.2011 The Test on Shake Table of a High Building Model Equipped with Friction Dampers The Valahia Tower Project Is awarded with Egor Popov award for Structural Innovation to Seismic Design Contest 10th -12th of February 2011 SAN-DIEGO CA. USA 1.

There is no requirement on where the floors are labeled.5 lbs (1. the floor at the base of the structure will be labeled ground.2. For penalties refer to Section 6. they cannot be secured to the beam alone. Floor mass: 2. 2 .2 mm x 6. Therefore.59 kg) in total. Weights will be secured to the structure using nuts and washers. however.2 cm) Min building height: 32 in (81. The time histories and response spectrums were availables online in the competition website.08 cm) Lobby level height (1st level): 4 in (10. • • • • • • • • • Structural Loading Dead loads and inertial masses will be added through steel threaded bars tightened with washers and nuts.4mm) Columns can be attached to the ends of a shear wall.2011 2. including the base and roof plate and any damping devices. the weight will be attached to the nearest higher floor. and the floor above the lobby will be labeled 2nd. Every floor must be labeled. which weigh 3.2 cm) Max number of floor levels: 29 levels Min number of floor levels: 15 levels Floor height: 2 in (5.27 cm).23.05. a scaled model have been constructed from balsa wood.18 kg) Roof mass: 3.7 mm) The dead load will be placed at nine floor levels in increments of (H/10). The direction of shaking will be decided by the judges. The base floor is defined as the top of the base plate.4 mm x 6.24 cm x 15.2 mm x 6. Floors Floor isolation in the horizontal and vertical planes is allowed in the middle third of the building.4 cm) Max rentable total floor area: 4650 in2 (3 m2) Structural height shall be measured from the top of the base floor to the top of the uppermost beam member of the top level. The roof dead weight will consist of a steel plate with dimensions of 6 in x 6 in x 1/2 in (15.6 lbs (1.24 cm x 1.1 cm) Min individual floor dimension: 6 in x 6 in (15.4 mm) Circular column: 1/4 in (6.85 lbs (2. Every floor must have a system of interior beams running perpendicular to each other with a minimum of 2 beams in each direction. The students team has been hired to submit a design for a multi-story commercial office building. • To verify the seismic load resistance system. Weight of Scale Model The total weight of the scale model. It is strongly recommended that each team purchase a sample weight to try out and ensure proper attachment. • The seismic performance of the structure was evaluated according to the rules described in the following sections • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Structural Frame Members Structures shall be made of balsa wood and the maximum member cross section dimensions are: Rectangular column: 1/4 in x 1/4 in (6. and an accelerometer. It was subjected to severe ground motion excitations.59 kg) Mass spacing: Increments of 1/10th the height (H/10) Threaded bar length: 36 in (914 mm) Threaded bar diameter: 1/2 in (12. These will be firmly attached to the frame in the direction perpendicular to shaking.4 mm) Shear Walls Shear walls constructed out of balsa wood must comply with the following requirements: Maximum thickness: 1/8 in (3.28 cm) Max building height: 60 in (153. it will be prudent to design structures that are symmetric in both directions. Total floor area includes the core of the structure. Structural Design Objectives • • 3. Structural Model and Testing • • • • • • • • • • • • • Structure Dimensions The structure must comply with the following dimensions. In cases where a floor does not exist at an exact increment of (H/10).2 kg). should not exceed 4.1 cm x 38.2mm) Minimum length: 1 in (25. Max floor plan dimension: 15 in x15 in (38. corresponding to (1/10) x H to (9/10) x H.4 mm) diameter Beam: 1/8 in x 1/4 in (3.2 cm x 15.4 mm) Diagonal: 1/8 in x 1/4 in (3. See Figure 2-3 for roof configuration.5 lbs (1.

2011 4. • The university name and EERI logo should appear at the top of the poster and a font size of 40 is recommended. Annual income. • Scoring will be based on the scoring sheet provided in the Appendix. and 3.05. Initial building cost. Judges will have three minutes to ask questions following the presentation.91 m). Additional Requirements • Oral Presentation • Each team is required to give a five-minute oral presentation to a panel of judges.Annual Income . calculated as the annual income minus annual building construction cost minus annual seismic cost. The font size shall not be less than 18.23.Poster . • Poster • The teams are required to display a poster providing an overview of the project. Scoring Multipliers The following section describes the calculation of the overall final score for each team. 6. • The final measure of structural performance is the annual revenue. Scoring Method • This section describes the method used to score the performance of the structures in the seismic competition. Scoring is based on three primary components: 1.1 m) and a width of 36 inch (0. Annual seismic cost.Penalties .Architecture . 2. The final score will be based on the annual revenue and will be a function of: . The presentations will be open to the public. Instrumentation and Data Processing Horizontal acceleration table will be measured in the direction of shaking using accelerometers mounted on the roof of the structure and on the shake 5. The dimensions of the poster are restricted to a height of 42 inch (1.Structural Performance .Performance Predictions 3 .Oral Presentation .

23. the team which best exemplifies the spirit of the competition will be awarded the Charles Richter Award for the Spirit of Competition. Popov conducted research that led to many advances in seismic design of steel frame connections and systems. and escaped to Manchuria in 1917 during the Russian Revolution. He was born in Bangladesh in 1929. The winner for this award will be determined by the judges. the team whose building provides a remarkable expression of architecture design and inherently integrates a sound structural design will be awarded the Fazlur Khan Award for Architectural Design. including eccentric bracing. He obtained his bachelor’s degree from the Engineering Faculty at the University of Dhaka.05. Berkeley for almost 55 years before he passed away in 2001. MIT and Stanford. In honor of his contribution to Structural Engineering and Architecture Design of high-rise buildings. he earned two Master’s degrees (one in Structural Engineering and one in Theoretical and Applied Mechanics) and a PhD in Structural Engineering.S. In honor of his contribution to earthquake engineering. Technical University of Cluj-Napoca. After spending his youth in China. ROMANIA THE CITY UNIVERSITY 10th -12th of February 2011 SAN-DIEGO CA. USA 16 4 . 8. The project of Valahia Tower model • The project was built by a team of fourth year undergraduate students from Faculty of Constructions. The winner for this award will be determined by the judges.S. SEISMIC DESIGN COMPETITION 2011 Fazlur Khan Award for Architectural Design • As a Structural Engineer Fazlur Khan played a central role behind the “Second Chicago School” of Architecture in the 1960’s and is regarded as the “Father of tubular design for high-rise buildings”. he immigrated to the U. the team which makes the best use of technology and/or structural design to resist seismic loading will be awarded the Egor Popov Award for Structural Innovation. Egor Popov had been a Professor at the University of California. and studied at UC Berkeley. of the California Institute of Technology. Cal Tech. In 1952 he immigrated to the U. His most famous buildings designs are the John Hancock Center and Willis Tower (formerly Sears Towers). In honor of his contribution to structural and earthquake engineering. TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY OF CLUJ-NAPOCA. The winner for this award will be determined by the judges.2011 7. Popov was born in Russia. The Awards Three prizes and three special awards Special awards Charles Richter Award for the Spirit of the Competition Egor Popov Award for Structural Innovation • The most well known earthquake magnitude scale is the Richter scale which was developed in 1935 by Charles Richter. where he pursued graduate studies at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

uniformity. USA 17 Project design criteria Structural simplicity. Adequate foundation. USA 18 SEISMIC DESIGN COMPETITION 2011 SEISMIC DESIGN COMPETITION 2011 Our project – Valahia Tower Floor Plan view 10th -12th of February 2011 SAN-DIEGO CA. Diaphragmatic behaviour at storey level. USA 19 5 .05. symmetry and redundancy.23. 10th -12th of February 2011 SAN-DIEGO CA.2011 SEISMIC DESIGN COMPETITION 2011 SEISMIC DESIGN COMPETITION 2011 The Team The undergraduate students in Civil Engineering Artur AUNER Adrian BORSA Ioana HATEGAN Alexandru Ioan MANEA Daniela SELAGEA Ovidiu SERBAN The supervising Professors Doina VERDES Msc PhD Pavel ALEXA Msc PhD 10th -12th of February 2011 SAN-DIEGO CA. Bi-directional resistance and stiffness.

05. USA 10th -12th of February 2011 SAN-DIEGO CA. USA 22 SEISMIC DESIGN COMPETITION 2011 SEISMIC DESIGN COMPETITION 2011 Why Friction Dampers? The friction dampers based on metallic plates Force-Limited Easy to construct Relatively Inexpensive 10th -12th of February 2011 SAN-DIEGO CA. USA 23 24 6 .23. USA 21 10th -12th of February 2011 SAN-DIEGO CA.2011 SEISMIC DESIGN COMPETITION 2011 SEISMIC DESIGN COMPETITION 2011 Cross section of the tower Details of the cross section Moment Frame Connection Detail 10th -12th of February 2011 SAN-DIEGO CA.

USA 25 10th -12th of February 2011 SAN-DIEGO CA. USA 27 10th -12th of February 2011 SAN-DIEGO CA. USA 26 SEISMIC DESIGN COMPETITION 2011 SEISMIC DESIGN COMPETITION 2011 Chopping the columns accidentally Manufacturing and mounting the dampers 10th -12th of February 2011 SAN-DIEGO CA. USA 28 7 .23.2011 SEISMIC DESIGN COMPETITION 2011 SEISMIC DESIGN COMPETITION 2011 Cutting of the wood plates 10th -12th of February 2011 SAN-DIEGO CA.05.

first one -> to see how dampers work in the structure The final model Images of the first model: construction and testing 10th -12th of February 2011 SAN-DIEGO CA.62ft/s^2 32 8 . USA 29 10th -12th of February 2011 SAN-DIEGO CA.23. USA 31 • Max velocity =3.36m/s =11.57cm = 2.2011 SEISMIC DESIGN COMPETITION 2011 SEISMIC DESIGN COMPETITION 2011 Two models were build .19in 10th -12th of February 2011 SAN-DIEGO CA.02m/s^2 = 6.05. USA Max acc =2.02ft/s 10th -12th of February 2011 SAN-DIEGO CA. USA 30 SEISMIC DESIGN COMPETITION 2011 SEISMIC DESIGN COMPETITION 2011 Results for 5% damping for integration to artificial accelerogram GM3 (UCDavis) Predictions for the structure were made using numerical analysis as follows: • Computation of the seismic response of the structure using SAP2000 for 5% damping Computation of the seismic response of the structure using SAP2000 for 15% damping Max displacement =5.

87ft/s 10th -12th of February 2011 SAN-DIEGO CA.47in Max velocity =3. USA 34 SEISMIC DESIGN COMPETITION 2011 SEISMIC DESIGN COMPETITION 2011 The accelerograms Accelerogram El Centro.000 $/year • Annual Initial Building Cost : 322.900 $/year Max displacement =3.36ft/s^2 33 10th -12th of February 2011 SAN-DIEGO CA.36m/s = 7.000 $/year • Annual Seismic Cost : 50.05.23. 18 Mai 1940 Accelerogram Northridge.74cm = 1. USA Max acc =2. 1994 The model before the test on shake table at Seismic Design Contest Artificial accelerogram UCDavis 35 36 9 .2011 SEISMIC DESIGN COMPETITION 2011 SEISMIC DESIGN COMPETITION 2011 Results with 15% damping for intergration to artificial accelerogram GM3 (UCDavis) Performances of the structure according to the rules of the competition • Annual Income : 735.02m/s^2 = 4.

USA 39 10th -12th of February 2011 SAN-DIEGO CA. USA 38 SEISMIC DESIGN COMPETITION 2011 SEISMIC DESIGN COMPETITION 2011 10.behavior of model was very good at all three accelerograms . The collapse of the model arrived after the test with sinus wave having the frequency equal fundamental frequency of the model. 10th -12th of February 2011 SAN-DIEGO CA.the model bars were not damaged . Conclusions after the test The model was subjected to three accelerograms .05. .23. .2011 SEISMIC DESIGN COMPETITION 2011 9. USA 40 10 .the friction dampers have worked very well allowing the deformation of the structural elements and dissipating energy. The award ceremony 10th -12th of February 2011 SAN-DIEGO CA.

Romania 10th -12th of February 2011 SAN-DIEGO CA. Romania Honorable Mention Nominee: UC Davis Fazlur Khan Award for Architectural Design: San Jose State University Honorable Mention Nominees: Brigham Young University.05. USA 43 10th -12th of February 2011 SAN-DIEGO CA. San Luis Obispo California Polytechnic State University. 2011 winner teams The top three teams: Oregon State University California Polytechnic State University. San Luis Obispo Charles Richter Award for the Spirit of the Competition: UC Davis Honorable Mention Nominees: Penn State University. of the award Egor Popov 10th -12th of February 2011 SAN-DIEGO CA. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia Egor Popov Award for Structural Innovation: Technical University Cluj-Napoca. Pomona The prize plaque Egor Popov Award for Structural Innovation for the model “Valahia tower” made by the team from Technical University of Cluj-Napoca. USA 44 11 .23. USA 41 10th -12th of February 2011 SAN-DIEGO CA. California Polytechnic University. USA 42 SEISMIC DESIGN COMPETITION 2011 SEISMIC DESIGN COMPETITION 2011 The annoncement of Karthik Ramanathan vice president of SLC.2011 SEISMIC DESIGN COMPETITION 2011 SEISMIC DESIGN COMPETITION 2011 The 8th Seismic Design Competition.

co president of SLC 10th -12th of February 2011 SAN-DIEGO CA. USA 48 12 .2011 SEISMIC DESIGN COMPETITION 2011 SEISMIC DESIGN COMPETITION 2011 Romanian delegation together with colleagues from American universities Romanian delegation together with Nima Tafazolli. Malaysia 10th -12th of February 2011 SAN-DIEGO CA. USA 46 SEISMIC DESIGN COMPETITION 2011 SEISMIC DESIGN COMPETITION 2011 11. Models Presented by the Participants Universities Romanian delegation together with colleagues from University of Technologi .23. USA 47 10th -12th of February 2011 SAN-DIEGO CA.05.

05.23. USA 51 10th -12th of February 2011 SAN-DIEGO CA. USA 52 13 . USA 49 10th -12th of February 2011 SAN-DIEGO CA. San Luis Obispo University of Illinois Urbana Champaign 10th -12th of February 2011 SAN-DIEGO CA. USA 50 SEISMIC DESIGN COMPETITION 2011 SEISMIC DESIGN COMPETITION 2011 California Polytechnic State University.2011 SEISMIC DESIGN COMPETITION 2011 SEISMIC DESIGN COMPETITION 2011 Oregon State University 10th -12th of February 2011 SAN-DIEGO CA.

USA 56 14 . Los Angeles 10th -12th of February 2011 SAN-DIEGO CA.23. USA 54 SEISMIC DESIGN COMPETITION 2011 SEISMIC DESIGN COMPETITION 2011 Purdue University California State University.2011 SEISMIC DESIGN COMPETITION 2011 UC Davis 10th -12th of February 2011 SAN-DIEGO CA.05. USA 55 10th -12th of February 2011 SAN-DIEGO CA.

23.2011 SEISMIC DESIGN COMPETITION 2011 SEISMIC DESIGN COMPETITION 2011 Roger Williams University Roger Williams University 10th -12th of February 2011 SAN-DIEGO CA. USA 60 15 . USA 58 SEISMIC DESIGN COMPETITION 2011 SEISMIC DESIGN COMPETITION 2011 Brigham Young University UC Irvine 10th -12th of February 2011 SAN-DIEGO CA. USA 59 10th -12th of February 2011 SAN-DIEGO CA. USA 57 10th -12th of February 2011 SAN-DIEGO CA.05.

23.05.2011 SEISMIC DESIGN COMPETITION 2011 SEISMIC DESIGN COMPETITION 2011 University of Massachusetts Amherst 10th -12th of February 2011 SAN-DIEGO CA. USA 64 16 . USA 61 10th -12th of February 2011 SAN-DIEGO CA. USA 62 SEISMIC DESIGN COMPETITION 2011 SEISMIC DESIGN COMPETITION 2011 10th -12th of February 2011 SAN-DIEGO CA. USA 63 10th -12th of February 2011 SAN-DIEGO CA.

2011 SEISMIC DESIGN COMPETITION 2011 SEISMIC DESIGN COMPETITION 2011 10th -12th of February 2011 SAN-DIEGO CA.23. USA 66 SEISMIC DESIGN COMPETITION 2011 SEISMIC DESIGN COMPETITION 2011 10th -12th of February 2011 SAN-DIEGO CA.05. USA 67 10th -12th of February 2011 SAN-DIEGO CA. USA 65 10th -12th of February 2011 SAN-DIEGO CA. USA 68 17 .

05. The tour in San Diego city 10th -12th of February 2011 SAN-DIEGO CA. USA 70 SEISMIC DESIGN COMPETITION 2011 SEISMIC DESIGN COMPETITION 2011 10th -12th of February 2011 SAN-DIEGO CA.2011 SEISMIC DESIGN COMPETITION 2011 SEISMIC DESIGN COMPETITION 2011 12. USA 71 10th -12th of February 2011 SAN-DIEGO CA.23. USA 72 18 . USA 69 10th -12th of February 2011 SAN-DIEGO CA.

USA 73 10th -12th of February 2011 SAN-DIEGO CA. USA 75 10th -12th of February 2011 SAN-DIEGO CA. USA 74 SEISMIC DESIGN COMPETITION 2011 SEISMIC DESIGN COMPETITION 2011 Many thanks to the generous sponsors of the TUCN team ! Many thanks to the generous sponsors of the 2011 SDC! 10th -12th of February 2011 SAN-DIEGO CA.2011 SEISMIC DESIGN COMPETITION 2011 SEISMIC DESIGN COMPETITION 2011 10th -12th of February 2011 SAN-DIEGO CA.23.05. USA 76 19 .

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