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Study Of Tourism In Singapore
Submitted in partial fulfillment of Under-Graduate Degree
Bachelor in Business Administration
-: Submitted By:-
Shagun agarwal Enroll –A3914710001
-: The Research Guide:-
All Faculty Guides
-:For The Academic Year:-
It gives me immense pleasure to present this project report on tourism in singapore. In partial fulfillment of Under-graduate course B.B.A. No work can be carried out without the help and guidance of various persons. I am happy to take this
opportunity to express my gratitude to those who have been helpful to me in completing this project report.
At the outset I would like to thank Respected Faculty Head of Dept. (Accounts) for their valuable advice and guidance during my project completion, also for timely help concerning various aspects of project. I also
thanks to all staff members of account department for help me to complete the summer internship program. I would be failing in my duty if I do not express my deep sense of gratitude to Every Faculty guidance it wouldn t have been possible for me to complete this project work.
Lastly I would like to thank my parents, friends and well wishers who encouraged me to do this research work and all those who contributed directly or indirectly in completing this project to whom I am obligated to.
Shagun agarwal B.B.A. I
I shagun agarwal Student of BBA I (M&S) 2010-2013 studying at Amity Global School Of Business, Singapore, declare that the project work entitled Tourism in singapore Was carried by me in the partial fulfillment of BBA program under the Amity University. This project was undertaken as a part of academic curriculum according to the university rules and norms and it has not commercial interest and motive. It is my original work. It is not submitted to any other organization for any other purpose.
Shagun agarwal B.B.A
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT……………………………………………………………….2 DECLARATION………………………………………………………………………....3 HISTORY……………………………………………………………………………...5 – 8 COUNTRY OVERVIEW…………………………………………………………...9 – 14 TOURISM ………………………………………………………………………….15 – 16 TOURISM AND GLOBAL TRADE…………………………………………..….17 - 19 UNOWTO…………………………………………………………………………..20 – 22 ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL IMPACT…………………………………………...23 – 24 SINGAPORE GDP GROWTH RATE…………………………………………....25 – 27 EFFECTS…………………………………………………………………………...28 – 30 ATTRACTIONS…………………………………………………………………..…… 31 MARINA BAY……………………………………………………………………..32 – 34 SENTOSA………………………………………………………………………......35 – 40 UNIVERSAL STUDIOS………………………………………………………......41 – 43 JURONG BIRD PARK…………………………………………………………....44 – 47 CLARKE QUAY………………………………………………………………......48 – 50 ORCHARD ROAD…………………………………………………………….….51 – 57 SINGAPORE FLYER………………………………………………………...….58 – 62 NIGHT SAFARI………………………………………………………………......63 – 65 MERLION………………………………………………………………………....66 – 68 OLD CHANGI HOSPITAL……………………………………………………...69 – 71 PORT OF SINGAPORE………………………………………………………....72 – 76 ARAB STREET……………………………………………………………….............77 GRAND PRIX……………………………………………………………………...….78 MARINA BARRAGE…………………………………………………………....79 – 80 EAST COAST………………………………………………………………….…81 – 82 CONCLUSION………………………………………………………………………..83 RECCOMENDATION…………………………………………………………….....84
A Brief History
A Journey into Singapore’s Past
While the earliest known historical records of Singapore are shrouded in the mists of time, a third century Chinese account describes it as "Pu-luo-chung", or the "island at the end of a peninsula". Later, the city was known as Temasek ("Sea Town"), when the first settlements were established from AD 1298-1299. During the 14th century, this small but strategically located island earned a new name. According to the legend, Sang Nila Utama, a Prince from Palembang (the capital of Srivijaya), was out on a hunting trip when he caught sight of an animal he had never seen before. Taking it to be a good sign, he founded a city where the animal had been spotted, naming it ―The Lion City‖ or Singapura, from the Sanskrit words ―simha‖ (lion) and ―pura‖ (city). At this time, the city was then ruled by the five kings of ancient Singapura. Located at the tip of the Malay Peninsula, the natural meeting point of sea routes, the city served as a flourishing trading post for a wide variety of sea crafts, from Chinese junks, Indian vessels, Arab dhows and Portuguese battleships to Buginese schooners. The next important period in the history of Singapore was during the 18th century, when modern Singapore was founded. At this time, Singapore was already an up and coming trading post along the Malacca Straits, and Britain realised the need for a port of call in the region. British traders needed a strategic venue to refresh and protect the merchant fleet of the growing empire, as well as forestall any advance made by the Dutch in the region. The then Lieutenant-Governor of Bencoolen (now Bengkulu) in Sumatra, Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles landed in Singapore on 29 January 1819, after a survey of the neighbouring islands. Recognising the immense potential of the swamp covered island, he helped negotiate a treaty with the local rulers, establishing Singapore as a trading station. Soon, the island’s policy of free trade attracted merchants from all over Asia and from as far away as the US and the Middle East.
In 1832, Singapore became the centre of government for the Straits Settlements of Penang, Malacca and Singapore. With the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 and the advent of the telegraph and steamship, Singapore's importance as a centre of the expanding trade between the East and West increased tremendously. By 1860, the thriving country had a population that had grown from a mere 150 in 1819 to 80,792, comprising mainly Chinese, Indians and Malays. But the peace and prosperity of the country suffered a major blow during World War II, when it was attacked by the Japanese aircrafts on 8 December 1941. Once regarded as an impregnable fortress, Singapore fell under the Japanese invasion on 15 February 1942. It remained occupied by the Japanese for the next three and half years, a time marked by great oppression and an immense loss of lives. When the Japanese surrendered in 1945, the island was handed over to the British Military Administration, which remained in power until the dissolve of the Straits Settlement comprising Penang, Melaka and Singapore. In March 1946, Singapore became a Crown Colony. In 1959, the growth of nationalism led to self-government, and the country’s first general election. The People’s Action Party (PAP) won a majority of 43 seats and Lee Kuan Yew became the first prime minister of Singapore. In 1961, Singapore joined Malaya and merged with the Federation of Malaya, Sarawak and North Borneo to form Malaysia in 1963. However, the merger proved unsuccessful, and less than two years later on 9 August 1965, Singapore left Malaysia to become an independent and sovereign democratic nation. On 22 December that year, Singapore finally became an independent republic. Today, you can experience Singapore’s rich historical heritage by visiting many of the national monuments, museums and memorials located around the city. On your trip here, remember to take a walk along one of the many heritage trails or visit the well-known landmarks for a complete Singapore journey.
People, Language, Culture A Multicultural Kaleidoscope
One of the most remarkable aspects of Singapore is the truly cosmopolitan nature of her population, a natural result of the country’s geographical position and commercial success. Established by Thomas Stamford Raffles as a trading post on 29 January 1819, the small sea town of Singapore soon attracted migrants and merchants from China, the Indian sub-continent, Indonesia, the Malay Peninsula and the Middle East. Drawn by the lure of better prospects, the immigrants brought with them their own cultures, languages, customs and festivals. Intermarriage and integration helped knit these diverse influences into the fabric of Singapore’s multi-faceted society, giving it a vibrant and diverse cultural heritage. By the end of the 19th century, Singapore became one of the most cosmopolitan cities in Asia, with major ethnic groups in the country being the Chinese, Malays, Indians, Peranakans and Eurasians. Today, the ethnic Chinese form 74.2% of the Singaporean population, with the country’s original inhabitants – the Malays, comprising of 13.4%. The Indians make up 9.2%, and Eurasians, Peranakans and others making up a combined 3.2%. Singapore is also home to many expatriates, with almost 20% of them made up of non-resident blue collar workers from the Philippines, Indonesia and Bangladesh. The rest of the expatriate population include white collar workers coming from countries as diverse as North America, Australia, Europe, China and India. As a reflection of its collage of cultures, Singapore has adopted one representative language for each of the four major ethnic or 'racial' groups. The four official languages in Singapore's constitution are English, Chinese, Malay and Tamil. However, in recognition of the status of the Malay people as the indigenous community in Singapore, the national language of the country is Bahasa Melayu, or the Malay Language. The presence of other languages, especially the varieties of Malay and Chinese, has obviously had an influence on the type of English that is used in Singapore. The influence is especially 7
apparent in informal English, an English-based creole that is commonly known as Singlish. A badge of identity for many Singaporeans, it represents a hybrid form of the language that includes words from Malay, as well as Chinese and Indian languages. Almost everyone in Singapore speaks more than one language, with many people speaking as many as three or four. Most children grow up bilingual from infancy, learning other languages as they become older. With the majority of the literate population bilingual, English and Mandarin are the most commonly used languages in daily life. While English is the main language taught in schools, children also learn their mother tongues to ensure that they stay in touch with their traditional roots. Among the different Chinese dialects, Mandarin is promoted as the main language for the Chinese instead of others like Hokkien, Teochew, Cantonese, Hakka, Hainanese and Foochow. The second most commonly-spoken language among the Singaporean Chinese, Mandarin became widespread after the start of the Speak Mandarin campaign during 1980 that targeted the Chinese. In 1990s, efforts were undertaken to target the English-educated Chinese. Explore the various cultural precincts and religious landmarks around the island and get acquainted with Singapore’s multicultural society. Whether you join a tour or discover your own Singapore, you’ll be sure to catch a glimpse of the impressive history, cultural diversity and lifestyles of Singaporeans during your visit to our city-state.
LOCATI ON AND SIZE :
Singapore is a city-state in Southeast Asia, located about 137 kilometers (85 miles) north of the Equator. It consists of 1 major island and 59 small islands. Singapore lies at the center of a major sea route connecting the Far East to Asia, Europe, and the Middle East, which gives the country its strategic importance. It is separated from Malaysia to the north by the narrow Johore Strait and from Indonesia to the south by the wider Singapore Strait. The country has a land area of 637.5 square kilometers (247 square miles), but no land boundaries, and its total coastline is 193 kilometers (120 miles). The territory of Singapore covers a slightly smaller area than that of New York City.
Country name: Republic of Singapore Capital: Singapore Location: An island and islets in the heart of Southeast Asia, between Malaysia and Indonesia Area: 710.3 sq km Highest point: Bukit Timah Hill at 163.36m Climate: Tropical. It’s hot and sunny all year, with two monsoon seasons (December to March
and June to September) bringing heavy rains
Government: Parliamentary republic Gross Domestic Product: S$265,057.9 million (Statistics Singapore, 2009) Major industries: Electronics, chemicals, financial services, oil drilling equipment,
petroleum refining, rubber processing and products, processed food and beverages, ship repair, offshore platform construction, life sciences, entrepot trade
Currency: Singapore Dollar Population: 5,076,700 (Statistics Singapore, 2010) Median age: 37.4 years Life expectancy: 81.4 years Population growth rate: 3.1% Ethnic groups: Chinese 74.1%, Malay 13.4%, Indian 9.2%, Other races 3.3% Language: Malay, Mandarin, Tamil and English are the 4 official languages in Singapore. The
national language shall be the Malay language and shall be in the Roman script.
Religions: Buddhism 42.5%, Islam 14.9%, Christianity 9.8%, Taoism 8.5%, Catholicism 4.8%, Hinduism 4%, other religions 0.7%, none 14.8% (Statistics Singapore, Census of Population 2000) Literacy: 95.9% of the population above 15 years of age can read and write
Communications: Excellent facilities and services, including 3G wireless service launched
in 2005, and a 186.9% household broadband penetration rate (Infocomm Development Authority, November 2010)
Mobile phone penetration: 142.5% (November 2010) International country code: +65 Internet country code: .sg
The population of Singapore, which is entirely urban, was estimated at 4,151,264 in July 2000. In 2000, the birth rate stood at 12.79 per 1000 people, a low level attributed to urbanization and birth control policies, and the death rate stood at 4.21 per 1000. The estimated population growth rate is 3.54 percent. Such a high rate is due to the high net immigration rate, which stood at 26.8 immigrants per 1000 people. These immigrants form a large community of foreign temporary workers estimated at about 10 percent of the total population. Singapore has one of the highest population densities in the world, with about 6,500 people per square kilometer (or 16,800 per square mile). The Singaporean population is diverse and represents 3 major ethnic groups. Ethnic Chinese make up almost 77 percent of the population, Malays make up 14 percent, Indians 7.6 percent, and other ethnic groups 1.4 percent. Around 18 percent of the population is below the age of 14, and just 7 percent is older than 65. The current ethnic distribution was formed in the 19th century when the British administration encouraged people to migrate to Singapore from neighboring Malacca, the Indonesian islands, India and especially China. In 1957, Singapore's population was approximately 1.45 million, and there was a relatively high birth rate. Aware of the country's extremely limited natural resources and small territory, the government introduced birth control policies in the late 1960s. In the late 1990s, the population
was aging, with fewer people entering the labor market and a shortage of skilled workers. In a dramatic reversal of policy, the Singapore government now plans to introduce a "baby bonus" scheme in 2001 that will encourage couples to have more children. Singapore wants to limit the inflow of illegal immigrants. The effect of drugs and drug trafficking is another important issue, since Singapore lies near the "Golden Triangle," an area between Burma, Laos, and Thailand that is the world's largest producer of illicit drugs such as opium. Singapore is among the few countries in the world to have adopted the death penalty for possession and sale of drugs. New chronic diseases like AIDS are also of great concern to the Singaporean government, since the country is a busy tourist destination.
Singapore belongs to the "New Industrialized States" (NIS), the countries that underwent rapid industrialization from the 1960s to the 1980s. During these 2 decades, Singapore managed to attract technology transfers from the developed world as well as sizable foreign direct investment (FDI). The island has a small mining industry that is of no importance in the national economy.
Singapore has a diverse, well-established, and economically important manufacturing sector, which contributed 28 percent to GDP and provided employment for 417,300 people, or 21.6 percent of the workforce, in 1999. Since the early 1990s, the manufacturing sector's share in GDP has been slowly declining due to the steady rise in competition from neighboring countries and the expansion of its own service sector. The United States remains the single largest investor
in Singapore's economy. In 1999, about 57 percent of FDI commitments came from the United States. Singapore began its industrial sector in the 1960s, using its superior location and well-trained and educated labor force. The industrial sector initially consisted of electrical assembly, oil refining, and shipping facilities. The electronic sector became the country's most important manufacturing element. This sector underwent a rapid expansion in the late 1960s when Texas Instruments and other multinational corporations established assembly plants in Singapore. In the 1990s, there was further growth in the manufacturing of different electronic products and computer components. In the late 1990s, Singapore became the world's largest producer of computer disk drives. In 1999, electronics accounted for 43.4 percent of valueadded manufacturing in the country, making Singapore vulnerable to downturns in the international market. Most of these goods are produced in foreign-owned plants for export to the United States, Europe, and East Asia. Electronics manufacture was affected by the 1997 Asian financial crisis, although the Singaporean government supported the sector by tax breaks and other initiatives. After 1997, several multinational corporations such as Seagate, Western Digital of the United States, and others laid off staff and began restructuring their production capacity. Some considered moving their manufacturing operations to neighboring countries such as Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines, where wages are lower than in Singapore. Chemical production, petroleum production, and printing are also important contributors to the country's economy. Singapore has a well-developed chemical and chemical production sector. This sector experienced steady growth in the 1980s and 1990s by attracting substantial FDI. Chemical production contributed 18.1 percent of valued-added manufacturing in 1999. Petroleum production underwent rapid expansion in the 1960s and 1970s, benefiting from the country's large and efficient seaport and modern oil refining facilities. This sector produces 18.8 million metric tons (20.68 million tons) of distillate fuel oils and 15.7 million metric tons (17.27 million tons) of residual fuel oil, and other petroleum-based products. Singapore has the world's third largest oil-refining industry. Petroleum production contributes 4.4 percent of valued-added manufacturing.
Singapore has developed high-quality color printing processes, producing several publications for major clients from the United States and Europe. Printing and publishing contributes 4.0 percent of value-added manufacturing (1999). The other manufacturing sectors produce transport equipment, machinery, and fabricated metal products.
Tourism is arguably the world's largest industry - and continues tremendous annual growth rates. The industry's gains grew to $439 billion dollars last year. As the world's natural areas are also destroyed at an alarming rate, the tourism industry is encroaching on remote and biologically diverse areas, home to Indigenous Peoples and threatens our environment and way of life. According to the World Tourism Organization, in 1998 there were 635 million tourist arrivals around the world. For the recipients (host countries) of international tourism, the tourism industry creates dependency upon a fickle and fluctuating global economy beyond their local control. Local economic activities and resources are used less for the benefit and development of communities and increasingly for export and the enjoyment of others (i.e., tourists, consumers in other areas of the world). With so few international policies and guidelines restricting it, tourism has been given free reign to develop throughout the world. In fact, it has led the globalization process in the areas of transportation, communications, and financial systems. It has been promoted as a panacea for "sustainable" development. However, tourism's supposed benefits (generation of employment, development of infrastructure, etc.) have not "trickled down" or benefited Indigenous Peoples. The destructiveness of the tourism industry (environmental pollution and enormous waste management problems, displacement from lands, human rights abuses, unfair labor and wages, commodification of cultures, etc.) has brought great harm to many Indigenous Peoples and communities around the world. Recently we have witnesses many government bodies, international environmental treaties, and other policies as they are made about "sustainable tourism," yet Indigenous Peoples have not been invited to participate adequately in these policies which will have negative consequences for the rest of time.
Tourism is travel for recreational, leisure or business purposes. The World Tourism Organization defines tourists as people who "travel to and stay in places outside their usual environment for more than twenty-four (24) hours and not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes not related to the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited." Tourism has become a popular global leisure activity. In 2008, there were over 922 million international tourist arrivals, with a growth of 1.9% as compared to 2007. International tourism receipts grew to US$944 billion (euro 642 billion) in 2008, corresponding to an increase in real terms of 1.8%. As a result of thelate-2000s recession, international travel demand suffered a strong slowdown beginning in June 2008, with growth in international tourism arrivals worldwide falling to 2% during the boreal summer months. This negative trend intensified during 2009, exacerbated in some countries due to the outbreak of the H1N1 influenza virus, resulting in a worldwide decline of 4% in 2009 to 880 million international tourists arrivals, and an estimated 6% decline in international tourism receipts. Tourism is vital for many countries, such as Egypt, Greece, Lebanon, Spain, Malaysia and Thailand, and many island nations, such as The Bahamas, Fiji,Maldives, Philippines and the Seychelles, due to the large intake of money for businesses with their goods and services and the opportunity for employment in the service industries associated with tourism. These service industries include transportation services, such as airlines, cruise ships and taxicabs,hospitality services, such as accommodations, including hotels and resorts, and entertainment venues, such as amusement parks, casinos, shopping malls,music venues and theatres.
Tourism & Global Trade
The tourism industry is often overlooked in trade issues although for 83% of countries in the world it is one of their five top export categories, it accounts for roughly 35% of the exports of services in the world and over 8% of the total world exports of goods (World Tourism Organization), it is classified as an export strategy for debt-ridden countries by the IMF, (Chavez) and many of its components such as air transport, agricultural goods, and communications are important trade issues. Tourism is distinct in that it moves people to the "product" rather than transporting a product to people, and it is dependent and intricately tied to other areas of local economies such as agriculture, land, and labor. It is not possible to analyze tourism's effects on local communities and its role in globalization without also looking at these other areas. Since liberalization in the tourism sector is dependent on liberalization in other sectors, it is important to realize the effects of policies in many arenas within the WTO: agriculture, intellectual property rights, services, investment, etc. and the ways they may strengthen the global tourism industry's control over local communities and further erode communities' abilities to be active agents in the decision-making regarding their own environments and futures.
Singapore is a small island city-state with 263 square miles of land and 4.8 million residents, and it has one of the highest population densities in the world. Singapore has a modern economy of US$169 billion in 2008 with only slightly more than one percent growth due to the current global economic crisis but still has a high standard of living. Its small size means that there is virtually no domestic tourism. In addition, the country’s economic development has raised the standard of living, with an increasing number of middle- and upper-income groups. These factors promote a culture that enjoys overseas travel.
A larger percentage of Singaporeans are traveling overseas for business or leisure as a result of globalization and greater affluence. Singapore’s middle class increasingly desires to travel abroad as their spending power grows. Its multicultural society also promotes travel because it fosters a respect for different cultures. Moreover, many Singaporeans travel overseas to visit relatives in other countries, including the U.S. According to the World Tourism Organization, Singaporeans were among the top 25 nationalities in 2007 worldwide in terms of international tourism expenditure. This correlates with Government of Singapore (GOS) statistics that indicates Singaporeans who come from higher income households were more likely to travel.
More than three million Singapore residents aged 15 years and above made at least one trip overseas annually in the past two years according to recent statistics. In 2007, almost 135,000 Singaporeans visited the United States, an increase of 10 percent over the previous years, which ranks it among the 40 top markets for inbound tourists.
Over the past decade, Singapore has evolved into a mature market with limited potential for growth in the leisure sector. However, the construction of two Integrated Resorts (casino projects) worth a total of US$5 billion will change the face of Singapore’s domestic tourism sector when they open for business in early 2010 and 2011 respectively. This will result in Singapore becoming an attractive tourist destination. Moreover, the on-going proliferation of low-cost airlines will also increase competition opening more Asian destinations for travelers.
Despite its small size, Singapore was the 16th largest trading partner and 12th largest export market of the United States in 2008. American firms generally find that Singapore is a great place to do business, and they utilize the island city-state as their gateway to the region. There are slightly more than 1,500 U.S. firms (which is a quarter of all the MNCs) in Singapore, many of which have located their Asia Pacific headquarters here.
The Government of Singapore (GOS) reported that its citizens are traveling overseas more frequently. Higher disposable income and an increase in work-related travel have provided Singaporeans with a greater opportunity to travel. The primary reason for this trend is the strong and consistent domestic economic growth that Singapore has experienced during the last three 18
years but there will be some reduction this year due to the economic crisis. In addition, Singapore maintains good air connections with Asian and European countries as well as direct air connections to the United States. Singapore’s Immigration & Checkpoint Authority has started using the new biometric passport system from 2007 that relies on fingerprint technology. The system will help ensure that Singapore continues to participate in the U.S. Visa Waiver Program, which will enable Singaporeans to travel to the U.S. with convenience. Singaporeans will not need visas to enter the U.S. in most circumstances; however travelers on extended business, employment and education trips will require a visa. A new initiative that took effect from January 2009 is Electronic System for Travel Authorization (ESTA) which is the new online system that is part of the Visa Waiver Program All nationals or citizens of VWP countries who plan to travel to the United States for temporary business or pleasure under the VWP will need to receive an electronic travel authorization prior to boarding a U.S.- bound airplane or cruise ship.
Outbound travel from Singapore has grown steadily from 2000 when four million travelers departed from Singapore by sea, air or land. Since Singapore is a small island with very good air connections, air travel accounts for most of the departures. According to recent statistics, more than three million Singapore residents aged 15 years and above made at least one trip overseas annually in the past two years.
The average length of stay in the U.S. is at least two weeks and most Singaporeans generally visit one or two U.S. States during their trip. Most Singaporeans tend to visit either the west coast or the east coast and consequently, popular destinations include Los Angeles, San Francisco and New York City in that order. Orlando and Las Vegas are also popular cities due to the mega tourist attractions in those cities. According to recent State Tourism information, the most popular States for domestic and international travelers in terms of spending based on 2007 figures are those found on the West and East coasts.
World Tourism Organization UNWTO
The World Tourism Organization (UNWTO OMT) is a specialized agency of the United Nations and the leading international organization in the field of tourism. It serves as a global forum for tourism policy issues and a practical source of tourism know-how. UNWTO plays a central and decisive role in promoting the development of responsible, sustainable and universally accessible tourism, paying particular attention to the interests of developing countries. The Organization encourages the implementation of the Global Code of Ethics for Tourism, with a view to ensuring that member countries, tourist destinations and businesses maximize the positive economic, social and cultural effects of tourism and fully reap its benefits, while minimizing its negative social and environmental impacts. Its membership includes 54 countries, 7 territories and over 4 Affiliate Members representing
the private sector, educational institutions, tourism associations and local tourism authorities. Direct actions that strengthen and support the efforts of National Tourism Administrations are carried out by UNWTO's regional representatives (Africa, the Americas, East Asia and the Pacific,Europe, the Middle East and South Asia) based at the eadquarters in Madrid. UNWTO is committed to the United Nations Millennium Development Goals, geared toward reducing poverty and fostering sustainable development.
Top 10 most visited cities by estimated number of international visitors by selected year
International City Country visitors (millions) Year/Notes
2009 (Excluding extra-muros visitors)
New York City
The Economic and Social Impact of Tourism
Today, tourism is one of the largest and dynamically developing sectors of external economic activities. Its high growth and development rates, considerable volumes of foreign currency inflows, infrastructure development, and introduction of new management and educational experience actively affect various sectors of economy, which positively contribute to the social and economic development of the country as a whole.
Most highly developed western countries, such as Switzerland, Austria, and France have accumulated a big deal of their social and economic welfare on profits from tourism. According to recent statistics, tourism provides about % of the world’s
income and employs almost one tenth of the world’s workforce. All considered, tourism’s actual and potential economic impact is astounding. Many people emphasize the positive aspects of tourism as a source of foreign exchange, a way to balance foreign trade, an ―industry without chimney‖ — in short, manner from heaven.
But there are also a number of other positive and negative sides of tourism’s economic boom for local communities, which not always considered by advocates of tourism perspectives. Therefore in this paper I will consider the main social and environment impacts of tourism at the country level.
Socially tourism has a great influence on the host societies. Tourism can be 23
both a source of international amity, peace and understanding and a destroyerand corrupter of indigenous cultures, a source of ecological destruction, an assault of people’s privacy, dignity, and authenticity.
The Tourism sector will be growing and largely contributing to the nation’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and subsequently increasing national income. It would significantly influence other sectors of economy and generate more income and employment opportunities.
On the employment frontier, the influx in tourism would boost job creation. As the tourism sector is a labour intensive industry with a seasonal demand, it could create job opportunities especially for Singaporeans. While Singaporeans are being trained in this area, foreign expertise is still required.
However, excessive dependence on tourism as the main economic activity is not desirable as the fluctuations in demand may cause economic disruption. Thus, economic uncertainty could mean that Singapore is susceptible to the negative economic impact especially the rise in inflation.
Singapore reported a trade surplus equivalent to 6078 Million SGD in January of 2011. An export is the main source of revenue for the Singapore’s economy. Singapore relays on purchasing raw goods and refining them for re-export. Singapore's principal exports are petroleum products, food, chemicals, textile and electronic components. Singapore's imports machinery and equipment, mineral fuels, chemicals and foodstuffs. Its main trading partners are Malaysia, European Union, The United States and China. This page includes: Singapore Balance of Trade chart, historical data and news.
SINGAPORE GDP GROWTH RATE
The Gross Domestic Product (GDP) in Singapore expanded 3.90 percent in the last quarter of 2010 over the previous quarter. From 2007 until 2010, Singapore's average quarterly GDP Growth was 6.09 percent reaching an historical high of 44.50 percent in March of 2010 and a record low of -18.90 percent in September of 2010. Singapore along with Hong Kong, South Korea and Taiwan is one of the Four Asian Tigers. Singapore has a highly developed and successful free-market economy. It enjoys a per capita GDP higher than that of most developed countries. The economy depends heavily on exports, particularly in consumer electronics, information technology products, pharmaceuticals, and on a growing service sector. This page includes: Singapore GDP Growth Rate chart, historical data and news.
Growth Rate 3.90%
Inflation Rate 5.50%
Jobless Rate 2.20%
Current Account 15723
Exchange Rate 1.2700
Year 2011 2010 2009 2008
Jan 6077.9 3159.6 803.9 4057.0
2183.1 1233.7 3240.3
4884.9 4152.7 1642.8
3993.6 3557.8 2083.0
5330.5 2453.7 2319.0
EFFECTS OF TOURISM :
Tourism helps the economy of many countries around the world. The growth of tourism in one country translates to flourishing local businesses, services and employment opportunities. The onset of the global economic recession has affected the tourism industry of almost all nations who thrive from it. Tourism problem has truly brought a major concern not only to the economy of first world countries but similarly to other countries following behind. When tourism peaked during the last few decades, it opened the doors to many business owners to put up key businesses that will sustain the increasing tourism growth of their country. The tourism industry caters to different sets of tourists. First are tourists who travel for business purposes. These are members of multi-national companies and other private entrepreneurs who visit neighboring countries to secure deals, implement and invest on projects or maintain current business ventures in that country. Then there are tourists who travel for leisure. This comprises of families, friends, companies or organizations (private or public) who seek recreational activities that are uniquely offered by different countries. These are world class beach and spa resorts, casinos, ski resorts, parks and other forms of tourist attractions in various sectors of the society. Both types of tourists secure many local and international services of the country being visited. This includes airline ticket sales, accommodations (hotels, inns, resorts), transportation (car or coaster rentals) and even shopping malls and restaurants among many others. Definitely, tourism brings in huge volume of foreign currencies which helps strengthen a country’s economy. Today, tourism has dropped significantly with many foreign tourists cutting back on their spending. For businesses, they implement cost cutting policies and have reduced corporate travels in lieu of internet video conferencing and telephone conferences. On the other hand, people who usually take vacations abroad have resorted to local tourists spots instead. As a result, countries who rely a lot on tourism suffered because of this downturn of tourists. Then the chain reaction of problems begins.
Those small companies which offer tour services have felt the decline in reservations and bookings. They are at risk of having to retrench jobs, if they haven’t done so, or worse have to file for bankruptcy protection if they cannot pay for the debts they have. Same goes to the hotels with low occupancies employing fewer people or offering them lesser hours of work. Suppliers for these companies now only receive minimum job orders when raw materials have already been bought ahead of time. They now have to find ways on how to convert their stocks to cash. Shopping malls and its tenants are also affected with tourism problems. When people no longer go to the mall, establishments lose potential customers. Sometimes, people who do visit the mall have very limited money to spend. This still doesn’t provide any solution to low sales. Tourism plays a major role in the development of a country’s economic. Surely, the effects of global economic crisis reaches far more countries than one can ever imagine. Only when the global economy gains strength and gets financially stable will one see a better future for the tourism industry.
Positive Effects Of Tourism :
• Developing positive attitudes towards each other • Learning about each other’s culture and customs • Reducing negative perceptions and stereotypes • Developing friendships • Developing pride, appreciation, understanding, respect, and tolerance for each other’s culture • Increasing self-esteem of hosts and tourists • Psychological satisfaction with interaction
So, social contacts between tourists and local people may result in mutual appreciation, understanding, tolerance, awareness, learning, family bonding respect, and liking. Residents are educated about the outside world without leaving their homes, while their visitors significantly learn about a distinctive
Marina Bay Sands
Marina Bay Sands is an integrated resort fronting Marina Bay in Singapore. Developed by Las Vegas Sands, it is billed as the world's most expensive standalone casino property at S$8 billion, including cost of the prime land. With the casino complete, the resort features a 2,561-room hotel, a 120,000 sq.m. conventionexhibition centre, The Shoppes mall, an Art & Science museum, two Sands Theatres, seven "celebrity chef" restaurants, two floating pavilions, a casino with 500 tables and 1,600 slot machines. The complex is topped by a 340m-long SkyPark with a capacity of 3,900 people and a 150m infinity swimming pool, set on top of the world's largest public cantilevered platform, which overhangs the north tower by 67m. The 20-hectare resort was designed by Moshe Safdie Architects. The local architect of record was Aedas Singapore, and engineering was provided by Arup and Parsons Brinkerhoff (MEP). The main contractor was SsangYong Engineering and Construction. Originally set to open in 2009, Las Vegas Sands faced delays caused by escalating costs of material and labour shortages from the onset. The severe global financial crisis also pressured the company to delay its projects elsewhere to complete the integrated resort. Although Marina Bay Sands has been compared on scale and development costs to MGM's CityCenter, the latter is a mixed-use development, with condominium properties - comprising three of the seven main structures, being sold off. The resort was officially opened with a two-day celebration on 23 June 2010 at 3.18 pm, after a partial opening which included the casino on 27 April 2010. It was, however, not finished at the time of the April opening, which was marked by numerous service failures. The SkyPark opened a day later on 24 June 2010. The theatres were completed in time for the first performance by Riverdance on 30 November 2010. The floating pavilions are still being built and are expected to be fully completed by 2011. The indoor skating rink, which uses artificial ice, opened to a performance by Michelle Kwan on 18 December 2010. The ArtScience Museum opened to the public and the debut of a 13-minute light, laser and water spectacle called Wonder Full on 19 February 2011 marked the full completion of the entire Integrated Resort.
The grand opening of Marina Bay Sands was held on 17 February 2011. It marks the opening of the ArtScience museum, the Wonder Full Light and Water Spectacular laser show, seven celebrity chef restaurants, and the highly-anticipated Broadway musical, The Lion King, which debuts on 3 March 2011. Marina Bay Sands features three 55-storey hotel towers which were topped out in July 2009. The three towers are connected by a 1 hectare sky terrace on the roof, named Sands SkyPark. In front of the three towers include a Theatre Block, a Convention and Exhibition Facilities Block, as well as the Casino Block, which have up to 1000 gaming tables and 1400 slot machines. The ArtScience Museum is constructed next to the three blocks and has the shape of a lotus. Its roof will be retractable, providing a waterfall through the roof of collected rainwater when closed in the day and with laser shows when opened at night. In front of the Event Plaza is the Wonder Full show, a light and water spectacular that is the largest in Southeast Asia. The ArtScience Museum and Wonder Full show opened on 17 February 2011. The SkyPark is home to the world's longest elevated swimming pool, with a 146-metre (478foot) vanishing edge, perched 191 metres above the ground. The pools are made up of 422,000 pounds of stainless steel and can hold 376,500 gallons (1424 cubic metres) of water. The SkyPark also boasts rooftop restaurants, nightclubs, gardens hundreds of trees and plants and a public observatory with 360-degree views of the Singapore skyline. There are four movement joints beneath the main pools, designed to help them withstand the natural motion of the towers, and each joint has a unique range of motion. The total range of motion is 500 millimetres (19.68 inches). In addition to wind, the hotel towers are also subject to settlement in the earth over time, so engineers built and installed custom jack legs to allow for future adjustment at more than 500 points beneath the pool system. This jacking system is important primarily to ensure the infinity edge of the pool continues to function properly. Moshe Safdie designed an Art Path within the resort, incorporating seven installations by five artists including Zheng Chongbin, Antony Gormley, and Sol Lewitt. The pieces are meant to play on environmental influences including light, water and wind, integrating art with architecture. 34
Sentosa, which translates to peace and tranquility in Malay, is a popular island resort in Singapore, visited by some five million people a year. Attractions include a two-kilometre long sheltered beach, Fort Siloso, two golf courses and two five-star hotels, and the Resorts World Sentosa, featuring the theme park Universal Studios Singapore.
Resorts World Sentosa is an integrated resort on the island of Sentosa, off the southern coast of Singapore. The key attractions include one of Singapore's two casinos, a Universal Studios theme park and Marine Life Park, which includes the world's largest oceanarium. The S$6.59 billion (US$4.93 billion) resort is developed by Genting Singapore, listed on the SGX. It is one of the world's most expensive casino properties, after Marina Bay Sands. The resort occupies over 49 hectares (121 acres) of land and, when fully open, will employ more than 10,000 people directly. The soft launch of the first four hotels took place on 20 January 2010, with the FestiveWalk shopping mall following on February 1. The casino opened on 14 February the first auspicious day of the Chinese New Year. The Marine Life Park and Maritime Xperiential Museum is expected to be completed by end of 2011. Resorts World Sentosa is also expected to hold largescale exhibitions such as Valentino, Retrospective: Past/Present/Future.
Attractions At Sentosa
Sentosa offers a variety of attractions, museums and other facilities to provide a variety of experiences, recreation and entertainment to visitors.
Tiger Sky Tower
The Tiger Sky Tower (previously known as the Carlsberg Sky Tower) is free-standing observation tower on Sentosa. At a height of 110 metres above ground and 131 metres above sea level, it offers visitors a panoramic view of Sentosa, Singapore, and the Southern Islands. On a clear day, the view extends to parts of Malaysia and Indonesia. At ground level, visitors enter a large disc-shaped airconditioned cabin fitted with glass windows all round. The cabin then revolves slowly as it ascends the column of the tower. The cabin has a capacity of 72 visitors. The Sky Tower used to sit at the very spot of what was formerly known as the "Dragon Court".It has a dragon statue in the centerpiece with water spouting out from its mouth.In one of its claws ,it holds a previous logo of Sentosa which was used in the 1970s. Its tail ends at the dragon trail at the northern part of Siloso point,until today, vistors at the dragon trail are stumbled at where a missing tail (Dragon's tail) leads too .It was demolished a few months before the groundbreaking ceromony of the sky tower.It was opened on 7 February 2004, is situated in the Imbiah Lookout zone in the centre of Sentosa and can be reached by Cable Car, Sentosa Luge Chair Lift, by Sentosa Express or by bus.
Butterfly Park and Insect Kingdom
The Butterfly Park is a landscape garden with over 15,000 live butterflies, representing more than fifty species. Housed in a cool outdoor conservatory, these butterflies range from the 25 millimetre (1 in) Eurema sari to the 150 mm (6 in) Papilio iswara. The Insect Kingdom houses some 3,000 species of rare insects from around the world, including a 160 mm Dynastes Hercules beetle. 37
Underwater World and Dolphin Lagoon
Underwater World is an oceanarium located on the western part of Sentosa. Opened in 1991, the living museum has more than 2,500 marine and fresh-water animals of 250 species from different regions of the world. The oceanarium is underground and has an 83 metre long travelator that moves visitors along a submerged glass-windowed tunnel from which they can look at an array of marine life including a coral reef, stringrays, moray eels, turtles, sharks, and other fishes. In the 'Dive-with-the-Sharks' program visitors can scuba dive in the large oceanarium, even if they are not scuba qualified. Qualified scuba divers can also 'Dive-with-theDugong". The Underwater World also includes a Dolphin Lagoon which is home to some Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins, also known as the pink dolphins. Several "Meet-the-Dolphins" sessions are held daily to allow visitors to enter the waist-deep pool and interact with the dolphins at close proximity. A more involved "Swim-with-the-Dolphins' program, where visitors can interact extensively with the dolphins, is also available.
Songs of the Sea
Designed by Yves Pepin, the Songs of the Sea show, started on 26 March 2007, replacing the 25year-old Magical Sentosa show. The Malay Kampung by the Sea or more commonly known as a Kelong, is 120 meteres long while the rest of the equipment (water jets, water screens, lasers and projectors) is hidden at the back of the kelong. It features pyrotechnics displays, water jets, laser show and flame bursts a live cast and an open-air viewing gallery which can comfortably accommodate 2,500 visitors. The show runs twice nightly.
Sentosa 4D Magix
The Sentosa 4D Magix is Singapore's first and Southeast Asia's original 4-dimensional theatre. Opened in January 2006 at the cost of S$3.5 million, the theatre is equipped with digital projection and a DTS 6.1 sound system. Guests are seated on a motion based chair in a 38
typical movie theatre watching a 3D show with visual effects popping out of the screen coupled with environmental effects providing a life-like feel. The current show is the 'Pirates!' in 4D comedy, as offered in other theme parks around the world.
Opened in June 2007, Cineblast, which replaced Cinemania, is Singapore's only cinema ride. It features high definition wide-screen projection and a 6 axis motion system, and takes visitors on a log ride.
In the west of the island stand the guns of preserved Fort Siloso which guarded the western approaches to Singapore during World War II. Fort Siloso was built by the British in 1880s to guard the narrow western entrance to Keppel Harbour. It was later modernised and by 1939 was armed with two 6-inch (150 mm) Mark2 guns and two rapid firing 12-pounder guns. Fort Siloso is now the only surviving coastal gun battery from the twelve such batteries that made up Fortress Singapore at the start of the war. The ammunition bunkers, barracks, tunnels, and gun emplacements of the fort are now open to visitors, as a military-themed attraction. Also on display is a collection of artillery guns dating from the 17th century to World War II. Life-sized replicas of British soldiers and other people were on display to depict lives at the fort in the past. There is also an exhibition with a large collection of photographs, documents and film clips. The fort served as the place of internment of the Singaporean political prisoner Chia Thye Poh in the period from 1989 to 1993.
Sentosa has a stretch of sheltered beach of more than two kilometres in length on its southern coast, divided into three portions: Palawan Beach, Siloso Beach, and Tanjong Beach. These beaches are artificial, reclaimed using sand bought from Indonesia and Malaysia. They are manned by the best beach patrol lifeguard team in Singapore. The lifeguards wear red and yellow uniforms and patrols the beaches of Sentosa.
Palawan Beach lies in the centre of the southern coast of Sentosa. There is a suspension bridge that leads to a small islet off the coast which is said to be the Southernmost Point of Continental Asia, or Asia's closest point to the Equator. However, inspection of any map, even those on Sentosa, show that this cannot be the case. There are several bars along the beach offering food and beverage to visitors as well as Beach Station of Sentosa Express.
Siloso beach in Sentosa, with the Shangri-La Rasa Sentosa resort overlooking the bay. Siloso Beach lies on the west portion of the southern coast and it is known as the place for beach volleyball and other outdoor activities such as canoeing, skim boarding, mountain biking or rollerblading. There are also dining and shopping outlets along the beach. The Shangri-La Rasa Sentosa Resort is located at the western end of Siloso Beach.
Tanjong Beach is a relatively more secluded part of the southern coast. The crescent-shaped beach is sometimes used for special events or parties. The beach bar 'KM8' is located at the beach. KM8 had it`s last party and closed down on 28 March 2009 40
Universal Studios Singapore
Universal Studios Singapore is 20 hectares (49 acres) in size, occupying the easternmost part of the 49-hectare (120-acre) Resorts World Sentosa. There are a total of 24 attractions, of which 18 are original or specially adapted for the park. The park consists of seven uniquely themed zones which surround a lagoon. Each zone is based on a blockbuster movie or a television show, featuring their own unique attractions, character appearances, dining and shopping areas. The park features the world's tallest pair of dueling roller coasters that are based on the hit television series, Battlestar Galactica; a castle from the world of Shrek and Monster Rock, a live musical 41
show featuring the infamous Universal Monsters. Universal Studios Singapore has over 30 restaurants and food carts, together with 20 unique retail stores and carts located around the park. Attractions premiering are marked "Premiere" and dining outlets that are certified Halal are marked with "Halal".
Universal Studios Singapore is a theme park located within Resorts World Sentosa on Sentosa Island, Singapore. It was a key component of Genting's bid for the right to build Singapore's second integrated resort. On 8 December 2006, the Singapore government announced that the consortium had won the bid. Construction of the theme park and the rest of the resort started on 19 April 2007. It is the second Universal Studios theme park to open in Asia (Japan being the first), and the first in Southeast Asia. The official plans for the park were unveiled to the public when Universal Studios Singapore released a park map to the public on 20 October 2009. Universal Studios Singapore has since attracted more than 2 million visitors in the 9 months from its opening. Universal Parks & Resorts markets the park as a "one-of-its-kind theme park in Asia" and promises that the park will be the only one of its kind in Southeast Asia for the next 30 years. The roller coaster is a popular amusement ride developed for amusement parks and modern theme parks. LaMarcus Adna Thompson patented the first coasters on January 20, 1885. In essence a specialized railroad system, a roller coaster consists of a track that rises in designed patterns, sometimes with one or more inversions (such as vertical loops) that turn the rider briefly upside down. The track does not necessarily have to be a complete circuit, as shuttle roller coasters exhibit. Most roller coasters have multiple cars in which passengers sit and are restrained. Two or more cars hooked together are called a train. Some roller coasters, notably Wild Mouse roller coasters, run with single cars.
The Universal Studios Singapore at Resorts World Sentosa opened on 18th March 2010. It comprises seven themed zones including Hollywood, New York, Sci-Fi City, Ancient Egypt, The Lost World, Far Far Away and Madagascar, which are all based on Universal movie hits and 42
franchises. There are a total of 24 attractions, of which 18 are original or particularly tailored to the Universal Studios Singapore theme park. Naturally, Universal Studios is known for its amazing rides and shows and the Universal Studios Singapore is no exception.
The Battlestar Galactica is a pair of dueling roller coasters at Universal Studios Singapore, set in the Sci-Fi City-themed zone. The unique ride holds the honor of being the tallest duelling roller coaster in the world, towering at 42.5 meters. It features the Battlestar Galactica: Cylon, which is the blue inverted track and the Battlestar Galactica: Human, which is the red rail. Both rides separately last around 90 seconds, which is the only drawback of the ride – making it seem too quick. Nevertheless, the thrill factor is not compromised. The Human red track propels the rider seemingly into the skies and the near-miss with the Cylon blue track just adds to the thrill. The Cylon ride appears to have an edge. The seats are suspended below the rail, leaving the riders’ legs to dangle and tussle in mid-air. The Cylon ride goes through several scintillating inversions and plunges into artificial fogs with near-misses with the ground too. The finale does not disappoint either, with the illusion of a near miss!
The Jurassic Park Rapids Adventure is a rapids ride at Universal Studios Singapore, set in The Lost World -themed zone. It is different from the Jurassic Park Adventure rides at Universal Studios Los Angeles and Universal Studios Orlando in that it is a unique tub rapids ride and not just a row-by-row boat ride, which means the rider has no clue which direction the tub is headed towards. A sign outside the ride promises that the rider will get ―soaking wet‖. They’re not joking. It is indeed possible for the rider to get fully drenched, which explains the peddling of ponchos for $1.50 outside the ride. As such it is recommended that tourists bring along extra clothing if they do get drenched on this ride. A bummer of this ride is that it seems to attract the longest queues. It could also be people seeking a free soak in the water to cool off under the scorching sun. Or not.
JURONG BIRD PARK
Opened in 1971, Jurong Bird Park is the largest bird park in the world, offering a 20.2-hectare hillside haven for 4,600 birds representing 380 species. Its Heliconia Repository, with 108 heliconia species and cultivars in its collection, is one of the largest in the region. With key attractions such as the Bird Discovery Centre, African Waterfall Aviary, Lory Loft Aviary, Southeast Asian Birds Aviary and the award-winning African Wetlands, the Bird Park attracted close to 900,000 visitors in 2009.
Committed towards conservation, the Bird Park is the first in the world to breed the Twelve-wired Bird of Paradise in captivity and received the Breeders’ Award from the American Pheasant and Waterfowl Society in 2001. In 2006, the Bird Park became the recipient of the Conservation & Research Award for the Oriental Pied Hornbill Conservation Project by IV International Symposium on Breeding Birds in Captivity (ISBBC). In Asia, Jurong Bird Park is the only park in the Asia Pacific to have an Avian Hospital. It has a Breeding and Research Centre tasked to ensure the welfare, breeding and promulgation of birdlife and is also an Official Rescue Avian Centre.
The idea of a permanent bird exhibit was first conceived by late Dr Goh Keng Swee, the then Minister for Finance, in 1968. During a World Bank Meeting in Rio de Janeiro, Dr Goh visited its zoological garden and was impressed with its free-flight aviary. He sought to see that Jurong would be more than an industrial zone that Singaporeans would have a place where they could escape from urban life, where people could relax with nature. On 3 January 1971, Jurong Bird Park, built at a cost of S$3.5 million, was opened to the public. Jurong Bird Park is now a world-famous bird zoo wherein there are specimens of magnificent bird life from around the world, including a flock of one thousand and one flamingos. It is currently the world's largest bird park in terms of number of birds and second largest in terms of land area after Germany's Vogelpark Walsrode. There are 4,600 birds of 380 species in Jurong Bird Park. Of those, 29 are of endangered species.In 2006, Jurong Bird Park completed its S$10million makeover. With the upgrading, the park now boasts a new entrance plaza, an African wetlands exhibit, a park-owned and managed Bongo Burgers restaurant, a Ben & Jerry's ice cream parlour, a gift shop and a bird hospital. 45
Birds n Buddies Show: Formerly called the "All Star Birdshow", this birdshow showcases a large number of species of performing birds in a single act. Besides highlighting the antics of talented birds like the mimicking cockatoos, this show is also a window for visitors to the natural behaviour of birds like pelicans, flamingos and hornbills.
Birds of Prey Show: Visitors can watch birds of prey such as eagles, hawks and falcons, who will fly in aerial loops and soar above the treetops. Visitors will also learn about falconry as these birds are put through their actions in a simulated hunt.
African Wetlands:The new exhibit will give visitors a more balanced eco-system display and hopefully will be able to provide a better understanding of how nature, the birds and men co-exist in this one world we call our home. Species here include Shoebill stork, saddle-billed stork, and a few species of African fish.
African Waterfall Aviary: The African Waterfall Aviary is the world's largest walk-in aviary with more than 1,500 free-flying birds from over 50 species. Visitors may hop aboard the Panorail, the world's only monorail that runs through an aviary. Jurong Falls, which is located within the African Waterfall Aviary, is the world's tallest man-made waterfall in an aviary at 30 metres high. Species include golden-breasted starling, turacos, and the hoopoe.
Flightless Birds: in one corner of the zoo there is a section full of flightless birds. Ostriches, emus, rheas, and cassowaries are the residents of this exhibit.
Southeast Asian Birds Aviary: Visitors can view the largest collection of Southeast Asian birds, which has over 200 species. There are large, central walk-in aviary and peripheral aviaries that house the more delicate or territorial birds. A daily simulated midday thunderstorm is followed by a cool, light drizzle. Territorial species are kept in large
cages, while species that can coexist with each other (Fruit doves and pigeons being an example)are left to fly free in the aviary.
Lory Loft covers 3,000 square metres (32,000 sq ft), is about 9 storeys high, and is the world's largest walk-in flight aviary for Lories and lorikeets, with over 1,000 free-flying lories. The ambience is similar to that of a rainforest vale in tropical Northern Australia. Visitors can offer the lories a special nectar mix and the birds will flock to them.
Penguin Coast houses six species of penguins within 1,600 square metres (17,000 sq ft). Featuring a 21-metre (69 ft) tall Portuguese galleon facade designed to resemble a ship, the interior of Penguin Coast is constructed with timber beams and wooden flooring. Penguin Coast is home to the Humboldt, Rockhopper, Macaroni, Fairy and King Penguins which live in an indoor, climate-controlled den as well as an outdoor penguin enclosure showcasing Jackass penguins, one of the few species that are adapted to the tropics. Joining them are the Cape Shelducks and gulls.
World of Darkness: Asia's first nocturnal bird house features a system of reverse lighting, converting day to night and vice versa. On display are 60 birds from 17 species, like the Night Herons, Fish Owls, boobook owls and Snowy Owls. It is akin to a quiet nocturnal walk along a starlit jungle path, watching birds in their nocturnal surroundings and hearing them beckon.
Pelican Cove: Visitors can catch a glimpse of all 7 species of pelicans, including the endangered Dalmatian Pelican. There is a boardwalk, where visitors can stroll along and observe these birds. Visitors can also see the pelicans at the world's first underwater viewing gallery for pelicans, where the birds scoop for fish at feeding time.
Lunch with the Birds: Visitors can enjoy a beautiful view of the Flamingo Lake while they enjoy breakfast.
Panorail: The Jurong Bird Park Panorail is the world's only monorail system that runs through an aviary. The panorail has three stations, namely Main Station, Lory Station and Waterfall Station. 47
Clarke Quay was named after Sir Andrew Clarke, Singapore's second Governor and Governor of the Straits Settlements from 1873 to 1875, who played a key role in positioning Singapore as the main port for the Malay states of Perak, Selangor and Sungei Ujong. Clarke Quay is also the name of a road along the quay, part of which has since been converted into a pedestrian mall. Clarke Street, located next to Clarke Quay, was officially named in 1896, and was originally two streets known simply as East Street and West Street in north Kampong Malacca. Similar to Clarke Quay, Clarke Street has since been converted into a pedestrian mall. The Hoklos (Hokkien) refer to Clarke Street as gi hok kong si au, meaning "behind the new Gi Hok Kongsi" (house). The new Gi Hok Kongsi was near Carpenter Street. Another Chinese reference, which only refers to the Southern bank around Read Bridge area, was cha chun tau (柴船头), meaning "jetty for boats carrying firewood". Small tongkangs carrying firewood from Indonesia berthed at this jetty. The firewood trade was primarily a Teochew enterprise. The Singapore River has been the centre of trade since modern Singapore was founded in 1819. During the colonial era, Boat Quay was the commercial centre where barge lighters would transport goods upstream to warehouses at Clarke Quay. At the height of its prosperity, dozens of bumboats jostled for mooring space beside Clarke Quay. This continued well into the latter half of the twentieth century. By this time, the Singapore River had also become very polluted. The government decided to relocate cargo services to a new modern facility in Pasir Panjang. The bumboats and lorries departed to their new home and Clarke Quay fell silent. The government then cleaned up the Singapore River and its environment from 1977 to 1987. Plans were made to revamp the area and turn it into a flourishing commercial, residential and entertainment precinct. These plans took into serious consideration the historical value of Clarke Quay, making it mandatory that new buildings complement the historical character of the area and that certain old buildings be restored.
Clarke Quay Festival Village, the biggest conservation project for the Singapore River, was developed and officially opened on 10 December 1993. In later years, Clarke Quay was managed and owned by CapitaLand. Ten years later, works were commenced to revamp the Clarke Quay area in order to give the place a better tenant mix. The development also saw major changes to the exterior and riverside areas. The Satay Club and a number of establishments vacated Clarke Quay to make way for new tenants. The upgraded Clarke Quay features the Zirca, The Clinic, Forbidden City by the Iindochine group and the whole development was completed in October 2006. The Clarke Quay area at present, is drastically different from the preservation/conservation effort from 1993, resembling more like a Disneyland partyground for tourists and middle class locals alike.
Presently, five blocks of restored warehouses house various restaurants and nightclubs. There are also moored Chinese junks (tongkangs) that have been refurbished into floating pubs and restaurants. The Cannery is one of the anchor tenants of the place. With over 5 different concepts in one block, you'll be spoilt for options. Another anchor tenant, The Arena, will be home to Singapore's First Permanent Illusion Show (starting Aug 2008) starring J C Sum and 'Magic Babe' Ning. The G-MAX reverse bungee, the first in Singapore, is located at the entrance which opened in November 2003. Notable restaurants and nightclubs include Hooters and Indochine. River cruises and river taxies on the Singapore River can be accessed from Clarke Quay. One of its most popular attractions is its exciting host of CQ's signature events happening once every quarter. Clarke Quay MRT Station is located within the vicinity and a new SOHO concept development cum shopping centre called The Central, above the MRT station, was completed in 2007.
Orchard Road is a road in Singapore that is the retail and entertainment hub of the city-state. It is regularly frequented by the local population as well as being a major tourist attraction. Often the surrounding area is known simply as Orchard. The immediate vicinity of Orchard Road, Orchard Planning Area is one of 55 urban planning areas as specified by the Urban Redevelopment Authority, and is a commercial district. It is part of the Central Region, and Singapore's central business district, the Central Area. During the National Day Rally Speech 2005, Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong said that he would create more landmark buildings to create more fun in the district, partly to keep up with vibrant cities around the region. Orchard Road underwent a $40 million revamp in 2009, with the addition of new street lamps, planter boxes, urban green rooms, street tiling, and flower totem poles.
Orchard Road got its name from the nutmeg, pepper and fruit orchards or the plantations that the road led to in the mid-1800s. Commercial development only began in the twentieth century, and took off in the 1970s. Orchard Road was already cut in the 1830s, though the new road was not named in George Coleman's 1836 Map of Singapore. In the 1830s the Orchard Road area was the scene of gambier and pepper plantations. Later, nutmeg plantations and fruit orchards predominated, hence its name. By 1846, the spread of houses had reached up to Tank Road. There were none on the left side and only three or four houses went past Tank Road on the right side of Orchard Road. One major sight during this period was a Dr Jun tending his garden, which helped endorse the road's name. He had a garden and plantation at the corner of what is now Scotts Road and Orchard Road. 52
Towards the later part of the 1840s, graveyards began to appear along the road. By 1846, the Chinese had a large graveyard around what is now the Meritus Mandarin Hotel and Ngee Ann City, while the Sumatrans from Bencoolen had their burial ground where the current Grand Central Hotel stands. Later a Jewish cemetery was established; it was located where Dhoby Ghaut MRT Station is now situated, and demolished in 1984. In the 1860s, Orchard Road had a great number of private houses and bungalows on hills looking down through the valley where the road passed through. Early in the 1890s, His Majesty Somdetch Phra Paramindr Maha Chulalongkorn, the supreme King of Siam, acquired "Hurricane House" in the vicinity of Orchard Road through Tan Kim Ching, the Thai Consul in Singapore. Two further pieces of adjoining property were added later and these subsequently became the site of the present Royal Thai Embassy at 370 Orchard Road. In the early 20th century, it was noted that Orchard Road "present the appearance of a wellshaded avenue to English mansion[s]", comparable in its "quiet but effective beauty to Devonshire lanes." The Chinese called the area tang leng pa sat koi or "Tanglin market street". The Tamils refer to the road as vaira kimadam or "fakir's place", and muttu than (high ground), a reference to the hilly nature of the area. Flash floods occurred at the road's iconic junction with Scotts Road on 16 June 2010 after 100mm of rain fell from 8 am to 11 am that morning, reportedly the worst flood at the junction since 1984. Shopping malls along Orchard Road like Lucky Plaza and Liat Towers were affected by the flood. The flood had caused some shopping mall and car park basements to be submerged in the water. Rescuers had to pull out about 70 passengers from cars and buses, as flooding shut down Orchard Road, which is lined with high-end shopping malls and tourist attractions. No one was injured.
The first shop of note on Orchard Road was Tangs founded in 1934 and established on Orchard Road in the 1950s. Orchard Road is flanked by pedestrian malls. Orchard Road also contains numerous upmarket restaurants, coffee chains, cafés, nightclubs and hotels. It is also the site of the official residence of the President of Singapore, the Istana.
List of shopping centers
DFS Galleria — This shopping mall located in Scotts Road, it mainly sells luxury item such as Bottega Veneta, Louis Vuitton, Prada, Gucci, Hermès, Loewe and Bvlgari. ION Orchard — ION Orchard opened on July 21 2009 and houses six double-storey flagship stores of close to 9,000 square feet (840 m2) each, including Prada, Giorgio Armani, Louis Vuitton, Dior, Dolce & Gabbana, Cartier and Patek Philippe. Its signature glass façade doubles up as a giant media screen as well.
Ngee Ann City — The mall opened in 1993 and is the largest shopping mall in the Orchard Road shopping belt. It houses branded boutiques such as Vacheron Constantin, Louis Vuitton, Hermès, Burberry, Loewe and Chanel as well as Japanese department store, Takashimaya. The mall is also home to Southeast Asia's second largest bookstore, Books Kinokuniya.
Wisma Atria — Opened in 1986, it underwent renovation recently with its trademark blue facade replaced with a glass facade. There is a 900 seat food court on the 4th floor which is run by the BreadTalk Group. The mall is directly connected to Orchard station. It stands on the former site of Wisma Indonesia which used to house the Indonesian Embassy.
Plaza Singapura — Located next to the Istana, the mall opened in 1974 with a now defunct Yaohan department store. It was revamped twice, in 1998 and 2003 with the former having a totally revamped now and the latter with a new tenant mix. It houses a Golden Village cineplex, Carrefour and other shops.
Lucky Plaza — A shopping mall that somehow became the main focal point for domestic Filipino workers to meet their friends during their off days. The place is known to be very crowded on Sundays with many shops selling products from the Philippines.
Far East Plaza — Far East Plaza opened in 1982 with a Metro which has since closed down. Popular with students with its cheap fashion items, the plaza is also known for its cheap food outlets. The mall has since undergone renovation.
Mandarin Gallery — Located inside Meritus Mandarin Singapore housing international high-end brands like Y-3, Bape and Hugo Boss. Orchard Central — Singapore's first and tallest vertical mall, which replaced Specialists Shopping Centre and opened on 2 July 2009. Orchard Point — Home to local department store, OG, it used to have art galleries, but was closed when OG decided to take over. John Little, part of the Robinsons Group, has since taken over since 2007.
Orchard Towers — A shopping mall consisting of twin blocks with small shops and night clubs. The Paragon — The Paragon is a high-end shopping mall selling branded items such as brand like Gucci which open flapship store here and Miu Miu, Prada, Coach and Burberry with a Metro department store and a Marks & Spencer store as well. The place also has a Toys 'R' Us and a number of restaurants. It underwent expansion around 2002, taking over the land once occupied by another shopping centre The Promenade. The Promenade was built on the former location of Fitzpatrick's supermarket.
Tang Plaza — Tang Plaza is home to a homegrown department store, Tangs. The Centrepoint — The mall opened in 1983 and has Robinsons and Marks and Spencer as its anchor tenants. It underwent renovation and built a new extension in 2007. The Heeren Shops — Heeren sells items mainly for youngsters. The site was formerly a colonial building. Forum The Shopping Mall — Forum sells mainly branded children's clothes and accessories with a Toys "R" Us on the third floor. It also has a number of branded boutiques such as Emporio Armani and Dolce and Gabbana.
Shaw House and Centre — Shaw House is home to the Isetan department store and on the fifth and sixth floors is where the Lido 8 Cineplex is located, which has one of the largest cinema halls in the country. It houses Fendi, Loewe and Celine as well.
Hilton Singapore — Located inside the hotel itself, the Hilton Shopping Gallery houses branded boutiques such as Louis Vuitton, Cartier, Bulgari, Lanvin, Donna Karan, Balenciaga and Dolce & Gabbana. It also include Club21, a Singapore high-end based company that sell luxurious items like Mulberry, Comme des Garçons and Dries van Noten. 56
Palais Renaissance — Palais Renaissance was completed in 1993 and mainly houses upmarket branded boutiques such brand like Donna Karen and Valentino. Liat Towers — International names such as Audemars Piguet, Massimo Dutti, Hermès and Zara are housed in the building. The building once housed Planet Hollywood and Singapore's first McDonald's. Also, it housed the Isetan department store at one time.
313@Somerset — Houses Singapore's largest Forever 21 and Zara retail store and a HMV which moved from The Heeren. Wheelock Place — Houses the Borders bookstore, one of the largest bookstores in the country and it also has a large Marks and Spencer outlet. Formerly known as Lane Crawford Place which housed Lane Crawford but closed during the 1997 Asian Financial Crisis.
The Singapore Flyer is currently the tallest Ferris wheel in the world. Described by its operators as an observation wheel, it reaches 42 stories high, with a total height of 165 m (541 ft), and is 5 m (16 ft) taller than the Star of Nanchang and 30 m (98 ft) taller than the London Eye. Located in Singapore, on the southeast tip of the Marina Centre reclaimed land, it comprises a 150 m (492 ft) diameter wheel, built over a three-story terminal building which houses shops, bars and restaurants, and offers broad views of the city centre and beyond to about 45 km (28 mi), including the Indonesian islands of Batam and Bintan, as well as Johor, Malaysia. The final capsule was installed on 2 October 2007, the wheel started rotating on 11 February 2008 and it officially opened to the public on 1 March 2008. Tickets for rides on the first 3 nights were sold out for S$8,888 (US$6,271), an auspicious number in Chinese culture. The grand opening for the Flyer was held on 15 April 2008. Each of the 28 air-conditioned capsules is capable of holding 28 passengers, and a complete rotation of the wheel takes approximately 37 minutes. Initially rotating in a counter-clockwise direction when viewed from Marina Centre, its direction was changed on 4 August 2008 under the advice of Feng shui masters.
The Singapore Flyer was first conceived in the early 2000s by Patrick MacMahon of Melchers Project Management, a subsidiary of German company Melchers. Formal planning commenced in 2002. A new company, Singapore Flyer Pte Ltd, was formed as the developer, with Melchers Project Management holding a 75% stake, and the remainder held by Orient & Pacific Management. The project was formally announced and endorsed on 27 June 2003 by the Singapore Tourism Board with the signing of a memorandum of understanding, formalising the understanding between the developer and tourism board with regard to the land-acquisition process. Under this agreement, the tourism board was to purchase the plot of land in Marina Centre from the Singapore Land Authority, and lease it to Singapore Flyer Pte Ltd for 30 years with an option to extend the lease by another 15 years. The land was to be rent-free during the construction phase of the project. In July 2003, Jones Lang LaSalle was appointed as the real estate advisor. Takenaka and Mitsubishi were selected as the main contractors, and Arup as the structural engineer. Early designs showed a 169 m (554 ft) tall wheel similar to the London Eye, drawing criticism that it lacked originality. The developers pointed out that the design wasn't finalised and was merely for conceptualisation purposes, though the final project changed little from the early designs. Subsequently, the project was to grind almost to a halt when the developer faced difficulties in sourcing funds to build the wheel. Original plans to complete the wheel by the end of 2005 were thus postponed indefinitely, and there were reports (denied by the Singapore Tourism Board) that the tourism board has set an ultimatum date of 31 March 2005 for the developer to iron out its financial issues and to keep the development going. By September 2005, the project was revived when funds were successfully sourced from two German banks. Collin William Page, a subsidiary of ABN AMRO, was to provide equity to a maximum of S$100 million, with a further S$140 million coming from HypoVereinsbank. With this injection of S$240 million, the largest single foreign investment in the Singaporean 60
entertainment industry, construction was slated to begin by the end of the month. The stakeholders then were AAA Equity Holdings, Melchers Project Management, and Orient & Pacific Management. In August 2007, Florian Bollen, Singapore Flyer Pte Ltd chairman, raised his stake in the Singapore Flyer from 60% to 90% through acquisition of Melchers Project Management's 30% stake. The deal was done via AAA Equity Holdings, a private investment vehicle headed by Bollen. Orient & Pacific Management, which spearheaded the project development management, owns the remaining 10%. In March 2010, Great Wheel Corporation, a consultant for the Singapore Flyer, was one of several companies named in a report alleging embezzlement, lodged with the prosecutor's office in Berlin, Germany. Transfers of €3 million to companies in the Virgin Islands and UK, and monthly payments of €4 , from the Berlin wheel's project company, Great Berlin Wheel, to
its linked company Great Wheel in Singapore, are questioned. A prosecutor's office spokesperson said: "We understand there were false contracts concerning non-existing deals, and these contracts were made to take the money for private concerns." Florian Bollen is chairman of both Great Wheel Corporation, registered in Singapore as GWC Holdings, and Singapore Flyer Pte Ltd. A spokesperson for the Singapore Flyer said: "The giant observation wheel in Berlin is separate from the Singapore Flyer and it is separately owned and operated. Great Wheel Corporation is also a separate entity from the Singapore Flyer. Any investigations relating to the Berlin wheel and Great Wheel Corporation have no effect on and no relationship with the Singapore Flyer's operations and finances."
The development has a gross building area of approximately 16,000 m2 (172,000 sq ft), built on a 33,700 m2 (362,700 sq ft) site along the Marina Promenade. Designed by Arup and Mitsubishi Heavy Industries with a capacity of up to 7.3 million passengers a year, the normally constant rotation of the wheel means that a complete trip lasts approximately 30 minutes. The wheel features 28 air-conditioned capsules which, like those of the London Eye, are exocapsules attached outward of the wheel structure. These offer the advantage of a continuously unobstructed view when the capsule is at the peak, unlike the more common endo-capsule design of most wheels (e.g. Star of Nanchang). Each capsule has a floor area of 26 m2 (280 sq ft) and is capable of holding 28 passengers, or up to five wheelchairs and 15 other visitors when booked in advance for use by disabled guests. The terminal building on which the wheel sits on comprises three floors of commercial space, with an adjacent open air Greek-inspired theatre along the waterfront and complimented by a jetty. The site is beautified by luxurious landscaping, including roof gardens and a recreated rainforest in the terminal's atrium. An open bus park for 40 buses is located behind the building, and connected by an underpass to a covered multi-storey carpark for 300 vehicles. This carpark in turn has direct links to the underground Promenade MRT Station which is opened on 17 April 2010. Visitors can take a free shuttle bus from the City Hall MRT Station which operates on a halfhour basis to and from the Singapore Flyer every day. Wheelchair ramps and lifts, handicapped toilets, and a dedicated parking lot for the disabled are also provided.
SINGAPORE NIGHT SAFARI
The Night Safari is the world's first nocturnal zoo and is one of the most popular tourist attractions in Singapore. The concept of a nocturnal park in Singapore was mooted in the 1980s by the former executive chairman of the Singapore Zoo, Dr Ong Swee Law. Constructed at a cost of S$63 million, the Night Safari was officially opened on 26 May 1994 and occupies 40 hectares (0.4 km²) of secondary rainforest adjacent to the Singapore Zoo and Upper Seletar Reservoir. The Night Safari currently houses a total of 1,040 animals of 120 species, of which 29% are threatened species. The zoo is managed by Wildlife Reserves Singapore, and about 1.1 million visitors visit the safari per year. The Night Safari received its 11 millionth visitor on 29 May 2007. Unlike traditional nocturnal houses, which reverse the day-night cycle of animals so they will be active by day, the Night Safari is an entire open-air zoo set in a humid tropical forest that is only open at night. It is divided into eight geographical zones, which can be explored either on foot via three walking trails, or by tram. The animals of the Night Safari, ranging from Indian rhinoceros to tarsiers, are made visible by lighting that resembles moonlight. Although it is brighter than full moonlight by a few orders of magnitude, it is dim enough not to disturb nocturnal and crepuscular animals' behaviour. London based lighting designer Simon Corder created the lighting for Night Safari. Exhibits in the safari come from South America and other parts of Asia. The naturalistic enclosures simulate the animals' native habitat. Animals are separated from visitors with natural barriers, rather than caged, similar to the Singapore Zoo's open concept. Instead of vertical prison-like cages, cattle grids were laid all over the park to prevent hoofed animals from moving one habitat to another. These are grille-like metal sheets with gaps wide enough for animals' legs to go through. Moats were designed to look like streams and rivers to enable fishing cats and servals to be put on show in open areas, and hot wires were designed to look like twigs to keep animals away from the boundaries of their enclosures. 64
Cultural performances are a regular feature at the safari, and include tribal dances, blowpipe demonstrations and fire eating displays. Creatures of the Night Show is a performance presented by the animals in the Night Safari. There are a number of food and beverage outlets in the Night Safari which include Ulu Ulu Safari Restaurant, Bongo Burgers, and Ben & Jerry's Scoop Shop. Visitors can also experience dining on the move with the Cocktail Safari Express and Gourmet Safari Express.
The Merlion was designed as an emblem for the Singapore Tourism Board (STB) in 1964. The designer was Mr Fraser Brunner, a member of the souvenir committee and a curator of the Van Kleef Aquarium. The Merlion has a lion head and a fish body resting on a crest of waves. The lion head symbolises the legend of the rediscovery of Singapura, as recorded in the "Malay Annals". In ancient times, Singapore was known as Temasek, a Javanese word for sea. In the 11th century A.D, Prince Sang Nila Utama of the Sri Vijaya Empire rediscovered the island. When the Prince first landed on Singapore's shores, he sighted a mystical beast which he later learnt was a lion. The Prince then decided to name the island "Singapura" which in Sanskrit means Lion (Singa) City (Pura). The fish tail of the Merlion symbolises the ancient city of Temasek and represents Singapore's humble beginnings as a fishing village. The Merlion (Malay: Singa-Laut) is an imaginary creature with the head of a lion and the body of a fish, used as a mascot of Singapore. Its name combines "mer" meaning the sea and "lion". The fish body comes from Singapore's ancient name back when it was a fishing village — Temasek — meaning "sea town" in Javanese. The lion head represents Singapore's original name — Singapura — meaning "lion city" or "kota singa". The symbol was designed by Fraser Brunner, a member of the Souvenir Committee and curator of the Van Kleef Aquarium, for the logo of the Singapore Tourism Board (STB) in use from 26 March 1964 to 1997. The Merlion continues to be its trademark symbol since 20 July 1966. Although the STB changed their logo in 1997, the STB Act continues to protect the Merlion symbol. Approval must be received from STB before it can be used. The Merlion appears frequently on STB-approved souvenirs.
The Merlion and the Cub were originally located by the Esplanade Bridge, just 120 metres from their present location. It's current home is adjacent to One Fullerton, on a newly constructed 2,500 square metre park. 67
Also called the Merlion Park, the area soon became a popular tourist attraction and took its place among the famous landmarks of great cities of the world. Mr Lee Kuan Yew, the then Prime Minister of Singapore, officiated the installation ceremony of the Merlion on 15 September 1972. A bronze plaque commemorated the auspicious occasion with the inscription, "The Merlion has been erected as a symbol to welcome all visitors to Singapore". The area also comprises a promontory with terraced seating, and a viewing deck to hold up to 300 people as well as a boat landing point that allows visitors to disembark from river taxis. The viewing deck provides photographers with unrivalled vistas of the Merlion against the city skyline and the scenic Marina Bay, including landmarks such as The Fullerton Singapore and Esplanade Theatres on the Bay. Today, the Merlion attracts more than one million visitors a year who make the trip to the Merlion Park to photograph this world famous icon.
There are five Merlion statues of note in Singapore:
The original statue at Merlion Park A two-metre tall cub statue standing behind the original statue The 37-metre tall gigantic replica — with Mouth Gallery Viewing Deck on the ninth storey, another viewing gallery on its head and The Merlion Shop — at Sentosa Island
The three-metre tall glazed polymarble statue at Tourism Court (near Grange Road) completed in 1995
The three-metre tall polymarble statue placed on Mount Faber's Faber Point.
OLD CHANGI HOSPITAL
Built in 1930's, together with an A/E opposite the road and several blocks of commando barracks cum Changi prison nearby, the Old Changi Hospital (OCH) is situated at Netheravon Road in Changi villages. It has quite a long and rich history for being the former hospital of today's modern Changi General Hospital in Simei and Toa Payoh Hospital equipped with world-class facilities.
With its classical design, one can see that OCH is a typical replica of buildings built by British Colonial architects in the early 20's. Surprisingly OCH was not meant to be a hospital when it was first built (same for the A/E). The British was planning to have a heavily guarded military location in the east of Singapore. The site was strategically selected for it is high on top of a hill overlooking the sea surrounding most of the east side and the south side of the island. For about 10 years before the war, this classical 7-storey high building compound was used as military command quarters and barracks.
During the assault of the Japanese aggression from Malaya in February 1942, Changi was targeted as one of the first attack points. In a day or two, it was occupied by the Japanese army moving from Puala Ubin. Soon after that OCH was converted to a military hospital where all the wounded soldiers and civilians were attended to. After the Japanese Occupation ended, it was converted back to its original self, as a public hospital and later with a Military ward on the third level.
From February 1997 onwards, OCH was closed for its hospital operations were replaced by the new Changi General Hospital. It got isolated and left vacant there since then. According to some insider sources, the abandoned OCH will remain as it is but it will be re-open for the 'public' soon during 2005 for the Army Camp or for the Officer Cadet School (OCS) Trainees.
However, stories about the building being haunted started in the early 40's. The Hospital itself had 70+ years of rich history when it survived from the dreadful World War II that took place from 1942 to 1945, witnessing the fall of Singapore and the brutal tortures towards the prisoners of war (POW) that happened there. Therefore, seeing spirits of all races and of different nationals wandering around in the compound would be a common sight. 70
If you are thinking of visiting the hospital in the hope of bumping into a spirit of any nature, go with 2 or 3 friends. If you go beyond that, you will never see it as they are all hiding behind the window pane or the back of the door WATCHING at you. But of course, you can go there alone, however you will never find yourself ALONE. There are rumors saying that OCH has an underground bunker under the hill that connects to the barracks nearby. We found some suspicious spots that very few people know about. The first spot is the main lift at OCH inside has a button for going underground. But the lift now is immobilized. The second and third spots are the hastily sealed up mound by simply dumping plenty of concrete at the ground floor staircase, and the exit door at the other end of the building got tightly nailed shut respectively. This clue suggested us to believe firmer that such an underground bunker exists. Throughout the 70 years of history from pre-war British occupation to post-war Japanese occupation, it would be beyond our imagination on what secret treasures may have hidden down there. Having those main entrances to the underground bunker completely sealed up on the ground floor and the fact that we were not able to break in (and we never wanted to do that), we had to look for a secret passage if there is any. A bold idea though it turned out as a failure is to try search for the secret passage from top-down. Right on the top of the building there is a small open look-out space. From there we found a chimney which we suspected is connected to the underground bunker. People who were in underground did need some air vent for breathing. Ok, true enough, this was what supported our believed. However, like a long tunnel, the chimney was so narrow that can barely allow one person climbing in and out. By using some special equipment we descended our camera deep down to the tunnel and captured some photos. We were counting the depth as the camera went down: 1 meter, 2 meter, 3, 4, 5 ... The tunnel was long and deep even our strongest halogen light could not reach the bottom. It looked as if it were leading to hell. After 20 meters or so, we had found bats resting on the wall of the tunnel for one moment, but they were gone for the next. What does this suggest? The tunnel was not dead-ended and down there may live a kingdom of bats! A thought of it made us shivered. So for our safety, we called off this exploration, and we do strongly advise people PLEASE DON'T TRY IT. If you can ever get in, there will be more likely to have another police report of man missing in OCH than you can safely walk out in one whole piece.
PORT OF SINGAPORE
Before 1819 In the late 13th century, a settlement known as Singapore was established on the north bank of the Singapore River around what was called the Old Harbour. It was the only port in the southern part of the Strait of Malacca and serviced ships and traders in the region, competing with other ports along the coast of the Malacca Strait such as Jambi, Kota Cina, Lambri, Semudra, Palembang, South Kedah and Tamiang. The port had two functions. First, it made available products that were in demand by international markets; according to the Daoyu Zhilüe (Brief Annals of Foreign Islands, 1349) by Chinese trader Wang Dayuan (born 1311, fl. 1328–1339), these included top-quality hornbill casques, lakawood and cotton. Although these goods were also available from other Southeast Asian ports, those from Singapore were unique in terms of their quality. Secondly, Singapore acted as a gateway into the regional and international economic system for its immediate region. South Johor and the Riau Archipelago supplied products to Singapore for export elsewhere, while Singapore was the main source of foreign products to the region. Archaeological artefacts such as ceramics and glassware found in the Riau Archipelago evidence this. In addition, cotton was transshipped from Java or India through Singapore. By the 15th century, although Singapore had declined as an international trading port due to the ascendance of the Malacca Sultanate, such trade continued on the island. A map of Singapore by Portuguese mathematician Manuel Godinho d'Eredia showed the location of the office of a shabandar, the Malay official responsible for international trade, and shards of 15th-century Siam ceramics and late 16th - or early 17th-century Chinese blue and white porcelain have been found at the Singapore and Kallang Rivers. Singapore also provided other regional ports with local products demanded by international markets. For instance, blackwood (a generic term used by Europeans to refer to rosewood) was exported from Singapore to Malacca, and was in turn purchased by Chinese traders and shipped to China for furniture-making. In the early 17th century, Singapore's main settlement and its port were destroyed by a punitive force from Aceh. After this, there was no significant settlement or port at Singapore until 1819 when Sir Stamford 73
Raffles, excited by the deep and sheltered waters in Keppel Harbour, established for Britain a new settlement and international port on the island. 1819–1963 Keen to attract Asian and European traders to the new port, Raffles directed that land along the banks of the Singapore River, particularly the south bank, be reclaimed where necessary and allocated to Chinese and English country traders to encourage them to establish a stake in the port-settlement. Chinese traders, because of their frequent commercial interactions with Southeast Asian traders throughout the year, set up their trading houses along the lower reaches of the river, while English country traders, who depended on the annual arrival of trade from India, set up warehouses along the upper reaches. The port relied on three main networks of trade that existed in Southeast Asia at that time: the Chinese network, which linked Southeast Asia with the southern Chinese ports of Fujian and Guangdong; the Southeast Asian network, which linked the islands of the Indonesian archipelago; and the European and Indian Ocean network, which linked Singapore to the markets of Europe and the Indian Ocean littoral. These networks were complementary, and positioned Singapore as the transshipment point of regional and international trade. By the 1830s, Singapore had overtaken Batavia (now Jakarta) as the centre of the Chinese junk trade, and also become the centre of English country trade, in Southeast Asia. This was because Southeast Asian traders preferred the free port of Singapore to other major regional ports which had cumbersome restrictions. Singapore had also supplanted Tanjung Pinang as the export gateway for the gambier and pepper industry of the Riau–Lingga Archipelago by the 1830s, and South Johor by the 1840s. It had also become the centre of the Teochew trade in marine produce and rice. As the volume of its maritime trade increased in the 19th century, Singapore became a key port of call for sailing and steam vessels in their passage along Asian sea routes. From the 1840s, Singapore became an important coaling station for steam shipping networks that were beginning to form. Towards the late 19th century, Singapore became a staple port servicing the geographical hinterland of the Malay Peninsula. Following the institution of the British Forward Movement, Singapore became the administrative capital of British Malaya. Roads and railways were developed to transport primary materials such as crude oil, rubber and tin from the Malay 74
Peninsula to Singapore to be processed into staple products, and then shipped to Britain and other international markets. During the colonial period, this was the most important role of the port of Singapore. Since 1963 Singapore ceased to be part of the British Empire when it merged with Malaysia in 1963. Singapore lost its hinterland and was no longer the administrative or economic capital of the Malay Peninsula. The processing in Singapore of raw materials extracted in the Peninsula was drastically reduced due to the absence of a common market between Singapore and the Peninsular states. Since Singapore's full independence in 1965, it has had to compete with other ports in the region to attract shipping and trade at its port. It has done so by developing an export-oriented economy based on value-added manufacturing. It obtains raw or partially-manufactured products from regional and global markets and exports value-added products back to these markets through market access agreements such as World Trade Organization directives and free trade agreements. By the 1980s, maritime trading activity had ceased in the vicinity of the Singapore River except in the form of passenger transport, as other terminals and harbours took over this role. Keppel Harbour is now home to three container terminals. Other terminals were built in Jurong and Pasir Panjang as well as in Sembawang in the north. Today, the port operations in Singapore are handled by two players: PSA International (formerly the Port of Singapore Authority) and Jurong Port, which collectively operate six container terminals and three general-purpose terminals around Singapore. In the 1990s the Port became more well-known and overtook Yokohama, and eventually became the busiest port in terms of shipping tonnage.
The port is the world's busiest port in terms of shipping tonnage handled, with 1.15 billion gross tons (GT) handled in 2005. In terms of cargo tonnage, Singapore is behind Shanghai with 423 million freight tons handled. The port retains its position as the world's busiest hub for transshipment traffic in 2005, and is also the world's biggest bunkering hub, with 25 million tonnes sold in the same year. Singapore is ranked first globally in 2005 in terms of containerised traffic, with 23.2 million Twenty-foot equivalent units (TEUs) handled. High growth in containerised traffic has seen the port overtaking Hong Kong since the first quarter of 2005, and has led the race ever since, with an estimated 19,335 TEUs handled in the year up to October, compared to 18,640 TEUs handled in Hong Kong in the same period. A rise in regional traffic consolidating the port's position in Southeast Asia, and increases in transshipment traffic using the strategic East Asia-Europe route via Singapore helped the port to emerge tops at the end of the year, a title it had not held since overtaking Hong Kong once in 1998. Singapore port played vital role in emerging economy.
Arab Street (Chinese: 阿拉伯街) is the name of a road and neighbourhood in Singapore. There are two explanations behind the name. The first one is that the area was owned by an Arab merchant, Syed Ali bin Mohamed Al Junied and that it was the site of an Arab kampong, hence the name Arab Street. The Chinese referred the street as jiau a koi (Javanese street), in the view of the Javanese who used to be the majority inhabitants of the area. Spices, textiles, basketry items and Sonkoks are sold along this row of shophouses with five-foot way at Arab Street. In Tamil, Arab Street is known as pukadai sadkku (flower shops street), because of shops selling homegrown flowers, lime and other goods sold by Javanese women. In 1889, a huge fire occurred. The other explanation is tied to the preexisting situation at the time of the nation's founding by Sir Stamford Raffles. When Raffles was planning the outline of areas to be allocated for the government, as opposed to commercial and residential use, a community of Bugis seamen and merchants were already near the Sultan's palace. He therefore allocated the area to them, near where their boats were sheltered in the river, bringing their annual cargo to a barter basis. That is how the name Bugis Street came about. The Arabs and other Mohammedan traders (Chulias) were also allocated to areas near Kampong Glam.
SINGAPORE GRAND PRIX
The Singapore Grand Prix is a motor race, currently in the calendar of the FIA Formula One World Championship. It is currently held in the Marina Bay area of Singapore. Upon resurrection of the event in 2008, the first race at the Marina Bay location, which was also Formula One's first night race, was won by Spanish driver Fernando Alonso driving for the Renault F1 team.Singapore's third Night Race was held in September 2010, in conjunction with a comprehensive 10-day entertainment schedule. Officially known as the Grand Prix Season Singapore 2010, which led up to the final race which included parties, race-themed events, music concerts, exhibitions and dining & shopping experiences.
The Marina Barrage (Chinese:滨海堤坝) is a dam in Singapore built across the mouth of the bay, between Marina East and Marina South. It was officially opened on 1 November 2008.It was Singapore's fifteenth reservoir. The Marina Barrage was conferred the Superior Achievement Award- the highest honour of the competition for the best project entry - at the AAEE Annual Awards Luncheon held in Washington, DC, USA on 6 May 2009. The Marina Barrage beat 33 other entries to take home the top prize in this year's competition organised by the American Academy of Environmental Engineers (AAEE), becoming the second project outside of USA to win the award, in the last decade The S$226 million project turns Marina Bay and Kallang Basin into a new downtown freshwater Marina Reservoir. It provides water supply, flood control and a new lifestyle attraction. By keeping out seawater, the barrage forms Singapore’s 5th reservoir and first reservoir in the city. Marina Reservoir, together with the future Punggol and Serangoon reservoirs, will increase Singapore’s water catchment areas from half to two-thirds of Singapore’s total land area. Marina Barrage also acts as a tidal barrier to keep seawater out, helping to alleviate flooding in low lying areas of the city such as Chinatown, Jalan Besar and Geylang. When it rains heavily during low-tide, the barrage’s crest gates will be lowered to release excess water from the reservoir into the sea. If heavy rain falls during high-tide, the crest gates remain closed and giant drainage pumps are activated to pump excess water out to sea. As the water in the Marina Basin is unaffected by the tides, the water level will be kept constant, making it ideal for all kinds of recreational activities such as boating, windsurfing, kayaking and dragonboating etc.The building of the Marina Barrage required the relocation of Clifford Pier from Collyer Quay to Marina South (see Marina South Pier).Marina Barrage is open for viewing 24/7. The information counter is open from 9.00am to 6.00pm on weekdays and 10.00am to 8.00pm on weekends. Tours for a maximum capacity of 80 people to the Visitor Centre can be arranged prior to arrival. 80
EAST COAST BEACH
The East Coast Park (Chinese: 东海岸公园; Malay: Taman Pantai Timur) is a beach park located on the southeastern coast of Singapore. It was opened in the 1970s, when the government completed reclaiming land off the coast at Katong which extends from Changi to Tanjong Rhu. It also serves various key neighborhood communities such as Tanjong Rhu, Marine Parade, Bedok and Tampines. The 185 hectare East Coast Park is the largest park in Singapore, and is built entirely on reclaimed land with a man-made beach, where swimming is possible. The beach is protected by breakwaters, with no other natural features. The park is easily accessible by East Coast Park Service Road with numerous exits along the East Coast Parkway. The place has ample parking space with many carparks near the park. The park is also accessible via public transport in the form of bus services, available on East Coast Park Service Road. Underpasses link the park to the nearby Marine Parade housing estate. The park is a popular place for families and friends to relax and enjoy themselves. The park has barbecue pits, entertainment facilities, chalets, food and beverage, and amenities for sports activities. A cycling and inline skating track runs along the perimeter of the park, which measures over 15 km long.
All those people who are planning for a holiday in Asia, Singapore form the main choice of millions of tourists. Sometimes the number of tourists even exceeds the number of people in the city. Excellent modern infrastructure, cleanliness, ethnic cultural groups and friendly environment all contribute in attracting and welcoming Singapore tourism. It presents a unique tourists destination in itself, right from the food, amusements parks, gardens, museums to vibrant nightlife and sightseeing. It is difficult to unravel all the attractions of Singapore, but some of them are worth visiting. Singapore map provide you some useful information to tourists regarding their itinerary tour to Singapore. Under water world present spectacular scenes that leaves it imprints in the mind of tourists. Dugong, a Sea cow entertains its visitor with its acrobatic movements. One can even observes the series of interactive, feeding and training sessions, which demonstrate their natural abilities of tail-walking synchronization. World's premier night zoo- Night Safari, is world renowned. It holds many surprises, more than 1200 animals of 110 exotic species. Beach and Nature lovers will find immense pleasure on Sentosa Island. It is a fun paradise among the many exciting attractions - entertainment by day and night, dancing fountain, history and culture come alive, manicured garden, lush green surroundings to explore, and two challenging international 18-hole golf courses with scenic undulating views. Today, Sentosa is a recreational haven, which boasts of its kaleidoscopic range of attractions and activities catering to wide range of audience. The Changi Museum brings something for historians. In order to honor the spirit and commitment of warriors, this museum inspires future generation to appreciate the heroic and inspirational stories that took place in Changi. Some parks and gardens, either botanical or zoological are really superb. Not only these, but there are many more attraction and ethnic groups places which in addition of representing cultural diversity, also offers lot of excitement and special cuisines for the tourists. This tourists' favorite destination provides superb choices of accommodation before its travelers. With increasing tourism to the country, numbers of hotels are also increasing to cater to the needs of their clients. Visit hotel map of Singapore, present on various sites to look into location of hotels and resorts in Singapore, so that you could make your right decision for the stay according to your needs. There is wide range of hotels in Singapore, ranging form cheap hotels to star luxury hotels that cater to the needs of clients on the basis of their budget All these points proves that Singapore tourism industry plays a vital role on the country's economy.
The following points are few of the recommendation that I like to suggest to the industry after this dissertation: to increase amenities at different tourist spots. worldwide advertisement besides t.v commercials. should penetrate the social media buzz like Facebook,Twitter to attract the mass(tourists) subsidies by scholarships by the government to international students with outstanding talents but financially backwards. increase the extent of integrity by accepting all cultures and values and demonstrating it on a common platform. set up more cultural complexs to facilitate such exhibitions. it could also be a source for educating tourist by widening their mental horizons .
In order to get the information for the presented dissertation the following ways were followed: secondary data: www.google.com www.wikipedia.com www.yoursingapore.com www.stb.gov.sg primary data: visited the various tourist spots in order to know more about that place.
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