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DETAILED PROJECT REPORT

GURDASPUR-I
INTEGRATED WATERSHED MANGEMENT PROGRAMME(IWMP)
DIVISIONAL SOIL CONSERVATION OFFICER, GURDASPUR

DEPARTMENT OF SOIL & WATER CONSERVATION, PUNJAB

Table of Contents Chapter 1 Project Background 1.1 Executive Summary Table no. 1: Basic Project Information Geographic Location of District Gurdaspur Geographic Location of Watershed 1.2 Need of Watershed Development Programme Table no.2: Weightage of the project Table no.2.1 Criteria and Weightage for selection of watershed Table no.3 Watershed information Methodology for DPR Table no.4 Previous watershed programmes in the project area Chapter 2 : Project Implementing Agency 2.1 Project Implementing Agency Watershed Development Team 2.2 About District Watershed Development Unit (DWDU),Ropar 2.2.1 The organization and its objectives Formation of SHGs Formation of UGs Formation of Watershed Committees Table No.5: PIA Staff at PIA level: Chapter 3 : Basic information of the Project Area 3.1 Geography and Geo-hydrology 3.1.1 Land Use pattern Table no.6 Land use Pattern 3.1.2 Soil and Topography Table no.7: Soil type and Topography Table no.8: Flood and Drought condition Table no.9: Soil Erosion Soil Survey Report Soil Survey Table no.10: Climatic conditions Table no.11: Physiography and relief 3.1.3 Land and Agriculture: Table no.12: Land ownership Details Agriculture and Horticulture- Report & suggestions Table no.16: Irrigation 2

6 6 8 9 10 11 13 13 14 16 17 17 17 17 18 18 19 20 21 22 23 23 24 25 25 26 28 29 30 37 38 39 40 41 50

Table no.17: Crop detailsLivestock: Table no.16: Livestock Table no.17: Drinking Water 3.2 Socio Economic Profile 3.2.1 Demographic status Table no.18: Demographic information Table no.19: Literacy rate 3.2.2 Migration Pattern Table no.20: Migration details Table no.21: Poverty 3.2.3 Infrastructure facilities Table no.22: Village infrastructure Table no.23: Facilities/HH assets 3.3 Livelihood Pattern Table no.24: Per capita Income Table no.25: Dependence on Forest/CPR Table no.26: Livelihood Pattern(Occupational distribution) Chapter 4 : Watershed Activities 4.1 Scientific Planning Table no.27 Detail of scientific planning and inputs in IWMP projects 4.2 Institution Building 4.3.1 Entry Point Activity(EPA) Table no.34: Entry Point Activity(EPA) (All financial figures in lakh Rs.) Administration Expenses Capacity Building Plan Livelihood Support System Farm Production Syatem Works Estimates for Stone Masonary and Crate Wire Structures-and design Detailed drawing Stone masonary Strcuture Chapter 5: Budgeting & Phasing Component wise/ Year Wise Budget at a glance Chapter 6 : Convergence with MGNREGA Need for Convergence and its relevance Gap in Funds Chapter 7 : Expected Outcomes Expected Outcomes Logical Framework Analysis 3.1.4 3

51 55 56 58 59 60 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 69 69 71 72 73 74 77 87 96 99 101 106 110 112 113 114 115 116 120

Chapter 8: Quality and sustainable issues Monitoring & Evaluation Consolidation Phase Annexures: Annexure I: Works Details Annexure II: Training schedules Capacity Building Annexure- III Watershed Committees Maps Sub Watershed Wise Soil, Slope & Erosion Map Land Use Map Land Capability Map Existing Conservation Measures Map Treatment Map Design, Drawings and Estimates of Various Structures

123 124 125 1-6 7-59

PROJECT-1 PROJECT BACKGROUND

1.1: Executive Summary: IWMP Gurdaspur I: Project is located in Pathankot sub tehsil of Gurdaspur District of Punjab State. Project Gurdaspur I comprises of 1 Sub watersheds having code A7c. The total geographical area of the project is 1789 ha, out of which 1681 ha area has been taken for treatment under Integrated Watershed Management Programme starting year 2009-10. Total 9 villages are being covered under this project. Table No.1 Basic Project information

Name of the project Sl No.

Name of Sub Watershed

Code No.

Name of villages

Tehsil

District

Area of the project ( ha)

Area proposed to be treated ( ha)

Total project cost (Rs. In lakh)

PIA

1.Mirthal 2.Phulara 3. Ghebe 4. Lahri Brahman Talwara GujaranMirthal 5.Talwara Gujaran 6.Napwal 7.Chak Chimna 8.Dhakii Saidan 9.Nalunga Gurdasp ur DSCO, Gurdapur

1 Gurdaspur I

A7c

Pathankot

1789

1681

201.72

The nearest District Headquarter is Gurdaspur which is about 50 kms from Project area and is well connected by metalled road. The project area lies in the foothills of Shivalik Hills known as Kandi Belt of Punjab. Due to undulating topography and steep slope and coarse to medium sediment 6

material, the project area is commonly subjected to soil and water erosion hazards. The erosion material brought by seasonal rivulets known as choes are deposited in the sloping areas and around the rivulets. The socio-economic condition of the watershed community is very poor. The livelihood of people inhabiting Watershed villages mainly depends upon rains. Most of the residents of the watersheds are dependent on Agriculture, Animal Husbandry, and wage labour. There is no major or even small industry in this area. The agriculture production as well milk yield is very low as compared to rest of Punjab. Wild animals and stray cattle further pose great threat to standing crops and they damage the crops not only during night hours but also during day time. Due to Wild Life Act in force, nothing much could be done and at present there is no solution to this problem in sight. Village community is reluctant to adopt new technologies in agriculture, horticulture etc and also averse to the idea for diversification as most of the farmers are having very less land holdings. Average land holding is 0.5 to 2.5 ha There are very less job opportunities available and migration to other towns/cities for employment are very common. The land topography of project area is undulating. The slope of the watersheds is 5% to 15% The problems of the area: Some of the major problems being faced in the area are existence of numerous choes, continuing soil erosion, deep ground water and lack of irrigation facilities, low water & nutrients holding capacity of the soil, the sloping nature of terrains, poor socio economic conditions of local residents. Treatment: The watersheds have to be treated by bunds, terraces, structures, check dams, and other measures of soil conservation alongwith improved agriculture, horticulture, forestry and animal husbandry. The Project area falls between north latitude 31- 02' to 31- 07 15 and east longitude 76-31'-45 to 76- 38-30'. Gurdaspur, the district headquarters is 45 Kms from Chandigarh, the state capital. The district adjoins Hoshiarpur, and Amritsar Sahib Districts of Punjab. The district comprises 4 Tehsils, Gurdaspur, Patankot, Dhar, and Batala. The Ravi river passes on North West and river Beas flows in South East.District is adjoined with Himachal , J&K states on North side and internaltional border with Pakistan. The climate of Gurdaspur District is characterized by its general dryness (except in the south-west monsoon season), a hot summer and a bracing cold winter. The period from about middle of November to February is the cold season. This is followed by the summer season from March to about the end of June. The south-west monsoon season commences late in June and continues up to about middle of September. The period from mid September to the middle of November constitute the post-monsoon or transition season. May and June are generally hottest months and December and January are the coldest months. Relative humidity is high, averaging about 70 percent during monsoon. The average annual rainfall in district is 1100 mm. About 75 percent of the annual rainfall is received during the period from June to September.

Geographic Location of District: GURDASPUR State Map District Map

1.2: Need of Watershed Development Programme Watershed Development Programme is prioritized on the basis of 13 parametres namely, poverty index, % of SC/ST, actual wages, % of small and marginal farmers, groundwater status, moisture index, area under rainfed agriculture, drinking water situation in the area, % of degraded land, productivity potential of land, continuity of another watershed that has already been developed/treated, cluster approach of plain or hilly terrain. Based on these 13 parametres, a composite ranking has been given to Rupnagar I IWMP project as given in following table No.2: Table No 2.: Criteria and Weightage for selection: 1 2 3 4 Name of sub watershed 6 Type of project (Hilly/ Desert/ Others) Talwara GujaranMirthal hilly/ submountaneous 8 Weightage under the criteria # i 5 ii 5 iii 0 iv 10 v 5 vi 0 vii 5 viii 5 ix 15 x 15 xi 10 xii 10 xiii Total 85

S. No.

District

Name of the project

1. Gurdaspur Gurdaspur I

10

Criteria and Weightage for selection of watershed S. No. I Criteria Poverty index (% of poor to population) Maximum score 10 Ranges & scores Above 80 % (10) 80 to 50 % (7.5) 50 to 20 % (5) Below 20 % (2.5)

Ii Iii

% of SC/ ST population Actual wages

10 5

More than 40 % (10) Actual wages are significantly lower than minimum wages (5)

20 to 40 % (5) Actual wages are equal to or higher than minimum wages (0) 50 to 80 % (5)

Less than 20 % (3)

Iv

% of small and marginal farmers Ground water status

10

More than 80 % (10)

Less than 50 % (3)

Over exploited (5)

Critical (3)

Sub critical (2)

Safe (0)

Vi

Moisture index/ DPAP/ DDP Block

15

-66.7 & below (15) DDP Block

-33.3 to -66.6 (10) DPAP Block 80 to 90 % (10)

0 to -33.2 (0) Non DPAP/ DDP Block 70 to 80% (5) Above 70 % (Rejec t) Fully cover ed (0)

Vii

Area under rain-fed agriculture

15

More than 90 % (15)

viii

Drinking water

10

No source (10)

Problematic village (7.5)

Partially covered (5)

Ix

Degraded land

15

High above 20 % (15)

Medium 10 to 20 % (10)

Low- less than 10 % of TGA (5) Lands with high production & where productivity can be

Productivity potential of the land

15

Lands with low production & where productivity can be significantly enhanced with

Lands with moderate production & where productivity can be

11

reasonable efforts (15)

enhanced with reasonable efforts (10) Contiguity within the micro watersheds in the project but non contiguous to previously treated watershed (5)

marginally enhanced with reasonable efforts (5) Neither contiguous to previously treated watershed nor contiguity within the micro watersheds in the project (0) 2 to 4 micro watersheds in cluster (5)

Xi

Contiguity to another watershed that has already been developed/ treated

10

Contiguous to previously treated watershed & contiguity within the micro watersheds in the project (10)

Xii

Cluster approach in the plains (more than one contiguous microwatersheds in the project) Cluster approach in the hills (more than one contiguous micro-watersheds in the project)

15

Above 6 micro-watersheds in cluster (15)

4 to 6 micro watersheds in cluster (10)

xiii

Above 5 micro-watersheds in cluster (15)

3 to 5 micro watersheds in cluster (10)

2 to 3 micro watersheds in cluster (5)

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WATERSHED INFORMATION
Table No.3: Name of project Name of Watersheds to be treated (1 nos) Talwara GujaranMirthal No. of villages Watershed code Watershed regime/type/order

IWMP - Gurdaspur I

10

A7c

Sub Watershed

METHODOLGY: While preparing Detailed Project Report under IWMP, PRA exercise has been conducted extensively. Team of experts visited each and every village indentified under the project and held detailed discussions with village community on number of occasions. Each and every village has been visited by experts for minimum 3-4 days. Base Line survey has been carried out in each village and data thus received has been analysed. Secondary data has also been reviewed. Focus group discussions as well one to one talk had also been held. Experts give ample opportunity to village community to explain the difficulties that are being faced by them and also motivated them to find the solutions. It was ensured to watershed community that every possible efforts within our perview would be taken to mitigate their problems. All the needs relating to Soil & Water Conservation activities, support required under Farm Production System, Livelihood Support System, Capacity Building of WCs, UGs etc. by village community find place in his DPR. Based on the discussions with community and feedback received from them, this DPR has been prepared incorporating all necessary inputs. There has been overwhelming response from village community who got together on number of occasions and came forward to speak their mind. Intially , village community were reluctant to attend the workshops but subsequently they came in numbers and assured their support for successful implamentation of the project.

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Table No. 4: PREVIOUS WATERSHED PROGRAMMES IN THE PROJECT AREA:


1 2 3 Total microwatersheds in the District Dept. of Land Resources Pre-IWMP projects (DPAP +DDP +IWDP) No. 3 Area (ha.) 60343 4 Micro-watersheds covered so far Other Ministries/ Depts. Any other watershed project No. 12 Area (ha.) 60343 Total watersheds covered 5

S.No.

Names of Districts

Net watersheds to be covered

No. 1. Gurdaspu r 16

Area (ha.) 75810

No. 15

Area (ha.) 74021

No. 1

Area (ha.) 1789

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A VIEW OF UNDULATING FIELDS IN VILLAGE LAHRI BRAHMAN

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CHAPTER -2
PROJECT IMPLEMENTING AGENCY
WO
AO SCO

TL
VET. FRO HDO

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2.1 Project Implementing Agency The project implementing agency is selected by an appropriate mechanisms by State Level Noday Agency (SLNA) for Integrated Watershed Management Program (IWMP) in Punjab. The PIA is responsible for implementation of Watershed Project. Soil & Water Conservation Department, Punjab is the Project Implementing Agency for implementing Integrated Watershed management Program Gurdaspur IProject. The department has a vast experience in implementing various Watershed Development Projects. PIA will put dedicated Watershed Development team and will provide necessary technical guidance to the Gram Panchayat for preparation of Development Plans for the Watershed Projects through Participatory Rural Appraisal exercise. PIA will also undertake a) Community Organization, b) Trainings for the village communities, c) supervise Watershed development Activities, d) inspect & authenticate project accounts, e) monitor & review the overall project implementation, f) set up institutional arrangements for post project operations and g) maintenance and further development of the assets created during the project period. 2.2: Watershed Development Team The Watershed Development Team (WDT) is an integral part of the PIA. WDT would consist of Block Level Officers of Line Departments such as Agriculture, Horticulture, Animal Husbandry and Forest. One woman member with experience in Social mobilization is included in WDT. Soil Conservation Officer would be the team leader of the WDT. Team Leader will coordinate with other WDT members for smooth implementation of the project. WDT will assist gram Sabha in a) constitution of Watershed Committee and its functioning, b) organize and strengthening User groups, Self Help Groups, c) conducting participatory baseline survey, d) training and Capacity Building, e) preparing detailed resource development plan including Soil & Water Conservation, f) undertake engineering surveys, g) prepare engineering drawings and cost estimate for structure to be built. 2.2.1 About District Watershed Development Unit (DWDU) Gurdaspur: DWDU has been notified by SLNA and the same is being constituted. DWDU would consist of 3 to 4 subject matter specialists on Agriculture, Water Management, Social Mobilization, Management & Accounts. DWDU would be headed by Project Manager. 2.2.2 The Organization of DWDU and its objective: It aims at strengthening the efforts at District level for successful implementation of Watershed Programs. Its primary objective is to assist and facilitate PIA from time to time and provide them necessary guidance. The objectives of DWDU would be to supervise, monitor, facilitating in planning and documentation of Watershed Development Projects. The functions of DWDU would broadly be as under: 1. 2. 3. 4. 17 Providing technical support in planning and implemention of the project. Facilitation in preparation of Strategic and Annual Action Plans. Monitoring and Evaluation. Facilitate coordination with allied departments.

2.2.2: Formation of Self Help Groups: The formation of SHGs in all watershed villages is undeway. It is proposed to form at least 2 SHGs in each village. Each SHG will consist of 12/15 members. The members would be mainly from landless, SCs and women, small and marginal farmers. Few groups exclusively of unemployed youth have also been identified. These groups will be homogeneous having common goal for increasing their income by establishing micro enterprise. Under the Project, each SHGs would be given a revolving fund of Rs.20000/25000 each after 6 months from the date of formation st (subject to qualifying the 1 grading and meeting the laid down norms). The Income Generating Activities are also being identified. After having made discussions, village community evinced interest in following Income Generation Activities: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. Bakery Products Soap & Detergent making Cutting and Tailoring Embroidery Fisheries Mushroom cultivation Household wiring, Motor winding Plumbing Carpentry Bee keeping Pickles, sauces, jam, jelly etc. Two wheelers reparing Animal husbandry Backyard poultry Vermi compost

However, decision for adopting Economic Activities would rest with respective SHGs. Accordingly, these SHGs would be imparted trainings in the IGAs they opt for. Preliminary survey reveals reasonable potentials for the above mentioned Economic Activities and these could prove to be beneficial to poor people residing in selected Watershed villages. e imparted trainings in the IGAs they opt for 2.2.3: User groups: The members of User groups would be those persons who would directly derive benefits from Watershed Activities. Resource use agreements are being worked out. The User groups will be responsible for the operation and maintenance of all the assets created under the Project. Formation of User groups is under process in all the villages covered under the Project. The members of User Groups would be imparted training by PIA for effectively managing the assets created.

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2.2.4: Watershed Committees: Watershed committees are being formed in all villages. Each committee would consist of atleast of 10 members. Their representation will be as under: Minimum of 50% members from SHGs and UGs, SCs, women and landless One member from Watershed Development Team, especially women member (subject matter specialist in Social Science). Watershed Committees would nominate one of their members as Watershed Secretary to perform the following duties: 1. 2. 3. 4. Convening meetings of Watershed Committee, Gram Sabha. Maintaining all records and proceedings of the meetings. Follow up action on all decisions taken in the meetings. Ensuring peoples participation.

Watershed Secretary will be imparted training in maintaining the accounts as well other activities related to Project.

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Table No.5: PIA/ Project Implementing Agency S. No. Name of the Project 1.Type of Organsation 2.Name of Organisation 3.Designation & Address 1. IWMP- Project Gurdaspur I 4.Telephone 5.Fax 6.E-mail

Details of PIA Govt.Department Department of Soil & Water Conservation DSCO, Gurdaspur, Batala ByPass, Gurdaspur 01874-243626 01874-243626 rajsherry@gmail.com dswcpunjab@gmail.com

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6.1: PIA MONITORING LEVEL (At Project Headquarters) The higly experienced statt at Head Office is closely monitoring the Project and from time to time, they are providing them technical guidance to field staff so that objectives of the Project are achieved in desired manner. Meetings are periodically being held by HO with officials from Gurdaspur Division to know the progress.

S.No.

Name

Age

Sex

Designation

Qualification

Experience

Job Assigned

Monthly Remuneration Govt. service Govt. service Govt. service

1 2 3

Sh. A.K.Sondhi Er.Mohinder Kanwal Sh. Gurbinder Dhillon

59 57 35

M M M

CCS Conservator (HO) SCO (Technical)

Msc (Agri) B.Tech (Agri) Bsc.(Agri)

37 years 35 years 10 years

Monitoring & Supervision Monitoring & Supervision Monitoring & Supervision

6.2: Project Implementing Agency: PROJECT LEVEL PIA has dedicated staff for implementation of the Project in Ropar I. The officers are highly qualified and have have rich experience of 15 to 20 years in these type of projects. These officers have actively worked in Kandi areas (Sub mountaneous areas) and have very good rapport with Watershed Community. These officers are being assisted by their field staff as well by WDT members.

S.No.

Name

Age

Sex

Designation

Qualification

Experience

Job Assigned

Monthly Remuneration Govt. service Govt. service Govt. service

1 2 3

Dr. Gurpreet Singh Er.Rajesh Sharma Er.Ashok Sharma

36 37 56

M M M

DSCO SDSCO SCO

Bsc.Agri. B.Tech Diploma in Civil Engineering

9 years 6 years 15 years

Project Management Technical Guidance Soil & Water Conservation Works

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CHAPTER-3 BASIC INFORMATION OF PROJECT

Interaction with village community in progress

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3.1 Geography and Geohydrology:


3.1.1 Land Use Pattern: The total geographical area of IWMP Gurdaspur I is 1789 ha and the effective project area is 1681 ha. Out of which 11 ha area i.e is under forests, 1111 ha (49.13%) under Agriculture and 634 ha area is wasteland (73 ha is non cultivable and 561 ha is cultivatable respectively). Single crop is being cultivated in rainfed areas and two crops are being cultivated in irrigated area. Maize and Paddy are two major Kharif crops and Wheat is major crop in Rabi in the Project area. Number of villages: 9 Total geographical area: 1789 Hectares Forest Area: 11 Hectares Land Under agriculture use: 1111 Hectares Rain fed area: 880 Hectares Waste Land: Cultivable: 561 Hectares Non Cultivable: 73 Hectares Very few area in ha is under Permanent Pastures. Land use pattern sub watershed wise is given on next page:

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Table No.6: Land use pattern Name of the Watershed: Talwara Gujaran- Mirthal S.No. Name of Village Geographical area of the village (ha) 506 148 71 180 95 184 154 269 182 1789 Forest area (ha) 2 1 1 2 1 1 0 2 1 11 Land under agriculture use (ha) 259 141 60 138 87 75 98 162 91 1111 Rain fed area (ha) 165 81 40 138 63 75 98 152 68 880 Permanent Pastures (ha) 0 0 Wasteland Cultivable/ Non Cultivable 175 24 45 12 9 33 2 4 82 13 42 06 97 8 74 8 561 73

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Mirthal Phulara Ghebe Lahri Brahman Talwara Gujaran Napwal Chak Chimna Dhaki Saidan Nalunga Total Source: Secondary data

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SOIL ANDTOPOGRAPHY
3.1.2: Soil and Topography: The soils of the watershed are deep, sandy to medium texture. The topography of the area is plain to highly steep and undulating. Soil is subject to severe water erosion. The slope ranges from 1-8 %. All the sub watersheds fall under undulating Zone. Table No.7: Soil Type and Topography: Name of the Sub Watershed: Talwara Gujaran- Mirthal Sr.No. Name of Agro Area in haclimatic zone Geographical covering project area of area villages 1789 1 2 3 Code 085-sub undulating zone Code 085-sub undulating zone Code 085-sub undulating zone

Name of Village

Major Soil types

Topography

a) Type Mirthal Phulara Loamy sand to sandy loam Loamy sand to sandy loam Loamy sand to sandy loam

b) Area in ha 506 148 Undulated Undulated Undulated 71 Undulated Undulated Undulated Undulated Undulated Undulated 182

Ghebe

4 5 6 7 8 9

Code 085-sub undulating zone Code 085-sub undulating zone Code 085-sub undulating zone Code 085-sub undulating zone Code 085 Code 085-sub undulating zone Source: Secondary data

Lahri Brahman Talwara Gujaran Napwal Chak Chimna Dhaki Saidan Nalunga

Loamy sand to sandy loam Loamy sand to sandy loam Loamy sand to sandy loam Loamy sand to sandy loam Loamy sand to sandy loam Loamy sand to sandy loam

180 95 184 154 269

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FLOOD AND DROUGHT CONDITIONS

26

Flood and drought conditions: There has been incidence of flood and drought as well in watershed villages. There has been instances of flood on an average 3-4 times and drought 4-5 years in the last 10 years. With the result, crop yield is very low as compared to rest of Punjab. Table No.8: Flood and drought condition: Name of the Sub Watershed: Talwara Gujaran- Mirthal Sr.No. Village 1 Mirthal 2 Phulara Ghebe 4 Lahri Brahman 5 Talwara Gujaran 6 Napwal 7 Chak Chimna 8 Dhaki Saidan 9 Nalunga Source: Primary data

Flood(Incidence) Once in 8-10 Years Once in 8-10 Years Once in 8-10 Years Once in 8-10 Years Once in 8-10 Years Once in 8-10 Years Once in 8-10 Years Once in 8-10 Years Once in 8-10 Years

Drought (Incidence) 3 times in 10 years 3 times in 10 years 3 times in 10 years 3 times in 10 years 3 times in 10 years 3 times in 10 years 3 times in 10 years 3 times in 10 years 3 times in 10 years

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SOIL EROSION
Soil Erosion:
In the sub watersheds, it is observed that due to heavy rains, heavy loss of soil has occurred. This results in degradation of agricultural land, deforestation and low fertilizer retention. The erosion material brought by the choes are deposited in the sloping piedmont and are deposited around the rivulets. The repeated deposition of course sediments render these areas comparatively low in agriculture production. Average annual rainfall of the area falling under these watersheds get washed away in the form of runoff which also carries valuable top soil (sheet). Soil erosion in respect of sheet is quite high. Majority of the Watershed Community are dependent on agriculture. Agriculture suffers due to area being rain fed and due to excess rains in the region, resulting in further deterioration of socio economic conditions of community. On an average soil loss is estimated 70/80 ha/per year. Table No.9: Soil Erosion Name of the Sub Watershed: Talwara Gujaran- Mirthal Sr.No. 1 Talwara GujaranMirthal Name of the Sub Watershed Cause Water erosion Type of erosion Sheet Gully Rill Total Gully Rill Gully Source: Primary data Area affected ha 264 222 157 643 NA NA NA Run off (mm/year) Average soil loss (Tonnes/ha/year)

650-750

14-20

Wind erosion

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SOIL SURVEY REPORT

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Soil Survey Report The soils are recognized as one of the most valuable life supporting natural resources of any nation, since these produce food and fibre which are basic to mans very existence. It takes several hundreds of years to develop an inch of soil. Therefore a clear and intimate knowledge of the kind of soils and their extent of distribution are essential prerequisites in developing rational land-use plans for agriculture, forestry, irrigation, drainage, etc. towards maximizing agricultural production to meet the ever increased demand of the growing population for food, fibre, etc. Soil resource inventory provides an insight into the potential and limitations of soils for their effective utilization. It is, therefore, imperative that an inventory of our natural resource viz. soils is prepared for developing optimum land use and conservation plans. District Gurdaspur falls in the Kandi area of the Punjab state. The kandi area as the name reveals acts like a brim in the north and north-eastern sectors of the state of Punjab. It covers about 9.5% of the total geographical area (5.04 million hectares) of the state. It mainly consists of Shivalik foothills and piedmont plain. A brief description of the soils, land use and land capability classes of the area falling in the selected sub watersheds of Gurdaspur district is given in this report. The selected sub watersheds are: A. Soils Major soils associations relationship with Physiography of the areas of the sub watersheds in district Gurdaspur are 1. Very deep, well drained, calcareous, sand/loamy sand to sandy loam soils, nearly leveled to very gently sloping, severely flooded/eroded soils on active flood plain, mostly barren. 2. Very deep, well drained to mod. well drained soils, calcareous, sandy loam to loam soil, nearly level to gently sloping on alluvial plain, intensively cultivated. 3. Very deep, well drained, calcareous sandy loam to loam soil, very gently to gently sloping, moderately eroded soils on lower piedmont plain, intensively cultivated. 4. Very deep, well drained, calcareous, loam to silt loam soils, dissected, severely eroded soils on piedmont plain, partly cultivated. 30

5. Moderately deep to deep and very deep, well drained, calcareous, gravely, sandy loam to silt loam soils on gently sloping to very steeply sloping, moderate to severely eroded soils, soils on Shiwalik hills forested/ partly terraced, leveled/cultivated. The description of the soils mapped in different sub watersheds of Gurdaspur district is given in the following tables. Table 9.1 : Description of soils mapped in Sub watershed Talwara Gujaran- Mirthal S. No. Mapping Unit Description Area, ha 1 4-sl-d5 A-e1 Very deep, well drained, non calcareous, loamy soils with sandy loam surface, slope 0-1%, slightly eroded. 168 Percentag e area 9.39

5-sl-d5 A-e1

Very deep, well drained, non calcareous, loamy soils with sandy loam surface, slope 0-1%, slightly eroded.

702

39.23

5-l-d5 A-e1

Very deep, well drained, non calcareous loamy soils with loam surface, slope 0-1% , moderately eroded.

294

16.44

5-sl-d5 A-e1

Very deep, well drained, non calcareous loamy soils with loam surface, slope 1-3%, moderately eroded.

147

8.21

5-sil-d5 B-e2

Very deep, moderately drained, non calcareous, fine textured soils with silt loam as surface, slope

370

20.69.

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3-5%, severely eroded. 7 8 Settlement and roads etc Total 108 1789 6.04 100

B. Land Capability classification It is an interpretative grouping of soils based on inherent soil characteristics, external land features and environmental factors that limit the use of land. As per land capability classification, class 1 to class IV land is suited to agriculture. Classes V to VII are not suitable for agriculture. These are used for pastures, forestry, wildlife and recreation purposes. Depending on the degree of limitation and the kind of problem involved in management of soils the land capability subclasses were indicated by adding the following limitation symbols to the land capability classes. 1. Erosion and runoff ( e ) including risk of erosion and great erosion damage 2. Excess of water (w ) including wetness, high water table, problem of drainage 3. Root zone limitation ( s ) including shallow depth, low water holding capacity, salinity or alkalinity/rockiness ) 4. Climate limitation ( c ) The soils of the selected sub watersheds of Gurdaspur district have been grouped into five land capability classes and thirteen subclasses. A brief description of each capability sub class is given as under: Land capability subclass II c This subclass includes, in general, moderately well drained to well drained, nearly level, slightly eroded, and medium to fine textured soils (soils series 3 and 4). These have assured irrigation and are intensively cultivated for wheat, rice, maize, sugarcane, berseem etc. Land capability subclass II c e 32

These soils resemble the soils grouped under subclass IIc except that these are very gently sloping and slightly to moderately eroded. Land capability subclass II c s These soils resemble the soils grouped under subclass IIc except that these soils have root zone limitation.( shallow depth, low water holding capacity, salinity, or alkalinity/rockiness). Land capability subclass III c This subclass have the soils that resemble the soils of subclass IIc in all respects except that these are cultivated under rainfed conditions and the yields are low. Land capability subclass IIIc (ca ) This subclass have the soils that resemble the soils of land capability subclass IIIc except the soils are calcareous. Land capability subclass IIIce This subclass includes moderately well drained to well drained, very gently to moderately sloping, moderately eroded, medium to fine textured soils (soil series 3 and 4 ). Adequate soil and water conservation practices and use of improved technology can help in obtaining better yields from these soils. Land capability subclass III cs This subclass includes somewhat excessively drained, nearly level, slightly eroded, sandy soils ( sandy soils 2 ) having loam y sand control section. These soils are cultivated for maize, jowar, bajra, lentil and oilseeds under rainfed conditions but the yields are low. Land capability subclass III ces 33

The soils in this subclass resemble the subclass IIIcs soils except that these are very gently to moderately sloping and moderately to severely eroded. In addition these have 5-10% stones at the surface in some soil units. These soils need leveling/bunding and other soil conservation measures to check soil erosion. Farm yard manure should be added to increase their water holding capacity. Land capability subclass IV ce This subclass includes moderately well drained, strongly sloping, very severely eroded sandy loam soils. These need to be terraced before bringing them under crops otherwise these may be stabilized in situ by planting grass in combination with fast growing trees. Land capability subclass IV ces This subclass includes somewhat excessive to very excessively drained, very gentle to strongly sloping, moderately to severely eroded, sandy soils ( soil series 1 and 2 ) in the piedmont plain. These soils have 5-10 percent stones in the surface horizons at some places. Jowar, bajra, oilseeds are grown in the soils, however the yields are low. These areas need to be put under grasses and trees to avoid further degradation due to soil erosion and runoff. Crops should only be grown after terracing or contour bunding wherever possible. Land capability subclass V ces The soils are very gently to strongly sloping that remain wet for most of the time , land not suitable for arable farming, but suitable for grazing. These soils have 5-10 percent stones in the surface horizons at some places. Land capability subclass VII ce This subclass includes steep to very steep , moderately to highly dissected Shiwalik hills with a general slope of more than 25 percent. The hills are subject to severe water erosion. The areas has open to moderately dense scrub forest. This subclass has deep and shallow sandy and loamy soils , usually without a profile development ( soil series 1,2 and 5 ) These soils are excessively to moderately well drained.

34

For protection of this area from further deterioration, indiscriminate deforestation and grazing should be avoided and additional plantations of fast growing trees and grasses should be introduced to save the area from water erosion. Land capability subclass VII ces This subclass is similar to land Capability subclass VII ce except the soils have root zone limitation. The area under different land capability subclasses in different sub watersheds is given in the following table. Table 9.2: Area under different land capability subclasses in Subwatershed Talwara Gujaran- Mirthal A7b S.No. 1 2 3 4 8 II c III ce III c(ca) Settlement and roads etc. Total Land Capability Subclass 1195 360 126 108 1789 Area, ha Percentage Area 66.79 20.12 7.05 6.04 100

C.

Land use

Comprehensive and up-to-date information on the existing land use and land cover patterns and its changes with time is quite essential for better land use planning so as to maximize the productivity without causing environmental degradation. Land use of sub watershed is given as under: 35

Table 9.3: Land use under sub watershed Talwara Gujaran- Mirthal S.No. 1 1.1 2 Agriculture Cultivated Plantation Agriculture Plantation Horticulture Plantation 3 3.1 4 5 6 Waste land Waste land with or without scrub Ravines Settlements & Roads etc. Total 479 73 108 1730 26.77 4.08 6.04 100 18 72 1.00 4.02 1039 58.00 Particulars Area, ha Percentage area

36

CLIMATIC CONDITIONS
The area falls under semi arid and less hot zone of Punjab. The area experiences two wet periods (Mid December to Mid February and Mid June to Mid September). The summer season starts in the area by Mid of April and continues till September. The peak of the temperature (37.6 ) is observed during the month June and minimum temperature of 7.1 is observed during the month of 0 0 January. The months of October and March appears mild with average temperature of 24.2 and 20.4 respectively. The cold condition with 0 minimum temperature less than 10 occurs during the months of November to February. Table No.10 Climatic conditions: 1. Name of the Sub Watershed: Talwara Gujaran-Mirthal
0 0

Year

Rainfall in mm Max. 1100 Min 642 Max. 37.60

Temperature Min 7.10

Highest intensity of rainfall (mm in a day) 140

2009-10

Source: Deptt. Of Soil & Water Conservation , Dunera Station

37

PHYSIOGRAPHY AND RELIEF


The area can be divided into four main physiographic units namely: Shivalik hills, valley, Piedmont Plain, Alluvial and Flood plain. The Shivalik hills have general slope ranging from 25% to 60%. The hill formations are of two types i.e. loose sand stone and silt stone giving rise to sandy and silty soils. Most of the area is under forests. The piedmont plain covers large area and have 1 to 6 per cent slope. The piedmont area is frequently dissected by choes. The deposits in and around these rivulets are sandy in nature with some gravels and pebbles. The area is partly cultivated and partly under forests and wastelands. The alluvial and flood plain is nearly level with 0.5% to 3% slope. The deposits in the vicinity of the rivers and choes are coarser and those away from them are comparatively finer in texture. Most of the area is under cultivation and is used for growing common agricultural crops. Table no.11: Physiography and relief 1. Name of sub watershed: Talwara Gujaran- Mirthal Name of sub Project Name Elevation (MSL) watershed Talwara GujaranMirthal Gurdaspur I 105 metres

Slope range (%)

Major streams

0.5% to 8.0%.

Beas

Source: Secondary data

38

LAND AND AGRICULTURE


Lack of irrigation sources compounded with threat to standing crops from wild animals and stray animals pose damage to crops resulting to very poor yield. There are large number of landless people and only few SC families are having small land holdings. Average land holding is 0.5 to 2.0 ha. The major crops cultivated are: Wheat, Maize and Paddy. Very few area is covered for cultivation for vegetable crops, orchards and pulses. Due to very few options available, migration to nearby towns for livelihood takes place. There is no population of OBC and STs in these watersheds. The following plants are commonly observed in the Project Area: VEGETATION S.No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Trees Khair Black Siris Simbal Tahli Safeda Toon Fruits Mango Ber Lemon Galgal Kinnow Grasses and Shrubs Bhabbar Lantana Mehander Narkul Dob

39

3.1.3: LAND OWNERSHIP DETAILS


Most of the farmers are having very small land holding - 0.5 to 2.0 ha Table No.12 1. Name of the Sub Watershed: Talwara Gujaran- Mirthal S.No. Village General 1 Mirthal 2 Phulara 3 Ghebe 4 Lahri Brahman 5 Talwara Gujaran 6 Napwal 7 Chak Chimna 8 Dhaki Saidan 9 Nalunga Source: Primary data 240 135 48 125 68 65 80 135 85 OBC -------Total owned land in ha SC 3 1 2 2 1 2 1 5 1

ST ------

BC 8 2 4 3 5 4 2 6 5

40

AGRICULTURE & HORTICULTURE:

41

Agriculture and Horticulture:


The watershed areas under the project are situated in the Shivalik foothills of Pathankot sub-division of Gurdaspur district of the Punjab state. The details of the area are as under: Number of villages: 9 Total geographical area: 1789 Hectares Forest Area: 11 Hectares Land Under agriculture use: 1111 Hectares Rain fed area: 880 Hectares Waste Land: Cultivable: 561 Hectares Non Cultivable: 73 Hectares Expert in the field of Agriculuture and Horticulture has submitted the following report after visiting and meeting the village communities: Problems of the Area The main problems of the area are listed below: Small and scattered land holdings The area under the project is cultivated by small and marginal farmers. Almost 70% of the farmers fall under this category. Furthermore, these small land holdings are scattered over 2-3 smaller pieces of land. Lack of irrigation facilities The main source of irrigation in these villages is the government tube-wells; which are run by the Punjab State Tubewell Corporation. Although, the capacity of a tubewell is to irrigate only 50 acres of land, but currently the command area under each tubewell is about hundred acres. This results into severely inadequate supply of water for irrigation. Poor economic conditions of farmers: The general economic condition of the farmers in this area is quite poor. They cannot use necessary agricultural inputs in a timely fashion due to financial constraints which adversely affects the crop yield. Lack of technical knowledge: The farmers of the area lack in technical knowledge. They dont have the expertise and knowledge to use inputs in a proper and timely fashion, which results into a low production of crops. 42

Cropping Patterns The main crops grown in the area are wheat and maize. Rice is also cultivated in some of the villages where irrigation facilities are available through the privately owned tubewells. Compared to rest of the district and the state, the average yield of these crops is quite low. The average yield (in kg/hectare) of these crops is as follows:
Comparative data of the crops productivity of the area: Project area vs Blocks vs District vs State vs Country:

43

5000 4500 4000 3500 3000 2500 2000 State District Block

1500
1000 500 0 Wheat Maize Paddy

Watershed

The main reasons for the low yield of these crops are as follows: Low fertility of the soil: The soil of the area is mostly sandy and sandy-loam. The organic content of the soil is also very low. Lack of use of improved seeds: Farmers of this area dont generally use improved seeds of these crops; especially of maize. Most of them grow desi varieties of maize; which have a low yield potential. Plant Population: The plant population in maize and rice is quite low compared to the recommended population of Punjab Agriculture University. This also results into low production. Application of farm inputs: Application of farm inputs like fertilizers, weedicides and pesticides is not in accordance with the recommendations of the experts. As the economic conditions of the farmers are poor, they cannot afford the recommended farm inputs due to the financial constraints. Lack of assured irrigation facilities: 44

The main source of irrigation in this area is the government tube-wells. The crops are irrigated only twice or thrice, which is far below the recommendation of five to six times.

SUGGESTIONS
Supply of seeds Mostly desi maize is grown in the watershed area. The yield potential of this variety is low compared to the hybrid varieties. To improve production of maize, it is necessary to supply good quality hybrid seeds of approved varieties at affordable prices. As the farmers of this area are poor, at least 50% subsidy should be granted to the farmers. The recommended varieties of Maize are PMH 1, PMH 2, JH 3459, PEHM 5, Double, Hishell, NK 6240, Pioneer, 30 V 92 and Victory. The watershed villages are situated in the sub mountainous region. Yellow rust affects the wheat crop in this area quite often which adversely affects the crop yield. Supply of rust resistant varieties like Wheat BW 17, HD 2894 and HD 2733 is recommended. Suggested varieties for unirrigated wheat are PBW 509, PBW 502 and PBW 175. Summer Moong and Mash can be introduced as a third crop in rice-wheat rotation. These crops will not only provide an additional income to the farmers but also help improve the soil health. To popularize Moong and Mash cultivation, quality seeds of approved varieties should be provided to the farmers at affordable prices.

Supply of Chloroplyphos Termite attacks wheat and maize both at germination and maturity stages. It is extremely important to control this menace, which can easily be controlled with seed treatment. Chloroplyphos is recommended for this seed treatment. This very simple treatment of seeds can help increase crop yield by one to two quintals per acre. Field Demonstrations Field demonstrations (of half an acre each in size) of these practices would benefit the farmers immensely. These pilot projects will help educate the farmers and they can see the benefits of the recommended package practices by themselves. Training camps Farmers training camps at village level should be organized to impart training on the latest package practices. Land levelling Levelling of the fields is necessary for the optimum use of irrigation and rain water. But the agricultural fields in the villages are quite uneven. They require complete levelling for proper cultivation. Levelling of the fields would also be helpful in checking the soil erosion. Improvement in irrigation facilities As mentioned earlier, the main source of irrigation in this area is government tubewells. Each tubewell has a command area of about hundred acres. With the existing infrastructure, only two to three irrigations per crop are possible. However, the required number of irrigations is five to six. The number of tubewells needs to be doubled to assure proper irrigation of crops. 45

Bee keeping The farmers should be motivated to adopt bee keeping as a profession and necessary training should be provided to them. Initially, pilot projects with a unit of five boxes each should be arranged for the interested farmers and a subsidy of fifty percent should be given to them. Dairy farming Farmers in these villages have already been keeping the milch animals; mostly buffalos. The milk production of these animals (local breeds) is low. There is a need for the improvement of the local breed through artificial insemination. Introduction of good quality cows with better milk production will popularize dairy farming in the area. Also, the farmyard manure procured from these animals will help improve the soil health.

46

Soil heath The soil of this area is generally low in organic matter content. Hence, the fertility status of the soil is poor. The fertility status can be improved either by the addition of farmyard manure or through green manuring. Sufficient time is available between the harvest of wheat and transplantation of paddy. Green manuring with daincha crop is recommended in paddy wheat rotation. Summer moong and mash can also be grown after the harvest of wheat. This crop will give additional income to the farmers. Being a legume crop, it will also help in improving the spoil health. Horticulture and vegetable This area is very suitable for the cultivation of fruits and vegetables. Some area from maize wheat and paddy wheat rotation can easily be diverted to potatoes and onion crops. There will not be any problem in selling these crops as they can be stored for longer periods. Depending upon the soil of the area and available irrigation facilities, fruit trees like Citrus (kinnon, galgal), banana, Guava, Amla can be successfully grown in this area. Cash crops Lemon grass is very suitable for cultivation in unirrigated areas of this tract. There are many advantages of this crop. First, this crop is not damaged by the wild animals. Secondly, the farmers wont face any difficulty in selling lemon grass oil due to its high demand in the market. Aloevera can also be raised in this area which can be grown both in irrigated and unirrigated areas. The yield is quite high and it offers excellent marketing prospects to the farmers. Agro-forestry To supplement the farmers income, Poplar trees can be grown at the boundaries of the agriculture farms. Furthermore, block plantation of Poplar can also be combined with regular crop cultivation for higher economic gains. Under unirrigated conditions, Eucalyptus and daik can be successfully grown in this area. Intervention in Farm Production System is based on the above suggestions. Only three major crops namely Wheat, Maize and Paddy are sown. Since the Project area is rain fed, most of the farmers get crop once in a year. In all an area of401 ha and 693 are sown one time and two times respectively. Area (ha) sown one time and two times is given in the table below:

47

Agriculture: 1. Name of the Sub Watershed: Talwara Gujaran-Mirthal Table No.13: S.No. Village One time 1 50 Mirthal 2 52 Phulara 3 30 Ghebe 4 55 Lahri Brahman 5 26 Talwara Gujaran 6 30 Napwal 7 42 Chak Chimna 8 80 Dhaki Saidan 9 36 Nalunga Source: Primary data

Net sown area ha Two Times 209 92 30 83 51 45 46 82 55

Three times -

Following graph depicts the net area sown - one and two times-sub watershed wise:

36

50 Mirthal

80

52

Phulara Ghebe Lahri Brahman Talwara Gujaran

30 42 55 30 26

Napwal Chak Chimna Dhaki Saidan Nalunga

48

Net Area sown in Ha- Two Time- Villagewise


55 82 209 Mirthal Phulara Ghebe

Lahri Brahman
46 45 51 83 30 92 Talwara Gujaran Napwal Chak Chimna Dhaki Saidan Nalunga

After the intervention under IWMP, in all livelihood, it is expected that net sown area is expected to rise. Further, area being sown only once in a year is also expected to rise and it is estimated that at least 10 to 15% more area would come under cultivation twice in a year. This will not only bring more land under agriculture but also would add to income of landholders.

49

IRRIGATION
Irrigation
Lack of irrigation facilities The main source of irrigation in these villages is the government tube-wells; which are run by the Punjab State Tubewell Corporation. Although, the capacity of a tubewell is to irrigate only 50 acres of land, but currently the command area under each tubewell is about hundred acres. This results into severely inadequate supply of water for irrigation. 1. Name of the Sub Watershed: Talwara Gujaran- Mirthal Table No.14: Irrigation Sr.No. S.No. Village Source 1: Canal
Availability months Net area Gross area

Source 2: Check Dam/pond


Availabil ity months Net area Gross area

Source 3: well
Availability months Net area Gross area

Source 4: Groundwater
Availabilit y months Net area Gross area

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Mirthal Phulara Ghebe Lahri Brahman Talwara Gujaran Napwal Chak Chimna Dhaki Saidan Nalunga

---------

---------

---------

--------

--------

--------

--------

--------

--------

12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12

94 60 70 25 24 12 10 10 23

94 60 70 25 24 12 10 10 23

Source: Primary data

50

CROP DETAILS

51

Cropping Patterns Mainly 3 major crops namely Wheat, Maize and Paddy are sown in Watershed villages. Though main crops grown in the area are wheat and maize, . Padddy is also cultivated in some of the villages where irrigation facilities are available through the privately owned tubewells. Compared to rest of the district and the state, the average yield of these crops is quite low. The average yield (in kg/hectare) of these crops is as follows: Name of the crop Wheat Maize Rice India State District Block Watershed Villages 2515 1255 2,592

2,891 2,500 2,186

4,307 3,519 3,990

4125 3250 3837

3835 2560 3215

The productivity is very low as compared to data for State and Blocks of Pathankot. The following table gives the details of yield of each crop: Country vs State vs District vs Block vs Watershed villages: 1. Name of the Sub Watershed: Talwara Gujaran- Mirthal Table No.15: Crop details: Sr.No. Village Area ha 180 92 46 102 52 55 60 85 60 Production (000 kg) 452.70 231.38 115.69 256.53 130.78 138.32 150.90 213.77 150.90 Rabi (Winter) Major crops-Wheat Productivity Area (ha) Production (kg/ha) Average (000 kg) 2515/ha -2515/ha 2515/ha 2515/ha 2515/ha 2515/ha 2515/ha 2515/ha 2515/ha -

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Sr.No. 52

Mirthal Phulara Ghebe Lahri Brahman Talwara Gujaran Napwal Chak Chimna Dhaki Saidan Nalunga Village

Productivity (kg/ha) --

Use of Fertilizers Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Kharif (Monsoon) Major crops-Maize-Paddy

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Mirthal Phulara Ghebe Lahri Brahman Talwara Gujaran Napwal Chak Chimna Dhaki Saidan Nalunga

Maize Area Production (000 kg) ha 107 134.28 55 69.02 28 35.14 62 77.81 32 40.16 34 37 50 38 42.67 46.43 62.75 47.69

Productivity (kg/ha) Average 1255/ha 1255/ha 1255/ha 1255/ha 1255/ha 1255/ha 1255/ha 1255/ha 1255/ha

Paddy Area (ha) Production (000 kg) 73 189.21 37 95.90 18 46.65 40 103.68 20 51.84 21 23 35 22 54.43 59.61 90.72 57.02

Productivity (kg/ha) 2592/ha 2592/ha 2592/ha 2592/ha 2592/ha 2592/ha 2592/ha 2592/ha

Use of Fertilizers Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

53

LIVESTOCK

54

LIVESTOCK: Farmers in these villages have already been keeping the milch animals; mostly buffalos. The milk production of these animals (local breeds) is low. There is a need for the improvement of the local breed through artificial insemination. Introduction of good quality cows with better milk production will popularize dairy farming in the area. Also, the farmyard manure procured from these animals will help improve the soil health. 3.1.4: Livestock 1. Name of the Sub Watershed: Talwara Gujaran- Mirthal Table No.16: Livestock Sr. Village Buffalo(lit/per Cow(Lit/per day/annum) for 6 day/annum) for months 6 months 1 45/180/32400 80/240/43200 Mirthal Lit./Annum Lit./Annum 2 28/112/20160 65/195/35100 Phulara Lit./annum Lit./Annum 3 20/80/14400 26/78/14040 Ghebe Lit./annum Lit./Annum 4 44/176/31680 108/324/58320 Lahri Lit./annum Lit./Annum Brahman 5 9/36/6480 36/108/19440 Talwara Lit./annum Lit./Annum Gujaran 6 7 8 9 Napwal Chak Chimna Dhaki Saidan Nalunga 19/76/13680 3/12/2160 Lit./annum 20/80/14400 Lit.annum 25/100/18000 Lit.annum 23/69/12420 Lit./Annum 19/57/10260 Lit./Annum 63/189/34020 Lit./Annum 66/198/35640 Lit./Annum

Sheep

Goat

Pigs

OX

----------

20 30 18 --25 --

---------

12 9 5 18 9 2 2 14 12

Source: Primary data

55

DRINKING WATER:

56

Drinking water:
There is adequate availability of drinking water in the villages. Public Health is doing good job in providing potable water to watershed villages. Some of the villages are also using well water for drinking. Availability of potable water is throughout the year. However due to over exploitation, ground water table has depleted and the water table ranges from 20 to 100 mts in some villages.

Table No.17: Drinking water 1. Name of the Sub Watershed: Talwara Gujran-Mirthal Sr. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Village Mirthal Phulara Ghebe Lahri Brahman Talwara Gujaran Napwal Chak Chimna Dhaki Saidan Nalunga Ground water Table (m) 23 m 21 m 25m 22 m 30 m 25 m 24m 24 m 30m Source of drinking water Well/Public Health/others Public Health Public Health Public Health Public Health Public Health Public Health Public Health Public Health Public Health Availability in months 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12 12

Source: Primary data

57

SOCIO ECONOMIC PROFILE

58

SOCIO ECONOMIC PROFILE Small and scattered land holdings The area under the project is cultivated by small and marginal farmers. Almost 70% of the farmers fall under this category. Furthermore, these small land holdings are scattered over 2-3 smaller pieces of land. Poor economic conditions of farmers: The general economic condition of the farmers in this area is quite poor. They cannot use necessary agricultural inputs in a timely fashion due to financial constraints which adversely affects the crop yield. 1. Name of the Sub Watershed: Talwara Gujaran- Mirthal Table No18: Demographic Status

S.No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Village
Mirthal Phulara Ghebe Lahri Brahman Talwara Gujaran Napwal Chak Chimna Dhaki Saidan Nalunga

Houses 343 176 40 116 65 51 50 195 181

Total Population Male Female Total 672 660 1332 345 332 677 81 72 173 249 202 451 141 112 101 306 309 120 99 98 257 305 263 201 199 563 614

Male 263 35 4 188 24 48 36 125 139

SC Female Total 251 514 30 65 3 7 146 334 15 45 35 87 138 39 93 71 212 277

%age 38 10 04 74 15 46 36 38 45

1612, 36% 2861, 64%

General SC

Source: Primary data

59

LITERACY RATE
1. Name of the Sub Watershed: Talwara Gujaran- Mirthal Table No.19: Literacy Rate

S.No.

Village

Total Population

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Mirthal 1332 Phulara 677 Ghebe 173 Lahri Brahman 451 Talwara Gujaran 263 Napwal 201 Chak Chimna 199 Dhaki Saidan 563 Nalunga 614 Source: Primary Data

Total Literates 879 429 102 240 167 100 149 300 324

% 66 63 60 53 63 50 75 53 53

Literacy Male % 452 277 69 150 115 70 89 200 215 67 80 85 60 81 63 88 65 70

Female 427 152 23 90 52 30 60 100 109

% 64 46 32 45 43 30 61 39 36

60

3.2.2: MIGRATION PATTERN


The major reason for migration is lack of lack of employment opportunities, low crop yield and low milk yield. . Some of the residents are serving in army. 1. Name of the Sub Watershed: Talwara Gujaran-Mirthal Table No.20: Migration Pattern S..No. Village Total Migration Population Male Female

Total

Mirthal Phulara Ghebe Lahri Brahman Talwara Gujaran 6. Napwal 7. Chak Chimna 8. Dhaki Saidan 9. Nalunga Source: Primary data

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

1332 677 173 451 263 201 199 563 614

45 20 15 15 15 18 18 15 15

----10 20 5 10

45 20 15 15 15 18 18 15 15

Migration by months 0-3 3-6 More months months than 6 months 45 -20 15 15 15 18 18 15 15 -

Main reason for migration

Income during migration/month

Employment Employment Employment Employment Employment Employment Employment Employment

5000 4000 3000 5000 3000 5000 4000 5000 5000

61

POVERTY
Most of the residents are very poor, having very small piece of land or no land holding. Their source of income is from milch animals and also from crops. The income is very meager and it becomes very difficult for them to make both ends meet. 1. Name of the Sub Watershed: Talwara Gujaran- Mirthal Table No.21: Poverty S.No. Village Total houses Total Household - BPL 1 343 30 Mirthal 2 176 7 Phulara 3 40 2 Ghebe 4 116 18 Lahri Brahman 65 6 Talwara Gujaran 5 51 7 Napwal 6 50 11 Chak Chimna 7 195 51 Dhaki Saidan 8 181 55 Nalunga

% of BPL HH 9 4 5 15 9 13 22 26 30

Total Land less HH 140 56 21 42 34 25 18 122 98

% of Landless HH 41 31 52 36 52 49 36 62 54

62

INFRASTRUCTURE DETAILS:
All the villages are well connected by pucca road and Primary or middle school exist in all villages. Health facility is available either in villages or nearby Health Centres. 3.2.3: Infrastructure Details 1. Name of the Sub Watershed: Talwara Gujaran- Mirthal Table No.22: Village Infrastructure Sr. Village Bank Post office School Milk Collection Pucca Road to Health Facility Veterinary Y/N Y/N Primary/High/Sr.Sec Centre Y/N village Y/N Govt/Private-Y/N facility- Y/N 1 Mirthal Y Y Primary/ Sr. Sec. N Y Y Y 2 Phulara N N Primary N Y N N 3 Ghebe N N Primary N Y N N 4 Lahri Brahman N N Primary N Y N N 5 Talwara Gujaran N N Primary N Y N N 6 Napwal N N Primary N Y N N 7 Chak Chimna N N Primary N Y N n 8 Dhaki Saidan N N Primary N Y N n Nalunga N N Primary N Y N n Source: Primary data

63

FACILITIES/HOUSEHOLD ASSETS
1. Name of the Sub Watershed : Talwara Gujaran- Mirthal Table No.23: Facilities/Household assets Sr.No. Village HHs with HHs with HHs with phones Electricity Safe Landline Mobile latrines 1 343 215 300 339 Mirthal 2 176 60 35 165 Phulara 3 32 22 36 39 Ghebe 4 106 7 10 75 Lahri Brahman 5 62 43 52 65 Talwara Gujaran 6 51 25 10 40 Napwal 7 50 3 30 25 Chak Chimna 8 193 38 10 20 Dhaki Saidan 9 181 30 25 150 Nalunga HHs with vehicle 2 4 wheelers wheelers 197 27 88 5 12 3 25 10 52 5 30 5 20 3 20 150 8 HHs with TV set 340 176 34 100 63 51 40 70 178 HHs with cooking gas 337 150 29 43 65 51 50 80 102 HHs with drinking water 323 89 27 15 65 48 15 110 150 HHs with fridge 331 155 26 30 62 45 30 30 85

64

Livelihood Pattern:
3.3 Livelihood Pattern: The main source of livelihood of residents is income from milk and agriculture, though it is very little. 1. Name of the Sub Watershed: Talwara Gujaran- Mirthal Table No.24 Per capita income Sr.No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Village Agriculture in Rs. P.A 17000 18000 17500 19000 15000 16000 16500 20000 Animal Husbandry in Rs. P.A 16000 16500 18000 18500 16000 15000 16000 15000 Casual labour in Rs. P.M 2000 1500 2000 2500 2000 2000 3000 3000 Others in Rs. P.A 3000 4000 3500 3000 3000 3000 2500 3000 Total in Rs. 38000 40000 41000 43000 36000 36000 38000 41000

Mirthal Phulara Ghebe Lahri Brahman Talwara Gujaran Napwal Chak Chimna Dhaki Saidan Nalunga Source: Primary data

65

Dependence on Common Property Resources


3.3.1: Dependence on Common Property Resources: 1. Name of the Sub Watershed: TALWARA GUJARAN-MIRTHAL Table No.25 Dependence on Forest/CPR Sr.No. Village Sell/Income 1 Mirthal -2 Phulara -3 Ghebe -4 Lahri Brahman -5 Talwara -Gujaran 6 Napwal -7 Chak Chimna -8 Dhaki Saidan -Nalunga Fuel Self consumption Self consumption Self consumption Self consumption Self consumption Self consumption Self consumption Self consumption Self consumption Fodder Self consumption Self consumption Self consumption Self consumption Self consumption Self consumption Self consumption Self consumption Self consumption Others Self consumption ---------

Sell/Income ---------

Sell/Income ---------

66

OCCUPATIONAL DISTRIBUTION
Table No.26 Occupational Distribution 1. Name of the Sub Watershed: Talwara Gujaran-Mirthal Sr.No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Village Total workforce 295 105 85 102 95 45 68 153 52 Agriculture 100 45 28 35 30 15 18 33 18 Animal Husbandry AH 90 30 14 18 25 10 11 35 11 Agri +AH 190 75 32 53 55 25 29 68 29 Casual labour 105 30 53 49 40 20 39 85 23 Services Handicraft 2 --

Mirthal Phulara Ghebe Lahri Brahman Talwara Gujaran Napwal Chak Chimna Dhaki Saidan Nalunga Source: Primary data

67

CHAPTER-4 WATERSHED ACTIVITIES

68

4.1 SCIENTIFIC PLANNING Table No. 27 Detail of scientific planning and inputs in IWMP projects S No A Scientific Criteria/inputs used Planning Cluster approach Whether technical back stopping of the project has been arranged Base line survey Hydro-geological survey Contour Mapping Participatory net planning(PNP) Remote sensing data-especially soil /crop/runoff cover. Ridge to valley treatment Online IT connectivity between 1. Project and DRDA cell/ZP 2.DRDA and SLNA 3.SLNA and DoLR Availability of GIS layers 1. Cadastral map 2. Village Boundary 3.Drainage 4.Soil (soil nutrients status) 5 Land use 6.Ground water status 7.Watershed boundries 8.Activity Crop simulation model Integrated coupled analyzer/near infrared visible spectroscopy/medium/high Normalize difference vegetation index(NDVI)# Weather station Inputs Bio pesticides Organic manure Whether Scientific Criteria was used Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

NA

69

Vermicompost Bio Fertilizer Water saving devices Mechanized tools Bio fencing Nutrient Budgeting Automatic water level recorder & sedimentation samplers Any other (pls spec)

70

4.2.: INSTITUTION BUILDING


4.2.1: Institution Building: Watershed committee details: The process of formation of Watershed Committees in all 6 sub watersheds is underway and likely to be completed very soon. These committees would submit applications to authorities concerned for registeration. The representations to these committees are members from SCs, Landless, women and members from SHGs & UGs. These Committees would be imparted Training for smooth management of the activities related to Watershed 4.2.2: SHG details: SHGs are being formed in Project villages. SHGs would constitute members mostly from SCs, women, landless and members belonging to very poor families. These groups would be homogeneous in nature and will have common goal. They would save monthly as decided by them and will hold meetings reqularly at least once in a month. Basic Orientation and Skill Training will be provided to them under IWMP. They will also be given Revolving Fund Assistance to enable them to meet their urgent needs for starting Micro enterprise. 4.2.3: User Groups: User Groups are also being formed in Project villages. The members of these would be those persons who would directly be benefited by activities under Watershed. Members of User Groups would take responsibility to manage the assets created under the project. They will further undertake responsibility for fixing User Charges from their members. User Groups would be trained under IWMP so as to enable them to manage their activities smoothly.

71

ENTRY POINT ACTIVITIES -4%

72

The prime objective of this activity is to build rapport with village community and instill the feeling of confidence in them. The Entry Point Activities proposed have been discussed in number of meetings with village community and activities thus finalized are mentioned below sub watershed wise:

1. Name of the Sub Watershed: Talwara Gujaran- Mirthal Table No.28: Entry Point Activities
S.No. 1 Napwal Name of village Amount earmarked for EPA4% of project cost 8.07 lacs Entry Point Activities proposed Retaining Wall Village Napwal Constructionof Path Retaining Wall & Boundary Wall of school village Nalunga Construction of Path village Nalunga Construction of Sewage Water Nala Construction of Sewage Water Nala Estimated cost in lacs 1.04 1.07 1.73 1.01 2.09 2.10 8.07

2 3 4 Total

Nalunga Mirthal Talwara Gujaran

73

ADMINISTRATION EXPENSES-10%-20.17 lacs

74

ADMINSTRATION EXPENSES
Table No.29 Sr. No. Activity / Item Qty. Administrative Component 10% Units Amount (Rs. In lacs) Remarks On contractual basis with Minimum Qualification 36000 per team per month 8.64 (B.Tech / M. Sc. (Agri) OR B.Sc (Agri)/Dip.in Civil Engg. With at least 3 Years Field Experience or retired SCO/ADO/HDO

1.

Pay to the Watershed Development Team for three years

1teams of two members @ 12000/- per month

Pay to watershed secretaries at village level Wages for Computer Operators/ record keepers

5 no. @ 2000/for three years 1 No. persons for three years

10000/- per month

3.60 10+2 with knowledge of computers preference shall be given to Local village persons /volunteers

3.

D.C. rate Rs. 3500/- per month

1.26

4.

POL and repair of Govt Vehicles Desk Top Computer Printers & Scanner Hand held GPS devices for survey work Digital Camera (12 MP) Purchase of furniture for offices / farmers' training centre at Chetna kendra Malikpur

One vehicles for three year 1set 1set 1 no

2.88 8000/- per month

5. 6. 8.

35000/12000/30000/-

0.35 0.14 0.30 Required for regular photography of ongoing activities

9.

1 no.

15000/-

0.15

10.

1 no

50000

0.50

75

11.

Purchase of furniture for setting up offices of watershed committees Office Contingencies T.A. / D.A. of Field Staff Reports and Documentation Monitoring

1 no.

25000

0.25

12. 13. 14. 15.

0.30 0.40 0.20 1.20

Total

20.17

76

CAPACITY BUILDING-5%

77

CAPACITY BUILDING: Capacity Building support is very crucial activity. Under IWMP, an amount of 5% of total Project cost has been earmarked for Capacity Building of all stakeholders under the Project. Thus Capacity Building strategy has to be adopted right from the beginning and the plan for the same be chalked out so that it helps in successful implementation of the Project. Each and every stakeholder understands his/her role and responsibility and act upon accordingly in the interest of the Project. Hence, it is planned to impart trainings to stakeholders at various levels. Methods and Tools implied in TNA

Table No.30 Methods Tools Review of project documents

Target Category Purpose All stakeholders categories and the To develop an understanding of the project, institutions they belong to. determining scope of work and strategizing the TNA exercise Informal Individual Interview Senior officers and professionals, Defining tasks, assessing existing against Interview Questionnaire Nodal Officers, NGO staff categories desired performance level, identifying training needs Focus Group FGD Checklist Officials of SLNA, DRDA/ ZP cell, Defining tasks, assessing group capacities Discussion (FGD) PIAs & WDTs. and generic training needs Community level FGD Checklist Representatives from village User Defining/validating specific roles/tasks of Interaction Groups, SHGs, WCs, GPs, GPs at village level, gauzing existing Meetings Community etc skills/capacities, determining generic training needs TNA Workshop / Job, Task and Technical Officers of PIA and SLNA Details job, task and gaps analysis of Interaction session Gap Analysis including DRDA Technical Officers

Capacity Building Planning: While planning for capacity building the following rules have been followed so as to make it process oriented and make learning an interesting exercise.

1) Building capacity of the community & people/community based organisations will follow a continuum of awareness/knowledge development Social/Organisational/Management skills developmentand Technical skills development. This underscores the whole process of community capacity building and links it with the institutional strengthening for effective local level governance. 2) Capacity building measures are categorized based on their:

78

Nature (e.g., exposure/study tours, coaching/hand-holding, meetings/workshops, training and skills development activities) Target beneficiaries [men and women from community groups e.g., GP members, SHGs members, Members of User Groups, village committee leaders or staff of service providing agencies eg., Government, NGO) Duration (short courses of < =1 week, medium courses of 1-2 weeks and long duration courses of > 3 weeks)
Module Preparation: The modules for the trainings are prepared for each category depending on the duration of the training programme.

The Budgets for each training at various levels i.e at District Level, Cluster Level and Watershed Levelis are given on following pages: The broad topics to be covered during these Training Programs are also also given below: The training schedules are attached as per Annexure II

79

TRAINING BUDGETS

Capacity Building Plan IWMP District Gurdaspur Watershed Level Villages: 09 Gurdaspur I No. of partic ipant s Cost for all participa nts per day

Table No.31

Sr.No .

Target Group

Training Topics

No. of days

Budget

No. of camps

Cost per participant /per day

Cost per person

Total Budget

III-a

Watershed LevelChairman, Members Watershed LevelSecretary, Volunteers Self Help Groups- 2 SHGsvillage level Accountants Cluster wise User groups from each village User groups from each village

Community Organization in Participatory DPR Awareness, Accounting Procedures, Book Keeping Orientation on IWMP, SHGs cum Exposure Visit Watershed Guidelines, Book Keeping, Record keeping NRM, Post Project Management etc.

50000

25

10000

400

2000

50000

III-b

60000

20

10000

500

3000

60000

III-C

35000

35

11667

333

1000

175000

III-c

15000

10

7500

375

750

15000

III-d

20000

20

10000

500

1000

100000

III-d 80

NRM, Post Project Management etc.

20000

20

10000

500

1000

20000

-Exposure Visit Watershed Community Self Help GroupsTotal Need and significance of watershed, Basics etc. Reading material

III-e

20000

80

20000

250

250

100000

3200 523200

81

Capacity Building Plan

Gurdaspur-I

Cluster Ievel

Training Budgets DISTRICT GURDASPUR Table No.31.1 Training cost per day for all participants 10000

Sr.No.

Target Group

II-a

Cluster Level- WDT Members

II-a

Cluster Level- WDT Members Cluster Level- WDT Members Cluster Level- PIA

II-a II-b

II-b

Cluster Level- PIA Total

Training Topics Part I-Module I to V-Conceptual, Technical, Social, Management of Finance, Monitoring & Evaluation. Part II-Module I to V-Exposure Visit Outside State-Conceptual, Technical, Social, Management of Finance, Monitoring & Evaluation. Part III-Module I to V-Within StateConceptual, Technical, Social, Management of Finance, Monitoring & Evaluation. Fundamentals of Watershed, Finance Management, Final Report on WDP etc. Exposure Visit- Within and outside State. Fundamentals of Watershed, Finance Management, Final Report on WDP etc.

No. of days 30

No.of trainees/ participants 8

Training cost per day/per person 400

Trainin g cost per trainee 12000

Total Budget 96000

25000

1250

7500

60000

6 6 6

8 8 8

25000 25000 25000

1250 1000 1000

7500 6000 6000

60000 48000 48000 312000

82

Training Budgets - District Gurdaspur Capacity Building Plan IWMP Table No.31.2 DISTRICT GURDASPUR

DISTRICT LEVEL No. of days Training cost per person Training Cost per person/per day

Reference Format Sr.No. Target Group

Training Topics as per Formats

No. of Participants /Trainees

Training Cost per trainee

Total Budget

I-a

District LevelDistrict Heads

District - Group I

Training Topics: INSTITUTIONAL & FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT, CAPACITY BUILDING AS PER TRAINING SCHEDULE DETAILED IN TECHNICAL PROPOSAL FOR GROUP I Training Topics: Concept, Participatory approach, Institutional & Financial Arrangements, Roles and Responsibilites as per detailed Training Schedule for Group II Exposure visit to successful

1200

1200

1200

9600

I-b

District LevelWCDC District Level-

District - Group II

3600

1200

3600

21600

I-b

District - Group II

6400

2133

6400

51200

83

WCDC

watersheds, University. Training Topics: Fundamentals, Concept, Participatory approach, Institutional & Financial Arrangements, Roles and Responsibilites as per detailed Training Schedule for Group III

1-c

District Level-Line Deptt., WCDC District Level-Line Deptt., WCDC District Level trainers/Res ource Persons District Level trainers/Res ource Persons Total

District - Group III

2500

1250

2500

12500

1-c

District - Group III

Exposure visit to successful watersheds.

2500

2500

2500

12500

1-d

District - Group IV

Module I to IV-Programme Management, Technical, Social, Training

12

6000

500

6000

30000

1-d

District - Group IV

Exposure visit to successful watersheds outside state

7200

1200

7200

36000

173400

Total Budget for Capacity Building District Level Cluster Level Watershed Level Total 84 Rs. 173400-00 Rs. 312000-00 Rs. 523200-00 Rs. 1008600-00

The Trainings will be held at respective Districts, Clusters, Watershed Villages.

Table No.33: Capacity building institution S no. Name of training institutes Full address contact no, web site , & e-mail. Rajindra Nagar, Hyderabad Type of institute Area of specialization Accreditation details Trainings

NIRD

Rural Development Trainings and PG courses

Rural Development

Renowned Govt. institution

Reference year

No of trainings assigned

No of trainees to be trained 50

2010-11 & 2011-12 2 SIRD Sikkim Rural Development Rural Development Rural Development Rural Development Rural Development Rural Development Rural Development Rural Development Renowned Govt. institution Renowned Govt. institution Renowned Govt. institution Renowned Govt. institution 2010-11 & 2011-12 2010-11 & 2011-12 2010-11 & 2011-12 2010-11 & 2011-12

50

MANAGE

Hyderabad

50

CSWCRTI

Dehradun

50

SIRD

Srinagar

50

85

Table No.34: Capacity building plan S. no. Name of Project Project stake holders No of persons to be trained 35 No of training programmes 7 Estimated cost (in lakhs)

District Level Line departments, DWDU IWMP GURDASPU RI Cluster Level-WDT members, Block Level Line department officials, Watershed Level - Village community, SHGs, UGs, Watershed Committee members, WDT members including Awareness Generation camps Total

173400

42

312000

680

17 Camps

523200

1008600

86

LIVELIHOOD SUPPORT SYSTEM-10%

87

Livelihood support to SHGs: During discussions with the village communities by our Livelihood experts, several activities were discussed with them. The main objectives of these discussions were: Assure one livelihood option to poor families Assured livelihood for at least 300 days in a year At least one daily job per family mainly SCs/BPL/very poor families. fromSHGs would be imparted Skill Training on identified Economic Activities and it is proposed to impart them trainings at Institure for Agriculuture, Technology & Extension, Hissar Agricultural University, Hissar. It is proposed to lend revolving fund of Rs.25000/- to each SHG/individuals formed in the watershed villages. Since the members from SHGs/landless are very poor, they donot have resources to start micro enterprises, it is envisaged that they should be assisted and given loan of this amount in the shape of Revoving Fund Assistance (RFA) so that donot get trapped by money lenders. Funds thus given on loan are recoverable from SHGs/individuals in easy instalements. It is also proposed to impart skill training to atleast 10 unemployed youth from each village and give them trainings of their choice so that they establish some small enterprises. It is further proposed to give them interest free loan of Rs.12000/- each as Revolving Fund Assistance to meet their urgent needs of funds for establishing micro enterprises. Such funds recovered could either be given back to SHGs/individuals or some other SHGs/individuals depending upon assessement of their respective needs. It is proposed to form 2 SHGs in each village and identify at least 10 youths in each village for imparting training and giving Revolving Fund. Activities that are likely to be taken up by SHGs/individuals: Bakery Products Soap & Detergent making Cutting and Tailoring Embroidery Fisheries Mushroom cultivation Household wiring, Motor winding Plumbing Carpentry Bee keeping Pickles, sauces, jam, jelly etc. Two wheelers reparing Animal husbandry 88

Backyard poultry Vermi compost

The details of funds proposed to be utilized under this component are as under: Table No. 35.1: i) Revolving Fund Assistance for SHGs: Sr.No. 1 Name of sub Watershed Talwara Gujaran- Mirthal Total No. of villages 9 9 No. of SHGs each village 2 Total SHGs 18 18 Amount of RFA per SHG 25000 Total 450000 450000

Table No.35.2ii) Skill Trainings/Skill upgradation for SHGs: Sr.No. 1 Name of sub Watershed Talwara Gujaran- Mirthal Total No. of villages 9 9 No. of SHGs each village 2 Total SHGs 18 18 Amount of Training per SHG 35000 Total 630000 630000

Note: This training cost includes Travel, boarding/lodging, cost of training and Faculty support.

35.3: iii) Skill training/skill upgradation: Trainings to unemployed youth: Sr.No. 1 Name of sub Watershed Talwara Gujaran- Mirthal Total No. of villages 10 10 No. of individuals to be imparted trainings 100 100 Amount of Training per Trainee 4000 Total 400000 400000

89

35.4: iv) Revolving Fund assistance to unemployed youth: No. of individuals to be given Revolving Fund assistance 100 100 Amount of Revolving Fund assistance 12000

Sr.No.

Name of sub Watershed

No. of villages

Total

Talwara Gujaran- Mirthal Total

10 10

120000 120000

Note: This training cost includes Travel, boarding/lodging, cost of training and Faculty support. 35.5: v) Cutting and Tailoring Centre for young girls and women: d) Total cost for Sewing machines e) Payment to Trainer per months x no. of centres 3500 Total Cost of Centre

a) Sr.No. Name of sub Watershed No. of villages No. of centres

b) Requirement for Sewing machines per village

c) Cost of one Sewing Machine

Periodmonths x no. of centres

Total payment to trainer

Talwara Gujaran- Mirthal Total

9 9

9 9

2 2

2000

36000 36000

189000 189000

225000 225000

90

35.6: Embroidery Centre for young girls and women: Payment to Trainer per month 3500 Payment to trainer for 6 months @ Rs.3500 p.m 21000 Grand Total

Sr.No.

Name of sub Watershed

No. of villages

No. of centres

Periodmonths

Total trainers

Misc

Total

Talwara Gujaran- Mirthal

3000

189000

192000

The following graph gives details of distribution of funds (in lacs) in various activities as under: Total funds available under this component is 20.17 lacs.

Livelihood Expenditure on Different Activities


Revolving Fund to SHG Skill Enhancement Trainings to SHG Revolving Fund to unemployed youth Skill Enhancement Trainings to Unemployed youth Cutting/ Tailoring Centre

Embroidery Centre

91

In addition to HAU, the following institutions are also identified for imparting trainings: Manage, Hyderabad NIRD , Hyderabad SIRD, Nabha/Mohali KVK, Gurdapur Y.S.Parmar Agriculture & Horticulture University, Nauni, Solan Mushroom Training Centre, Kandaghat. Vimarsh, The Consultancy Group, 445, Phase III, Udyog Vihar, Gurgaon. PAMETI

92

ACTIVITIES RELATED TO SHGs: Activities relating to Income generation have been identified after several discussions with village communities. However final discussions in this regard will be taken after the respective SHGs matures for 1st grading. Some of the activitites identified are as under: Bakery Products Soap & Detergent making Cutting and Tailoring Embroidery Fisheries Mushroom cultivation Household wiring, Motor winding Plumbing - for Individuals Carpentry - for Individuals Bee keeping Pickles, sauces, jam, jelly etc. Two wheelers reparing Animal husbandry Backyard poultry Vermi compost There appears to be great potential for these activities and these activities are likely to generate income of Rs.2000/- to Rs.2500/- per member/per month. However no activites would be forced upon any SHGs and they would be free to decide the activity they would like to opt for their additional income. Based on their choice, Prooject report for the specified activity would be prepared and revolving fund of Rs.20000/Rs.25000/per SHG would be given for running their respective micro enterprise. If need arises for more funds for their Income Generation Activites at later stage, they would be assisted in getting loan from banks. SHGs thus formed would be provided all possible assistance to uplift for their SocioEconomic upliftment. The following table gives expected income likely to be generated by SHGs:

93

1. Name of the Sub Watershed: TALWARA GUJARAN-MIRTHAL Table No.36: Activities related to livelihoods by SHGs Sr.No. Name of village Major activities of SHGs

Name Activity

of

Economic

No.of SHGs involved

Expected annual income

Mirthal

Activities to be identified after SHG matures for 1st grading i.e after 6 months. Activities to be identified after SHG matures for 1st grading i.e after 6 months. Activities to be identified after SHG matures for 1st grading i.e after 6 months. Activities to be identified after SHG matures for 1st grading i.e after 6 months. Activities to be identified after SHG matures for 1st grading i.e after 6

2 Rs.20000/30000

2 Rs.20000/30000

Phulara

2 Rs.20000/30000

Ghebe

2 Rs.20000/30000

Lahri Brahman

2 Rs.20000/30000

Talwara Gujaran 94

months. Activities to be identified after SHG matures for 1st grading i.e after 6 months. Activities to be identified after SHG matures for 1st grading i.e after 6 months. Activities to be identified after SHG matures for 1st grading i.e after 6 months. Activities to be identified after SHG matures for 1st grading i.e after 6 months. 2 Rs.20000/30000

Napwal

2 Rs.20000/30000

Chak Chimna

2 Rs.20000/30000

Dhaki Saidan

2 Rs.20000/30000

Nalunga

95

FARM PRODUCTION SYSTEM13%

96

FARM PRODUCTION SYSTEM (13%) Table No.37.1: Camps (Demo) for Farm Production System: Sr.No. Particulars Contents No. of villages No. of camps per village No. of total camps Cost per camp Total

Animal Husbandry 1

Problems being faced due to some diseases in the animals and low yield of milk. Distribution of free medicines and feed for animals demo purpose Livestock Management Summer Moong and Mash can be introduced as a third crop in rice-wheat rotation. Supply of Chloroplyphos Application of farm inputs like fertilizers, weedicides and pesticides Supplying of Agriculture implements 50 farmers per village @ Rs.900 Agro Forestry: Poplar Eucalyptus daik on 50% subsidy

30000

270000

Animal Husbandry

25000

225000

Agricluture

50000

450000

Agricluture 2

20000

180000

Rs.45000/- in each village 9 405000

Agricluture

Plants worth Rs.25000/-in each village. 9 50% farmer share shall be in form of cost of plantation, watering and fertilizers 225000

Agricluture

97

etc.1

Horticulture

Potential for Horticulture plants. Supply of plants at 50 %. cultivation of fruits (Citrus (kinnon, galgal), banana, Guava, Amla) and vegetables (especially onion and potatoes), Crops for irrigated as well non irrigated areas such as Lemon Grass and Aloevera Vermi compost units Fodder Development Training on Bee keeping-One in each village

Plants worth Rs.50000/-in each village. 9 50% farmer share shall be in form of cost of plantation, watering and fertilizers etc. 450000

4 5 6 Joint camps by Line Departements

9 9 5 5

18000 15000 15000

162000 135000 75000

Training to farmers on Proven Technology

5000

45000

Total

2622000

Total: 26.22 lacs

98

WORKS -50%

99

WORKS: All the works under the project has been indentified aftet detailed survey of the project area. Participatory approach has been adopted to identify the activities under the project.The detailed discussions have been held with watershed community and the works were identified after actual visit to the affected sites.The works mainly relate to Soil & moisture conservation activities, renovation of ponds, retaining walls, water harvesting structures etc.The works thus identified are given in the attached sheets alongwith estimates. Treatment maps have also been prepared and attached. WORKS DETAILS SUB WATERSHED WISE ATTACHED AS ANNEXURE-I Sample estimates are as follows

100

DETAILED ESTIMATE FOR STONE MASONARY


S.No. 1 Description E/W excavation in foundation Head wall Extension wall Head Wall Ist step Head Wall IInd step Head Wall IIIrd step Head Wall extension IVth step Apron Toe Wall Total 2 C.C work 1:8:16 in foundation Head wall Apron Toe Wall Total 3 Boulder Masonry work 1:6 Head Wall extension Head Wall extension 1st step Head Wall extension 2nd step 1 1 1 4 5.5 7.5 1.1 0.9 0.7 1 0.5 0.5 4.4 2.4 2.63 1 1 1 4 2.5 4.5 1.1 1.85 1 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.66 0.69 0.67 2.02 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 8+4/2=6 0.75+0.75/2=0.75 1+1/2=1 0.25+0.25/2=0.25 1+1/2=1 3 5 1.5 1 0.9 0.6 0.6 1.85 1.2 1.15 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.5 0.6 1.15 10.35 0.75 0.8 0.15 0.6 3.35 6.9 22.9 No. Length Breadth height/Depth Content (cum)

101

Head Wall extension 3rd step Head Wall extension 4th step Side wall extension up to ground level Side wall 1st step Toe extension wall Side wall Apron Total 4 C.C. 1:2:4 on Top Head wall extension wall Head Wall 1 st step Head Wall 2nd step Head Wall 3rd step Head Wall 4th step Apron Total 5 12.5mm Plaster work Head wall u/s side Head wall d/s side Inner wall of side wall Inner wall of top side 102

1 1 1 1 2 2 1

8.5 4+4.5 4.5 1.3 1.5 2.45 2.3

0.5 0.5 1 0.5 0.5 0.5 1.85

0.5 0.5 1 0.5 0.8 1.4 0.8

2.12 2.13 4.5 0.23 1.2 3.43 3.4 26.44

1 1 1 1 1 1

4+4.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5 1.5

0.5 0.5 0.2 0.2 0.2 1.85

0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.05 0.08

0.21 0.04 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.22 0.51

1 1 2 2

3+9/2 1.5 2.45 3.45 0.5

2 1.5 1.4

12 sqm 2.25 6.86 3.45

Toe walls u/s and d/s Toe ext well d/s Toe ext. above toe Toe wall Extensiom tops Total

2 2 2 2

1.5 1.5 0.5 1.5 0.5

0.3 0.8 0.5

0.9 2.4 0.5 1.5 29.86

103

MATERIAL STATEMENT AND LABOUR CHARGES-Stone Masonary structure Cement -Bag 3.64 3.32 38.07 4.78 49.81 Say 50 Bags Bajri -cum Boulder -cum Gatka per cum 1.82 0.46 26.44

S.No. 1 2 3 4

Particulars C C work in foundation 1:8:16 CC work 1:2:4 Boulder Masonry Plaster Work 1:4 12.5 mm Total

Qty. 2.02 0.51 26.44 29.86sq.mt

Sand-cum 1.01 0.23 7.93 0.48 9.65

0.46

1.82

Abstarct of cost of material S.No. 1 2 3 4 5 Particulars Cost of cement Cost of Boulder Cost of Gatka Cost of Bajri Cost of sand Total Labour charges-Stone Masonary structure S.No. 1 104 Particulars E.W excavation in foundation Qty. 22.9 Rate 730+700%=5840 Unit per 100 cum Amount 1337.36 50bags 26.44 1.82 0.46 9.65 300/700/600/700/450/per bag per cum per cum per cum per cum 15000/18508/1092/322/4343/39265/-

2 3 4 5

CC work 1:8:16 CC work 1:2:4 Boulder Stone Masonry 1:6 Plaster work 1:4 12.5mm thick Site carriage of boulderdump to site Lead 0.5km Site Carriage of cement for store to site Total

2.02 0.51 26.44 29.86 26.44*2000/40=1322 trips

47+535% =298.45 47+535% =298.45 172+535%=1092.2 6.40+535%=40.64 8/6+595%=9.26 per trip

per 100 cum per 100 cum per 100 cum per 100 cum

602.86 152.21 28877.76 1213.51

12241.72

50 bags

8/3+595%=18.53

926.66 45352.08

Abstract of Cost 1 2 Cost of Material Labour Charge 39265 42103 81368 Rate Per cum rate 3077/say 3100/cum Rs.3100 per cum

DETAILED DRAWINGS FOR STONE MASONARY STRUCTURE ON NEXT PAGE

105

106

DETAILED ESTIMATE FOR CRATE WIRE STRUCTURES


Height/ Depth Contents (cum)

S.No. 1

Particulars E/work excavation in foundation In Bed Ist step IInd step Head Extension Wall Total

No.

Length

Breadth

1 2 2 2

5 0.5 1.5 1.5

3 2 1.5 1

0.75 0.5 0.5 0.6

11.25 1 2.25 1.8 16.3

Weaving wire netting 15*15 cum mesh In bed Bed and top Long sides Short sides Ist step Top side Long sides Short sides IInd step 1 2 2 6 6 2 2 0.5 0.5 12 6 2 2 2 2 5 5 3 3 0.75 0.75 30sqm 7.5 11.25

107

Top side Long sides Short sides Head Extension Wall Top side Long sides Short sides Total 3 Filling of Boulder in wire crate mesh In bed Ist step IInd step Head extension wall

1 2 2

8 8

1.5 0.5 1.5 0.5

12 8 1.5

1+1 2+2 2+2

2 2

0.75 0.6

4 4.8 2.4 101.15 sqm

0.6

1 1 1 2

5 6 8 2

3 2 1.5 1

0.75 0.5 0.5 0.6

11.25 6 6 2.4 25.65 cum

Material statement and Labour Charges- Crate Wire structures S.No. Partculars CSR Qty Rate Unti per 100 cum per sq mt per sq mt Amount 951.92 2344.65 1830.81

1 2 3

E/W, excavation in foundation Weaving of wire netting 15*15cm mesh Spreading of crate wire mesh including binding

6.5 (a) 23.29 23.37

16.3cum 101.15sqmt 101.15

730+700%=5840 3.65+535%=23.8 2.85+535%=18.10

108

of sides Filling of boulders into wire crate mesh and side binding Site carriage of boulders from dump to site by manual labour Lead 0.5.km @ 40kg-1 trip Site Carriage of G1 wire from store to site by manual labour lead 1km Total

23.32

25.65

12+535%=76.2

per cum

1802.13

25.65*2000/40=1283

8/6+595%=9.26

per trip

11880.58

101.15-2.2/40=6

8/6+595%=9.26

per trip

55.6 18865.69*.823 15526.46

Cost of material S.No. 1 2 Particulars Cost of Boulder Cost of G1 wire Abstract of cost including taxes Cost of Material Cost of Labour Total cost Cost per cum =44631/25.65 15526 29105 44631 Rs.1740 Qty. 25.65 101.15*2.2 Rate 700 50 Unit per cum per kg Amount 17955 11150 29105

109

CHAPTER-5 BUDGETING & PHASING

110

COMPONENT WISE/ YEARWISE BUDGET PHASING


PHASING YEAR WISE Name of Project Project Area Effective Area Funds Available BUDGET AT A GLANCE Name of activity 2009-10 6% GURDASPUR I FIN.- LACS PHY.- HACTARES 2010-11 14% 2011-12 25% 2012-13 30% 2013-14 25% Total 100%

1789

1681

201.72 ENTRY POINT ACTIVITY DETAILED PROJECT REPORT 8.07 0 0 0 0 8.07

2.02

2.02

ADMINISTRATION NATURAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT CAPACITY BUILDING FARM PRODUCTION SYSTEM LIVELIHOOD SUPPORT SYSTEM MONITORING EVALUATION CONSOLIDATION PHASE Total 111

2.02

2.02

6.05

6.05

4.03

20.17

0 0

16.14 10.08

30.26 0

30.26 0

24.20 0

100.86 10.08

8.07

12.10

6.05

26.22

0 0 0 0 12.11

0 0 0 0 28.24

6.05 0 0 0 50.43

10.08 2.02 0 0 60.51

4.04 0 2.02 10.09 50.43

20.17 2.02 2.02 10.09 201.72

CHAPTER-6

CONVERGENCE WITH MGNREGA

112

CONVERGENCE BETWEEN MGNREGA AND WATERSHED PROGRAMMES:


INTRODUCTION: The National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (NREGA), notified on September 7, 2005, marked a paradigm shift from the previous wage employment programmes with its rights-based approach that makes the Government legally accountable for providing employment to those who demand it. The act aims at enhancing livelihood security households in rural areas of the country by providing at least one hundred days of guaranteed wage employment in a financial year to every household whose adult members volunteer to do unskilled manual work. Such Inter sectoral convergence becomes instrumental towards Establishing synergy among different government programmes in planning and implementation to optimize use of public investments Enhancing economic opportunities Strengthening democratic Processes Mitigating the effects of Climate Change Creating conditions for sustainable development. One of the significant areas for convergence is the watershed management programme of the Dept. of Land Resources (DoLR) in the Ministry of Rural Development (MoRD), Convergence is an evolving process and while broad principles can be laid out at the centre, the actual contours of convergence will be determined by the resources at the Central, State, District and the project level. Also, to fully identify the possibilities of convergence, it may be necessary to make a beginning with select programmes, so that the experience of implementation may further inform and refine strategies for convergence. Convergence between MGNREGA and Watershed Programmes: Under NREGA almost all the activities required for watershed development are permitted. Convergence between NREGA and Watershed Programmes of DoLR will be mutually beneficial for rainfed areas. Non-Negotiables for works executed under MGNREGA: Only Job Card holders to be employed for MGNREGA component. Muster rolls will be maintained on work site, with copies in the gram panchayat and to be electronically maintained on nrega.nic.in Wage payments will be through no-frills accounts in banks/post offices. 113

Need for Convergence: Since more than 50% of activities related to Watershed development are covered under MGNREGA, there is need for convergence to meet gap in Funds requirements under IWMP. Detailed survey had been conducted in Watershed villages and it has emerged that there is need for more funds to augment and strengthen the activities under IWMP. Out of 6 sub watersheds, 5 sub watersheds need more funds to meet the gap. Therefore, some of the works have been converged with MGNREGA. The labour component would be met out of funds made available under MGNREGA. The details of such fund requirements from MGNREGA are given in the lists for estimates for each sub watershed. However for ready reference, the summary is given in following table: Table No.38: Name of Sub watershed Talwara GujaranMirthal

GAPS IN FUNDS REQUIREMENT - SUB WATERSHED WISE Total cost requirement for works Total funds available under IWMP for works Gap in Funds requirement for works Convergence with MGNREGA

Sr.No.

116.51

100.86

15.65

15.65

Total

116.51

100.86

15.65

15.65

114

CHAPTER-7

EXPECTED OUTCOMES

115

Expected Outcomes:
The effective area is 1681 ha and the Project Cost is 201.72 lacs covering one sub watersheds and in all 9 villages Benfits will be much more than the project cost as detailed below: With the several interventions under IWMP project such as Livelihood support, Farm Production System, various types of activities relating to soil conservation measures, protection to field by constructing the structures etc., it is expected that these Watershed villages will gain a lot. This intervention will have multiple benefits available to communities in terms of employment, check in migration, imporovement in water table, more area under agriculture and horticulture, check in soil loss and decrease in Flood and drought incidences, imporovement in crop yield, milk yield, check in degration of land etc. The benfits thus accrued would be short term and long term. With the judicious use of funds available under IWMP and with convergence from MGNREGA, this project Gurdaspur I will prove to be very beneficial in improving socio economic status of people residing in Project villages. Expected outcomes as mentioned above are given in the following tables: Table No.39 Employment in project area Wage employment S No Names of Sub watershe d Talwara GujaranMirthal No of mandays SC ST Other Woman Total No of Beneficiaries SC ST Other Woman Total Self employment No of Beneficiaries SC ST Other Woman Total 6.1.1; Employment

11375

13510

3555

28440

112

168

47

327

45

15

160

220

116

6.1.2: Migration Table no.40: Details of seasonal migration in project area

No of persons migrating Sr. No Names of Sub watershed Talwara GujaranMirthal Pre Project 176 Expected post project 45

No of days per year of migration Pre Project 105 Expected post project 35

Comments No. of persons migrating will be reduced and also no. of days would be reduced

6.1.3:Ground water table Table no.41: Detail of average ground water table depth in the project area (in meters)

S No 1

Names of Watershed Talwara GujaranMirthal

Pre project level 35

Expected increase and decrease (post project ) 30

117

Table No.42: Crop Yield PRE PROJECT VS POST PROJECT Name of sub watershed Pre project Name of crops Area , ha Average yield Qtl. per ha 12.55 25.92 25.15 5559.65 7490.88 18409.80 44.47 74.90 187.77 Area , ha 495 315 810 Average yield Qtl. per ha 13.50 28.5 27.50 6682 8977.50 22275 53.45 89.77 227.20 Total production Total Value Expected post project Total production Total Value

JhandianBhogipur

Maize Paddy Wheat

443 289 732

6.1.6: Horticulture Table No.43: Area under horticulture

S No.

Name of Sub Watershed

Existing area under horticulture (ha)

Area under horticulture proposed to be covered through IWMP 27

Talwara Gujaran- Mirthal

66

118

6.1.7: Vegetative cover Table No. 44: Sr. no. 1 Name of Villages Jhandian-Bhogipur Forest and Vegetative cover Existing area under tree covered , ha 25 Area under tree cover proposed 45

Table No.45: Sr.No. 1 Name of Sub watershed Jhandian-Bhogipur Pre Project Soil loss in tonnes 70/80 Post Project-Soil Loss in tonnes 35/40

LIVESTOCK: Table No.46: Details of livestock in the project area (for fluids please mention in liters , for solids please mention in kgs and income in Rs.) Sr. No Name of sub Watershed Type of Animals Pre project No. 1 JhandianBhogipur Buffalo 213 Yield 153360 Income 3834000 Post Project No. 240 Yield 216000 Income 5400000 Increase in milk yield and number of animals by aprox.15-20% Increase in milk yield and number of animals by aprox.15-20% Remarks

Cow

486

262440

5248800

525

378000

7560000

119

Logical Framework analysis


Components Village Institution Formation Activities Formation of Watershed Community, User Groups Outputs Watershed Committe each village Number of user groups depending on the coverage of particular intervention Effect Project can be implemented and managed in a democratic and participatory way ensuring equity. Quality of management of common resources improved. Quality of distribution of benefits between people improved Increased awareness amongst women about village resources Women participation enhanced in decisionmaking of GVCs. Involvement of youth and children in village development increased. Impact Unity and prosperity in the village management. Peoples Participation and positive perception towards the programme.

Strengthening Village operations

Organize training and awareness programme for village institutions. Capacity Building workshops and exposure visits for User Group and Watershed Community Facilitating and monitoring the functioning of UGs and WCs Strengthen linkages between UGs and WCs and Panchayat Institutions Gender sensitization of UGs and WCs to increase inclusiveness of samuh decision making Sensitize Village communities to involve children and youth in development.

Awarenss camps to be organised Trainings and exposure visits UGs and WCs to be held Capacity building workshops to be organised 1 Federations of UGs and SHGs to be formed.

Fund Management

Improve management and utilization of UGs and WCs Prepare communities to explore

UGs and WCs operationg bank account and managing resources on their own

Purpose, frequency and volume of use of the fund enhanced

120

other sources of income for UGs and WCs.

Volume of funds generated for UGs and WCs from other sources of income increased Common and private lands to be brought under new plantations and agro-horti- forestry like Neem, Adussa, prosopis, Banyan and Peepul Forest lands to be brought under new plantations and protection Trainings, exposure visits and meetings to be organized for communities, village volunteers and staff. Income generation intervention promoted Fodder availability from common and private land increased Accessibility to common and forest lands increased with removal of encroachments and resolution of conflicts Better Ecological order in the area Increase in the proportion of households having more security of fodder. Reduction in drudgery of fodder and fuel collection, especially women

Ecological restoration

Protection, Treatment and regeneration of common and private lands Protection , treatment and regeneration of forest lands Plantation of fruits and forest species Input trainings, conduct meetings and organize exposure visits for communities, village volunteers and staff to effectively plan, execute and monitor activities. Identification and promotion of non-timber forest prduce based income generation activities

Rainfed Area Development

Treatment of land through improved soil and moisture conservation practices on watershed basis Promotion of good agricultural practices-horticulture, improved crop and vegetable Promotion of organic farming practices Formation of Fodder banks to

Land to be brought uder improved soil moisture conservation practices. Good agricultural practices to be promoted. Organic farming to be promoted. Fodder banks to be established Agriculture based livelihood income generation activities to be promoted

Improved productivity of treated land Increased availability of water in cells Increase in annual agricultural production Farmers adopt organic farming practices Fodder security of

Increase in proportion of households having more security of food Increase in contribution of agricultural income to the household income

121

increase fodder security and promote dairy development among communities Identification and promotion of agri-produce based income generation activities like grading, processing and packaging. Promotion of better irrigation practices like drip irrigation Impart trainings, conduct meetigs and organize exposure visits of communities, village volunteers and staff to effectively plan, execute and monitor activities. Womens sociopolitical and economic empowerment Formation and strengthening of women SHG groups Capacity building of womenfolk Capacity building of SHG leaders and accountants Linking SHGs with external financial institutions

Water harvesting structures to be constructed Drip irrigation facilities to be distributed among farmers Approx 15000 person days of employment to be generated Trainings, exposure visits and meetings to be organised for communities, village volunteers and staff

farmers enhanced. Increase availability of water for 9 to12 months Increased availability of water for livestock Availability of irrigation water established Farmers take two crops in a year. Increase in agricultural productivity of land Availability of drinking water enhanced

Womens SHG groups to be formed Federation of Womens SHGs to be formed Trainings to be conducted for preparation of woolen products from sheep and goats

Enhanced capacities of leaders of womens group in taking initiatives to solve problems at different levels. Improved access to credit for livelihood purposes Increased household income

Position of women in household, community, society (politically, socially and economically) as perceived by women and community at large. Performance enhancement of SHGs in terms of participation, decisionmaking, leadership and fund management. Equality and equity in gender relations at home (decision making, expenditure, childrens education, health)

122

CHAPTER-8

QUALITY AND SUSTAINABILITY ISSUES

123

MONITORING & EVALUATION


Plans for Monitoring & Evaluation: Web based GIS system is underway for Monitoring and Evaluation at various stages. All the details relating to Watershed Activities would be available on website. This system is very useful to know the progress of the project at the click of the button. The higher officials would be able to monitor the progress and could generate the desired reports. This system would also help Stakeholders to know the area of importance, already treated area/area to be treated. The system would serve an aiding tool to the planners and evaluators for judging the efficacy of the project.

Monitoring:
Regular Monitoring of the project will have to be carried out at each stage to monitor the progress of the Project. As per Common Guidelines, different streams of monitoring are proposed as under: Internal monitoring by PIA Progress monitoring On line monitoring Self monitoring by Community/Social Audit Sustainability monitoring Independent and external monitoring

Monitoring of watershed related activities will be carried out after completion of each phase. 1% amount of the project is earmarked under this component. Total funds available under this head is 2.02 Lacs

Evaluation:
Each evaluation will include physical, financial and social audit of all works done The objective of evaluation of the project is to assess the status of watershed related interventions in the project. The evaluation will be taken up after completion of the project. The Evaluation will be done by agencies empanelled on SLNA: 1% amount of the project is earmarked under this component. Total available funds for evaluation is Rs.2.02 Lacs

124

CONSOLIDATION PHASE-5%
Consolidation Phase:
This is very another important activity under the project. In this phase, the resources augmented and economic plans developed in Phase II are made the foundation to create new nature based, sustainable livelihoods and raise productivity levels. There needs to be some mechanism at Watershed Level for the following crucial Activities as detailed below: Managing/upgrading of all activities taken up under the Project. Preparation of Project completion report and Documentation of success stories Management of proper utilization of WDF Mechanisim for Quality and sustaininbility issues under the Project. Mechanisim for fixation and collection of User Charges. Consolidation of works Building the capacity of community based organizations to carry out the new agenda post project period. Intensification of farm production systems/off farm livelihoods Project Management related aspects

To take up these activities, it is proposed In the DPR as under:

125

Table No.47: Consolidation Phase:


Sr. Type of activity Managing/upgrading of all activities taken up under the Project. Amount earmarked 2.00

Preparation of Project completion report and 2 Documentation of success stories Management of proper utilization of WDF 4 Mechanisim for Quality and sustaininbility issues under the Project. 5 Watershed activities 6 Total

0.50 0.45 1.50 0.59 5.04 10.08

126