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# Engineering Information

Li near Mot or

Requi rement s

In order to determine the correct motor for a particular

application it is necessary to be familiar with the following

relations.

EQUATIONS OF MOTION

Basic kinematic equation: xo + vot = at

2

/2

a = acceleration (g’s)

x = stroke (inch [m])

t = time (seconds)

v = velocity (in/sec [m/sec])

g = gravitational acceleration (in/sec

2

[m/sec

2

])

A trapezoidal velocity profile is common with linear motors

and the basic kinematic equation can be manipulated to

yield results based on what is known.

When time and stroke are known:

When time and velocity are known:

When velocity and stroke are known:

Another common velocity profile associated with linear

motors is the triangular velocity profile. As before, the basic

kinematic equation can be manipulated to solve for this case.

When time and stroke are known:

NEWTON’S SECOND LAW

Newton’s Second Law provides a simple method of converting

between forces, payloads, and accelerations. It states:

English Metric

F = ma F = mag

where,

F = Force Lbs N

m = payload Lbs kg

a = acceleration g’s g’s

g = gravitational accel 386in/sec 9.81 m/sec

2

v

t

v

t

English Metric

a =

2x

a =

2x

386 t

2

9.81 t

2

a =

v

a =

v

386 t

9.81 t

a =

v

2

a =

v

2

386 (2x)

9.81 (2x)

Example: Calculate the force required to

accelerate a 3.2 Lbs [1.45 kg] payload horizontally

at 1.3 g’s

English Metric

F = 3.2Lbs x 1.3g F = 1.45kg x 1.3g x

9.81m/sec

2

English Metric

a =

4x

a =

4x

386 t

2

9.81 t

2

Linear Mot or

Calculat ing Requirement s

Example: Calculate the acceleration required

to get to 200 in/sec [0.508 m/sec] in 0.050 sec.

English Metric

a =

20

a =

0.508

386x0.050

9.81x0.050

a = 1.04 g’s a = 1.04 g’s

Example: Calculate the acceleration required to

get to move 1 in (0.0254 m) in 0.05 sec.

English Sl

a =

4 x 1

a =

4 x 0.0254

386x(0.050)

2

9.81x(0.050)

2

a = 4.14 g’s a = 4.14 g’s

DUTY CYCLE

The duty cycle of a motor is defined as the time the

motor receives power during a cycle divided by the total

time of the cycle. When a linear motor receives power

for more than thirty (30) seconds, it is operating at a

duty cycle of 100%.

Because duty cycles less than 100% allow time for

the motor to cool, a lower duty cycle allows all linear

motors, except steppers, to be run with more than three

times their continuous current rating for a short period

of time. Since force is proportional to current, motors

operating at lower duty cycles can produce higher

forces than when run continuously.

EFFECTIVE CONTINUOUS FORCE

The relation between the rated continuous force a

motor can deliver and the effective continuous force it is

capable of providing at a lower duty cycle is:

LINEAR MOTOR SELECTION PROCESS

Following is the selection process for an application

that requires a cog-free brushless linear motor. The

first section provides customer requirements. The

second section provides the calculations that are

necessary to make the motor selection. That last section

demonstrates the effect of reducing duty cycle and

acceleration on motor selection.

CUSTOMER REQUIREMENTS

Application Optical inspection (moving

a single-axis optics

carriage assembly)

Stroke 60 in [1.52 m]

Duty Cycle 100%

Payload 40 Lbs. [18.1 kg]

Resolution 3 micron customer-

supplied encoder

Load support Customer-supplied

bearings

Motion Profile Low force ripple required.

Payload must move full

stroke in 0.90 sec.

English Metric

a =

4 x

a =

4 x

386 t

2

9.81t

2

a =

4 x 60

a =

4 x 1.52

386 x (0.90)

2

9.81 x (0.90)

2

a = 0.77 g’s a = 0.77 g’s

Duty Cycle =

time on

x100%

time on + time off

Example: Calculate the effective continuous

force of a motor that provides 197 Lbs [877 N] of

force at a 30% duty cycle.

English Metric

F30 = 197 D.C. = 30% F30= 877 D.C. = 30

FC = 197 = 108 Lbs FC = 877 = 480 N.

100 100

30 30

Linear Mot ors

F

c

= F

D.C.

100

D.C. English Metric

Where

F

c

= continuous force Lbs N

F

D.C.

. = force at specified

duty cycle Lbs N

D.C.

= specified duty

cycle % %

√

√ √

Example: During one cycle of operation a

motor is on for 1 sec and off for 3 sec. What is

the duty cycle of the motor for these conditions?

Duty Cycle =

1

x 100% = 25%

1 + 3

CALCULATIONS

Acceleration and force must be calculated to select the

appropriate linear motor. Acceleration is calculated

with the following formula:

Force in calculated with the following formula:

F = ma F = mag

so, F = 40 x 0.77 F = 18.1x 0.77x 9.81

F = 30.8 Lbs F = 137N

MOTOR SELECTION

The linear motor that best meets the application

requirements is the cog-free brushless linear motor

model # LMCF08D. This motor’s continuous force is 33

Lbs. [147N] and has a maximum acceleration at this

100% duty cycle of 0.77 g’s.

EFFECTS OF LOWER DUTY CYCLES

Using Newton’s Second Law and leaving the payload

unchanged, what acceleration is the LMCF08D motor

capable of when operated at a 30% duty cycle?

Leaving the acceleration unchanged, what LMCF08D

payload is the motor capable of moving when operated

at 30% duty cycle?

A reduction of duty cycle from 100% to 30% allows the

LMCF08D motor to go from an acceleration of 0.77 g’s

to 1.5 g’s and from a payload of 40 Lbs [18.1kg] to 78.2

Lbs [35.5 kg]. Both improvements cannot be realized

simultaneously using the LMCF08D motor. Either a larger

motor is needed or the requirements must be examined

to determine which parameter takes precedence.

INITIAL REQUIREMENTS CHANGE

What motor best meets the following requirements?

Duty Cycle = 30%

Payload = 40 Lbs [18.1 kg]

Acceleration = 0.9 g’s

Since this is at a 30% duty cycle, the continuous force

must be calculated.The

LMCF06D has a continuous force of 24.7 Lbs. [110N]

and meets the acceleration and payload requirements

of this application.

English Metric

F

DC = FC 100 FDC = FC 100

DC DC

F

30 = 33 100 F30 = 147 100

50 50

F30 = 60.2 Lbs F30 = 267.9 N

m = 40 Lbs m = 18.1 kg g = 9.81m

S

2

F30 - ma

30

F30 - ma

30

g

a30 = F30 a30 = F30

m mg

= 60.2 = 267.9

40 18.1 X 9.81

a30 = 1.5 g’s a 30 = 1.5 g’s

Fc = FD.C.

100

D.C.

English Metric

Fc = 36 Fc = 160

100 100

30 30

Fc = 19.7 Lbs Fc = 87.6N

English Metric

F = ma F = mag

so, F = 40 x 0.9 F = 18.1 x 0.9 x 9.81

F = 36 Lbs F = 160N

English Metric

F

30 = 60.2 Lbs F30 = 267.9 N

m

m = 0.77 Lbs m = 0.77 g’s g = 9.81

S

2

F30 - m

30

a F30 - m

30

ag

a30 = F30 a30 = F30

a ag

= 60.2 = 267.9

0.77 0.77 X 9.81

m30 = 78.2 Lbs m 30 = 35.5 kg

Linear Mot ors Linear Mot ors

√ √

√ √

√

√ √

Linear Mot or Requirement Sheet Page 1 of 4

Company __________________________________________________ Date ______________________________

Contact ___________________________________________________ E-Mail _____________________________

Title ______________________________________________________ Phone _____________________________

Address ___________________________________________________ Fax _______________________________

Address __________________________________________________ Industry ____________________________

City _______________________________________________________ Distributor __________________________

State, Zip __________________________________________________ District Office _______________________

Describe the application and what you are trying to accomplish: Salesperson _______________________

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

_________________________________________________________________________________________________

Estimated quantity needed _________ Need: ■ Immediate ■within 6 months ■within 12 months ■over 1 year

Please provide as complet e as possible:

A) Mot or Type Preferred

■ Don’t Know

Servo - Closed loop

■ Brushless Cog-free, no magnetic attraction

■ Brushless Iron-core

■ Brush

St epper - Open Loop

■ Single Axis

■ Dual Axis w/Air Bearing

Light Load, Short St oke Applicat ions

■ Moving Coil - Customer Supplied Bearing

■Moving Magnet

AC Induct ion

■ Linear Induction Open Closed Loop

■ Polynoid - open loop, low duty cycle

B) St age Type Preferred

■ Don’t Know

Single Bearing - open const ruct ion

■ w/5 micron encoder standard

■ w/1 micron encoder optional

Ext ruded - indust rial

■ w/5 micron encoder standard

Enclosed - precision

■ w/5 micron encoder standard

■ w/1 micron encoder optional

Cross-roller - high precision

■ w/5 micron encoder standard

■ w/1 micron encoder optional

Air Bearing on Granit e

■highest precision

L St age

■ highest precision

■ w/0.5 micron encoder standard

■ w/0.1 micron encoder optional

■ w/1 micron encoder optional

C) Volt age Available

■ 115 VAC Single Phase ■

230 VAC Single Phase

■ 230 VAC Three Phase

■ 460 VAC Three Phase

Linear Induct ion Mot ors

NOTE: Higher speeds require higher

voltage.

D) Environment

■ _______ Degrees F

■ _______ Degrees C

■ Dusty

■ Gritty

■

■

E) Mount ing

■ Horizontal - Table

■ Horizontal - Wall

■ Vertical with

_____ % Counterbalance

■ Angled at _____ Degrees

F) Posit ion Resolut ion

■ None Required

■ 10 Micron = 0.0004 inch

■ 5 Micron = 0.002 inch

■ 1 Micron = 0.00004 inch

■ Other

■ Stepper Repeatability of

G) Quot e Addit ional

■ Trap Amplifier - for point to

point moves

■ Sine Amplifier - for

contouring moves

■ Stepper Indexer Driver

■ Motion Controller for

_____# of axes

■ Stand Alone PC-based

■ Linear Encoder w/resolution

from above

■ Motor Power & Hall

Cable Length

H) Cooling Available

■ Convection - standard

■ Forced Air

■ Water

Additional Notes (reference letter from above)

Weight = ________________________Lbs (Kg)

Stroke During Accel = _____________in (m)

Accel Time = ____________________seconds

Total Move Time = _______________seconds

Dwell Time = ____________________seconds

Max Overall Travel = ______________in (m)

Velocity max = __________________in/sec or m/sec

Acceleration =

2 x (Stroke During Accel in in [m])

g x (Time in seconds)

2

Acceleration =

2 x ( in [m])

= ____________g’s

g x ( seconds)

2

For g use 386 for inches, 9.81 for metric.

Additional Acceleration Equations on Page 4 of this worksheet.

Trap move may require RMS calculation.

Acceleration Limits - If over 10g’s not practical -

need more time for move

Brushless < 10g’s Induction < 1g Stepper < 1g

To Size a linear motor for a horizontal application you need to know:

A) Maximum weights of moving load

B) Length of move and overall travel

C) Time to complete move in seconds

D) Velocity Profile - Triangular (for smallest size motor) or Trapezoidal

Weight of Stage

Travel

Winding

Load

Procedure - St art wit h St ep 1a or St ep 1b

Weight = __________________ Lbs (Kg)

Length of Stroke = _________ in (m)

Move Time = ______________ seconds

Dwell Time = ______________ seconds

Max Overall Travel = ________ in (m)

Velocity max = ____________ in/sec or (m/sec)

Acceleration =

4 x (Stroke in in [m])

g x (Time in seconds)

2

Acceleration =

4 x ( in [m])

= ____________g’s

g x ( seconds)

2

For g use 386 for inches, 9.81 for metric.

Additional Acceleration Equations on Page 4 of this worksheet.

Acceleration Limits - If over 10g’s not practical – need more time

for move

Brushless < 10g’s Induction < 1g Stepper < 1g

St ep 1a Establish Acceleration Rate with Trapezoidal Move Profile (circle units)

Linear Mot or Sizing Worksheet Page 2 of 4

Linear Mot or Sizing Worksheet cont inued… Page 3 of 4

St ep 2 Calculate Force Required to Accelerate the Load

English Metric

F = mA Newton’s Second Law F = mA Newton’s Second Law

Force Required = Weight of Load x Acceleration (g’s) Force Required = Mass of Load x Acceleration (g’s) x 9.81

Force to Accel the Load = _________ lbs x _________g’s Force Required = _________ kg x _________ g’s x 9.81

Force to Accel the Load = _________ lbs Force Required = _________ N

St ep 3 Calculate Force Required to Move the System

Add static friction (i.e. stiction which would include wiper friction, etc.)

English Metric

Force = ([Weight of Load + Slide] x μ) + Stiction Force = ([Mass of Load + Slide] x μ x 9.81) + Stiction

Force = (_________ lbs. x _________ μ) + _________Lbs. Force = ([________ kg x ________ μ] x 9.81) + _________ N

Force Required to Move the System = _________Lbs. Force Required to Move the System = _________ N

NOTE: Typical Friction Coefficient μ

μ = 0.16 Steel Lubricated V-way μ = 0.005 Recirculating Ball Linear Bearing

μ = 0.5 Steel on Steel μ = 0.05 Nonfriction Sliding

St ep 4 Calculate Force Required to Accelerate the System

Select motor with more force than the sum calculated in Step 2 & 3 (significantly larger if the acceleration is over

2 g’s). Use the weight of the motor and the weight of the stage in your calculations below.

English Metric

Force = (Weight of Motor + Slide) x Acceleration (g’s) Force = (Mass of Motor + Slide) x Acceleration (g’s) x 9.81

Force = (_________lbs. + _________lbs) x _________g’s Force = (_________ kg + _________kg) x ________g’s x 9.81

Force Required = _________lbs Force Required = _________ N

NOTE: If the Force Required is Too Large for One Motor:

(1) Can multiple motors be used?

(2) Can time for the move be increased?

(3) Did you use the low weight Cog-free motor?

St ep 5 Total the Force Required

Total the Force Required from Step 2, 3 and 4 and any additional force which a process may require (thrust). Verify

the motor selected has a higher rating than calculated below.

Force Required English Force Required Metric

from Step 2 _________ lbs from Step 2 _________ N

from Step 3 _________ lbs from Step 3 _________ N

from Step 4 _________ lbs from Step 4 _________ N

(may apply) _________ lbs of Additional Process Force (may apply) _________ N of Additional Process Force

subtotal _________ lbs x 1.2 Saftey Factor subtotal _________ N x 1.2 Saftey Factor = _________ N

NOTE: If the total force required from Step 5 is:

(1) less than the continuous force of the stepper motor selected you can be finished

(2) for a brushless mtor, and the force is between continuous and 3x continuous go to Step 6

(3) for an induction motor, and the force is between continuous and 5x continuous go to Step 6

St ep 6 Verify Motor Sizing for Intermittent Motion It may be possible to reduce the size of the motor if the duty

cycle is less thatn 100%. When there is significant time between moves the motor cools.

Duty Cycle % = (Time On + Time Off)

Force Continuous = Force Required (step5) = Force = _________lbs or N (circle one)

100 100

Duty Cycle % Duty Cycle

NOTE:

1) When the Motor is Run more than 30 Seconds, it is at 100% Duty (motor type dependent)

Linear Mot or Sizing Worksheet cont inued… Page 4 of 4

Summary Fill in Summary if Known

________ Total Moving Mass

________ Peak Force Required

________ Continuous Force Required

________ Duty Cycle

________ Velocity Maximum

________ Velocity Minimum

________ Typical Move Length

________ Max Overall Travel

________ Max Acceleration

________ S-Curve Acceleration required –

which significantly increases

motor peak force

Addit ional Accelerat ion Formulas

Triangular Profile Trapezoidal Profile

Known Information English Metric English Metric

Time and Distance

accel =

4X 4X 2Xa 2Xa

386 t2

=

9.81 t2

=

386ta2

=

9.81ta2

Time and Velocity

accel =

2V 2V V V

386 t

=

9.81 t

=

386 ta

=

9.81ta

Velocity and Distance

accel =

V2 V2 V2 V2

386 (2X)

=

9.81 (2X)

=

386 (1Xa)

=

9.81 (2Xa)

Where English Metric

Time seconds seconds

Distance inches meters

Velocity in/sec m/sec

Addit ional Informat ion

■ Holding Force required at End of Stroke

■One ■Both ■Amount_________

■ Size or Space Limitations

■ Special requirements pertaining to control, mounting, etc.

Complet e Velocit y Profile

Attach any sketches or graphs.

Velocity Maximum _________ in/sec or m/s

Velocity Minimum _________ in/sec or m/s

√ √

3g x 9.81 t2 a = 4.81 t a= v2 386 (2x) a= v2 9. EQUATIONS OF MOTION Basic kinematic equation: xo + vot = at2/2 a = acceleration (g’s) x = stroke (inch [m]) t = time (seconds) v = velocity (in/sec [m/sec]) g = gravitational acceleration (in/sec2[m/sec2]) A trapezoidal velocity profile is common with linear motors and the basic kinematic equation can be manipulated to yield results based on what is known.81x0.04 g’s . English a= 20 386x0. F = Force m = payload a = acceleration g = gravitational accel Metric F = mag Lbs Lbs g’s 386in/sec N kg g’s 9. the basic kinematic equation can be manipulated to solve for this case.81x(0.508 a= 9.0254 m) in 0.050)2 a= Sl 4 x 0.05 sec.2 Lbs [1. When time and stroke are known: Another common velocity profile associated with linear motors is the triangular velocity profile.3 g’s English F = 3. and accelerations.3g Metric F = 1. payloads.050 Metric 0.050 a = 1.14 g’s NEWTON’S SECOND LAW Newton’s Second Law provides a simple method of converting between forces.0254 9.45 kg] payload horizontally at 1.45kg x 1.14 g’s v t When time and velocity are known: English a= 2x 386 t2 Metric 2x a= 9.050 sec. v t When time and stroke are known: English a= 4x 386 t2 Metric a= 4x 9.81 (2x) Example: Calculate the acceleration required to get to 200 in/sec [0.2Lbs x 1.050)2 a = 4.81m/sec2 a = 1.81 t2 Example: Calculate the acceleration required to get to move 1 in (0.Linear Motor Calculating Requirements In order to determine the correct motor for a particular application it is necessary to be familiar with the following relations. It states: English F = ma where.508 m/sec] in 0.81 m/sec2 When velocity and stroke are known: v v a= a= 386 t 9. English a= 4x1 386x(0. As before.04 g’s Example: Calculate the force required to accelerate a 3.

= force at specified duty cycle D.90)2 a = 0. Example: Calculate the effective continuous force of a motor that provides 197 Lbs [877 N] of force at a 30% duty cycle. Payload must move full stroke in 0.81t2 4 x 1. except steppers.C. = 30% FC = 197 = 108 Lbs 100 30 Metric F30= 877 D. it is operating at a duty cycle of 100%. Stroke Duty Cycle Payload Resolution 60 in [1. Because duty cycles less than 100% allow time for the motor to cool.90 sec. [18.Linear Motors DUTY CYCLE The duty cycle of a motor is defined as the time the motor receives power during a cycle divided by the total time of the cycle. a lower duty cycle allows all linear motors.C.1 kg] 3 micron customersupplied encoder Customer-supplied bearings Low force ripple required. When a linear motor receives power for more than thirty (30) seconds. √ English Lbs Lbs % Metric English Metric a= a= 4x 9. What is the duty cycle of the motor for these conditions? Duty Cycle = 1 1+3 x 100% = 25% LINEAR MOTOR SELECTION PROCESS Following is the selection process for an application that requires a cog-free brushless linear motor. to be run with more than three CUSTOMER REQUIREMENTS times their continuous current rating for a short period Application Optical inspection (moving of time.77 g’s . Since force is proportional to current.C. EFFECTIVE CONTINUOUS FORCE The relation between the rated continuous force a motor can deliver and the effective continuous force it is Load support capable of providing at a lower duty cycle is: Motion Profile Fc = F D.C.. That last section demonstrates the effect of reducing duty cycle and acceleration on motor selection.81 x (0. motors a single-axis optics operating at lower duty cycles can produce higher carriage assembly) forces than when run continuously. = specified duty cycle N N % a= a= 4x 386 t2 4 x 60 386 x (0. 100 30 Duty Cycle = time on time on + time off x100% √ √ Example: During one cycle of operation a motor is on for 1 sec and off for 3 sec. The first section provides customer requirements.77 g’s a = 0. = 30 FC = 877 = 480 N.C. 100 D. The second section provides the calculations that are necessary to make the motor selection.90)2 Where Fc = continuous force FD.C. English F30 = 197 D.52 9.52 m] 100% 40 Lbs.

9 18. English FDC = FC 100 DC Metric FDC = FC 100 DC F = mag F = 18.Linear Motors CALCULATIONS Acceleration and force must be calculated to select the appropriate linear motor.5 g’s and from a payload of 40 Lbs [18.5 kg A reduction of duty cycle from 100% to 30% allows the LMCF08D motor to go from an acceleration of 0.C.77 m30 = 78.7 Lbs.81m S2 F30 .8 Lbs MOTOR SELECTION The linear motor that best meets the application requirements is the cog-free brushless linear motor model # LMCF08D.m ag 30 a30 = F30 a = 60.9 N m = 18.9 0. Both improvements cannot be realized simultaneously using the LMCF08D motor.1 kg] Acceleration = 0.1x 0.77 X 9.m a 30 Metric F30 = 267. [147N] and has a maximum acceleration at this 100% duty cycle of 0. [110N] and meets the acceleration and payload requirements of this application.ma F30 = 267.2 Lbs [35.77 F = 30.1 x 0. Acceleration is calculated with the following formula: Force in calculated with the following formula: F = ma so.9 N m m = 0.77 g’s.9 g’s Fc = FD.1kg] to 78. Metric Fc = 160 100 30 a30 = F30 m = 60. This motor’s continuous force is 33 Lbs.2 40 a30 = 1.77 g’s g = 9.2 0. what LMCF08D payload is the motor capable of moving when operated at 30% duty cycle? Fc = 19.6N Since this is at a 30% duty cycle.81 F = 160N √ √ F30 = 33 100 50 √ 30 F30 = 147 100 50 √ so.81 2 S F30 .The LMCF06D has a continuous force of 24.81 m 30 = 35. .77x 9.7 Lbs Fc = 87.9 x 9.5 kg]. F30 = 60. the continuous force must be calculated. 100 D.5 g’s a30 = F30 mg = 267.77 Lbs F30 .2 Lbs m = 40 Lbs F30 .1 kg g = 9.5 g’s √ √ EFFECTS OF LOWER DUTY CYCLES Using Newton’s Second Law and leaving the payload unchanged.C. Either a larger motor is needed or the requirements must be examined to determine which parameter takes precedence. what acceleration is the LMCF08D motor capable of when operated at a 30% duty cycle? Leaving the acceleration unchanged.9 F = 36 Lbs Duty Cycle = 30% Payload = 40 Lbs [18. F = 40 x 0.2 Lbs m = 0.81 F = 137N English F30 = 60.1 X 9.2 Lbs a30 = F30 ag = 267.77 g’s to 1. INITIAL REQUIREMENTS CHANGE What motor best meets the following requirements? English Metric F = mag F = 18.81 a 30 √ English Fc = 36 100 30 = 1.ma g 30 F = ma F = 40 x 0.

Wall ■ Vertical with _____ % Counterbalance ■ Angled at _____ Degrees H) Cooling Available ■ Convection .industrial ■ w/5 micron encoder standard Enclosed . Zip __________________________________________________ Describe the application and what you are trying to accomplish: Page 1 of 4 Date ______________________________ E-Mail _____________________________ Phone _____________________________ Fax _______________________________ Industry ____________________________ Distributor __________________________ District Office _______________________ Salesperson _______________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Estimated quantity needed _________ Need: ■ Immediate ■ within 6 months ■ within 12 months ■ over 1 year Please provide as complete as possible: A) Motor Type Preferred ■ Don’t Know Servo .for contouring moves ■ Stepper Indexer Driver ■ Motion Controller for _____# of axes ■ Stand Alone PC-based ■ Linear Encoder w/resolution from above ■ Motor Power & Hall Cable Length NOTE: Higher speeds require higher voltage.high precision ■ w/5 micron encoder standard ■ w/1 micron encoder optional Air Bearing on Granite ■ highest precision L Stage ■ highest precision ■ w/0. D) Environment ■ _______ Degrees F ■ _______ Degrees C ■ Dusty ■ Gritty ■ ■ E) Mounting ■ Horizontal . low duty cycle B) Stage Type Preferred ■ Don’t Know Single Bearing .0004 inch ■ 5 Micron = 0.Table ■ Horizontal .for point to point moves ■ Sine Amplifier . no magnetic attraction ■ Brushless Iron-core ■ Brush Stepper .002 inch ■ 1 Micron = 0.Customer Supplied Bearing ■ Moving Magnet AC Induction ■ Linear Induction Open Closed Loop ■ Polynoid .5 micron encoder standard ■ w/0.open loop.standard ■ Forced Air ■ Water Additional Notes (reference letter from above) .open construction ■ w/5 micron encoder standard ■ w/1 micron encoder optional Extruded .00004 inch ■ Other ■ Stepper Repeatability of G) Quote Additional ■ Trap Amplifier .Linear Motor Requirement Sheet Company__________________________________________________ Contact ___________________________________________________ Title ______________________________________________________ Address ___________________________________________________ Address __________________________________________________ City_______________________________________________________ State.1 micron encoder optional ■ w/1 micron encoder optional C) Voltage Available ■ 115 VAC Single Phase ■ 230 VAC Single Phase ■ 230 VAC Three Phase ■ 460 VAC Three Phase Linear Induction Motors F) Position Resolution ■ None Required ■ 10 Micron = 0.precision ■ w/5 micron encoder standard ■ w/1 micron encoder optional Cross-roller .Open Loop ■ Single Axis ■ Dual Axis w/Air Bearing Light Load.Closed loop ■ Brushless Cog-free. Short Stoke Applications ■ Moving Coil .

If over 10g’s not practical need more time for move Brushless < 10g’s Induction < 1g Stepper < 1g . Additional Acceleration Equations on Page 4 of this worksheet. 9.81 for metric.Start with Step 1a or Step 1b Weight = __________________ Lbs (Kg) Length of Stroke = _________ in (m) Move Time = ______________ seconds Dwell Time = ______________ seconds Max Overall Travel = ________ in (m) Velocity max = ____________ in/sec or (m/sec) 4 x (Stroke in in [m]) Acceleration = g x (Time in seconds)2 4x( in [m]) Acceleration = = ____________g’s gx( seconds)2 For g use 386 for inches. Additional Acceleration Equations on Page 4 of this worksheet. Trap move may require RMS calculation.Linear Motor Sizing Worksheet To Size a linear motor for a horizontal application you need to know: A) Maximum weights of moving load B) Length of move and overall travel C) Time to complete move in seconds D) Velocity Profile .If over 10g’s not practical – need more time for move Brushless < 10g’s Induction < 1g Stepper < 1g Step 1a Establish Acceleration Rate with Trapezoidal Move Profile (circle units) Weight = ________________________ Lbs (Kg) Stroke During Accel = _____________ in (m) Accel Time = ____________________ seconds Total Move Time = _______________ seconds Dwell Time = ____________________ seconds Max Overall Travel = ______________ in (m) Velocity max = __________________ in/sec or m/sec 2 x (Stroke During Accel in in [m]) Acceleration = g x (Time in seconds)2 2x( in [m]) Acceleration = = ____________g’s gx( seconds)2 For g use 386 for inches.81 for metric. Acceleration Limits .Triangular (for smallest size motor) or Trapezoidal Page 2 of 4 Procedure . Acceleration Limits . 9.

and the force is between continuous and 5x continuous go to Step 6 . + _________lbs) x _________g’s Force Required = _________lbs NOTE: If the Force Required is Too Large for One Motor: (1) Can multiple motors be used? (2) Can time for the move be increased? (3) Did you use the low weight Cog-free motor? Metric Force = (Mass of Motor + Slide) x Acceleration (g’s) x 9.81 Force Required = _________ N Step 5 Total the Force Required Total the Force Required from Step 2.) English Force = ([Weight of Load + Slide] x μ) + Stiction Force = (_________ lbs.81 Force Required = _________ kg x _________ g’s x 9.Linear Motor Sizing Worksheet continued… Step 2 English F = mA Newton’s Second Law Force Required = Weight of Load x Acceleration (g’s) Force to Accel the Load = _________ lbs x _________g’s Force to Accel the Load = _________ lbs Page 3 of 4 Calculate Force Required to Accelerate the Load Metric F = mA Newton’s Second Law Force Required = Mass of Load x Acceleration (g’s) x 9.05 Nonfriction Sliding Step 4 Calculate Force Required to Accelerate the System Select motor with more force than the sum calculated in Step 2 & 3 (significantly larger if the acceleration is over 2 g’s).2 Saftey Factor Force Required Metric from Step 2 _________ N from Step 3 _________ N from Step 4 _________ N (may apply) _________ N of Additional Process Force subtotal _________ N x 1.81) + Stiction Force = ([________ kg x ________ μ] x 9.005 Recirculating Ball Linear Bearing μ = 0.81 Force = (_________ kg + _________kg) x ________g’s x 9.81) + _________ N Force Required to Move the System = _________ N μ = 0. Force Required English from Step 2 _________ lbs from Step 3 _________ lbs from Step 4 _________ lbs (may apply) _________ lbs of Additional Process Force subtotal _________ lbs x 1.16 Steel Lubricated V-way μ = 0. x _________ μ) + _________Lbs. 3 and 4 and any additional force which a process may require (thrust). Force Required to Move the System = _________Lbs. Use the weight of the motor and the weight of the stage in your calculations below. NOTE: Typical Friction Coefficient μ μ = 0. stiction which would include wiper friction. and the force is between continuous and 3x continuous go to Step 6 (3) for an induction motor. English Force = (Weight of Motor + Slide) x Acceleration (g’s) Force = (_________lbs.2 Saftey Factor = _________ N NOTE: If the total force required from Step 5 is: (1) less than the continuous force of the stepper motor selected you can be finished (2) for a brushless mtor. etc.5 Steel on Steel Metric Force = ([Mass of Load + Slide] x μ x 9. Verify the motor selected has a higher rating than calculated below.81 Force Required = _________ N Step 3 Calculate Force Required to Move the System Add static friction (i.e.

81ta2 = V 386 ta = V 9. etc.81 (2X) 386 (1Xa) 9. Duty Cycle % = (Time On + Time Off) Force Continuous = Force Required (step5) = Force 100 % Duty Cycle = _________lbs or N (circle one) √ 100 Duty Cycle √ NOTE: 1) When the Motor is Run more than 30 Seconds. mounting. it is at 100% Duty (motor type dependent) Summary Fill in Summary if Known ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ Total Moving Mass Peak Force Required Continuous Force Required Duty Cycle Velocity Maximum Velocity Minimum Typical Move Length Max Overall Travel Max Acceleration S-Curve Acceleration required – which significantly increases motor peak force Additional Acceleration Formulas Triangular Profile Known Information English Metric 4X 4X = Time and Distance accel = 386 t2 9. When there is significant time between moves the motor cools. Complete Velocity Profile Attach any sketches or graphs.81ta Velocity and Distance accel = V2 V2 V2 V2 = = = 386 (2X) 9.81 t Trapezoidal Profile English Metric 2Xa 2Xa = = 386ta2 9.Linear Motor Sizing Worksheet continued… Page 4 of 4 Step 6 Verify Motor Sizing for Intermittent Motion It may be possible to reduce the size of the motor if the duty cycle is less thatn 100%.81 (2Xa) Where Time Distance Velocity English seconds inches in/sec Metric seconds meters m/sec Additional Information ■ Holding Force required at End of Stroke ■ One ■ Both ■ Amount_________ ■ Size or Space Limitations ■ Special requirements pertaining to control. Velocity Maximum _________ in/sec or m/s Velocity Minimum _________ in/sec or m/s .81 t2 Time and Velocity accel = 2V 386 t = 2V 9.