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ood 0 nes.6:\ile r ~.' ~ . i-.ap~tlcitll. N~. 'Chaddock.t lrn pa..'". o..wen wlthi"n th e.f gears...~~ed 'by hil$ ~e~fq a nd ..al: .rodllUre.ge._ ·faGt is.. rn t1hJ.lfIot m:G al!nlttiat.I'p.rve. wTiiLien:..aftl!e IT" hIOI.-:I .yi)1g' w~. ~ . bo.!I:.~det whose m..n dcl't'..t1!I'c... .th~ nOj" onlylhe.able..i.to.~v'~f. .ofrol i(nM Ing th·elnfo rmlation .f' '1.Uhef' does· it project.shew them that: "b~.r ~simlple . II. a..ac~: em l.~ 'Q.' n' 'eXl"!end.li1 and ..eag@i" wI! l:iJngness t. fila".l[p!n:e.s..Ok 'willi .erc. ~ ~'tt's.~.'..~... r~. Tifssjtm~aln frl~SI l('fVBii the Y@Bt:S.~()'nsjde~a:ble .'r.vm'plle'ated ' and· h:ighly . so ~~i~n)£J.'i'lll:gl i8 'pa ir of':$ ~l~rg~ius..n~ce [ i~'~r"~)dl 'rJ)m'th~m.'the: m~hodg.~c.ac!li:i"9 is 'wl~h m. H.rely 'U.1 cut '.• mlathem.··1he.._oo th~H~~lhl:stJorn I gle~iirSi 'not 'fran!) tbe )soi e n't~1i'e' t~c~.: e th w~ry~ 10 ...r the h e.anlre.c"6r1sthi~ctor Orf Ihfls.hopj' enjoys.ed ne.'Cli· b'~ ~ '1"1""" I'U IBndewou md wtu~f.~ WbO. .l'tic1r to. OiUllliMedr [h.ilm"ungl hi s desl gn bV'lt:..eo.:~:1 m. nee. .ginal cClnd!l:uonr mUSlilca I bOI)(e.ng iO[ftern defies.rc'tI I devices...~he mc~v 'wish 'tIQ.adme maiflus.:iJ.sllderabla~ intere:st com m.a.~eth'i8 counsel.Ulre' fif j~i pai. !~u.. .coilfners: have been eut ftO r 1~injkerl'll~abo"U'~ wli~nJ rneehsntsms ~... '".~ript -J. undetstandhfm of .t ~.Hrel'y' Ipracttca ~ ". hl h._.fjj Ph.-I~ut fro m a [p.'~! Setoahdly..1rw. Who.-k8! this ..~~m~e. s.~t'S r ..ll T~e.h:crr w~uld . lib'· t ~~.r.g:e. ~ _.icdJy prod I!.__.. ~' f 'h no. bee..dl~d~ J~st IPllslin .:os.w·h. mfH~j}@I~m"a i'ng o. .al ... palit of: gea rs j:n some tll'leoreticaUy ·c.~nical have s.·g~&n:nlg' W~I~I knDwi~e~g.irrio'fm.. Ra'~helr tihan IlrruJdifying or 'UI:at"thfelQ98 rs ptrod~iJI. .o he.I(:.' .them.'but ~lsQ manufaot. ~ I'epsn" ·and! "ICOiffl p fetely' :resmr'e t. if" S~llIuIQ ~ Ib!~ to· 'I"~' "A "".i'on~1 t Drin~ipr{85. prnd ILl De: h:iSl a·worr" IBut ofl.$..pea pl[e whQ . or hes~.lt'thai I!'WS .odell:' le'n~~neSAir·s. on:~ ove:rs:hia a.... ~"lfrt.ta!nit to ~tep' .~ thei Ii' olni:. "'~'_I'-: .·lle··dg··em··· t.~endSlfo.!. boon. infadar to. NiO sip:~cj. Pr'~'fe'~~or.'e' iiiV·e"r8)9re.fl il€lIi! m..'w.~· en -s -" fll'~'.D..rk.8 resu I.'ha flit..t1$n by.~'''.:~.. .!.the ie'V~~' o.e.:s b31ct:· gi~nde'lf1 p rom!I.in ime~'IiI.a~iC$ down to the i51'mlpiest :ftD rm.rnk" e I ~ng lJ"8ij·e..r jusl k p.t..pese· of r po.fa@10ii I.. wt. a.alf~. is..ped'. _. What: has o'f: arniatelu'~ tJ~fg~U~lh liCk.. Ort. c:~ TIssimalf1~.Crha isrnr~'8ln_~'ha. 'f(U1!her 'than.··ho.ti. to i '.. p1u..o Elf h'U:ii.be wn a'pv way..JlCilu··..s: and 'a III 'olheJ" m·..ntil~ :fjn~ Ito .ngIIIil'eenng but " or '~_ .O in' t\!j. ge.studyh~g ·tth~~ srry· pro bI9m:~ ~llWiQlv~~d.fiJ 'J .ei''Ilef' pos~ilblle' to US'EJ' p{airn.~' is. IDlll\g~standi'ng 'f.'in[g. diffiClultv I[n s~.'...a~. own .in~of! vtew . I n:~r'/e' and as!S~S1.-at.liM.ced 8'&.. to U !!lUI'.pe. 8111 . enoou ra:gii n 9 thefil9' IJleop~ie· 'rlOI'h 3\11iS' if) glol'~ 5".ilI' tc.' n"' 'B'li1lirrf(! .ili1as' tlOI '9bta'i~' ' W 8 basit.(iI'"e' wrin(!iHll thiis Ib~fo.a1nd ~ hat.any .Slm. ~ .orr'llC. ~s.t:h e . ~IS.-.i:s: not redr.g n !UQ·n . his mul~U1"1ic. p'ote. that !adse i11 des~:glll'ti g a·old n 'WQFlu. ·· Ac' k··'no'·w. d· hldh!~~E a/lilly IIT"-e.:t. publ[frcatiQ.~.'fI"ne!thiis book of oon. &d urCQtk.a n t:I~i-'... Olr.8 nd h~'V\!3i kept. apprlQ-a... d~'si'Y.any I. FlrsrlV'1 Mif.h..u:s.1[epY~aUp rrof be in.Os.S..e·.ma~ who.1 n ."·Th·isoes d .l"[!J1 is Mgt may wlilf.. vomuRtefJre~ . ' hi 'om' hbi..tl~ca .:s' co:mrnnnci.:h..aUa i1 tables wl:'ll~ if f~~the· :techn"ca'~student .!i ts:[[lOt C'~a:ef those ooo.!llllllrC"'8' SUlIi~:fJec.."li~6.ave .IE! Il1ry re.iI ~o!:'iid.a'nQ1 rnoin-techmiii~al w1hq lilk~ te tt1·ank: ~. nlrllJ' G 9"urln g~.kJnlQ'llJle~Qe Qn en'QlinHffng> m··atte/s fS.a~iof:'11 !g.Ji .nd tfU~'l .ars..a~i !lllll.fo im.g~iyen~in 'thi.·h. he f[Qllews.on:sense~ 'wh~ii~lh rr.).elill g:eaf'~ Olea reprs'sent a 'threshold over 'which 'the cOimm. m'e.n" Mr.~k wi:th ·thel e~pm8!s.

!i)lfif3 in! 0 .S]are I!J s:e~ to transrn it Imati.sm It m Dtlon 'rom shalft A to sh aft B. on i t& sh.ro'n =.l and i1: _S~~ ..0 r who 9.re ·one cam'pletfEJ Ir.at I Eli discs ma.s>SlmtJ:llYthe m cst Im porta Ii\!~huntl a hilas be.·.f"1 tlhem Ihen as: disc A rOitll'tes. .ilir.of d' )si1gn reqlui remsnrs it maint'9illil may be: n ec. 'sinc~ rno sUp between the' MiD dis·cs is Itall!:i'ng p. Gila r.all ~he! aid'Vtilltages of.en 'ove'rt:o m 9~'Gears.ow 'Ut"s is .o fuU V IIJ n d~rstsfld jiU!st what the ~lHob·e.ep' fOMardin finding _ a so ~udDn is'to be a ble t.ateve'f the C!!.s.e~ 't:h e .'0 l the· same Qhalra'C1eristJics.Ii'I~e.a iS1rmlp'~e·Idiagr~un .'18 .r engi. tee·th c~ ~he g~e~rs.afis.bl m is c~.e liI'lvo~ved it js adv:en~age.blll~ in tu rn Ilrort-artle disc 8. citln be learned frQJm it."tioln thJ3~ thh1: :oonn0t be . -+ LllA.!. and dises is the same lengt1h then 1be ~~e:e'd of ro.haft . This is.!I._Cia rc" ~ . is to try .e:et€!st s . 1 .kie' conil'at'!.:I.lan dij. the driver sl'lgrh A is itullini'IllQ .aJ m'ferel"ll co of tUs:e A W1n be' I. Two di'S-c.e~ceptlj'on sind 8 mamu.h.ii1111i11! 9.W hal veS .. Ino. "The next: tihin.Ullefl~ To hl~IP'to Iunderstand! the p illiH:.nd ll!o~k u'pon them as dl~Si~ 'W ttll the oute r surfaees in CQt. ws.evollu~iQn lof R'efere --GB . andl thsJefo:r .T'E25..filll'lll eta r a fie Jl.neefS Who e"dlJE!:r [try to ignOf'9 g:.talllcHl wUII[ aihH) be si:milar~ Hnally.on. lJ~W .f thess d~~ES wm be. Inthis CiEis'f. '1'he"n w'h.et: anto ~rc'-ubh~ wl1en: prad u:c~ ng th am.Is 'ance hir. we ~le'ln1 is ll"llst th-e df~fmlQ"et of ~he: di'S"c'-5l is. to' put it another W8y'" e ve~.c OEP ~$ Dl. as 'the Ciii"lC.i:uJI w~te' al ~o.e"~rl:v '1lJ nd rm.alr~lf' equal e d l~ mm'Ii!!l'r tfieln ~he d·islmale r o.~ ~1i.CHAPTER: 11 -. ~Ill' d rawi n g. B an d ~ wi s III 'to Uil n.Ppasif'e dijrecUcln.d.s of ~j oIr·.:IP ower beMeen ~ na :s1~"aft lin.A is nlsde sma~ler·t.g at Ag.od'tv beiMea nt' 9 tw'C shafts wi'll be.. I c. th e sa me as lilll! oentre c ~' .g. As a resu Ii'.e.. ~ e I e qu.e shaft B.tact.~aC::1Fi..assume: tn·at no sl:ip takes p'~ijtile' JJP:tw"tH3.e. A.iflIlits ShC'ldd rQlale in the same dire<. FI'. • 'CEHT2..9innir~Q lalnd ~' !~e i1lskied ~he'm s.u:_E II:. a Ibe [f iil"n '~he happen to b j m'{)vement charac~Jeris. d&terminecm lby: he 't: .HitlferenCB' (rf beth iiH:hiI8V.1iJ' ~rer~ o~'S 'T~~ .E D1.~ and pc. firl~.. The diam'M1(!'rs: ar0 sucfll tlh..S1ly~ betwEiBn 1 he tW:Qr shafts.m ~s. . wi'rh .~ic'S of S!..y friction dr]ve U5:irl'9! discs is often u:s&d if it h~lm PO..*oreitte.s.c~knIlS.o?d !h:e_".e'yare 1I!10H-'bJCiS1e nt-'Jl . eo ns~ant. '11io'he~e W'~ have l~O :Sh~ks A II.'u!p.. u. fQil1' exarnpha_ '~ookin. and "f&t~nd Un. I'f the cha.to ~·gif.mlP'lished by Iusing: ifallPailr~f dis~~.since bnth d~-&c~. have usu Uy n~' begJulflI 8' 'lhe be. . modern tetnIfllD:~fjg..~~ 'he driven shalft~ must e dI th8'111rotate an j""\cloekwise.. O. sh OWS.·'·1 .CI'h i~'W..thil 'IWO Shi!fifts A 1& B rotadng 81t d ~fferent rs:peeas.A 'his con'stant velooity.\4E. When faced w~th 8liV pIFobls'r:!l the' gr. 0.I\" 'tiV9 ~ama in't8[r'l1 a perfect \. o~.uilsd on e seeu red to eacl1 of ltle . Even.q uest.o'us.the pro. ~f Ise ... tihe fircsl thilng[ being' thil't the rotsr('ion of 'thel MQ shaifts wH11be itnoppotite diliE.:e.a~'dl.c B t hen 'I h e rei rc.a·rs.cloc. As..0 fig.I' .:.IM.·eSSDfiV to have' . Or.-------i-H hI w..BSS ~han ~hat olf disc 18 and tM'~re'fo. 'Of the utmost im pOJ1~ nee as 'ttilB whD ~eidea bef'dnd gear tooth des-gn.kwi~e Sind shaft B" whj e h ts Ga.I'elocity. 2 sholWs.a~co.·a.----~ C2wE2"" . Thi s I~st filii di og is. wi I be' psss ed on \0 shsrft B.sig te-qlJiremem isrnlii ~o~hl sh. re digllElnCifJ!of' 'til e two shafts.IC.

A &. 1'1 er .li H~S.pI~~te~ f<eqIY~ro .a! FO tQO 'far al~alrt m aHow 'tw'Q dli:s€s of sumc'~ 'Cn~l'm~ter 't.s a ~II¥.sll' bu~ ~tnare may f'IIY.1\1' j .wkWiillrd Mill mibe.m.III an ~I· 'Di~(~.!. 1'[ m.e to m.th'Ei!iIl" drn~csbut it ntHs~dnot II e ao.'o ble~I''i'rilg 3rt aill oif 11"-111 .OE'I'YIEJ!..a.lI'-reot b Ij.av..Centr.di B.haHs.h e two e ~. . eo' ~A:'f'la of: '5'11 ~ft A wUi niOl flB'.J.~ (.f" ~~Ii'S1C.aID"~ '~hesiz:. "T'i0N n:~bS!Et.Of as ·'.! S1a'e'n th~~: Un eli stance' e wij II be' di f\e(r~lv fJ~opa'rttic'maI til ~h. SZ.n~~ h. _ OW~lai I \_ I>.SJjlrlCrt'h er wa:y'~.eomu:::efiAied it.oo 8'.iEJE!S BJ1A.CO.n' ~o In j1d1ler_ dls.h e dtalme:I@1I" of' 'tll@ dlisc. .ionsb~.refs fred to as the' "'p iin io n' 'u~s.mi~i dlarn etsrs aft~ used the s.~ '! (p\-Ir.c. Tl'il!8' :f:b:e. cc. ~f.ei'lt is C~Ufd .le.JNa'!.~ -ED.ilo!il.ate ~Ol At.i.~. talnd C2~v~:_- l iJlimt:II1:Ulfl1a~e nurn ber as. S~E o'~e'~. [:10. wei 'I't. d~e idh~li di~e' ls srn ill l'llelf' idler hais no baa fu'ng 0 n [he g.:.e ti mes 9 reate r t.'JuJ'ching dit:!:..j!18 ~p.4.duG~~o'n 'tbr~e.g agali n '10 !Fi1) bel'tv'ise Ii' 'th~ :speed s err ~h e 'lWei :Ibm.~ 'TK~.If fhe d~ st>alnce· illfQUruj disc A.e o~ '!'~B . f. When d[~c ~.------w-t-.'~ =rc::.p~ndent 0 ra -U~·e:~. di~es" .h Own !n IFi'9~ Ag.a!(.. f'alr as rou nd 'fl/gures' are .J .or 110 Pl"Ilt . then d~'ameter of'the driven disc B must: be.~tlng Gireumfem'nCf'-5 orfths di5i~ 'whi'lletihe lalrgelt' disc.10 'l~he:t'Il di sc A wi IW h. _ .f wh~re m ere tha III tWt~1 are' uSBdI tin ew.aiP' re&~eCnve dian"_ete-r~.e Ulf.c.c ls u:sed ~Q IblIi~9G~ "U'a e g.M~."p8ifl1'd cJ$sC$ 'is pwapo rtlbon 811'10 f.ld is mood ~ hat uhe i:cu.t. wi I~ .~halniii· Icance:ls ilS9 ~fout a~cl se e~ln SBY thi t ~he' j' ~!' :s. '~. ~ '. on ly "ne.~<!-\ ~~ LJeOOA~ .pl th re.e'hn[..aEc.8111 ar relVolJutioirl o. Re"fGrlr'~If1.s..ilIP p~ara (H:I both sides lof'the speedl e~!Ua.. fai..BC Plr JI'!. It w~'11~@ !riead~I~V '~h.il 'a ..:"I.8.c. ~.B Une: dmrEfCt~]OI~ of r~'t3tmo.(.WI.mph~tel d~$:s.mill' - th aln the CI..-~~---J- b• . Fo rthl..~Ee:S Y~ElC' A.n~ 'f$gurr~ o~ 'Ine cil1eum'~'~fef'ilC~S.Tlc·!'iJ e£!iI.~y Ib e ~h ~tt !hs' two s:hsfts It '& Ea. .and so en.3 n d So fa!!' we.o~ed l e.l Bd di. w4i!'s s.e' betwe.eB Fo'f .~~: cr'~I:~~ Ga I.Ii~:ttlD both df~S .D'!!d rllhls equ'a'ri Qln ls . U tlhe eonstant Pi ha ste blS1 used iiillil.i' r t h at ~wt. '~O j2'.A .rt s th~rod~sc eeu ~d be In~rodu~ed lnto 'Ullj1 'tnairl'l Wh05S onlly '~unG"~ lel"ll 'W(H. u". the arra filg~m.a n d thefBfo r~' .r. If"'"r 3..e' disla nee = 11! (dial..:~ • ~':~'lrVErl'oJ a L[..'hJ!Ul th e di amlstsr of th.~heireirO. O~ '"f\4E Glt:. 5 .n.O' Ii.ii"fe't:~ 'br a mlY M'O to l!J ching d'iisDS.~"d F~g.~-t--~.a:tely since Pi i~ eansta f.eJ'i' I~~' ~Mi~~ . B_ are ~tj II de:.1 dis~a n ee of the ~wo ~omb]n~d radU of 'I he 'two dlh~c~. rove f5.i. i's:c~iJil~d le' "whe:eJ1I.. 'C{F I!OIT':-r~O~'.~ DN~ 11 .1tWQ bel any' iF1~.a be iHfl.5la It ifIj erne w m.S ~A. ~OiC1J~l'J~ SOn..pl.~ spl~~'dlre.iOrtS 'fo r lone. EO .. IS are ~o 111'1C}1:~te lira ~ha''S'i13lffiH du ife. co.~~ ~ tDl.o :betW~fi tJil.iE.J id be to.2~ it w"111 bf..~ IV t~nsi dllitred . . ~\Ollows lhraltth el' this is'.eliml!~.I.! ~i1'J'WI ~lJ .mbl1r .~1 n ea si i IDn {~e'.ee~s o:f" . 'Th~ th in~ disc i:~ s t.~~iu~1 'the d~stan. relul'til. see. h ave Iil.~'irorn the 'idhui 'Ms n..'~ 'i~ ~~.lIili'n u'. 'Wh e rill twa ~om'Pl!ete reve ~lU"l. a.j'~.a~1r.. is: ~n.a'ad lealr~...e two sha fts is eqlu a ~ ~)D ~he' IClifIClU mfe'fEi IiIfUta.3J'0'1o. Uiiill!al:~vt.A. -I.:5lpe.1I'.et! on ~h €if!! a pceJij'r d lses COIIU 1d IrrH"t be' erf used ~~h_i6 i'~s.. ~o~~. say 'the ~ea~ittJ'a most.u e~k~:~I'.a~w ratio.un. Tine 'jI'.n.aln ~.._ du~ 9" reaso rQs.s drive'r dhiC .T'JE' 'liN O'~'~Te OO'VEIe D~I!1:!e. g e. re'Vo Il~liOln of shain B.e~ ~'I'i'gJn~I '~WUd ~S~. '~E.~.1" !..al~so be .

f a other dlse I"Ii e d I'll at be co n.)\ ge ars W'lth u!~ellh~n 'Fti& GP.8 n d r~\'i'. nto the tr.evers.s Band C.$CS '8 ffld a II ttl e~!setti f1Ilg~DU'~a rIi d rha ." O.ubil@et.is ls the correct parth '[0 klll~o." r m nor' d 'B.e.side red. nv ell leu latio AS are base dl ~ pen ~hem . be dnive!in bV means of an ~d~er. In -ig. I~ 'W' Tnere . revlB[rrsed .!II C.an be-~ A~rodl1c:ed .lr.e stsrggJ1'~d as s fI.sl"'~£.s·h:ou Id ~.9 &aJi II the.ailirll'ng'd laJnd In .2.4. ra ~'o. be ifiji ill stra. ~'~ tha spa C9' 8vai lab~9..een~ t.the dr1tv[e n gaa r 8.w . .wn~thfilln dha "t is ontv the' diam[Bte.'~ Out a.AU ~ouJjdiscs ii.n~'fI:dnot be so.irsment hat the: d ii'iVEHl gea r has to n..UscE . CJ!"-l.g.rsc:s Cand E . has its lown ts rm in 0 rag'V an d t h fa DOlrreCit tiU e for the Idi!le :fs 'tm Ie i!J1tch c" re IISl [dii. ill Iust rated ..D.ho... .fllffieter often ref fmd to as !h e' PwCJ).Q IF c.0 din30Uc~. ]' we have a :silua..nQ' Gas rifil..atn~as lilil .r' .e ID'~ dlriven wh.ad prudent to us IIr th B'11 'th e' centres of U.i gin rSQu.ee ~VEN.fH~1 A The s.'1i to em su ta I~nilt th e' difii>C.~a'l. aH the whee'ls are conn&cte' .n nf .tk.8 Ir!! d the dr. ises B.al~sp eltdi of the I r:tv1eln d~JSC 1St l ha Sf..disc ID~ whl!ch IS ser'liing a d1uaI [pU rpolse ~1f btid gj ng th_ g ~p '11.anons gear train can in tU3"tw. .Hl and the .. lor drive r I[)~SC ~ h as bee Il'lI 'pi ~c.OiC-L'RS r<elg\JCE.necessitates dl e use 0" idl[er who els s mal halt' ttl! a 11 it :is co n s.H'fi where ttD rEIe drive ~ wh eets oi: 'tna sa me d~am. d~lslC.aJnd 81:80' ac iogas.S r eo .h e' dl ii'ectio!l1 of .. j !be UiJ' to now we h. ~...discs 1IE!I'-.otati'o.ElIlnd' ur. :3 andl .I re shown in o fa e s/ ra ight Iin 9 b lit. r ratie oi'f:the t ain~' he ~speedof '~ha:idl'iIfS.l!· !.ill nd th is b.ed of r.ii~ ' SiCS..~'E1tE.il .'idf.has to.. ~ and . ~'n.e[s'ethe: f.&.gear drive 01 'train (bev.gnitng and setti1ilQ.eels..In Fi g:l.fe~ _.h'ect~0 nl ~ til e.'W In i'm. Co nseq ueml V Ibolh '8 and c rotate i'!l'l 'fh e sa me d. . as in figs .€:I! 'idler wheels eould b.o'ked u po i'!I 8:5 di. C and E~Th B power 'sou rce. E IFoltatesin the same' S d reCiJjrO n ~.nl(.r:s of tl1e driver disc A a r!I d ~he d river d~sc [13 '~hat are CQlI1"5 ~dermd w1li1en detl1'm in ing he [(I ~. . wm be de plu"ll.. ~ Sflill.· gear~.i[g ht ' fine .trJ di'ses but Ul is. bu· in eve rtf ea SB 'Ihe spe. rOf co U rse.edl betiN'lliin ~ e. be aJ d·ts. Th rs 8rffi1l'I'1'Q'&ment eou id b:e s..aU'U'H9~examphf!i shown Slo'is!ll' the E:!'nd di SCSi ave be ern the dlr~ve. to each other in ill wary si m ilsr to ~true: gr srns s.'iv.e.cli'u:me'I)EU Of the dri'~~i.dEU'l1I~on U~e'h'res.u'le~ohad Gut 'ICeldil'fIId the: r2:lrnQ. 15" The two id~ers ta'ke upth e SJ:J ce .G:.afie rnanv which a slrnpte [permUll. d·rives b .e any numhslr.~ I ke' a n it .II iEiO ='""~~ f em dlire~tiy'.e In 1he e PP'clSlte eli re~~ o~n .i3J3: when dres:i. ~_tive diamlEders but 'whBt 8V"er thue ate it wlll have ne efi[f:ct CU1 'the 'fhl.ID~.. r.. Flg ~ 16~ There 'mCi!'I' b. t h ird dr~ven .otQbClln 0'1'th e a drive n disc lB." of wheels in a tliBiiln but..Ull. . ~nenla :S8ca:nd ld ler a.le and speed disc o.rlfi 0 f a·arch d rivEl'f'Ii dh~t 'l1li1 ~I Ib dle-termine·d by t r e diameter o~ the driven disc In Q[uIf!Huh:.i...eter lI1'eed fG.to he driv..!' such as in a roilier ~onveyc r.other s.E!nJ1B' consi del"r'fJ dl onl y reted"9 di SC:Si ..

J· .i tgroove er slot must Ibe m'ace In wheel 8..a eern bi nat~io.rst on th.more becO'mii9'S POiS! bl Eli" It ~.nm' he.rn 'e nga'g edl irn ill si at is . 'B:E.· hle rafa ~a ~truat D .t.J. Eaell S~D.1\O· .sed by' introdl~CiJ1lg .SE..se :5lpace's.ru:.aJlli"lei IIilOW dissimilar one! be'ing a disc wit hi p rojeoU.je~fia.C9S betwe.t but in 'lhe ~ase. cons idered d"UiCS.:no~""" . at Ilig.'IO 1'Q TA.o'sitij ensd between th e slets on wheel 113."t' a n:d mlov.arrangement ~i 'shown.eJillnli 0 r 'P2(UECTto '!.H! the d FOO 'W i. II arra ncgilng th e h I There: II re Sp.-I IH~ch FtG SIPUf' 9 l~ discs.J... r To '.H:::t !Q ~alrs· '~h~Jda.Q II Up to now we a v'a onl. As: and yet it has been U'1'e basts '_ al i 0.rCOm.t d.. ea nnot be seiin and 1[ ea nlnol: be 'touched so' if&aIii'U'rlO..ET~ ~l.\(~ P ~(_E a 0'1 I.a:r-OLllnl~1.~tbt9 provid'ed .g aetlo of 1:J1he.\""0. we tan 5rEte ' h:a1. $i ano.~iE2. Ih::.Un. 9Il"oo:V\e8 a. of thi S 58 CO nd set t he' p~oj~etio n S iiU'e' lP.rr1ilJj<ed. III enen 91"1 p n bewves'n the' SUlmC65.chj S '11h su ITa ce e I!lJFf"the o'igin. see Fi gu m 10. "4 15 .a!ppe'ned En ~hal we have c.alnld )1e it dJofts: nlot 1J)."~1It sao n as .DJ.Aa.. h. aJnd thie driv. and proJ9.a~ dlse ane Uilf. e m ovi n.h8'ntalkie pia a.fJllntd "IIQts m ~.eth an urrFOl"tQnale th~l!'1ghal ~o FU~~i12.rri'sCSi· w i~C e!nsUtr s posUive e'nglgl !nn errt bet'INeen ~he camp enents a nd 'in 0 1055: of m01tio.th .n ~-A.SiD ~hat' I:It any po in[ aro u nd 'Ihe wheeJI tn ere il s Ilrways .u'l ng t cUSG_S 8!11i"e ne..~ C 'IE 'TO ALL-OW '""" PJr1oje.ro.lem a nod pu t[~ 'Ii ~nh nl ~'n!ill 5.. it! but we must always: cOll"Is~d8r Q!e'~r as. -f:nctlon fo roes i A th e bea ri rn9 and the us. 'rref:eFred to.lem ' &8 h are' added :13 th e .e wi iii Walla I.-betw.5 0 dru 'lien dtse.~'mofte.ons arou nd ir~wh i~e .obvious.G..cti(nll com'b~n8'~ i5. None of h.S.'J.. U r or se·tfn. be:" wee n ':h 0' 'projeCtl. HO''I!'jtevef~the solution of A so as [he wheellt'lo cues .~isleng 89 ss the ~~do!S . cd te..l~ ean fl o~ p project r.tt. Re·ferrl ng D ~o Fig. foillinrg O1n each others silrilfarce end '1 151 WH.a... PeOJIB:T~O~ ~ TOOl.. '.t be u ll se~ !for direct muesLi rements either from i'l er to.the d:rilv&R whe·ell B wi III re:si:e.S OF Pe()JEt.sIDddjtion~~ Irang's of~dots. a ro~liingp.r~LOT 11!~16! L.1A~.e .Q'fhEr. e :5 p willi 'OC~U.e. 9 We see here .ompletely r rem ~.'5..11 th way .f~rrel d to as sp IIIr g.l di's-cs" IIIf WI.bns A 5.OIli.a.tJ ~A.1 disc..e.tlhe ~Ii~an_gerne ~"being tha IlYery p.s lfugl lrwe by ~ $I. ' Jost the Olri gi n. can ba UJ~m.e. 8 r\as.sInd TCQ 1M \oJ ~'T' c. 5 .Je C'ti ens ..s.m:he. ng c lOne probl. the two whee'ls wou Id ja m tog e.aln .1iob' / T "E "WHE'!i\.n b'rifigS w~~hi't m.een Un e 'two. of U-n 'fwO' di's'ci. IproiD.thal a 'illump' or' p1roje·ction has b@erli added 'to ~he'wheel.n tha'l the ~I "Ill heels .tbs'r bv '~he "hif:~ilolnG!'1 force s..l.i$!lilrH~I~n.. ~cald we 'wish 'lDoobtailfi from the d riv~ng' 0 ne ) m=~G 'to ~..ta nca to moY'e men~ ..co mes Q~ea'ler '~h a rn U'ItE~!. Qve..~EQ \J ~-W Q If ~ EC"f . til e pro]e eli'on ~.J:.\( ~~(T~~U~ TE.o.g~.8 'this.U~ 'followed by' tEl [pro. This ls jU' t one peclIilll.G~ilons.t is. are p os.n: d~ e 1I'8:~.is.e'ftJ I Wo k.en ~i iii '.jeC'[i.8 p .and evef!)i" slot tS h E.em I!!n:t w'Oull!d oee}se. ddvillll'9 wheel~this res1stanc.e.'L&"' 11IiId el~:~Llla~iolfls. i s 1C@n:ar~n IV 1111 exOOpt'i'.Olri1'S on Win "-8.! r.]edi on.i P o.\!.t wn~8(:t a sad rivi ng dog an d :s.e" ~Ile' p'[!"loi.fslr [back 'to ig. ~E. . a's h').ili en ed . W h. 9.OC.1I.8'1l1 be see.j. h awev1er" a's soon as the Ip.ion .~s. In P20 J'~c. ~nes.If" • b .an~1 the 810M.nwi'SIB .on .on and S'~Qt wh.any wh~e.e 'nnishl9d ltam.'£1i.ect iOilill enta B th e s let.serles D~ IP ro.COM'6.uj m i o'~ i he pitch circ~e diameter .e being .o~ . m ore p'fD~.

g.j dd.li"1IJltartuc'n must a'lso be" s.gm~ and ' .nvoiliue curve c.. nrUiinte in the constant' 'vel:octv (..an e r. : oSiSilbie . as fOill0WS:~ 2' J ~ j tha(l simpl"!" aillow..lt:e wit.e gear.'it n VEl ~ocity.1'.1i s~cit below' 'it it [s net pr.pes. . b.! hOWl.e:ri. ve.e' is.ex. 0 rOUUe .et~ion ~~ove.. sihouilld ig re lit a it'll d C.(.o iur~..icns ~ nd 9 rOQtV~sa n "I 0 lei.such a pa ir of' IQ'e.alpe thlSl ilillow:s 'rh e g. be·11i1Blldv.!1fta~ge ~'01 ~his.o~d and -he rve is t 18 invQ.n dOifille 'ere is to kiev It'iI@iV We![a F~g.'0 model. are C..jIld be painful elM 'tilneearl .rau}e Th-e. rE!'8sQn$'fOilf UiIWS. ve'l!'~ ~.ollilllg P~C.~ - .' the COlmp~ete ~.. Ifrt s.I. is the in~)elrl'tJtO. 'Un e ma iI'll 0 ne be. 'we ui d Din tu m lU b '[Iit"e~II" way dlt)win t:tn e ~h:leof dIe sle[ and mooth as rotation took pJ. emphas.ac~ willl1 al strJali.ear.e.J ~ « 'u J. Sm"S~.iIi~ckly I'e\ld 111'19.th Slnd 'th~' corners a 'he sllot~ 8:f<i9i8S. comes 'to cU'[(iliiilQj gears co III eentiration wi II be Ion ttH9. ~ o i.J :P v.1 ty!p'e.evel. t:hJ'l:rro.. Fa r exa m p[e c uJ J! Il!I I_~ ~ ~ ~ sUlp. Title (lbDve .i. !oJ1 f:: d j' J -t 1£ .circle IS Ir.a!ctiea I te m. rJ:: lit p. llr...ail be S181Si IV gen~r ared a nd is '11h eiMf. Thef'e ali .u.I 'workifil.~t·0 filS! dee>e Ientti ens rand j i.e balsed 10 a s. ..olledin con .JI l' ·c (1t.era:le wO'l.hape' would pot.elb]e Ifior Imo d erfn prcH.e eomers iof the [oQ.'Sion of s.! of the' teet lit I. i[ii1~a !:lute. . howev8r.l 3 J J.. 1ih e' d rive'r Wh~8li may turn wi th :aJ constant and '.be. and 1!ij!>tt:r.h a . .as th'DUg'h thlEr·.effllJe..~ et a II Rotati D'1ii COUiel be~c ml9 n'hi!'de.1 .v~loi da I C~N.ne' Igee r iIii Ithei If r BC-l'ea1i'on is. ~ 7l '\ 01 ~ i]. lIl:O tlke Ipli09' A Icych:Ji'd is U~B' mJf'V\l! which is described byal pormt 'f:i:xied! a the ci'rcumfe'uuiloe of a 51 CI~~cJ 8' when ·that .as$hDWn . Iln['the [pBS! in I cycloi da.g:JV8 bask: pri'riU~~ip~es inrV10h/ed 'in both.0 u 9 ~ 1/ d.jise 'that 'n order to.t].il!' fig'.acce'pt. u ~ ~ 1 S GI ---.! ca.. Gears· CIln blr a ndal..!lIid bel diffflcuilJ to u ~<..uaHse'.~of tih.J ~ ~I l).J "J (j Wl 3.0 ILl::' . -~what ha'Sl. 0' D !l.11 .0.e cen dii No iii s we equ ire. a 1m d.olvied wit h ttl e ge.D."h is may be bensr l unde'fstood by rS'N:rrfng tOI R9~ '3. ..f. .a~IUrI.hIV SUI bSll ~liJtal the Imo de rn ~iI'1voll~.he'S8CO mId i:s' based an rhe iI'1IVGIIu18 [CUNe'.Ds .!!ltagin'g.•to sav th.er. j v~s. On. m~ I m asr Ii~e'lv becom e inv.s.s. t~e shape: of the' Dle{llf teeth is vilaUv imlpo'rtallilt~ A 's.all e ~lgine'e]ri n'~1 'f:avou rs J • bel lam p ~OVe-d '10 B ~v.Chitlings".u was. no 1 ~orP:!iotoltvP&S . be tota Ily un aece ptab Ie.mcelf1l~r.j. J IWI v ~ u :2 ~ tI Id :J' iJJ1 lill. VlBry much [n favour whiJle lthe il1l'\I'ch. me. .'!!ifl '[w. - ~ ~ . 'Ill '~I 2 tJ ~ 'togellrtu.SSI riIV be . \..Q dearan~iiJalto. ell .r.uh 'would be '8'xcessive fio~l(Hl causing ra pi:d we·lf an d q l.e ie'aJst! How ev.oi da I gea r "s not 0 :ten IJ sed j n m~ arn e if}.enld -.ne' 'On thl!:! IPop'ul. .._ ~ ~ (.nd t'he to(r~h w~re given . NowCBdays.not f!!nc('H. OtiU IJ:' we .~ -'<!it IHa'v'bF8)~ establi:she· I that e'lch tooth ]ilfiW oonsists of~wo Pilrt~. ~. .btl in ad Jiv 'IJ1i'Hi~ ilI.pedfic: shalp'l ~ a s'h... IO!1i II.cho~'oe'but ~~ mu~i. )-- ~ ~ 1 -4: C . aceeler.oIUl~e geclifi but mode'l engmneQfS" wh D Olfte:I!1' ~00 k in~!l) '~he' ps 81: I I.rn 91 tlh ls boo k. eC1anQullr~ SEMI .·ojesr..llut.. !hape.a~ ItS wh V it.a 1lag 10 undlen~ti!!lfld the 1 J . to ai co.ufficient infOli!lUiliittiOIA fCH' the llieader to'IProo'uce ge8lr'frains cd both cycloidal and involute fDnn.'(!IiI -aken -. t'he' biggest disadlrf.iJIl1Jh:~~l i s~jl~ discs..a. .. when M.iiJi~gue d be tha~: s ~n(:e . na:{!urallv" thefr.c.arrangem'EHiit wcn!llifd be.ar h"l\f.pos[ng il.!!'r and so rQlhltia.n cannot 'lake p ~a. ~her n f~(~se.!)ht Ihi1'f1l'.18pe !Ca Ih' Ih· -as.m pi e~e f.tv..ake :Ihe T 1sm.o~h whelrs.nk 1'1 . the' P~C. l'hr.iBJli"S WOIU Id gEHil.1 .le .ucces. 'to one '51landa[rd must not be meshed wi1~h Igle ars based Ion 'the oth.Q roUing p.. 01" .nesteed ln ths winlS.r u Q.oss of ~oniS~arrt 've~ocity between th'e tW...J ~ ~' Bt a IJ ~ ~ "l ~ g "" ~..!) geo metric: c G .i ne. t- 0 0 2 ~ a' ~ I .illctilon mmb!)ds~ I't cOIUl~:d . Th. hole anii'lllge'ment WQuldl [orf CC"u rss.IJI!Bind ttf groove Q. s· ialded 0 n' It· e draWl ng _. w@lle :i I n D~ nece. '1' ~ !If) l('il':l· if) :l ~ - but an eJ(amilll1ar~'ioJI1l of' :the i!lctio·r:IJ~s.but til EI' itl1lltT cs p~'~hadf~'vel1 W!h'881 WGl.g~:n.Bllii 11'9 based on t he ~yo'[oi'd~ Wheth B r .affllp. .g· auther te liHE ICYCl!OI D CURVE Tn e drinl r'an of a 'c. 1:2. e Im~de: to both SUI ndard s bu l gea rs m a de.s.~ngt &'Ha~ 'Ull' ~.toP.

'I his· CUnie' ~'sthle co rrtN~..~ po.outs.t.I.me.h:ows.~t in rlI ow be see n 'lhi!f~.smoo'th cu nl~ is tlb1~n dir. $ h.th -of tlJile ci'reu.~'N!!:el.OI t'~UE= gem e rati'rlgl I ]19 tb ~si~ally .am.alooUlt ~h vertic!Ji te.5.~tj1ile OIi1It!O :~ineand ci]n.pa n.e.vcl oi da leurve. it also show.mWstence ol the·Gi'rc!'f...If:I fl.e'5 'thev 'fi.ill locomlothfe wheel ~nd ~he.'liilsiitiQ'Ii!JS IO-~t Iii e'wh.ag ra rn Fig. usua Mv c:alied 'the "'fa.[m'.the: ng sliJ'r~. '!I1lo:t Si1]fali~gl~t fie's. l1h e eO~!li trn ~ti n o ..nl 'thet di. e.CiWS . :isth~ d~dend!Um.wa rds en d onto th e . ~ Ol. 16. c.iffi.~r~lOjilt8'1 Ii n e i~.OUnil 1so I~mpo'rt~'ntt a ~ th e' ijf'b ida ~. This.i!lI~B 'fa r the g'ear t~C!tlh t owtsJ d~cth e' P .tb~t' W.[)W'It'ie 'p.e~am. 111 SIh. I.:en thalt: mt ls not na.~Nj efo re.he curve Is :s.ee ni plalte d to.f.t:'the Pln-'Olj9ctiro n~ from ls ~hai' poi:n~ a'n the: fO~ 1'1 fll~g el relle are.in! lO h es Ibeen chosen 1m ill u ~. lof the ci ficJe·.n~ then i i's ahillOl d1ivided irUiO 'the.il~'e~he base el n~1 ett ell n be rol~e:d inslda j't when~iOlncther Clurve wi~f nf)~ i'n·.8' g. IFilg.i '~O 'the cycrlo'! d Ie.mfenfen~~. Chl).ss:hl'Q' un fOIU'glh .he' then div:Rded imlh) 811[V num ber fif' pear1:SJ rno re div[5ii [)ns used the easie r li'( wiln be ~o0 btli n .~: ie h ean tb e' wh ~w..Sit. ~t . A 'front (!Iif of th~.. ·ah ill ~e of a g the eu Ne be' 'fuull1'ld.a~'to.e rwhle'l lilS iIi! IQO"~~ct wU'h the irack.il ~BI~rl1:O." th e i~'I~r~ e dli ate' pa:ilnu1 be "Inllg' o:b.:.s ro ~)h~ i d eei~r:e ~ 31 ~t is eal ~ed~ .ae. he toedl . are s~h'owln in t-~e .a~glh'[ I i'118 .awn flf\l.& iil!ii! ~ liB.t he' "_ . .BISJU roadareu nd ~h.of the base (iir~h.~S the ~Ialnk'.s.e "'!todraw and A'g.~~cu NEi'.~ombl a:lii.e i o:i<lrClJ.~ rou rid 'W i~h til e 8'id ."5BfJ "for tlh~ elrel a.ple brut. s:h ow fh e' IproQre-:lil~. pc.JleIOted u~. III ~s nlo~ a d ifiicuU: eu n.PO~lF1t du riliI. UaCi~ btl t 'fll e' w h ~al: Ihas fin ado.lC'k it] ~he' base ~ ne' and fin is.S'ILII'li:l:l1J~ tlllltV'e' d1e':lu::rib~d by 'U~e .i" tel..l1terFseci Une ir rfll'iat]ve ciJ'ci.C~Ci. 'llhe m1es:u~.truns'd Ib<y rnf~. BV \S~Ui:dytfi lh e 9 sh8!pe of "ell tYI~iOBI Igear ~"oQth.e. CI'nltr.conS'llrumion of the eu rve i~s !baslcaUy s~m.EI~ posi'li:o ij i'tis .2Jjit!e fiI!llethod:.the whl). iI nstlstad . III ta r.C.t 'Cfy.~b(i!'ve.p~ ale rsve iutlOl!'1.piIC1Gh)~di1!11 . '14 's.chrde d'Jfawr!! here es .yc~oicl a I'1i til f. b Arlot tH~'li' dfffs.~od ell N\Gi:~ A Ieiil:gr(h' eQIU.'n umber of equai dlvl:~lens aa was.O'f' (il pa ~ of r c.alii 'lth ~'E is nee ded.D. are 'then d. di'flfilJ3jmn~ IpasU"i!o !r1!!~·'Hortlonta I I in es . ~. '~~.E!!-ta'f g:W t'n ~ 19:eS'f.!iQ cirnu. Th ~ .eel have b.c~a:n!bel tlh...~wln pa. how th[s een be·done.o ill of 'two d~:s~'i ou FV8S n met je. bu~:are i) res ta k)9n fro m "tI'D e '~i ~ntre! .i~. The whole of:'. .ii~eb~'16W'~ P'. 'of.J mfere'nce of t:h e base el rol. i~.at a rau nd 'Ifill e~1II'(: rnfere nee lQ'~ . sa m e.~B'" whiiitst 'rlh@ 'way iflII wh'~ch . Orill oom. A. in ~h 'nn.!.elf ~he pomnt" The . Ct GOli gl Q nil e step 'fu M'lie r.m: n !d ['IiI1S. Th'r S 1i116'W C!J!:f'V8 ts .a I!II'~6 pDi f'Il~.X(<E!pt lsr lim'8t~he I BID'llg.es.inl'S on the cyckJ td. l' IE.0 O~h b ~llow the [P'.GQssa rv __ d r:aw the '~U) 'fix the.1.of ~h'o'1Ir1~111n-g el rei~' is m e. sra O then 1~lro.n' ·th~'~I l'iilll!g e ~Iml'e'Wil~~ :pmd uee a '!LJ~ie:kP'!l'OWf'i as 81"1' 'el~icyclloidf jsee FJg'.D.C.im~ia to :thB r ep'icycl ci~d :see Figi. the IP'~C'~D..m the 1S po ints arol!Jnd tJlile lortl'g~n~1 elrete and 'whelUie 'thelie' Iin.in eiHjl toge~h e r at the P'~t( ci rtle h dli.jIFU.5: Sf .:ilsreifefii'"8d ito .of the new tn ~DfI·stru~Ualn 'uha.'trncai .!iI:lir.~~raight ~ineas ~he:'ua.~g~in on f:! 'U"u.mpl8lsse~.t:iln:!tl· roe traee d b}.the 'rood~ib.~.D. tha~ 'the su lialce I bo~e th e P. 0" ~11.I!!i! ·all~!1g.r.8jpJi!"esol"lits the .!e nfie~ e.!: 1$ nH~i'fked comp ~ele Ic'i:rcie to 'fix 'the IP o~n~~.i'e'~sdrawn on '~he~'ineand tihis c~n.. fA oWle~'~'f~in stead of FOl~fi rrug 'the i.I'D'!! oU~ EH' u ~i Ie~.rence ln gea If' tCloU. 111~)e!limedmartJe j:..r:e. 14.is '~headdelndUim' wlh i~5~.eJ se.ed. Thase drnv~si ~Uj.C. lD. eslf aln " th.~e: of. e_i ned e "IYfJoc.c!l'offidoal form .)l po. 'lI.g the on~: eernplate tu IiT~ of the wheel is.ym.c a cooiSsmng the Ih..e-s ].lon .. sh~ pe ~tF a ge:a r '[. It Itan be :se:en ~hat!.o. thiEII c.

IJ $. A GiE. .g.very eif.i:lel chosen is IIll i~:~ P•.e·n e..~c~ia. ~Os.... '2'1 .~ftlhe~!..·fro'm WI'!I~~!:~ b.~. thl! I gh/es uS! ~¢o. h.f a~sQ gliw~ n us "~lile. T"-"~ I~:Co fl. :se-a Fi~9. .e d~lJerm~ned 8·nd c'fte n the s. 'a~ Ev·eln th OUt h ths' nEil nks ~ f!ll1! S[ ~~jgtn ~ inelS tile and pitch ~ .Ii!'. of' UiUlll Imlusl b.~ 1'"\IJ().of ·het engin&sfr' as: 'inrJ~:I~nlty lis ~. H ~U' c. Po "+. ~1=~1!c.!r"'~lratif1Jg !Cj'rc. "01 •• of th e' srn a. ~ea:fs..!S 'lhl9 - 'The re is no ideall ratio bSMse 1'111 the P'·C'•.undereuts the rpCH of tllu~ roctin enid so· prodtll ~e's.i.n. vellc~ity.Cjc:ts i a.~ I~ol Ung diam.r.~lat ''W''ei~'OCn.ntQIi.blet but IfU)~ usuel winen c(H'firsid'~ ngJ a Ipal~lr (g.1kJi:~T1W.EI!I"iI erati ng e~1'£1'9 Wu~11 Inrg run ·tog·e~her· orrIe·cdy and ma'~ntai~ C Gileii31Ir'.c.'he fiQ 1III'll9 Q If 5us.O~D .~.. 'ttl at a re: to.een Ib·e inr~luan(:18'd by ~l1e sitze Q f' f..aUn9. ~S.ta fiI gJu.:T 1145.m.!i::'C~ 1).d lilowly.D. .to 'n ave 1J1n~ g"9!l1'~r.e.nle.~~ rs based 0 n gee. 'li-iI'tI[iliCl't.'tiI· ~ hVP(H~Yldoid 'g.. S.!hlis qEUIlf h~ ~n IIY a.e· 8Ina[iner.li.liy .~ ~ U II If! lW.~1II:11(s r ofthe.qwie~ve'rl doi n Q thl s predu eas a' fla..~1 mllf\~d make x 1F11A !-.• ~rt. g.il!):f kiict:i~. ps'~. h.of GOU r$!I~.i~:)I'1810 if'ilGrl~las~ithe.d riM~.e teeth an su ch a glQar are.:.~.. ..r~' '- <. A.. When :~$'Ft11IngoU'~a.'Eb. str. TiE&TH ~VpCC"'(.tt :Qle'lllfs. Un.C. Whelrl tdii~liJS5]n[g the I~rn ~sd.~~1It'F W~1i.awlri!g! one MCIII'~wrng' the ifl. This.dl iver'u~eth and 'faces of't~e ari've'n u.:! CQJII'i:8~a ftI:t havi ng (U1f11.. 01= C.ji al r·e~dv 9 iV!EI. 'f~8 nks.ld n O'~ fulb.eil'f d'esi(l'ner SUg.~mp I'V d r.of1 rnu 5'1 be :ma de 'b) redUce ·ttllfli rubbiing' .~ali'~:ooth-fd~i e' ea 1'1 !lIr it was: p pornr:rted: C'l~t ·tl1~rl: 8 8:~:iII1: :amlQ IlJ nr~ .liiIi~'glht-~iided (llrQdl radlal.1D.. 1\4JE..f' rl 9 ealfS ~ha't o'filily' mesh w~c~h -efllch otirB~Ii:'.!fi2.~ 'Ii:.~~~Q~~.Th~'~ ~ ' nm a.:I sed f{u IIg htly Ilo..J'EI21\-ni. G.d Dli' U'N31 't~eethI ru bhi!'Thg tilJgethe'r'" FricirJ(H1 is til e ml8 in .. ~. r!:!r~ '~E go 1$.me.I'S..~eed~.s:for ''!f'OU fsel f b~' s.h tog ethe r.eterfs ha.St the C ~iilillonl. One e'm~Dnleil:u g.'L l'OO1i'~ C'YC"LJJ1 '~~ l1~'E.g It is.J.~: ~~~ C.$i!!$n ttUt~l[. thal the is anoUiter re~ISiJill1 whY' 'gle'a!l' tootilh shape ls fmpo rtaillt ildea I IY"il1he'te'eth 'sho lj.ales· heet snd eauses ra'pid wea r.i:iIlh~~d bV .'O'flf'ecdy rn !il~rrta'in ~CMn.ize·cif'the ]3ieIie-r. A. c.. o ~ont8Jet wi'dl e:a_~h 01llh elf wh.lie Cl"~E:TG21 Ol>''''''~ liS EII.ilII.ogeth e ~ 1t.e.dh~ ·the.'~ -~~~~~ T :s'h a~pe o:f a ~~a r \{loth !onaf!flf IP. af f I~~ th~.n I'~e..lnerat'~1fii9' c!'rch!:~.1 6. will Si[i I~ :Ii'oll1t.~~t . tooth she pes are de1tlBormhied it 'wHI ba th~ ~v~o ~v'e"'Jil ~!!.s~J~iglu HnEt It i's.5.~re 1110 excep~:iol'lland . l a nits Qt-tl~e d ri..Cld -.g eh'(i~~el'rOt h'e 'fI..B ~n rfUll.ooSJY to y·arifry t'hi..!!lra. I"~ SHQW1~G.~ r~u~.e~h~ :SInd anGithelF 'D'er!le:fsti'ng lftWde 'ro'f ~the..no·t iiii 'an"! twu g~a· .~~~ "T\tJ ~ ~ E.Mf uai n from \Scr:a.OII.t.alrd!.erH3 my. T'cc:Y·r~ ~~'ll.5. ~f Il:oot~h.::1ll' a 1=1G ~ ~)Mc. . ci rele further :Ii nd sti ~ II PJi'G d1uce co rFe ctly -fa rm edt Q~a r. TQ-n.uSl~d hilithe sa me '~r-arnl!1."mA. GlfciJ!li'a:r •~ .ve I'lII t'Beitn.I~I ~f~M·E..".I~'E. / / J:'l c.itre~5ed duf es·. " ~~ w ""~S'E.. Tinis.that th is.i~ I p re~.'e of ~he~~gn e F.J lbo"'fl. l'f"tjFIIE~ ru~brng a ~liolrlis i'e.. m e ~niS. ~h:&same roi~~ to'f ij.'2JE:Al'82. ~P-ICA. i'$ a - liO.:eBi w~\.~.l:es must FIlot be gea 'velocity but r.mC!liie'd ·then so 'is rnest Oif tthe· 'fr~cneil1i F'o·.- .::KL.k willh II reve ~ed '~LI1rva.ll.strllLetl0n.22 ti'rfl B. -~ Ii.cl.onsib1~B~~r p~er 'iigS'geSl' 'bu~it a. te8~h 'Oif t'hle tWQ gear! -t.s. Q1'. Th is nUl·a ~s inlterresUiIlg be Clause i ci'rele whclSe -/ Y' ~ 115 20 'ILLlJ~~ ~~:VWEE."·aH ci f\cl!9l e fIl.O~T~ F'. ·"fi. se'6 ffg'l 1!:1t.!.a...--uj pAiIlfr1i"·A.onr~o a n o~hef 916'0 r ihen :r~jJs obvious.i. 'E.elfi'i tl~e erru!'iH!I9led ·tee~hl. and fa DeS.. o~ ~I~JV"E. iii If] d til e g IUl erati n9 ~i'n. ba:se.16. ihi p9Wfjr . i~ P.n w·a·s 'oltJu'se..o'U'If'l!1 cHJ~ ~I~ one g eellf has to P'8\S'S.a1fJIJ'IIrately' tin e sha pe:·. iiga~ eaJC'h 161 h 9'1l"' bjlJt m:e1raJy rail I IQv08f Oil1l.cJrl~Je T mray '~ialrv bUi~. L~~e01= C~1iJT~ T' 'TI!!£1"!i4 ~1hSl'VllisQ at· w(nJ'~d a'lways 'b'B U\S ad a fII d i:tC'on'ii.! a st~nd..s. 'QI:eiii e [.~iJtalll'lll. he: SillS' (!If 'the g~neFalfn9 .lcts thar~ 2.

t:na'MB~e f I.lleby d [pi]!~chcl rele 3 nda: Iii riven 'whe~1 'w'rr~hi AO t.s.sha:pe' ..~~be..~ IGi fi~lif.dv'.smrri-ng oo:ck to t:iu1t .~IUiC I~ reeess~.. . e: a.g. ~~E 'S'll Lb.e ~r~ _ 'llgJ~' ~ !WfWI. 'n~a't iQ~n en together ir1:t' the P. l~eD 'lha fiI ~'!.l!81uh tDoth ~[s O[illI~~h81 !lif: 'tl1Tioil:!i (0' .e~.y~e.ric1i on :pO~.~ -Ii. Il1il'e~~sl"€d m[~i n~.1..g: 8' W\uU~ TlhE!' teeUl O'f ': he wtieet pin~:s..1io:rUl e p T1n~ ijW'.I':l.nl~ i~ i'mpra~UCI1l'~ .~ io"iinfi"i a..can..edIlli1d 'mtne h~gh fn~iorn Sl.he' ~mZ8' of 'Ine Q e."". e-yclo!i.'i'[uaI:lijc'~ :a rlses iIii! [. I!ooiW ~ ~ _ _ _ _ __ _ ~ _"'" _ _ .dainrti'drn . w..i3f1d since.UJflLQ t-J J!. '11.!!Jo.ilftitilI1 :is riI @w .IC'. :2'0 wlh.. E:nl'iH'Ig~:ng the.~'in..e pow..ee:~. Tie.frie(lton ~h eit O(}I()iLJ risa"ft9:r ..... .rll 08 v.'f a pp rea dh" whUst the Iin~1 ltd I~~ntacjt aftJ~iIi" Un e ~~e. go ~:I'SQ.tlha' MO Dr~pi111'9!11 poi nts. Ula' tl~kmake.A i's 'the dJ~iwr.el!Y 'ffiarn: B..~nd 'fa.e~k """f rem'ovlIII.. .'J-ar. ~__'-~'f' e. AifrtBrthe CEI'ntfe' n ne+ is.e h ad a @~fI:s~da1l"'aib. If' UH! si.e 'Weirs' to be' n1!1!:I die: U~ r e slim e .0' BCD.6·)!.!1i13jr .Me Ily a r'DU 1lI!L1'the -por-nts on pc...e~h ~..a!te:ria~' calii be added ['ii!JI'lupl.HmO ill n~ ave if o-~her .~p.iI... .~ou~'d be to the rh. ellli'miniutiDII'1 .t fOJllew~ '~he . Bi Q.. "EJ2~ ~Oii!'M. 'ftr~ctiolii!' ~Ilo~rrl[g nne of' Conthe 'tam ~~eft of ..h..EI. tJ!U'I' IF "= ~ ~.iii'· ." _ ~II ~J IGG~ IIIGU~ II. i. res!JJ I tj ng ~..ed ftr:om th~s ~he..atin~ el r.(:! "d .ialli..' 't"I'j.n~ 'IN ill I WN)t do as ~his.. !.YCLOt'O~ TIE. ~III.i~i:ll1lgdll ring di'Sf3 ~ 9 agE!'meJ1lL l1I'e~Brri Q n LAWiJERN PIN ONlS Ilit is filr1 the . .o"'" 11.~11 be ·5hnffihtlr '~p'th~rt ~hls oond jtian fll.:U'Illi '1tIIelrl~~Qr8 some m odifitC:altiOln.yIUp t. .!- J iiI!1ir!!lli'li ~~~iI'~ ~ I'f. j w1i1] ~~ beoomfes :a .e!!I"C of .~.~d€..f!¥en 'Wr~-ie~ II.OI tih. . 'Ci3111 ied thi e f..1O 'tJI!.oreNrea I :~1<ituanDn.u [b'eliiffIDre "hID 00 nrlilfe ""!"" I'.that alwri:ng t. IEiIY G~t2~'"r~~ G IFbRt~~ D C IR.bov'e! ~s' IV 1!tO'lrredt so !O'm lerna :as .I !rU· ~In Inie! y.n..arppreach t:helfJ1 dtis ki 'wlhlei~ a-ttenti.. the miine o~· a ~I.iJfi ~ [p.lllt and so til ey' .10.!$ AtJO ~'~""'.of . U.m' as.erlju:!IIi.II '-- 'fh e !pi nion '~:husmating: 'them' ~in~iO I':Hi.at'some: y~eful 8. oons-et:\1.Ir... P-O"llrDls linto on t h~' whe~ i fljO iI:S (0 m'..Jf' I~'r~ l Dk_~e..hi19 . h~gth if.-h -..f the' .~i~ G:=NEeATIN6 l'hEliie (I re OOC:alI~ion~W\~N....n U~G·~I .e Q'E!-ml-elati fIIlg ~ir~lle 'fif' wh!l'U~~~ urnti~~ i:s~ngaglemJe flit i:!fj: e: d ~ornp...lnt01' 't he are .or to. I.Fii1!'li II'I'G ....iOf:"~nla'P.f' th e' g.ir~Uiti lof' '1'NJCi! ._'l.This ls mu~·tratedin f]fj. -I .an be: :gla'i'li'1. r'Ol~m.~ ~~ ~u .::'lr(....gll'l 1"15 a ~Dlmb..polj n t.eili:~!tea during the IEu:.".ze' c. wO!J~.!Iy..I)sly til 9' abOVl8 l:!U flan'gle'me..It? I iIii gia.ecmntre .~ ~ u~ i's:t'~ :~E!m(nie' 0 r oot aWl.i.' ~he dfliive r.cutthlQ nine.he faces air: rhe drrri\l\'8'r1i' whe e~1._.fOllliDWS·al delfjfnllr~!S· p2lrth~. wi II nec€!~s~t~~..'e'U1L gealr ti"lEN1~.o~!1 w o b8fS~C fO~11i~g '~river that. n~ .~~Irnl"".ilIl. 2. ~~ti.j'.~ili....XY.I'Uoml IBnI' th e pirobi I in ip.'" :.roy.int as.~ontacr has.0.l1h!.c ' ~h C.aU t]I!!1'iIU!iS! be: V o~ tllhJI oti'gli fill.Wo I101 ~1UJi W1111'Dllllra'-'1~~ ~1ioiI" . i~ gafi!.f-tln e teeth hY~'fHlevc:I'oi'ds.1..g ci rcl..a-~e'room fo r tw.rve"d.~'rl'Ii'lle ~aininfn beMe6'rn '~'hG "two' 'lJOI 'f. J 'EP1C.H:=iJ1i.) I p~ i~ls a nd for ell p.g :fwfficth)'1iI rus· t'h~' prim/e' IcnI1si..Il~d'ttH~nIbe! thiS new 8 Ppr. iII na i!IId~' ti"" bs h'!iD '---!Oil' ~"'"" . A.id m (U1~''WI.lim of' ~tthe! 'wheel .of." .iimM~ ~~~~~~~~~ Fe! JoJ"TS..r. --j:.~ Gont~u. Ih~ fO. e :toI' ..oerlting eiircl.' '(11~' gear '[0 oth.i'r1I'11 (Drll the .than the' frid~on f ~'t.. The beh~vio1lJ r IO'f ..gam 's'ide~R.ich shQWts ttuan the 'I~n~ o..rfol"Ti""". as i~ omclE. '1<..·1 I~.!'.-he paifJlh 6f it:n..ade 1:9 'the TE~~D5V REMOVQ.a ct!lc I1!J up.. As iIII ~he C~ s e 'of the !Sh~Pl~ to. 'CiS-1fiI..~ .!'. willtl1 nalfg ks of' th e driv. ii'iIJol"i. ar greater' . :~he....a.. :M Ufat :i& 'is now' t:nlB 'mesS cd lhie..$tii eh a S Sj.n m'U~~ be I~oncre'nhate..nl~-erifltg 'fact ~h:fWt the 'fri'd'icfI U'1!~t..·.ga{p~ment o.1' be:vrno.!!"': <e0'1ll1'"'u' : ~~ .tt~ 9 e ~t!lh that. ini.C~D.eV!~m.of oont:a(tt: m rwves up me IID_@6f:h. j~1i. pain.. The.if(.iii e. . thiB'.an· pOf.gina I Qudi ne olf .~tiJ'!j..Wn -I Uf '·I~.. U:eU no cl '~)n9 ifi8 XY I .!I"""-I!.ap~'ro>achl!' u~ a ~~JNid pa m lcd' ..f\ld C uri agai·n'J .~ tr. fun hew .. "'rH~'~Ii of .~n~.a~Glniitild de.... .ellE\! o-f: 'wh le~ e A.:S '11Ih'1 IP"C:.:1 . Mlovi'ng '~he 'wheal cenrtre:s.. $olllJ..da i eu rves.$ S.. PR"~. make eo m:a d.D~ p. G.eliilnta-et ffis tha . ICld 'the d [!1~vergear A.IpO ['.phlto'n must be' rn. .tite' gea rs would ne '10\filI98r·be ln C(l:rJ't~un!J nd pl ns willi ~h e ~reIUca.age: IC.ilJ'st 'be 'art . 0"..e~is fldled ali a pi ni 01111.[J'.en ge.-w.".:U'li'. Thl's: dra$~."iWiloJcfQ T~E iF"L'!..~~eli 'iN "eel! WhH no !l...ars :8Iiu)Wfil in 'Fi g~:21:. much fll"·c~:ioln PQMi III e b~J~lpm..'W!.0 "the.'th e . lOll '111 1 'thel pJni~o.Jo.' fllalfik!i.~~ "'''l' ~-w!1 .~rr~. i"I!" ~. tln/Bn th e :sira!pe' -ofi the.i! P_'.~IVI:S:'thus becomli'ng '~he~ 'would mean th~n the P~C~O. Il.actiJon~ ~ Ute! t:€!'Bth co mJ~ I ratf!!1mJe·sh ~.liG H~.~n jirsnd. .gaa r ~ralfil'S of' . C'Fr' P..~ e' fiI.or li!n1e Qrf actlen .lJ a A'!.!!UY' o.itfuch 'wolI...tiiie' iI. .rael~c81 pwe. '®orhe ne' l gears: .@@th 'if] bOVil dl e PI.err by rji'iedII.ii. The ..ClM·V&5.!t W8'~: s~·a'r. .lee .e ii1ef.Iii'T'i.."...I'I. 6 'Iii! ~ _Q .C. .. having po~Uioli1 but no m..aciiol1 l'ea1ves ~~n .LE. o~ m..eLfl~n'a'!~i Itgl ~in:le 00 the 1~lni-V1ei!iEI ~am'A'I ltDIJ.Polrti'oln IC41J t Yit~e ~IIIin orde 11' '~Omallei@..iI'1' .o.!o!:'!.E. .the r. h 011'1'tiThe' driVt9r sind ~he ~IOP~' O'~ tlte' iteerulh on 'tlhe driV1en.!f~ 'd~la!. ""' .am~'e~ ~1!D e' 0 rj.i!'d.eXV. !ll1e "'~Qht I(l'hhe Iffirle.u.'i.J19n w'h eei! which wi II be.9 .'~ fig.e filj"Hi)d~fi'~rt!on tln H ~o pi ns.IG ~'~ ~ eIo-U:..l .~rS t..~ !JJhe IPohi'~t..~' ILiII I!3i' IL..1\1<iII11I. n 'Ea"C'.pi "0 give 1m e. .I! . ell rnl11.IIOI ll\~ :- ii'"..dbe Ii'm G~'ifltDct am' tl1!i~..~f 'I h OJ g.Ti~CA -= ~-M '~~i~~)E(_ OF' T~E L~ I""... IiiIo '110'.e ~iIii~. Wh!!::U rem ~i'rws i~ . .'y' iU" mOUg n.fO~es r. 't-\I!!I.ii-~hll'''''hrn corn In lie tBlu r ..alli1sm~ttJ. of ttn e~ dti .... iQiF' T ~~.• . to be! ·made .. nj _ ~ I"'~.II • .Ds~. ~h. w a L:J1!i.n ".de ... OIF '~l GE~e~ 1i~lc.d~arijl'H. dl...il -'1"'_ j."'i'II'I~· Ulj-~Br :'9 'mre~re'r~i'lG. Misra' Ithe mrH~l of .anel 'th:is eontact is not haphf9!ZJard bu . ".~~er and w'ith 'Uile. I~~ne 'is ~ii"i~ I ie' II ~ I~:u. lin· I~uder: I~~ 0 btaii n mlaIn~tu.at ~fSthe' ·roo~~iO'f tt!IJe ·.eons~de~UCH] :Ind . 11.~ ~~E IJermled nU! 'arc: 10. al p..af 'tbB ~lhed r~-en IQ!Se'r-B ih.l:e~eflfiact ~ PC!i'fl 't~e..O'bv ilo !I.ih I flU ' 1118 f1I'l'la< IIioiI'H '~II! L'IOo' 'Il. e !'H3 i.rglt'r6' Ihl'8 is. rshtndd A beOOrri. Euoffli d dilfi'n~iI. e' '!..red liJ1ndlB.. c. ps ssld.~ ~ G -drilV.

.cLa~eons tru(jt'ion~ .]f)Q lost . erf 1h~5'type if the wfuee:1 A" .pe is the Jnit'i. rUll"uliing ~Dge~h.odu~ed ttl U'S Ima·kJlr1gJ U ea:s:~er'to d r.lDsbum:~hi:s'h.denriabt t\ord be"n. S]h.f the' des. 0 n the It. iFig.ig VB A.rn lpinion p be 'made 'he .s a re' the SJ8ime dh. L.al 'e.]e n9 UH.he I"ne~ Bb. .'re~d.N thell the' 'cons i ant v.se or ci..'Dng as' I the two P. eIi. Q.suI~ing 's'ha~ e of' I he ~e.1 small aml(i'lJllnt of spread~ng of 't1i'ie geall' wheel G9f1lms.maly be.e ~raeed bV a pO..8V drawn .. r..aw the inV'D~U'tle .diB. It is no.iete the clearance ai.llli tn ge'ne'r.lmon ..C~CIO:Hdiilll tela~h cain \l'E!lry consid~rablV ln S'hiilP9 .Quld tlha.lgll3melU of d. m~nt is th'9.'l place or..a..d1r1lYel then 'the eng. .l mel~r'ft)r a ny 'two. 'wont Whefl!' UN hi 1_ ar lIng B.5' 'ha' ~ring is unwound from 'the dfiU m SO iong as 't'h Ell Sf ri n..geall'5..~ .e [p'ilnSin :s:pace and 10 a p~n·'onis usua'lly a geri]es -. . m.J'u m wi'lh I s.ity oondiilHl'r'i VIii III be 10sl:. Q B~IrS. tn me minlimum af IPower .llPiu't Df'nu.Iha.o[rTi\l".h/e levaifilv.f:'tihe eilllg!a~gem n~p thus.i nits.oc.the aln..C~IDs ~08131 iOgntaCit: . is 0' tha: me nacts o..~'WilIY'S' d 1V9' U!te tP in wh ee~ (III" l~an~8'rT~i[lion. Th~s results. detertmine.. 2.i!iir~That is the.th ad~Of1 and 'Q[aars.c:oirrec~ly.the CUl[rve ls ...ntUti'H'iIi wm not be: .. Al'though .-~Ib'ear'ilng.a[liiDUlnd-. as Is mD[a like~v' ~'he wheell ~af11 nyl wea'T'S thu S ..ion oon.J.e OONe as alppU~ . 8Jre Qllways i1i~ghit.:nIO rrn.1u e eu N'e: Fig.ui Ag will deseri be Blli1 invo. will n D~ .. 'o. speeding up lind siowmng dowln WI I 'ta'k'l pi ace .Jrtei ..Any I'ltumilb~r olf ~adiallll[nes" OA .!Hii ~V u nde rstO'Dd by 'lJhi n kiin 91of 81 di.. C1IJrv.Q.om. ~In al~.hha~.tori IIll.end 'fl aink .lan~'6..eiks . saii s~a c.(dl~r.e~ri.bB. irutrnduciD1lg vibndioln and no.i(NI. on Iy true' sen..B:. th· reh:!VtHlt tange'nrt: point . th e' diis:c beJI'!I Q eonce ~'U"'ic: with 'he pi~th cffirclo' ..e 26 .S wh B ro it he81!jJ...a. S Din ~li1d.s one IcurVc€l Q. etc".h betweenwo err pillftS. In 'the COln'st.in1 i a ~Iexible. whilch mea nrS that a 111 V norm a~ WI\UiMiIi in the ge~u wile .5' tangents or.amp. me UJ n~ed f'ri:'cI'EC n . 22 ed'u)ws 'me fina~ shslpe.efinit y I!II!S t!he U1lf1wi'nldi~ng.ang esand "hie liB n IJth cif .g is kept. it call1 be seSlri frgm t. 'tthe' leiI"eIIlJ m'fe ffl mee' of whffich is' C8~lled ttl e base c ird 0. basedlllJparn'1:I. 'CC.e CV.er:s.UNB' 'wi 1[1 be p r.g~nee'l'i'nim for the liiBirg8r 'w.s.'~e.aWlS used Un ~ more PQ.1f>J~ Olh'!5'~"ijlQ.~'h sihSlOe fef ani i[IIiIVohUlfegI8iu· .~1th eti must .tr...~~ifjjnd .aciB:must be IP'l'ovi'de.ln. ~el!lQ1th! as 'he drcum' ere'nD9 l'letwee. be.srthen [tae contact betWeen ~h~ '.e r r. is [t e .d ~n [De [ii'"ep&au~d ever a filld i over .cti'ollll.adv-er.llute but h ifIS m 0.SI e n:ot '. W'Hn 'nl e ge.[na 'the Imare ~i'nfffi..ct~e. ulnwo.e do! . 'Ttifs: m eans th.\SCHI.s Bb~ Cc.8ra01 the stan: of the "ulnwindjn~f' pcmrn A. tecnn :.ws iii n invn lute' CUl!"Va Bind its g~e.et sliMI fu!fil the naed:s of 5!moo.ci'~ole~ Th[e ba 5B I'hlel pir'lell Hna but Ion cQmtH'nuous.CUN.23. rc IO'W ap preach and the [.hael to dr-We the smaller pilMlIon ndi so 'llh8' lalntEnn whillel Is m aJ~n IV eo l1'fitn.81 d'8fi nne start: Nil and ~i'lilsh a rl.&th.ed :to ..~ ned OIJl( jiJlnd 'Elh 8 'the year eernres are P. etc.dM' INVOILUTE: TE..H 'Gea.Q.s. letr.ho.as the b Ise oi rele.ed a lar11tsr:lIil _p.e:fuUe&9 the only part 'ti"ar~[5 clOf'lsidered in the ~GlrmaUora laf' gea ~lee~h 'l.ac.. The gea r If.ma'irrrt:2IJ~nI~on~talnrvelCtfly between (he two . 'carnnot '8. '~s'u-e s ..o.T~is tYP8' of pi'nlEcm ts caJ~.are'.~edl would be ln 'I~'H~~ hig...(A the ge...r. ~Te:2W 1=O'r2:~ ~"N'Ot.d b€l'low 'the piteh line' of the tOQth~Fig.gJ H OEej' OIOd.end chie. let.5 'shiow.. Ii !YWJ. Unlike '~Ile cy:cloi. CLJ wh~e...ar1i.:.! c that stlrts a:n 'the bSeJlf!! .eiir.a'nt ' VQ'hl' c:i'ty c.simplv betC~U5e:It Te5emb~es an cld.n.'t1pe af' hJnt[9ifll!1~ see Ifi[g. it: can ibe·t!eemtifHlIl.chJllring tra fI1 sm·js_sion. '£lea r te. OB.~t if'lthe' w _. ~W'BIY.!in oi'e: (tbj..echan:ism.e shllJfed en flfne inv. aCe. -..Th'B' lin.e..0 g[e r e tfl is a geometrical CUN. If' the gelf'teeth ar. .D.thai!:: .a~io.aliiDwi~ 9 ~hegoa r.ilng .s: to s..l Itooth 'tffilen ~I :space wi'~!1 bel .made irveri table ferr tb B' pi n: h owev. . iost..l)'lIld v. '1hen whatever the re.t ilJst.. ~y the number IOr~ itsefh on 'the respective g'~ rs but' the g@~lr~ wi ~f not w-erv'Q. the ecnstant ve~odtv bebNeen me mra'ling t:i1n:u'l:ar slP. Th e wheel wj~1h tbe [~lrO. 'raLl1~ittl e pa tlh talk'en by th s e Ii1~ of the s.cannct a~te-r as hi.' If.f the fa c:e ..lo oity cond'itiQrI w~ II net: be met. in&.U!1IY reason.se~v 'f:rffect the' prope'r act on -.n.nlv a!nd g. semi- sides or .h~ The defiJi1Jit~:QiII1o'i ~he liitvalurl.Ile '(lB'.wei wm l IiiI:J n tog~!th 9 r The p'inh.~S th I' te!Mih nom lEI'inrtio tel fII d Du't c.ign: w01lJld be. If" f'o:!r '. "TWIii:' ~TiS I !tJvo _TE CJ.' til curves itl!~'llII'S9Cl~lnG' on tOlll'taC1 S .s is.s.tUN.ilgilinlr ~he If'lIV1oh.ise in the' m. 24 !lj.eel c~ntres are net accuratel''f set j'n the fin. iflue.InC!!! 2.Figl~ 20.me.ohJte! mJJ nte t ..Jlm[e i.BIH1ected bV ..the constant vel.cal definiEI'on 0" an inVlQ. So IlrO'ng 3S the 'QJ8ne:rafing ci. n ci[hOIi wOilid!SJ.C.as loos.1 !:O. Cd" are.Dsare touching each ether.h.' in 0 rdell' to' [c.~IQidal . ge. Ylim 'take phICe'aifie'f' 'tn'e' ine: of: Gen~resha5 baen :pBss:ed and 'SiC ls Tn ~he I~w frij.tllld Iroml ell tirr:utar disc. SlHO'Y!i~ mE .94.

ee.th wa 5. TiI.JT it.tween 'tbe 1~:Ni!ls. but 1 A CiQN. was seE.e uS!!d.lirne'and ts shown 'irn llFi·g.S.W th~t the rado not u:$ltnl~ll.@: !iiiaIMEf) v.ed..:ilr.'E~ n~. ·r.rQm.!iii.ve Ilhe same NtiG' .brdW'EUSH1 t'h.C .al" Illild whlere· ·t:hhil. Reifere n ee p ihl fig.~mailiew i~fid'hllmete!i" t.D. (iillic~e.e· ilCh cicle.'TiId1 27 . UFi'@~·S~~'-W' .orrlm th e :llline 100F Go:rnta..a'l~obut . ~~ 6".ucU!d as a.add s~r~nQ~h the· nOD·t.ways aim Qunt bema e n ~he'bonQm. AUO '.alli1~ UJi rlvliin dis. C P" Una is.~:hB iF. m us~ rille· eo n cernt ric to it Th e to.I:e'~ t A tJhe ~ill1~a -CffJnta(:~ belw.!.v ~..~~. Th e be i'e.:' NI!!J\!IQ bJ."l"'W E.Ji 6l-..~ f. pa55iji t8ngBIi!~'iall'~O ~heba M c'lrels~ t ne tall 9 e ill t poi n~ be.~:a P.s"ide th~ b~ls:e C·ilf{. hOWev\B-il'~ to sho:w .n~~ 'Un.2 t.h-·iUll. of the :basill ~ifiCII8 a:rnd' he mlsdi'u S ~if U1.wijing. ha.T~T '!5T<'.i'ulother .28 w'i[~~SifUJ.."~ p. noW' d If.ol!..~th ex!8 nds be~owt:he base (':iiroi'e: by' .bi'n~nion fjlf 'twel (..~'. iln th e case IO~ '~~Hll~ ~. we P but ..! of t he gle~-.TIPOI'~.0. 'the . I 'io. t [s I lm(u·.spa Cle fer tal smal!~ ibienci'itn'llgl f~ld~us '~O ..awn 'fra)n"ll PCi'i!ilU .t1!h drch~' astalbl lshes 'ltD 19' IP osi'ti'c ~I .Olf the "g~. T ~~ A~ 'f'roI~~ ~~'~ f.c(h~\it ii's.tap of' .aioS 81 imilnat:e-SI ~h r:u:!iG:esaiIwof 'dlril~b"ig the e ..nv.."'!5. ng 'thr. At Q r t ra imI' .ns~.H'1i1thm.ootth.Qhhe ~aetl~t..~~'l~lii f1i~ P..I'e.e'cllrrc~!e~ntdthe· iPJ::"ID.~e1lh~ r m lifSiI. [oUlm.e ra(Hu~. ~E.'TWE:. cirele 1JS not !Jhe p'~Im:h c'~IIi'.!l I ACT 1e:..'iiJ ~t. ..a~ani i.~· Ctfh.E. .and -also .'1 'TH:E TwO Ut-Je. 1P.Cligh tbe ·G:e"l'. the ~[JneAB" A~I 'the iGOWltac't 'tak~s.AG!~ ..l'le ann Ie TtP' b<emn9 tli1e p~esJ:!!Jj'. W hif[lh !h el' js~ring:r w~ieh p:lI'orvldes a elea'r... c.'E.allow~ a . Or dru m 'f. SHQ~' ~ 1=1& .of' lnrval U-w whe B~~~r a·t ar~.1"lI '~'h e S e:ar tiElE!.h..stw.ung po~nt T wftfi t. a [oom.s Uu: 'iDerrtfe ~~ne of :the 't..:u:!Ne~. lli~'ne'interseid~ tb~ pU. is an!~.Ci i:$ a ".:UE. af:!e nEl: to o~hand the .r.D.27' a's.gea r CQfiU~·re. ts .a! srrNilill!. hr) ~he ~~s ~ of the CY'I:l'IIOieai 'lll'etn ~~.I... to tli wOrik tOl.. T ~nJ T A [WOo '~'U_o~ A.l13Iflgle Tp·IJ' om lQ'eflur '~O(:rthd rawlng 51 as Urui.ei:'9Inl. ~"t p8'i~ '[. O D~c. ·~T .a~ UiI3' as alog ~a...

e ~a r. The on~y o~hB'r prsssu ~e ang I. 'M~"""l. aiU. artir. to .colll'rectly althou 91ththe :Sh ~~.abl3 ~yin be of 'Mod'ftiu'f'l[ ~nva'jlute g.ufe0'1' '~hecircuta r pTf~ch U wHi natu r.~ Una.. ~ngles mak:~ Uie 't)e~d~ mor'E! !st:utlbyj 'whih~~ Ii} s.s. ~Ilnfaet the lr~a ek f(.< In tM~ p:r.~ded i:Yy 'Pi" and a nry :[f().~ rele.1'dlmermli'ned bV s.te. 00 r WOlr dle!lerrni nwnm or de!ffin in!.s.)!. be ~ who'l'il till mha!!' .81wy.h .afiQI~e. .!!l ce. " 'fillFtlCULA R.aJi eu~'ati:on.ia]S 'V~]n.~s a pedenUy' s!:raiglrt line .lil.O.'.[. of feeth ftOlJ. dli:a meter ~'f irs be. F[. prrodludn!g a gle~'f' that 'is 'eaip1ablfll!!: pf Iong I~ife a nd go oel oPeri"Orm'al'i! ~e.ifJjsQIn fo:!!" th~sirs. ~:he ckt=.e fa Iten lout 'of fa.afy. B othl reis.etr caltphii::ln and 'Une moduil.s'.irlllCU lalli pitch.tllid have 200 'r'e.o ugh [hel woul d retate '~.aJt the: prE-5i5'UrEl' .P e 'wi II h~liiJl a t pronou nee d: GUiIf\. till e .ous 6hapb.am'eI.e~.irffl of 'the in~tGru. I'f any ana of thJe8i8 is Ikll'1QWlfi.:h elf th e:'te~th bUI alpe:6111:50 alltets the length of ttl e '~:onrtaa..uod ce '~lem:h 'th lJI 'SI00 Gil to otl1l '~lha.ze. 41h.. g:e~r~Th. be run 'l)Dge~he'l" as.e~ ~n.li n.llh haJs beef'll d i:S(l)llH'li~<ed but not Uie' ~[.c'mlliTU:n'. tlheir be of' . .us 'the s:hape.~:ea no .t h es been in '9]enE!'raJ ~ se' is 8. '~hetooth si:z~. Pf1iCIHI ThEil el rGulra r ro."f .~ slze'i$: would be c(H"Is.u tar plte:h .a h!.s:I:Jr.g~2.u nd t~e pitch ~ire'le 'd~ametBr.e ~!Sh"ou.all ~hi au gh :5!om Elllat.iI'iI iOn pCtSi.~nler. ~'Hl~ f! 9 r"EHilt p'r"ol'if.!iior 'the :mols'l ~.\I'El'f'i ~l'li's.o. Any if'Jiv.'IJ'~ ~aJ'iii)If3j prelW~[Uetli!!In~~~end p'itdi' wiH run l:oQethu~ r .bilSBd lall'!! the 'i4~~ angie.e. ~ p :the 9 r."e" 0'11 a Ip.~.on j]'JIiJe' '!QOU.e_O'f the '~)e8tMon C IT1I~ geil r m.IlE!'i.)'ns has: u Pi rUl'W beli!i!r:i!·Nile ~:imj(.al ~he(v CQluld not.et the 'Pits !lSU re' iilngli.ai:9Iht.~.ang les .ljU)t.!Il. 'Thie u CilflC.swi~h ~'20P IPJillSSUIii1e an Glh:! ~hQ~i1J inlO't be L!1~e~I 'i~O nies:tn wi'th I.aln I[U.J~t} 28 .~nda'rd cd 'dMerm in~ng too~h :~..n" ~Ol'ii§lor.of the ~ee~hOl n Itlille m.':.ilmp:h:J:I: 'l.r.u mf.iI' how~er~ u5'~ng . 'eq uals thl! nUlmb L:!t .n. ~~.Jimber et' 'teerl'~ n'UJSlf sf ICGHJi'l"Se.~ in.eUa. ~he diiolm.alf'siti'on of pressure a rI!9.a.sCHine 'mean's.s~u ra s. 'There 8fle thre·fl metinods ~f1 g.m B~e ran d i~l..Bt ~itoh 'hlil ~:tuiEi:lllly' ~uoted .ma~ l.dllfttHre dil.hen the OIU'~e.~bly d~~ffen~'nrt. 9I1~.20 '~e6th u pO:1I1 it {:IrF lit. liiilgie.~nd wt!eo '~h~'5: mult'ffipi'ied bV ~hel ro.11111 but ~h!!clrcular p.d ge:irs' .S..~~. e malin5.~ n::a!!lnd rUJlmber '$i)U: "il. The "tool'h IS h all[. of ~he ~hat fllPPEl'. m...e' as h lb~en~ound Din IV 9 8t1F$ of th e' sa me Ipre SSIIJ re a n!QI.fIB i's.lt.g :r.p~dem'li'nv'ollitJ'te fO. 3in.ary 'iirI O:~ be si rn ~11'!ilf to 't he ~'h~p-je.anu'ltaellJ re'rs 'SitU I Use' 'U:H:I' .I'S..d~~h of a '@:Her is th e 'tha5rl j ~~~f'or sp~~ifyiillg' [ihe :S~B IOf' gea-f"hE!eUh" a ro. However ~ iI!l a r'dle:r wo result ~'n a round figure ['aIF tn.al lODUlI ii' i~·lG '2:6 ~~O~YG ~ CIii':_W~ P!'Tt:.IBlS .olU~ Ig'ears.t!er 010 [] ltd h..ii~ ls du~ to Ul:e' inrvohi~e curve valyi n'Q! with the.o pressure al'l!lg~e fur til e eh a III glel"'WhEH~1 The! hllt"g'e ii .lIlnd to el f"r::iU mf~re.goar of'l ~.allilly ob~ain th e' p'~'C". Tile! nU.a~\e .ell:ati \lely 'few te e~hi wh i~eon tr.gle!r wi ~II.ssu re ~lnQI~ of thi8i to o~ h aJil~ll.a Rgl~ei~use be.r ~ltOIf'i~ a perf'!l)lrimta. 1€(H.i'dIB~Il'.!'f' whee li~ the sii des of '~~e: eeth t m.~tchwjl~iil1v81~ia~bT!yresult in ' iU n 8iW~£llfd nu m nor '~Qlrhe .be al m OS-I.iW8d by Th@ eh"c.~ Y.liIed c.~:r[all'lce :mUtS1 be dlh.id be iLl :EM:~d il!il' i1he saimlB ttfit:ti'n1i."om:e f:QU rnd "fwgu FG' sU!"chl .~.g I AI'tef1i1l1g th e pre. FOlrlu:n.. .o~the' Igea r t.trO 200~ Th~~ not on I'Viiltl~f1lIr~: '~he.he.Oin! . 'tihe '~iill1~ co ntaict.o1f' teeth iinil the fj!ealr-m u ~'Up.l1<.t.nCf:I' and nfe Wii'Ju I~ be seri ous~y tm pa lred.~ilj!iC!iJmfe'fs'nCH oif Ulle= P .e\d. 0 r .. G'ea..\!'Q'UlII" w !th gea ~ d estQ ners .pi'lch e..e~ms ~'Olha-v.8 ~IUrSI r.gf.! i.H 'c.e a ra the rC.C. lf millJlu'!.i:ln.14i1h9" ho'We. D. 'The basic datum fnil!' iU ~8i1lr ealC>iJI~ith.llldi rPhvsjc~.und is '~ig.:nesp and I fir 9 p~i 1I1i~ 0 ii'I' the In ext dlis1H n'~e flmam' a p. the '10 li1.lireh:~' t dia mleMf~ Tha re.e1t".ile ms th~rerf'O'rEI' ne(Nii~'S.a!e $ ith:~S. prov! de ill nilg to at h room.h e.i n. I~. ttmi.a~iSUlqd co. WI gli.~re.seSS]1Fi9' jI'. Obviic lJIlsly a .

g h~ s· ba.~n '!Ih.ffH!~d I~. iii ce rrI.e woul~ ~e 2fin"l Qf half of the Bh-ade~Tf~c ira.wollil~ldbe .r~o give .fW~ C)~p... ~. tu:..iPUli~ ~t'the 'ot he II' 'm. aif 't:he ~~eHI~.H~:efui malhod af liUJ'~1ion 'm r small g ears .E!. 25.g!S liI'!. mo lie often ~:hrt:ll .-'11-1 lIi O'F T.hese .not e-~an Til ~ rnbers.aUlU r wi II 'wa nt tc ~-I!J'[~ ttl ls a.n9IOU~ of' 91811:. to [oe. OE~~ ·Ga~· IOhJ.e D..l!y '$or 1 over tooth P'f01P oRi.slmlply '~:he.b C!·o'~sIq L!l}ote Ule (loO'th 'th ickness.~V srna II~ gsa rs thart Uru~ work$hro'p m~rY L a maMU r wil ~eneeu 'ther • D!n ci reeta r lIIoo. ~~..e!!i1I!iieaoiu!ld alnd gear...m]c boca ylse m til e reffia1ivJe.e" two ges'ts . P..~~nu eu huly w1hlf)n SQ'W:i~ 1.'P..!lS Q'f l!h!E! ciirli'im!.h'OIIl~hn by I~h sy m hi 01 0 + f~'Thi~.~ [-. Th e.11D'I -!l.>4.4 10.cutter w~ill determine! th@ pm.s mlely' tel Ih'..~ to bEl'20 Q.!.· F~~H' ml~lle! 'traij ex:a sho u hj it be Ith~~~i.a-t t the modal len~ inJear IOf bEID~k~tud !Eli'm.s th.f th~ 'E!ie~'h.i I air p~tch~ 't'n La..rs. wh i~st!a AS me dWlllle' we II.p . D.~I!1l.~p~a11' 'to be &3f~i!Sf\actorv.NE...S~O'~ IPfl'C :: li-t U N.number o~ i 'teem 81 whee ~ h.olf' 'the 'whael cenrses.le 'widrerth. 'WOlli IId m =111 '! hat .' g.ab'Hjf~' e ttl prolP.~roportiQfI:S.CJJ.. theomUca Hy CJJ rr~ct~ irII pre tl"il:I:.rr'.A. 'fhe whG. ~or e\.P'~ w~n '~tH~' 'T'Ullinl be I'ailfg.el Ch)Wlin.has rug MODUI!. 'tEl~th tllie ~FlII?r 'oontra~ '1MB DJn~r~~or.~~ulnteif8n Qdd O. '~~lu:rrn ~'" AO~~ ii4!1CK.e.f I :5m.orn i~: 'the depth to wh1h:Jn he ICli!~S ~he tee~h.:ICL of th'e: 2:0 tOlothl we llI'l d be 1 li'rt <.~ P1TcH.th a u~ i~kness. diame~~:r and ih:a$ 40 tes\th thre~ it ~s sa.ffH1S~h ifni the. 3· in. di. nit110'~ c.S: malki 'the tooth '~pace'.ly htll~i5' ilbl de.' rQ!Und. t was chose" ~ar ':~he tooth six.d that in 'thel I IOone si2le is jllJJ :s. aboy.9'f Q. 'fCgrures 'f. blJl~ ma re' m~eritl V i't hi as. SI hHJ ~Sh ows I til e ~'h irI:~nes:iS.It../bp c.8lf:ldlle~ The: dTarnre~r!a1pitch ~s .lJIle.e!'ligem IE! flit m iJ.dOIF:il~ witih 00 1:eath = wow..r' ii._ C~Ii~Cj. f.~ ~he' e' s ijllnte!rnadolna~: .8 FtI d~..1aiR d f011l' m:he: bef'llef~lt o:f 'tIn IS: op~rata r is 1J S ual~~ q!IU "I' o~e:d 0 n -3'1~ .'!{:~.Vm'DC:h~' I itit. 'tha' ifnatrici MlJry' of q uo. Provirded tth~ 't.G 1:eeth i5.. cd th~ 160 to erh \!YOIll ld Ib. rH~ 'E toctin S~'a ce at tho pitch ~iri!'U~. S C::6l se i:s ain't 91. h.)L~:QtPrT'~ .T.aJnd 'the d.~ OF 'T''O 0.o'r dJrlill ling amid P.eetfu . I)h~n a 111 umber 1 modale ls aq 1lI a I to 25. Thl€l te''xce!pUCtiL I~.e too...le.! 'th e 1oo'th spa ~e is 05'!. P.s.t as e.Md th at maasu ri n9 by ralv·e'rnl~~lrcaJip'el~' '91a.on-ewith '20 'tee:~h .. ·~3"o£ 0 1 W'O~!(!.lth o'~ ~h.~fil! Iio. :2:8.attJeu.~ mOIm iPHOrOmO:NS ~~. th ~s Is rea.e r ifit m'~~metres dl v'ideid by !lhe Ii ~. P.'[ res ea~v.D~lC)f 2in.ti ng the ail'(:' of t~e tee-til .oomm I. gear •.R...~ thr~ P. cjlam'e~. 9'wkw'.a rei. as.E.!!! .0DD This tle sc but it c. bi8IIOw' 10 D. th81.. Uile:pitl'll IcurcJ'e •.S (.efJ 1(ll il). beln 9 . IOrf . m~illi~1"U3il:J_mee itS ~he· mot1u['e' l1u.s~g.~he g.efl' in.h.Wh iiii! tin is j':5. ~ 2/~ iJ..uge 'to 3.: ~I .kEHi 'Ul e !S.. When t·utrtl~gl ln Fig. ~ 1Ji8usu ~~i\f' wh o:l:e I'i! U!lrnlbers . miiUilmetfies b~1 a-rru~ 'iliflcn..01:'7' is.eb o~ p T'~cn diameter. The .J _II..!:f(.e a'S· bei n.C. I'ftthe numlber we..a miF3lt~r tthenl-~n.7' D.40 o:lfi.e..J'!~~a. The p !i'Qb~le ~s hii1lfg e~v ~C_~ltl'e. iJa leu rte'f~.ar h~ls a addiUon O'f the' two IP .e~e~.de'~ Jlu"'Gdll!J'Cie two to !.xt books quote 'the modll!~. '!"I • '111.has be.JE: O:~d.- n~e'rWI I~ ot be bas. ilt lean be .'1 wij II In it~e if' be 6.as'V as m@.~~~1t P ITCl-t F!~I :!: .If'ioljle'ct..e' or b allOW th~ pitch circle and t'he 'width of'~:he ~eeth I'f.~a nu m ber :2 rn odu Ie wall Id be 12. ·tD Ile: able ta lillie' round . f:t_u. a ..~r:'pi'tch.'Kam'pI·'e=~if: a.4.yllTl1b~.CJJs. P nu mbetJ .teres:l lonll:y is.dfll· IO~ g~ii:H'. D. W~iC. 'O~.•is CO!lJ b I.elite eut t(~Uu: 'co'r~IC~ (h~lflth '! tHi :sh'ape IO~ the .'.er.h~! Idle p~h" to r tJne curmtirng d'eJ/.r' iln' ~ tha n' I:1hlea m.e.roGa~at' th e D.stl~.!! Id be 50..t· as El'91SV to ImEiasura as any other a.P.()J'L&fi.n sa id .a~tt~one.JE ~. \leit noth~fi.~~ipHlsrd by' the :modi·u~'e' ea n b~1 said re btl 'the p:ukl:h.HslIri IlQ 3..of tha !toothl et ·t hie pi1cll Una to be the $lil'fVle' '~J'S.plyJt111'()n o.OO'Tf!=!I.~d a.a ralt]o of 3.IC.P.liIli I ~geriJr ]n 't.S..n DJ!M1E1lML PITOH This is CElirJtaJln ~Vby' far 'iJn e m OSI eern man whml ~'1'he'p". 'lti-OT1F-"I ~~ .52 e" U.sInd 2®' [[l.re.elrtai'IlII.r.m~. . I.n not8'iH 011'1.fig u~ d'ivilidEil'd by 3~'114. This..er te.m~er mlu.mbel' o1f '~eetlhifi OIF flO.a~ p. It 1':5: n_liYit n usuall W H'n.tirh.11!l!.the ~IIWH)Unt ttH~ tJee:rh (.ea r c~ntr.O .gl the reo~p.P.i nk)!rts mi IUngl Imaleh inas.r~C<D.JlIer. ~'i.s.rft. rlifUlmlberrr Ol't. So'me le)<t . jU~.J~ II~.Ps. e ei r.1DIU! a 'tJra. are :1511 own and the most II.4tt D.P.i.. '~In.E.e~I. 29 but.d n I'lij'tlo. If1g:..

O'f' the 'pi !"Ii.ilUlt us !1I:3'!II:y 'tt.u g~a rs. rn ust °sl SiD be a pp ~i d 'to~..::~h riels di.o a r.Th til 'M.a.hl1 iOln i~ ii me:aJl1 ii.1i~ln meU. raug.!!lf~b. .o 'tlhe:Wr Qrng i'illam &l'a rt1ng JlO ~.. .~.arrs 'DII11t:n 9 1n O:"I~UJsi'tl~~i'~'e"[jll111'1 se ' hat .zG' 'tq i'I'lI.all d preSsu re .e b jld j'nG~ il'i!ed\git-f.~f:i'rJn.pi'nii'C"llil h!ls ~:C) Imak\E. A esta bl ish..ti~[HTh where: 'th e t(1! eth d e:sl[gl~ed [9.. empl~ryed Or -_ Hli. P:. ~S.S.d1al.porli6n 'of I P'.on. !ii]iW1ng '(0 "Un e P'. !OO'nrt~(Jt metlon or .onS1tant V'El:IDCilV of" Thiel teeth wi U iIii'D~ be perp eJrlidlic~ I ilf!I" [0 tlil e mail'~li1jg'1J~'t~:nmi nt€l: ~8 lmain~i. QF~ IF N$ !la.s. ~ 'ft:.0n me' S-i13]!rrnrB: o-1m .il f...ation b oth rack and p~lnio f!iI ~8tilllrn tt. ~hi_i!ilcevnrg! a .c:~.e'~.Sair 2i'nr.n~dafd 'givhl!3 fill OWIiII :Dn MQ.l~t o. In IFrlI~l'.e invOlute 'f~lrm hils been. I'f th e dialm'et.ack.O !!j.e-ViO IlutiDIr'I of: 'Ilhe pi'tclh a .the P (l gea r.'f' the taeU-a..vcle o.th'a p~nllon can be used •fil·d· ... t I .ravol Uif 'j'e AS.eil'tio 111'fro III SlPl~(.:30the.on tbe p:i.ma'il se ello n (.on 'flr'om Irotary .ifu WOU~d .d~V whljt 'tlhiSY ars.h oOIl"f. . A rack i'~: on~v a sm.~eSSLlllre gS'iilir'tOOU1.e 6 e' :!fitJr'~I~ght-:s:ided 9~ rs.iln i'IOfil wwfh eatl!i m!iJ'I~IIJIUontitie . '~ir.~ ~ ~D .~y f:~')Qlm 'the: p.on &.om iii nU!'.ears.s:h:a:~e..g 'tW()' o!Fc'dna ry i fOltalfng ~pUlr Igears..act t'h. :5:~U r leeth wi II Uli!arefQ. 'T.li.~ck l!iri~e we re dTscussed whhl reg a rd to.ge.ght lira e.~k' Iby' .ClCo.f.~le'uft'Jm.o phlth ~'ines.. Th ts co ntd!:~kn:1i Din Iv .'j r!I ion wi I~ be9 e 0. wH I .e'~ with ~h.-eloi.l. 'lile [fj.r. Of' ~ase: ".~k h as a .fii Ithe! fact is 'the d~~vslli.sig.iin. ~ITCH ail2OL~.ii!!ifm illtk)n~ . lin alctuhal~ 'f.d e U.ICJt as Eai di$~: r.'~c.E.ov'eme'm:' ha:s to be rn 'the CIse.O[.'f . .a'i1l911 . out ~h a'ili!' ~l'1inti fie wo rki n Q leng th.9 rack and p:in'ion 'the .c~. ~~~'C'~. spur .VQllJlUrl'll IFDIM' Qf: R'U:K AN'D' fOIr' a InBek .sd 'Ijm at Ul.eria rm e Qua Ily 'Wi~~I.oftinis Is (h att .ni~e di iim~ter.r an indafin itie' tn'IU m be r o'f a praii'r Qif :S.o.Jfea~ed in si'.!lInd ~dla1'ilnld ~'n a.he P. plj'ni!on r Pis: repriE!Si-Emmd by i't~ p'j'Qh' circle ~tl me~)e.d".f art :p~~nt: A.~' ge'ilr Wf]r8 1Q bEll ~'nC.eIIck w~II e -"'niG'1iIi wm ffiif!qui're' a 'J'9dc.. A" raek is.h e 1l.III a~' Cii:1 fe. I~sr:. f.rd8In(le: with U~e ~'amel prlf1~i'p:re' al~.e' raek bei'flI gOff tp ~~Ifillill~!!j'de.a~k wH I ~Tav. 0 IiiIIV a o.ee:rIV' W lith lt.1in~ 9 e'. i~engt~ 'O'f' r.ack ~c.rn the stra &9~t IPitch ~I[ne!. jlf: 'tf.eil:d.e.ut irnf.al[fidi flu nhe r m.[j' wi~li naitUJ m II~V ~xa c'tll"I' the sam'a' ~ ~ th~t u~sedC'rII a 'spu r dep iSlII1d uI~'om 'the: Id'i.o~ fin!.. ef 't h e' [lfe>Sl.uru.' 0 lUt of' th is gea'r .iwur r . 91.G~i'Dn II n w~ to!iilS ~djBr !.g AU t~e. Lengtih eq uall 'to the S'U rptr1ii~IIi!'g ~e-MU:S€il d .Plilil!l' gear" 'fine f.aij.g!e~I!iS~b~ca use '~h ay are ti rcy~ a'r" C'~ll!i[d keep rouati ng ro.'He Ir' $11~g ht. Imctij 0111~ as to iC~'ase. II pifat~]~e:j liJ'sf.f: c.ttl'y IIiINIION :tf '~h. rm as Fe c.fD'lim ca n be ea:Ha.iJll part' cd lal ¥lery hrwg:e.~rnelr~r at.n the· ck.n 'lie Bi't h atfi.The ~ n.i'iitirty 'linen rts p~~tll. w~thl i1in lmes. TWQ' :.oom.p€H'. oug hit of ~M~! b ei n.ei beoo.l'va'la 111 d enee U~ pi rnlen f'~..T i~vo ~ute:0 II" an Qille. E.ed+ Th@ IUiI.ilt. ~inea~ moti.ei.arr whe e.e r lot .~'S:!.n In"eqt!irements" ~"fi l'r!ii11~ S illa. IDf'in~ir:li1e s'3~.. A ra ~k.m'e a st. The . '~@r d. IIN.any ~\plJilrgea:1i of U'a3 ':5-am.O'~ d UI I convenilng..C"O.~~ I Pl. 'if 'I'hl 1[3.~ la(rge ~. Q!f:. tH.1' dlrjven I .c.III IIIIate' ly as.ael( teeth 'willi reCi urire a bout '{Ml~[Jn. 'outlin."D~ wi II be a s~:rai'g h~'liGHte"~h is If.l. mati.~.f t'h e ra.. L.ady' ~ aen eilf'~u mm:re'n~ia~leliflg. whh:h i's nOit "~. ern ~-et.CHAPTEI··4 Rack.a!1'll p. e' E-onse\q]ue:ru~e:.e! ehes the a e1fiijd ra!['t~le ra ek.velry :F'. The' pU-ch 'of. jhe ij'nvoi liJj~e ~n~.ilfs whan both d rhiB!fll ~nd Cilriver 'QIBaIFS ~'M1kVe th~ sa me ii1U m be r of '!ee'lh.lll iOin a Iwavs to a IiIlgag.~: in.e ~ame' tootlih CI.CJl.e Ifaek hi-Ga'ii ~lya ~\i1iIldr't of pi" II ~n Wi1.pei!l}t51of 'lO.C..:!f.lme.ac. Wh.iilill1'ld t'n..P'U r '9 ~.hi Eli r.6 of ~hel pi ni OWl.!11 snalPf3' tih.poJfi Ilnt :a nd eitfu~J' ~ol1filg LJlir. .ed 'f~r de~ign1ng Ii p'g~r ID'~:~p.'r:~.gI~h~ shap-e "@.~~the' end D'W If! ac:fl IO.Bind p]n ion til e in bD"1ti :~he r. and pi'ni'D IfI 9 e~r'S a fa ..e pi'toh Uh. m l n~e 1~1TC"" ywlS. I!& ~~.n. i'l<JC.a~!'s bJls. 'In '~hs .Dl Imadel• d aN' C~rrB.ffic ~UJ1jl9S Ute¥' .nd .a ra.'alpp~ lies 'I!CI fOlti.l.l If). ~itheji' 'sti.. ~ ilJ.c]ird vel~' 0.of R'act and pinioJf'Qs.iI M ra[ght UIi!118.n~r~ d Hfer opar. ~ Tl'I.p:r~de:lermli l1led ~.a:ck di~me:ter~ 'The rw.. rOrtEiIry. efM~t~¥e. . 0 fiI '! h e p.3Jsthle r. o. Il'ieq u ir:e.©k a Ii!.

O!'I'IoJ! L~Y.t\iJ e'llI! 5 be.s used to' pOOf\f id 19.Oi~i'j!'jg [~e S~lli8 of ~he toat'h is..corUlh:~e.ljO'~ 'OI2~\.'D.oo ~ such teI!)j: ttle dcwnf. PINlllNS WITH 'Cl"Cl!OJDAl TEETH rraclk~ Tn e ey't:"!c:i.a~the pi. The rock '[e8'lih will be' ..m n form B mpl oy.tlh the .\"'" __.on 1!mIYM '~ al!"iJr9ng'ed ~o d ri\iU. . th e.r tha'm ~s..y$LU~m c.lJl ~d reS'DJ I't in e reu:::k 'pth::h of + 1961.'~ ~P()''''''~WJ1'O 'eA.~Uon'o~'IWo sba si m ilar bu l '(lPP_OS~1i~ 'h. Tha nlfu~!11 n '~:.~ii:gh [ 'Iline .O~ :a!'0.t el the di"u'velr~-5bolUid t'be pinl b [ee'th be'. te eth i$J rneasu fa d1frIjJ m ~.pi -ycl.~ 'ttl£: ~'9: :So~ul1ei p ri rI ci 1'1.Y:C. S t8 eu lid 'th e desi'Q1f1 req ~ i"Fe'ments deim.2' 'if~'lo]d .~nd n'l1c'k' a n'd .~ '~.D. ~ ..~ych)]d$' b. ge.rod~~el a true Ic¥cl.aget.wn~ bol! 31mli:rllfr~r lima Ole' 1m the 1irst (..!Uild ilil f.ra 111..~ PIN l1EoElH ""PU ED TOIRACK l p']n ion where either .!ill~d had been used win lch ~'C.. D~.(rJ!wkw"ard: P-C. Th~ pre du(.t r.g shouht be use d fUf 'the pi ni on '. !then ~hle' S. wh I:H'leiby th e 1P!~iIil iO:fl' beiCom~~.B fa~~ m'1.n e. ~13ln~ ulpon b t~ be' the .I'l..:VChl~d.~ dlffe'fflHii'l from .cki:S a s.aJll'~ ih ~ cill\Cllda r l1he P. ~.hsy h~e baan 0111other oC~iu:lii'on6i.i!!il$ c ~.~.a ill d whe e ls show Ir1 i11 chap'te r .e .9 U-~ ed.el.llliln'9 'I he sMne: gene:ra:td ng ci r. t!h e ~woco mp C1nents ell! nne" The a rr'8-ngem e P1t.Bny prlev:iOlj. c.~1J!1 dl 1i"i.ny lP~i rn 0'0 en 81 tOCHh L'I!l a :shT~liI~r pfJinrt on Uita newt.fE kl 1<fI(~~~. 1ji:i.._ 22" ~ t'h i:5l' ~as~1 '~'hen ~~~-~~~~~~~~~ PL'r-"aS l. use~ as t'n irs 'g iV~s iSl Ilom rn:aJi rOu n d 'figu rs f'O r tlh e pHcr.e~re.a hlvpolC-ysJoid.C'l.e'f.dJ!i:am ate'l" is ~Ile: same as the pi'tch t:"lw-cIIE IlJjli.. of t'n e Irlilek aJnd ..~.pitch rrketh~d0'1 d en. FUtJo.al~d ~her9 e ill.P.. ~..O!OI'.J's.. U~e'ni'af'f'he f.l.~ RACK.t.~tJi ~OO~ 35 .r'I.~m ster a~~' I"i l"II.~~ the: iI"~.J~ -~- PINS A~ lr\¥fO~vc.C) a Irack :91nd pi ni 0 n in just 'I h e' sa me way as..:'L..s I' ..~le u ~ de rneath the.:ed b~ im. .1 led t.:.ooth pe wrlill be' a cOlmb~'Uii.l'sly da~~ri bad.in N'QI.lell'ldern-gl ~.S rrati n 91 lei fcil!3! 1'0II~inglilI POI[ll v~ 'wnl .:h.2 shc.sruIts. te stand.u. ~i'._Pl CVc.or rnaeh in1 e t.llia ~$fjl!b.::luDc& c. 'ifljlllill t he 1il~~~iI''e be . F~. or ~he' face.: pin wheel ..)'E1I ii'" so the t pi (!'oJ ~o N. Frg~ 3. 1I!::i!lIHbftSilt1e a dh.I". ~l~: centre rui ne 'o:f the..ltern p~.C. wrr~ has t. i91 t~Dttm be ~lO'W th e pitc~ IJine w'~.ltll'iaI tOQlh formc'ain be .act M. een ctlle'sen..~~O~'L '~l~LI~~S.ated iln Ing. 10o.rad' .g:e'fiI e rr'a~1 'lCirch~ rilg who. '"t~ W~~ i~l!!i.et .is shown in 'fig:..iIIlI!lOn th e Il'II tfrl.".'W~S u~ed i!ll spu r gea ri ng.h)o~ the 'he te f.l~ :a ' fr:cll_ p~ h .pin s fe~'rE Se1nl[ :the t9'V.d iif1l~' 'willil aya'ili1! be a cv.'1P rf~f.i.'~~-+-_ F~~ 3. if! th~' la f.200 ~ha Iir it we u Id be i'f a 116 1[)'.2\ th e rack.. I:)RJ'ryit.~rHll ot . U:su.nk~ rn .If' ill jrjJgk Ii. teeth. a Th e' .~L The tOJ()!th shalpe albQvlif! ~:3 rtrie' pit~h ilne.~d of a YB.al~-'ilOUgril ni iSi re.ch line.pocye)o'cd p'il"oclu(:e~ by iLls inl9 ·21.oeM OIlI\1!'PU~ ~o t..eth Imlust: always g b~ on the drivE! n ICQn.ws the sn!tlp B of boU'I p~n~0 rl a ffiI.oi d ..f !epi ~~:~o:~[b~! faces and hV'pocycloljda'! flan. "U.~3:3.'[ iii o'n tne ra~'kwJlI h~ive a true C'y'd'o~dai "face feed 'fJ. 'FAiC'E'~ e.IJhii!on having . pi~'.2 and iI ~u:iu.~tn eUN'e ~nMir~ha IIlI e ~~Til e pi n te.oh:~~IS :shewn i~ ~ig:s~ 8 nd -.ack alii' pinaOIlil m!a~ lb~ of the G~II'~LlI'iU' aT p.7il :3~.a .ntCa I mi:11 il!i1'gi machin B~ it beccmes {!'aJsh:!l'r00. ~'l~~J P~i!lJ10N ~~ K ~ THIE.dIFU\t. tOiQrth .c.po III e rot a I]d lf rh 9' pm 1'1 whee'l 'is: u sed as a ~.on ~'he~ rilckithE!l'fI!' the p'ilnli.ei sh~ ps i~U t~€I~of '~e.1J"!1Ii'.aln . F'INIOINS 'The.~ !!c a non-stalnd's I'd rae lit p~wh.

est d.The: a·muralll width of 'the r.'h.~a'm slitil'f.a1b'!e 'to have' the' ~~n ion as I~hlle dt!iiYe'~'''1 Ih e I~in 't:eeth rnus b e .fil'iate1l!f 'Con~1'ruc:ti. 1i!'Jn.sa 11m) als the respeQfiY.'(a hyp:o ~c.s:s~rifig ht ~'i' I!''()·'t:a·t 'rig nEil. !In til e' I~aise' 0.en~ rat]" elm Ie 'thSlt fJ r....h fo rm ellr:ll bel' Si hieved a"...l)ekn:fn.a cleersnce f.and !the en mnv.e~h bei ng D. wi:!~ Ib e iln :samlle pra.I-fl~~.t rill ~finea nd aim in ~I:'ile k.ood "U1S't.fa.. rstlfsnge si'~uati. n WE:!' con:sld~r 'fhe lang. .Ani\.~ thi s .. the . C~D.e tjll'B~ t5~me· :Si'iz.aMa.n er 'lti!f3111 til a use Q·t bii.d15:· I' lo'reg talS 'It ~.yc""oida I pi ns.e~to elch ot.1 'spur '~·eiiilirs it wa. whereby III i~m.RS1rv' J a ~li!li p mern·.he.' the faces of are· m1ormle.. wi I~ r~111toglelrh ell" witho~ t s IIi'll Any two tau Ghl~:ng dila m!Mers:"" :S.ows 'thll QI!J'a rev~II~l!J thO 11''1' IcHame:ter CC Wy II JrestJl ~~ .~:ral~'lv ech 'over 'i[he' enere 100·!J -..oi.gI t.sli w]~hO'1lJ t. C.t[j'r':s: re~l!JJ if1e m~mtS~8 UfIloug:h the a.ence' 'folr 'ther p.' calille:~.ite! d'i.a:tlc! 'fF t 0 if ·GG:.pUUi :ge. tlooth fonlfnl wij II be' iln ~~iFilr'Ox~:m'~rUon .ay tOI . e' Th e' rad i.. or how gret]ll .ers . the· d@iI1'n~~~ion G·f ilhe if1IiM'. 0 of til e !~if!i len and so 'wi I~ e'xt.~rHi .ycklids ·=·~h theo·ry of fhe pi f1!S e hOllds: g'ood.· where a Sie~~ion 'D'~ ClQlne A hi taken t so to as In itr'e whe ~ts: iaJ ©one type' re..'~lck 'h:ill a I I lOW "~o:r~ Wo'rkingl e'l e~W'~lnce'_ t h I' ~D. othelf '~WDdis m etl:t'cS O'f th~ on cone$~ ~uch ~s EE me IrllhS.e '~ee. P+C.aII.this seeh th'.e :are cUllII'y t'O .r ~ha If}ih~'il nn. g m. .awy in T o!i'1!1]:e..ow'fn:1:! ~f{I... oi!II. 'Tlte.!Iil'im!~' two :!ih!Ei!'h.C..I.a~es· sU!p.ft'II~:lil"ilH.1" . i~~nl3:~ Th~.'f inV1fJi1 urb~ ·f.a'ffectrng the· re·li8IfflDve' sJpe~ds.Off: the '~wcr:sh!iJ&5.~asioi!il arise whe:re it b~com e<s Me cess ~ ii'V Kh rra nsrn itp@lwer ~Ti!"IIm'~ IiilI!i..'f."'"If ·ciJ.. OirUj s afilioth~r 8n.~:pa ra Iisl to ~ha ba ~e.is] S b ef'o rBiI' t.~.e' of the pi fitS :ii!!llnd t~dt'e ru) P~ilit ..~ •.o'm til i:s.~~ t:n'~ n'iU~k.ild 1'1 fo~ I. 'The' end :pl...pDrU ng 'the' 1~:i1n teeth .e ine~n~ndab~.~g" !!i.of e the ~'Q' C~ fII e~.t@ ~UJjYive'.tance be!tw~e Ii! th e' MO· ~Ind.~~d ..it Fr.n@lII@w·Ofl!! De ess. 'What is ~Iffeded iiS. :EUi!d It Ili"hl hft-a rug~e s: ~o ~he 'Qe:ll1t re .e ng a'ff.l be !Seen '[In a~ ~h ..! a'~a'ir ctf Dlvel W:he~ls 'DWI 1111 siim~h.1 .~'e .s are 'wrtJ'ys.n~.ly SJOlong .". .~=ed the ctH. 10'.UtI re·pflEl:se:iI1I.O..i. of: 'tine gea r 'Wi~hQut .pOO'!Ue II1t8titO iii: IOff '~h ill rra ngem ent ts is s.llI'~h ~~ IE'Ei~lfld I~F" leoUllld b~ c:hGsen foil" the pitt'c'h cJlrc'le~.iiPUr ~ ~'arilgl.h18 Q'19Jl'19tatiln.. 'LI!"imY~ rhE!! eli S:hil nee between d'N3! ·a nd lP!oafelS of th~..ar~.'lle...peed the $la~.a1r$:itlite ~o'm eti m'!9S ~'!9feI!'reid d1a III l'$e1i wlWi Ib~ the' .e .g ct~.~ be~e~1e~lrs ~ flod u.ilI. taSJ8 U~g IlYat~tilrlg Idlil'S!Il:: wi~11 'h'ave 't~1 be.s r8:M'n Dt De'~.IO.e1erir whh::h ts..U ita:nt 9Ie..g:!Ip ~ of 11. g'~ '~he! il'~nion_ wW in f.Where 'Ihe ~b Sh:EilftS1 ·am am rU glht~a li'l. "B ..s'pe~iaI'ised rl'1IlaV ~ .. 'O'[f1 ~h e' 'pi Ill! Din te..of oln!e !"\8fv'C lio.. do es n.vd iD11 '~he oOlfmall1 $l. '.ln P"IC.or.s o'..hown iIII F.the Ir.~~d the! 34 'the: hy.c ~liin size· CiW log 'to '~he ~wQ eerres being' II den~i~11 a r.Jl~'.a! sh.g ~il!fC~em us~ be EilQII!J~'11 iin ..neees~.!i~[I'e to. the ieet'h" I n til i"s. D.p·a err 'the elP ieye.h e on '~:h' pi nW fill wh ic'n WiMihs'\!".tl!i'il d no flailil ks s i1m ~e.d1 'Wnth !. tibe·s.n:slSi. .e.• rsason S III u st.a s.' !LJ!I whBr.in le. ofF II:. .d1i.af "Ile fact wm n. e ~'n CB H'i Where it. "I ! 1_ E a irFe~pe~ti've O'f what.cl.on of t11 e ~iac..cof)Sl~'dering Ume!. All t'o(a'th eU1IQag~me'l'll( ta k~s pla ~ iI!ftef thElry' have p. no~ 'I:J!t:. ~h t'~e~.i·s~heldrh/er .lsnti re s·urf:aceiS . the ~Ii ni on a long ~:h 's:twaight IPitch Un B 0'£ rhe rack. CH-AP'·T· ·E'IR" _.~. 1"l8p.hopj the 'cofl['1!Bcfly ~~rrn.~ll.'1her~forethe u res IlJ Ita rrii~·'sJtli a.s. ""n'.a~~ow e 'cl'eBf.. [ c 1.poc.un Iflk'e' 's. ..and H H. WI~rk$. .ap·pl'il~d to ~hl: ra:ck a n~ '~hi'6 Ileads.a~hre'f" Um '~h!3:cO II're£t Um ali') retJh. diam ete·r IIilJ a nd so both d~a mewm wllii I rotate.d p~'iltes WhO~.d by a ge·nerart:uln'~! c~reille! ~h irs at .d wi! ~ be oc.-" IDn st 'llb 0'f 11'11 @'pi nl ..~ctjOrii o.I' .\I'cl wh e e~1 wi I~iProlilh:j·e! s .I!.:m 8' S. 00 rutiC~ b If!.s S>8eJ'il' tha [ ff U'UJ ·two s h pits Wo.lIi1 t.9 d n8Ififl<ln~-r 'ro'f p~...section of OO'l"'U~ .ack wi I i hia.e only fa~s 8 C .I 's'ati:~.'O:tbrv sol Ufnon~ F·lr'om ttn e .C'lji~a I .':I.eet tha va I udity of' "the !p.r. @O~.91Pil!" The an Pfotde ms iny. -&.~ned by 81· p~h' of gea r~:~~'d tOI re'tate at d iff..rack is: of j·l1Ifi"n.tra'ig h It.l. ~ str.' .iF!J IDot..·!s h.e oon:r"l' used in.eil t-han""C. lIIIse.aig tat: ]i flB I Th Is.C.lifal~\@3 this sfuJialii'o'jil.rw..a bove' Ui!e I~·itehI!:I1UE~.fin . '!o!'.I!!U~IIl.S of the two Dones CC' .~~s".cV'GI'oid bel ng 'fol'lmed bV rel I'bn gl the . u . ~s de lidr.u'rf.olved wH I' be beM:e:r unde~tQ~d by . his '~s . We h~''Il~.·..J3It"ent spae.pades. Dr f.alPP I'nes en.a~!es of 'the .end WEi'I I !below ['111 ' ~.D'.mUD' :... thi3r~ :~~as.~s5a g.acJ!l Ibehar'Ve! e~amlv ..o:1 te ell we.Jlw' f'ri Cl'ltO n .!ac od by wota!tll11t.11lJ a IllY' 'fotJr.t te pt'(Jvi!de . its n . pi.lQ~d an d~· .n'nell~r·10 the.lliI~lrvtt'I~HTli pini.. 'tJ~:at t<i218rna V be.-iII '_.liS '~he ~1flexibl.D:n~ The f~ce w](ltlh .ve to be less the rt ~Ih\edl:"s.11.ot . 'BUT" 'lhs ItVilOiC. be 9 rei~~er tthan "thra p.. Tthe p.ama.be il11'g.1' '!i.ol u.pJ..ona'l polrrt (~jfvi@'W~ the ~eel:h en lbe'Y1oill whe el~s.p'Ofthln 'to I~ti<l:=:h dther a~ 'ttnl~1 b8'!i!I~·d~lme·~e'li 'so:'t~ej:f andl spe eels of: Irotaitlio n wi II~ be 1~%a!Othl ttl e ~-ilrrIil1~' '[he· bqse d~:amelSfS.lb.P.OfWl '~e:~: thelY ~Mie e nga 8~ng q'IJI~:U3eOIr~e~tlv wi'llh Shc.ed b6ive~'b'JOI~~l C:[H1Ifo'iot be pn~dJlJeed~ H~lwelVeril' tiler.all' :!.a I fWiiImflo'fA' dl~iv'e withe li!'. at t1ltua· gaime.OI~.o'tlllJ. on 'Ihe r.~m. be. Sipeeli~ ..~itch ci f. Qlf.:e's. f'Or :!af! Y P.~ Itr1@it3.aino DD we 'fi nd 'Ilnley wi'! I :b!9 I~dentj..n' of...a re not e'~sv '1"\111 IC ~ ~..U I~~if. tOI a eUflou:S· si1JU8ti·on.ootiln en gag:ement.promise (.ace: of: the wilck.ack" IFigi iUI:J. Nrru Mil a'tfJer as.

01 ~ II.'this 'tthe Ibas.e.0w etlliiJ. lhi:s. 'whelM the s~fi1 .".E ~~S el r. "'fo D~'h:iev. ~f tllhe ~.)'[:r.aIi rne j o~. 6'-E.. 1Ii'''''''_''''''I' ~~"..v.~:specttvle' ~he '. ~EP~~S'~1J'T ~l'Hj[!iJ. Ul'E! tOO. . l CEH"I! re I·~ as '" !Olr'II e.jl:SU eh . ~.Qc:~ty r:.o i[he i$1peed~ 'fieq iJ ire dl..E.al ll()'m:~e at d ifti~in"8nt :speeds.Jn:ng Plu.'UiE:~:r illir.e'I."'~ A. aln d . 'of .ati.iii . am' ~.h..pp:IV "if0 be:ve i whe e[s." . cl reles '~. P' Ik.iii.L W4£.]se. eond i~knil is' S'fiHlW!J1' i nl'Fi'QI.td gea r .T c.1'1JI~!!..~~ Ji!i.}J ~.the ~ndi~il~Ul ~ha!1aiPIl~I'esto tha mla.e.o. oF .lfI'U. 1Fi"j. ~~A'F~.ether . A.~~ ! ~"rrc. 0. e .Q ined by thi~ be'V'e'ls. Ahhoulgllll . t:h ~Ul th~'raf[ffio on'h e . W'H.gs.jority af ib~velllge~f~ ell1oounten1d '01' tlhr8 comeS! and '~ha'fits.~'~ :5:" pH ~f cone..l .~-eCitive' gea'r pm~ch ~~il .j.~I 1~1!iJ.E~ t.11 B' r~YlQlldlif.F1G 1Hbl 'B!..iNIT ·~~-!:iE.~es. rail Irig'h~." ' t Ira~~ij. 36.Il.gliv-e tDlJching l b~SB c:]rrdiJl!.!I!"~I[ ng'i IIIBl. a.B d'~a1'1!ln~1:le~S.II'T' .!§'rIl~ ~llll~I!"rI~ ".:j.L'_ """'. OOJ'llitllillll'O!U~' 'oone I B5 oJ'the' COJDeiS"~ clnce' agillif1 So nl~ COliildlntion 'is 'met 'wh~r8by 'I.pe.~..ele id!iaffletew' 1m ill $t be.~H.nmng~he: wo ~ . :~~.tto e 'M€) (.d'iallm. It wil I be sa Bn 'from both F..n ll\lt llii~ [s. of 'U~e cone b I~es Imus·t be p I"BPC rt-~Q:rnlaI t.n~~ AT O!":Ei~c. d'.~.WQ 8h~fftS j.'A...eli! ••:~ i~t)Tlfl.~Tl!!l.oI then ~h.f ~elll1'9 A.. ".I~I¥ wlth.Vg..at ha!!Ile pre..' o.ngl~lI!'S ~iR. B only m air(:e!t.nnte'r!iiect.of to in'e. in gal~U..:D5 B.."III-!!rY 'M'~'lal_U~~.~~ !EE iainci FF: wHil1 i :3<1tr:'8I~glht Th:~8wi IIi a~waf~~ be 50 w'i'th .. s~m lar to the i sp~e~1r.t Il'oiIl "Ei5!eiC"f" ~T '~ll:li~'T:.8)(13'$: f~ 31' '~'l:~ Ib ~12 . p taes.2IInV ~oi l'iIi~ up ':[he 00 III e'.llafitts.~ ~1f"I['HI if}.36 rtl a~.i.i!'!i..rfec.~U.Ds ehesen.out a J'l!ly' snp taki.are Din iV 'true where the 'two .iiJlm t!lt[Qr'S: an d faca i:lniQiles./J6lJ[.f.c~ie.il1ct'ioe.atlio f'e:QJU vllied" Si m U:arico rDdT.m'enis .[.:a.d Lw'ioe the . W'TM.Q ai..FTS ~f.oone [9 h·as. A.e'rem'l.y... c.. PNi!.lv' th e llm:Ei' v.aii a me-t....~:riI .S..~iiil!'ll Si t3.~. AIIII the :above com.ete'.'. ~. OF 'M't!Tt.al~1'~O '! h at . :s~.lken at .n b1lJ QUliaoGs of the 'two co fII as wi illl IliQI~ l a~ 111:lja~ ~.T 'OF '~~i1.~.Ihle'~ 's.Uons 8.mI.' alit.0 nile s ~[in~ I©f Idli'ff.-p_ .

~7 dEl'pi.C (.I." I:!he G(UIE.e.JT ~~ra.~ag les can a Is.C!J~ 'lih.~~ ~TA.~ ~ 1!i£'!l!'1I.L "ma'.~~\e 'tlh is s 'Ultie eena a:rttBlng'~m e lit.n BEViEl'GEAR: TElElH All 'the ~I"d. a. F~g.uire:cl it ngJ~e' 1 o:t at righ r..!~.di~~ ~ii.se I!JI'sed a bill ut rn eilAta ini n91 oon~ta:n'l ~lle~. .nre' wUl~ be: WaIter Ililal1 the Qf'ltU~JII'"5~e! I be Q rea~er '~haIIlI :9Of th e III ulr.~bJ!e! i:s ~vp.on :a n-g'le of less an :m'oco..et dlift'9IriS~~ spl~e dis" ~truen (lUiI. . ~'1oJJIE. ~T ~ Shtalts iii Q:lr. Th'~s :Eilrirang e mf}n~" '~V~rtI: n U'6' mo:d E!1r.~:r:Si aRc! ~hfJ~ plrilne]p:~e.:-f 'W'A~:5. 'Th is: 41 .[II sC.lit1 F:C~ 'Y.. f~q.j bile 8.1!u~I'in ed ':eJlbCiVe :s:U~ l..wa:s de50r'ibed'fD'!i ~he riQtht7" ~ln'th's ary '~i~ Bi~'\. w.1 Ig.rmE1llf wheel. B~~.One!' $urieee oT'the' pnnfroifD.I:.ha'fts.s.\!"ali 1.. r~ll'~ta .:I'r T~a ~lEtlE. 'MqU ir:eD~j'ust "t'ha ~amB'~aIY a~. i=11~ 3e.rlesu'~hllll1t b 8.B' ~o. ]n fig.T!. 3B.ol be n ~:n Ir.\J5e.4 ~jNI~ . m ust ~(i)'ll1trunt(H~'10 .~~1 t.!Iii.~oi ed to~geJthe'r' by a pa ir .u'Esi de IC"~ 't. ~ i~~t.!'S.!. Wiel~'Bsli 0011 tQQiBlrn aT a is itho uf:j h U"tley' IIIsmooth ~(Jrni:&:l'~11:ill rra'oes". O'F' 'P~l'Jt~ . 38..r bV beYlel ge.iti.tin'lf 'tn e iWe.plhi~tmGateQI gear wllilrngl nilaohinjJry is.. B~~E.lj.!JetrW 1~1'f ~he! h~M) m:ilrtn ng I~I~JS when e.illl~'feU ~n co ntact wit.:1..F.Ulmne5.'9 ~ ~E.of n bevel ~DJlil~S.I~ 'fi. ~nsJesharft.~PWi.ar.!~S·.e'ms :~nvc'lvsd i[ill cul.H'~..~ts'"-N. de d if 'ral [ a IIIP oS's. ~~ "'r{~ 1~T:~ FlG. F~! .olillto d~8 rec$peC1hlileJ.n 1ie~hme ~Gg'I~~~ me wtH!! ra .".".!IEL G'~'~ ~sPOllib~ to h:eve :iln~efnaI e' lllve ~g'e:aIf'SI' tlh If: ~St¥~her8 9'o. If-the twa sh.::'C1~Ml~. leeth a re added the . di...3 51 iIlu~t r.pp'~yiI1g ~ ted'h '~jOUiE!!ml m 'form s~~r glears: a:~tlO a ppU.eth an the ir'Ii~J8'lin ~ '~ona .a is co 1l1's:ldefalbh. SF'll~ ~ ~~QS6.are: ]]~ to. SiP eed rtl tic..~1.o"~ that 'were.h 'uhle ~11~~rna I SlI riacEi' [1f: ~ ma.~ c.g tl!1e (.6.eiII'S" Wli!iefIJ th. canes<ar~' al~'F:l!Jllilg.ve ~'!jEta 1Ir3. SholJih1 th~. '~~~~ 'S1i-lO\ol~~·5 .s.(. The base~ IC. '~he p iJ1abi.ioln willi [bili [SIS.WiF(~L~ ~:'ij.O a hefts at .Wm be of' :5limlthu· lizEli as shown in F~:g~ 'trf '~he..I2.4iE W.:oi\.S h OWlil '" "'.eiPlplV" Fi!g.8..og~~he. rFiii.i'~. IQif!l.[ilrfts alL'litto i'Q'tiilte 8rUj~i'e .I~~ !p"~1L.~ '~ ~L~'T~~!s I~ M·W Rl'~R ..rl~~ '~ I~~ Oif.~irJlmle ~pteed ~~e.e:s' to beve.edin the" sa me !pro p~ftn:.

. . raes.·~ Wi1:h spUlr gears he'teeth are ".11 ' spa'Cl9S must [t] e co Ii!li:c:.s.!' rof-~he two p.a111 nd '~ollow the is Iowa rds fhe OOflle: :alP X..ir C'Oll1'i~ed.ireh..t th!e pex p. r Sl pitcilh coniB.s'" 41 and 42~'wi. Sh'oy~d pow'er be' appjie.-.of ~he' ~ooth :!.n .oints The' U3e" h alre sma Uar iU il~'i~"8.The I !1l:yc 11I.c~p!le de-s1cri be: fOlf sp U i" ga.". 'PIN.mal' ~Vp~ of 'fflili m eu Ul!M' wi! I m10~:9 j\l-e' eene as 'til iI.eo rra rn. hlB s: bee n e'· e 11f:"ie:mased -to '9QC" By i..e bu~ are. [p'gin~It wi II be 1E'$1a bl is.er.' is no. It '~fOWI1 whe e\~ IlS a spH~i~ll IVfJ e of b 9\ii'em 'wh eal ~h er.'WM~~ ~TH N!E 'Oi£'!o.eiet:h simi arte spur g.gl t~ F·ig.mnt A.a'8 ths.~e' are used so that the.FJ is.malY me'rit fh.e' be qui I. Ttus rneana Un!~n~Jhe ti !'"DIJ rnference '0 I' 'Ith. not constant" 'EJ e w h a:l!e'.ic.4D.· ·.arro " altogettlef'~ Only BI penltiOfilJ 0" tMe length F 'win ich 'is ~loQ'kilng UiJJl 'll~UJ r-falCli!l of the SIJ of' m.t:uew. ~IS we ill as to p . . h8 stra~ghrl11r~le' ' 'J hS'flJe pitch citrc~e' is 'of infi"nilel tm m- me whee~'s where the pi'nl~Qn ~'5I.at the line Be.th becollir.own in F~g.e~ en ~he ecuza I pitch c~ chl! 'dia.mtl S1 meet '~hefe and.:h _Til e len. posi~ hav 8 been add ad IQ hel coole. E:v'emv asp.e merrill crown wThrfiu!li'1 and p.sqluill'e with the..deve'lope-~'f1l'iom a circ~.1 value.Dn es.ar te e~h.N.afi Ie as Uu~'~uttle.h.ljllileng h . I .3 Ir1I m' i"rMt'a~nIt!a_nsmllilt d yahl C ~~ between lkhe two cones.ni be.*sn use·d '~O de£'Cri b. .~ h DWIV!. naturally a g:18S to..oF' .e rne 8.iii e' n IrenIth of the ~oothl. to Wlldc.oog .bxsd stanva rd ~'Dr tOD~h len 9~tn but i't is usu~lly a~ Olut on~third of the thel I~ne BC ~s·th e fa di USfo.e' directton .. Ag' oj n Sir-io '~d teel:Jh cfun~tDnnseCronb6u5ed 'rE.p 'U'8 teet ....s. cons's ua in leii1H::'d~on Iin1 I.g 'he . bed .i1lch 00.mUSlt bel conic iI.! [eeth ~ssemlbleth~ glears . am O'r the tooth t if 'pro'jec.e:pBrpendteU'~ar ·0 one po~nt i'long' tina 'B'rng~hof the tooth. F ~g.ew is not th 8' true reet co: e 8Iiig. ..1h a iii g~. liI9leth(i1face. whaoh 'means'Utat dlilame't. such as IEDI~ S Ican tr.of the tooth fa II'm I~S.1f. 'T.i' if'iot sitrictly .f ad defmni~'8...eslabl~shed fa f .uJ allre. .e' '~tl pit.Y be bette'r Uta det.clInv peR iall. Fe ~. at .tEtd. ooct u n~iI 1'[ e' rye 88 th e ~onle·. Bev.HEEL . ·Thls.hOWIfI sih aded 'we ull d ap.u la r to.l!Jo.!I"r eCtt..~ 8 tfu In pra et ice rh e ~eet[ha'Fi~nO'· ~arFi'llc !Illil fl a 1!1 It is ill e ~DW.. rjig ·~:rBnsmitting lPorwer and this is.aoos . Dine CO!l1lid 8if.The .i'ntrodlJiices a p rob.t a Iwavs iOIF invo lu Ie fa rm .ldlv 'b fENlik up IJnd e If the h ig h on '[he dr!3wing.crow . '~h.apex pD.ail1dso '[11 acruid.h ~eef'h reta te 'hfs..seen that the ~ee~th ~ir.lit wow Id i' 'hiererfcU'".OP EO.~tJh.a~h i of prscfica. . .tlresi~.acB'o~:"the 't. be'1111g' abo'~e ~he' plifch I'i.rjected a'[ 'U"Q I~a '8 rid G't 'U'Q e'· ~ane'. changing and di:mlinishes als the G}cne DsntJe 15 a pproac h'8CL ThUs is s h.i fii.on ~he' ·"ol'.a nd 'th e apex 'is pa. 0 cor.!farring to F~Q. shown by t il.f th e iii aw.'ref r s ap pro'sc eel fll e.alr ~.3 pia ne pa ral ~ e'i til the b~se of' "he pitch G~. lhi S i~.II !.al' ~ itch surface.centre Iitn a..O'~ttu~ ~eeth.o (Ile wh ell~. ~t mlay IIr1I even be po~si bl e tn 0..h ci rela it wi II c 42 . .n the.Oftermi nate at a lnt 8t the seen by ~oo. The' sr~8'of the ~'OOdl ~n id~i~s aspect.00.:ee. co Ul e tb.eble S dilffe're'noo.eath wgu·d interfem with em rcle nf'tlb.. 4.at"th@. the eon ica I su rfslce (>' U'UB con1e'.if carried 0. tile the co rre et 'tooth p'f.8 .~lItowi"g mhe' M'&lAc.1' teeth are a Im CH. ~9m as.a' lnne.met~rd but 'th ~s: is not :S-Olwith beve-'~ I!. '. 'gl!I~N~IJIIS. w Shi'8PS of tha' ui!!e~hbut i·hfi sha.u~d' net work t'~gi9nl e.ong to' deve !o..alS 'lhe' b 0'.cirele ls pe'rpe!~d.p~that IS t eth d~d n.am·et~r sm whij'ch ~!eeth alre d'ev81IJ~ped. 'a IiIII It is drawlf:I . leeth a n ~ &1'0 a pe of Hn pitch SJI:J rl/. 13' Alii the :s.o 'the cOllic. BAr. COln.-'wheel is~tJbeJie.11I' cene's it~irs .~slv.! .as·to be te wou'ld on IV be of th II . gea r tihen ~hel to 9th li1la've btHj~ il!lddad and . he lOP Himd 13! up ito the .41. po l 1 mrcl B' di.!€tI'ftH'"f1ingt(D Fig.. 40 ii' can be .U'C.ne bevel wheel's equiv8' ant of1tie rack. the 8111ihen l !bevel"wheels ~lJrefalrm3d U's~ng.' whie[~ U.eamj'S~. lnvotute sha pe will I a lsc aite . I In 0 n'der ~. ach other rather thaln dropping in. fig. nd 4: 1 WOw lei' r\E:'SU I ~n 'h e wbeel w aplpe'il llngl large wl~e. fe rm a po~nt...xhi: rat h err t han .:. In fact. Iffli'B 'ra:~e. as tfl~ tooth I rofUe moves aicm.' Ii P.:!'1 '9113'13. howaV!EUI". [Bo.: p i!®ch 'ei rete o.eno: in .d to p~lItchCOfli8 is:·~h.81111d boUo'm .e I pai r o. 111:1'.B.4D~til'a :s'hap-e 0(· 'the t.f: beye~ .reven i'fthe Ineoro shown ~n UUl!! end ¥i.Sitcoci eClrmC]Uy.r:. i filnally dli sap'l) [[" 'f'Drlfiu~dlookiltglillil. U'H~ Illite. perp I n iCul.calJJ~1. tylle of.01 . 'shape.urf.ace.li..alt.8 e8iSi8 af UillfJ' Irack.L1 f'Ve h".s is. hec:ome appauren~ th. .eel Df'nu~ su r!faGe err the.e~n~R. r ~ su rhillCe.gt!h o.". e wh 11~s. 0.'f.m a. co IIIe aline! pro.th '..eh 1 'fa'fm.'!' ..so. 'CRO. . The 'length of the wed mesh.IO~ ThE!J tEHTn Cillo'wn 'wn eel Sind p.ady descrilibed 'itto det'uarmhHII' 1118' d iSlmeter of the '[\m e' p]1M:. wc uId (len .l~never in.Ia'oad Ht "the ~ide of it ' m. 'Ciondn.ennl'md surface. fla nk.ictn.am'nng! pinwon end .. p ri n.e '\1\11 j!". cen(~reline ofUle cone.the sam' . 'The're. imilar radi'i..e.rsect wi~ht~ . a QElJB:r ralJ:o of art. Th e p. by mfetlfin.. small eD'mpa ed 't.. lions .kin g ~sq ra w.mposed tI pon the'm.fthe nue pit.iflio n ils.U~' m&e1 8.ct fQ Uilng ConitBicl .h ere I~S.of 'the COni e 5il~rf. .o g'h/'9' the Gone. a.

~kwDii'~ m s'chlrllisms or other low po we r ..!.: 1 wm meet 'the s.Nle.ylingaU of a pa~ir of b e\f.neia rlIId the' esme gl al'ilpiles tOI the: crown w.w'tnds th~!eentre.added to ~he two 'CQm pCH'i(.fOI~ th~ pi n.11:11 di~iiI e'~e rSi !llf ltle Whee! m'li!IS~ Im/lllite .owed.a spe~-d ratilOl of 2::1 . Tin is .aJc~8itlflll miuSt '~jo'el~hllLcebe~EHl the ·twa SILJ.d ~ rna\! ~ Ii us:e.o.be ma del' '[0 work..mie-~e A it mus~ m OV."" W. a slip..f dete. ~~~ 45 .s a: ICr.xl.aii'ar ~.o ~ . W. 100Ellrta IlI1ly tml~ 'm..a~gh~..dl.lr.I' ii~ the 'IS! 3 me r speed laiS t!itll~ Cd18i1i' l~li"rd in ..~~E ~~ ~~.n~ms. 'W[iUi dl~a:meter e Q n the wheei.3 mcuu'It's 'Qi' . 1:he wh D~e:.ar~v in Clc. . .s~C. Imo r'Q'than :Ii .lira ng911'1 e:rn't ~~f.1'Jre.L.li try'to drive tlhe wn'IE!:1 art d~.al~ ttl e' :S1e-ttJ~flg r' a FI~ ~~.on U..aUe'll '~he 'W!ilael ~1!l.s. QI n d p~rtilC.h l'en. 'W h e Cl th e':sih~ft"S.'~ti'ng s¥&tem ":h~'i r 'un1:i fe' I'gn I~h.'.nlg Sirel '~:ra ~m lssi ons..di Hm~Jerll .iJre 'the~ I iluu.. ]8 tb8ore'ti'.i B~' tin is 11~l!'TlIli.s.ul m ~h e ssme :spee.-~.. T. 5 if'i! C'E! .."FT ·S~tSEO.~I~hliL ~n (HlIlly im p.i tiJlion by a cy'~huj The E!lir..!' 'CCllnec~ pn)ced 1Il1~ is f'oll.J empll~y biggl!Br.~ 'a t d"I.si\die -r.Vtwo gleam' thar~ f':Blv.3i11l..p iii!_~.l-beSi~ a.~'~ h ad Q.e~l.a.e' the l'lVlNG glUT' APAlJR DF'B'EVtEL WIHIJUJ$ It i:e.. ThIS. .through r.i(.J~ ~TE ."'Ir.~n.45.r...and pi'ni:o'iI'A iii. R:.se 'of spu r g ears 'w.~:OO~tQotlh g.' tl1"1Wllileoe~.v w 'UJI bt lJ! Sle!. ~Jn'~@'ni.~O'WN. llBsed gin bevel ge'elf' ~~O '~·eet'horf bJoth 9 ~81r5have baen r-e'mclved~ '~l1'e'Whele~ bei ng re. .i. ~Olne.~.r.. Th e +.rf.~~~c.JFI~ 1!!+:3 IS. ~ .a:ifi! niHiU ra 1~ly ci rele resu Ited rnn Un e :1I!1vQ'Iil:.. - A'Ii!'OU~ID ~T' Dilio.. 1h1i..elm-e1)erA . the ba~~s .a r so the bevell whE!!e:~s mav~ in 'th.llJI. ioUII m.at a i'~1 US1Uite: tha f!!lU.i. <2 :sihaw.ll~.Be~S! 'ms to 'w-crk..e rto' unfte r. 'c.l!.eoll1ldfUcfA ~s true .lru~:sfor the cor! e' brat5l9 r ~'~itch larn eter: 0 d The layout j.j\Dn'" co.raii sed ridge. rsh!O'wn in 'ffi1g...d as its @nd ~s in 'cbnta~' wiUa.ol B U~:a is ifiI L.~e·~~.pair chcos.~.h ieh ocn f1I Sd pa ra ~il ell ~hilfefDWIi3 $b aftJih '~he ri glhu~-8ng!t~'S.!~ AA.e ~..8 pa ir of ' examlpJe..i's is.tllingl f'aC10r d o!~s net 0 PtJi)...a1©BS 1:1\1.a.2'..aliild $tl[·(H~gern"teetli1 'tman a pJai r' Qihos.r. 11be QreWJ1 win. ~.-ene'rati'ng COrlJ@1s. Proba bly U..3 iii d th~ !p....'.s g-:caiiled crown 'w:h eel hili a't .11 the tJnecry beJ~i'ncl lt.e . .at .pirBs.sid e.atfflJj de irn 'eho OS.gea!~~ n~ve~h(dess it 'iii.'l~~i!HanA .J" ~e' ~Tl-I ~a1' l-~E. It. iI' -1II!iI! II 'I ~ lI'"ci!li ~!IiIJ!!!! n ~~ -_.eel. uO 1. -- ~..IP'~ te~Un ars b:i be e:mplc'-ved" 1"ihe1U\a ls a 'wide cholic'Q a-vafl abl@ 'in detJelnm 1n ~ng ~he si~e the g~alrs as ~fi!.'.ftid' a~so ~he' n Ulmber Off ~ee'~h'1'0 ~... sU P CO'I!J Id not eeeu r willen the teet!lh caire .uU Q _~~''liVI tl1i>!ii Inl .l ·tlJi'ir8' sutta ~e of '~he .pi ni on wi. IlTIliJnlilmflJ i a flEd '~h9 r.e'I'lliUi: .ewtn'though the~e ihg no.OWI"'l 4 Wh@Ed .CLoc.i:ze 'Of the wh eels .E AlI..li. I 'TIFIE 'P~M~~ ·O~'c.~!o!'~1!O! _ !~Wl!..!18 nd 'UilIEt.fin~ ua IiII f whee'l 'l:s . :s ~I a~L l lfi.e wi'll s h.B]I1t 61 the tWo shai!fU.o i 'O'V~I!r . ~i'91.a:b.lI'iIW]Y ~! !I Cl2OwtoJ '\!JM"g'E.e~lF$lis' ~alrgeth~slYesu ~U'fil..ef'lulm~e~ loir te"eth in the' rat~o (].I. 4Jf~'D Illt1:I'8.nly' works .fij.'~'ESF..of the. iI!1 TH~ Ol'S.tllnne.Q BV' A.tiewheN the 'length of the to g'thl . th 0fill. s:hafittcentres . ~. The .ri!g h~·~ 'an gil ers~ theM' .~nl~l si. ~.em '~urth e r UlJ.:.'~ P~~IOII\. ~~~ H·.ooth gelll.1lI'!ir"angen'itliult.h'~ "CfGWn n IJj ["aitHo n shown whle f..UlNS of 'th e to attn.e.s.ileti 09 ~ .ctual shape . A liCilrQ.! 1~1!.. '0(Jma~f:..8 fl 8'[ d isa ..powe r .ontrV it'h ern' abi I . (. ! I( l~. The s~ai1~ aim to h~.oUl! e'fW'isE!' '~hB tle'efh WIOIUId ralpild ~v wea nilll"!!d ·tota Uy 'fai~~.eory .J:ljii!>i5._ ~a ~.~ .~I . 44~ Her.Btf:'...gl.9rh) betVl/Be fiI the W 'two iQ. For 'th[s e~amip:~e w.'~IiiT'i.~1I111prtl~r'i. fa r 't'he 9ft..afti.i! .g dli~ '~In i~he'(wo.!_C'\JaYil:)f':)1 ~ . d. 9 hf~tnQ the desi'gn e-jf c. e . I~ 'Q~~i'f'~W.IIi!o. lSi !IZ'8: of th e whe e.e~wMee'hi dl~fljh)u~'t ._ VU~'QE2- dycti pn.n eel. must.dB bfiiQ:Olmh1 I IIr.at :any d ialm e~er o'f ii!I'nli5i!ii>J .!!' tk·s d'i~rafiI_Qi8 beJi..h-~ = SoY' A.ps0d feq IJ irem. i:s u~Bd ~In [indlu4ry 8JS.and :20 1[l'.OolntaiC1.rm iI'll in. sind gi.91b·flM~htitle :s.g i'n ~alfge wheel and ve ry :sm. t:)~oc iPiiM'LOW ~E. -Iimr'(ed bJ...-:..n/e'.oal~~vqu'ite' ineotr-ed and o.!W' 'T\J£. dr18 W 1. --<ti. 'lfonta~1 'wi'lh ~h~' pffirn len..pi "g . ~he '~ee"h 'Ii ave strali'glht' .T p.be illny si2i1!! tilIU'.tl!!.EP2!E:5E. .Fi'f-sf c£'OwtJ W'l-!'EEb..d faces i& nd fla'nks bUll a~ If'em.I.sO s~Tim~ a Ie of ~ipYf ~_a..to (rain $ m~:t~ 'small I .As 't!h'i~.. an SUI~p-osing i)'[ 1~e_"ilCiI!. - 'AO~:co'niCl~ blill~ tp.s11i1'~ hew U'lIle t:e"atti :s!) II EEl! per' pi'tch to. lby' 'reducing 'Uu= tD~t.~naan g.~ i~ PiE!! ir 15 not bells I wh.dj.iJ. 'Qe'filIEH". ~ + i1 F( Ql~ b . not bLll~: IprOC€ilSa s l~ary'~ng 'O!u.. ~ ~~J~~J ~'~l . ~ e:c..TEO Di.ea r iii nda :30·t. lEI~ to be r c..! n.z.f'IIlfrc.alli oEtlnd ~B'B.WO~ c. [I u_ M!. Fi9·.en led by' . lOr tn ib-eme 1'9 t'O'-rrr€-r.fif" Ilh!l .$~a poi r of m 11'1 •• ~L~' 4'~ ~.e.e6f at tJ1rIe c~nlr'B' IIiWtI of Uua' wh ..i on..aml i"~{!i'ICifil.!Il~l . the wh~e.he ~. .'-!.C'E~dbV 18' I!N~mlr of gea rs. :ba:sic le:rfiDr in the 'R.Z ~'sG~ A' ~". OC£:8 s:iell'1ll~IlV.. ~fi th...s of corn sta:nJt .le . s-~~e.

e'h ls I9iO~ bty·the D. ~ im~i'a r way ~o tihl~ ~hl!l'eaijj1s (If a '1Il1ljt.rm' gfaanllng' •.eh ~I~'nes ~r8wn are nm~th sse Iines p~sshil9 ·thtlr{nIlQ h 'th e .nQ~: u:Su. In '[h~'sCiliS'!3' ~.e' depth 0" 0 the te ot h lbeh~Q .l Un~ d~ifJ. lea d' ithey' have itO calrry and i5l.1ko Q'r .10 w.awfll.e.'lill e 'tElr.l.a~leonstder~lbh~ pr. th e' a pell( pe unt X.hiifi n is 'l 1J.Qit:able for D"el~lre:s~nllS 'lVpmCii~1beve ~'gear s h ia.U~ eSH-1!1 now' be: I~rawn ~l!!1.e: -~ iP.~$$ safh.H e.gea.i. wh eel. p~oyed.E1llVie 1/0 be InuruducE!. e o "."TiWE. Ul U)J!J'Qihth:e' finte r.-not s. Tra e· pii'u:!n ~ €I S . man d whle.of shafts and o'ea rs ViI n'so h 'to. ~ lUli d a.t:!1 ~I!!!WIo4'!"~ The ~~are 10 cessions Wh~Hll a 1~lfg. 111. ~ ooy' ~~'i! 'f.t' . 1 in th a ca:sa ofd1 e whee." ith w 'GUmbeJF$C m'8 and 'tn·savy ge~:[ bc·~" AI'l'n. 1 add!end Ullm' If!.EI fsti'.h'an g:8 whee ~s~ e 'f:h is :s'h·gws Ul. :~ulme'Hm'es referr~d to . G.lilt is . b ei· o<'bl:a ined .o·)(.eil~he'r 'wh eel of .!leth ~nd this co ul d we~I be' too ilia rge ro be' c. wQlrm ea Mnot of 60 i.the p.ha'rt Would h.:& II.oug h iiIn '(hl8!olry ·then!! is.f.on i"s required end '~O obteln -i~hi~ fd neQeSsit.ii.G i!lnd Hl~t Uoe~ ~~ base Ii fU:!lS po:intsoi' ialiflid ah!i'O PiBlSS mijl[te'f .twi'ce' th ]5.! other ro.s'hi.~'ridly eerreet as no haf$: beern shown ·c1811r8 111 08' '[lee th sh ou Id ~ of eeu r.1. ccmp ~et~ Q. A si III i:~a c8Icu~ii'[lioJl1on the pi nilDilll wn I r 9 Hv·e 30 di"v ided by 2.ifl1ii(. ~ lh ls is 'f'O'U nd b.ght:'"'9n@I'e:s '10'.ijlc»om rn Dd~~ed ~inthe '!ii. "flle ·ouU i1l"u~~ s:t~OWl'll1 ~" thIS ~Ihu st flirt ion w.~c Jii.b~ il sp ur r9~e\lir .h.it.e· WheH!d'.~'Ilhe$'s pais5.h ' c.woUlI~dbe acti 1"119 ' in {!j.re' po.&ad eng.n e!.H' WOlrfrfl rotci'led [t wou Id rnovs 9 a le'Ag 'its IiIle ~~ !~'is 1Irl.ars U~etwo oCompO'l1le'l1i:ts are' ~'n IF:lO W8·y' si mUar iin :aplpe~'r~II!lIC. a.de'liiiIiing~ WI'['h 18~.The w(um ~ . anti'nue liJ.lin. 5!I.ep.al .ti i1i:g. iiin physi ~il si~e. 'The 018181111' traln i. the re~Jtt .off' Iglene'f.!" gei":l:rg be lJIjSe ~ ~o p roV'jl~:~'~ h ig·h 91e~.ito U:Ui~~ t ra'l~m thirt ca!ii.~~'m.se¢. 1 d~v'id by ~:he:. It thl8 'wliiS'BII. tin.Whh (ll worm gl~ar ~ ratio ~I.~~!.~3 'th~: back eona llnes a'lrld .dCflI.~y' r.hn ed' 'this ~sa! .01li18 ~'hr'OJllgh the CE!'I'II:I.[)J?'~. fI. 8 n d tl i:s.g.krno'!li'itl'l as 8 m W(J.J ~65. a ell j'sve.r flfUa ~'r" :~~V~· G@'r"ill .res8n~ ·the back of the tele~h.iInl~aa 11.!ln.0 CI~ '~I~~eb4 - .be comlp~ul!ldedi with twlQI gf ~h~l .4lSi.' .iRigi inre teB~h en 1h~! per-i'pllFiery' of ~..he .elr~.:'~1 r'eJcilJl'I!:. Th e I l'EI!'I"Ig'th ~hB 'tee~h wH I be ililfIJ.pu.metBr wm be 3hl. ~iOI:~ TOI· ~'F' .H~· d river~ if1i Imcs. Une:V1af'o~ ls a '~:a9Ir..~ s<::rew b~i ng ·tlllJ fMed ~nkl i11U1~n taCit th. iJlI'l pm elice ~ItH3 wheel SG ~M beeom 9Si toe I.pUIIF' 19 e'.pa'~ ·th81t co n b iii!! msde avaHatil a 'fQI~ th e.e"~r b.~.m eunt - p(iints efthe p-l~Cl:hlines and cone !base:! lines.• 50.. The whee~.o af: :SIV~ 2~'Ih::land tine other Ila.e. A WIQ .a~deSf.' m~glij.e w·grm .0 u!ppe'r ..9'ethe r wU h rn EHalfl~ of IfT.e_a njd aUticlllIig:h th 8' worm (.. Th else 'I~nles~lre . Wiith SIPUr gea rs .imca I~V a screw tj!n r.~nd 'the oUler ..aI~1 DrrH~ bei ng .~ea rs 'seeu red' '0 lonG' shaft Qompolll!lnd iiii Q wfr! I b e= le'x~~ai'r:i ed ~ ate'r ~h.n~iI c t h Iy a!~ Imee:t .egaa r rredlUcti.QdlJl~li·onrs iQ. ~'an now be dr. P flIs'SJble fo r ei't'n'Br gas r to ~II"\TI\i'le e r be d Il'iven by the other ~·r1.f tha(.and IP in lon.ena mfJides. W>8I1fS '~iIJl tM~~ fi!i(sd S~ ~hall it eeu ~d not roltat. and cI)1iIit'in.E!l:r!~ iJii 'Slhown as. 'wh...o' 1'00 b:.rone :~~iiirtBobta Iin l8:m .SIn . Wi~t1 w.. -1 lor much I lEI rg er Df req ldred~ ea iii F be.!.pitc:h lifJ:ss.l I]B!$eS ti&U~.i1ec~:rptEllblE!'.:" .e iSl I 'teeth oU h e.illl[r~ng' WIlt.!.he: nu m be r of t1El1l81h.ir to' plPorvlicite 8.t~.fi'ctc IV 1f\or ~~r~'OIJI~ FJUrp~ses.ge.aIw¥ be t ~!.r 'lilat~ll~ of 1S!1 w(')u~d reqUli'~iii! a 'W~'ul!!fd !1a'\I'..!.a :simi~~rW'.e~ a fie show III ~i~gra m m~~iC2iiIIIVin Fi·gl .e:surrt fin a a !tbo ugh ~hli.oe l)Et~'ng. a I~~ n9~ertheh.nc~di W t'n'e.u.e.lch ~:stthe drIv1E!!r~ ts oa'E!.e EO Ibe 1 U'ii81irattendant 1b€:~rin9s m.Iy diffe'filH'il.orml.s. !p~f' gears ~re hot' ·e.Jf~e' ~.shOr'wn as 'DC and Dn f·Q r U~. The ~ ei s rep[lf~EN'ilt'ir['lg the I'll but it ls mlllJchl ~BS8than 20 'mJeeth and so tOI·obtefiln e.rh.a. Thile -he:iglillr .n .~~ to h«l~Je ~11P.d 8J'ild lwei moi"~ g·. sh~ u Idl .ll.i!Dp'pe~rai1c.cblo'lfnS '.s~e.)'rge nu m ber.gvs~·e .ul'ng 'lmf~:ill '[Ihey i'1i!~erSl(!ct the OOfl'e cefil~:l'1e ~wnesa~ 1 rand Y.\I!.rm of 'ge8 ri n Q MI!JJ st be fu u nd an d Un.ljll1d resembllel a spur W:be~1 ~n.3 w·orm be driv~n bV the worm 'wheel. P.a' gla f and EE illnGr IFF for 'the p~n.r.i ~t: X.y dfrvid in Gl t. wh i'.d with itllst tWO g'El.e ~.Hl. 21.1.P:B" ·3 The· WOfM wou~'d move ~!itffin~f. : S elu ti0rll ~$ te use·.s.air wlH h')o~ ~tmilar M UUiJ' oth~t..8V to .litude so some by' . These lines ·EU'6.aa'f. ! weLJI~ havle.ICWil.g1In1i1n1gl" tEl $' i~. ~'n riI as tll.of1he il!iltersedEion ri. the wihoi.of UH!' !JlIIt!cne 'of 'the 'ge'iilrs. 'WClrm wh ee~.!1Irrther :s. ~ 1:.

the.'.ot now m " e axis IV~ ~hemovement wou~d wh Bel wou ld now rot.ated! chJckw i. Irans'mlitted I~O th e we rm..:[ t. . Tlhe l'ee'th on the WOrrm are obt.tJ. s'ffon PUll ~nto madil l.ate. most [DiP' PiC 0- tUllining " he. tC'onve·r:s~ly~ the wih-eel dlislc i:s: .a II '1 h at. ~:[tallll be Se81(i1 .ncreas. ~L ~i!..OfrE!cf'. th~ s¢rew thlfoa. r. H:h . n Ih ave' lOI be a..el Bilil d th &S~ te~'th '01US1 lOa ~:daICled .lion-r but tih is is not s 0 with wo rm g~8ri ng H'g.dlr wi! I haye~to be.n I w~ be II ~revelil~ld by t'tn! b..a on'9 _hre.axis of the whee I bu ~ 5i nee 1:his mO'vem e.:So i.a:s bei n glrot.1: ~an bEH!IJeeln tha. If i~ Pil'"l~c.of I:!h[e W.fleet I Imparted on ~'h:B' wh:eel. Title amount cf' rc.. surfaee Df the' Worm' 'tl1llliea d . ~g in 9 a n ps[i r [of spu r g ea·rs i'~ ca n' be sean HilBI they I'i!IllMa. tin 't!ln 8 . 4S. a.rt. lnd tbe w.'DS po~i'bl e to alter th II ear ratfug by p[lJtti ng m'cme '~h. Ul =~O'R!_- .0 hi 5.ltE!Nat.lI"m 'wheel.l~N£.hLafi: a n·d aga[in no 1u rn i~g effo_ct wi II b Eli prod ~ced or worm gleCi rs bU1 wUh one bl 9 d i'ffersnce: The ROT.t&l othe'r by means cd fric.Pi 1"..d 0 rn the n W.E!'1 hs.R~·~ 0 nIi'E.i!.aces of spu r ge'8i.ea(l1gs· of ~he:· worm. 8)l:.an gil es~o.. Ih'1 [U nders~rano in til a filrd dm.:~s. lhe~shafts so they' of '~H'n:rd'de . whee'l o re u:nd enee.:I&hing surfacss wHi ru or 9 i~.1_ 'I~:he rm 'W'o .ove 10 AS: [tooth ·fo reach no bear! !l.~- ~1.1el to U.ul no! be at right- the diameter' . til e co~rsl'r t!h.eRe d 'Ihen the d~reeU om of [tu. .re'itl·o~lut~ns to. 1E'r:"~~T """t.Ibov. e .i1j"'g. I is Iso be revers d.f illstance'. to.~ *1 lby the thrust b ea ri ng!L n D r-dB'r to oloita in irC-tI[ry m oUon.baJckwa rds or fOlJl"Wa rds depen di ng on 'WfH}ther it w.yutJos~ W u.B of the ~ath illl' relatlon Ki .rs lIN ~II [Foil to g fr~:l1er a nd til eorm~:ca.cl"le!l!fng '-@lngl.d et e wh e ed'eu _ II h ave.whilch mUll De ro"f ·tbe· S8'mle " oren ~~U:.f! wo rm a nd its sh aft WDru lei if!' t!l"iClnsmiUed '10 the wha. I" ths WClf]f'l'l whe. 4JJn ~E.ini.~ ..EIl'F as U ~ E![ss'eJn'ti.and toot.ilUo.eel 1128.a.~t (llrae ·thIr18ilH~1 heUx" 8:ngle olhll!lrwise when 'th6l'[.engagement rtf the ':hr~ad .liiff'C11 s..WO kH.Drm wU11' d(il'pe'!ii d up Dn ~he Ipli'lGh of' 'Ihe ure'w' ~h read. rrQRI 'th:i's why ij~ rs always nKeHalry te provade a W'Qrm w'th good 1hru~st / b'9.Jl.or~ml and e V'lhe9~ is determined by :the' number of teeth on ~he wheel.H.''!Iol u r:~On..'g a ilnst e~ch ott.s40 m~th"'hel 'I e 'worm 'Milihave' 10 m a:ke 40 . d rive the.~whee ~ WO:U I. at aU.l1 Js obiai~ad ·the . ro. worm 'wJ ~I ~ to m.jng the pUch does nat '~:herefo·re alte 'the gear ratio _Q a teeth on thlB: WO[f.1 '!I ~ i d1v'8 eo.UUes. [[Iii e wheel m.1lng ee tM.ii1~ sin a rng'lle:to the a·)..11th e Ifilnergy wi III be.tM 0.I. axi'! oWed on h e I~()(' an ~hrewheel the' 'worm will [oftlmV rBch.] not be·transmlrHe. each oth :r-.T'ON ~ RV a ~E.mllnt ginN-en ·~o the WlOif"(lill wheel.!Bj+Il@d bY'lproviding h .~ P Bi II' of rOII~ ln Qi ht pi Ich il.evol uti on of the wo rm ..m whee ~ haV.f the screw '~s~~_~wt. . 47 depicts it worm <and whe.uf' rn1'otedi a.'~o b·e albsoft:n!.]9 0 f as .~rre]B S (U pU:eh s u rl. the !'limb Q.pon p~'tcJn [of dte gear sh8Jfrts w.t be: the 1.JO 1lJ'&.. the 1.:_if:ngs as. P~. it :pitch .se or alil'U~cloc'kwise.J.ell and so OIUO till!' bel mlpa!l1ed to 'the w' ee I a nd SU rtne shaft of th wh e~l.f.cn crf ~tille' WClrn~ wer@ 10 be rev.simih~u·te r'hr . . ~fCM - c.i:i' d '~~h c _"~hr[B' d and lits [OJn~y __ wi III DB 'WI rMJUc'e~he [me o. teeth w.t 'the Gi[es r ratio of H~ w. r.oV\e: CMJer I: ne SU r"faca 6:f th fj ry' whee. ShCH:Jld tha worm be p revented1 'tFrQm Brxiall movern ent ~I'll d t:h e whee.L ~E.8 St:t6W WhB"B'!1 wi III ~[11111 cUlIll".El.!llOm1 ~nd 'wlhll.. Hg.d ls l!UJlt a In. . Th e rotet ion gt tJ!l1.el' as tOIJC1h "'9 J)ii[ch s U rl.leiv '!~' :S1m e· w.. It can no'w b.11]".n::e Bh.ogetheliand g~ve rise to excessive fnotion.pe nde d in thle' li riB cf [~la WO lim s.n lli ven to U1B' -_ arm whe€d to r eii..'n4'E [)l2KTiOi'J 'w. 'G)"f tllfiri~ _gear ra Eli 0 as the se rew 'Un rl9'B.orm ..tho W.hape uf ~:he wO..lnc'tion :o'r its diameter. The (O~rr~'8 pilch wil~ necessita·te ~0 and thete. aln{:rl1ed on ~he wheel .lces. 'the worm is rotated there WI ~ be in 0 turn in 91 e.pp~ieel ('0 bo~h 'i.n re.i3I[~ha:t·till':!! d ialm e~e r of' Nllf!! w~nm has be'lwee n the WOJiM and whee'!. ~. seen ·frc.g lU.!' di re£'ti on o'f' f'O~.s~ ee i~ c-ann.1 made Ire e '1:0 rO~lte en hs bea iifiI QS then aa: he Wen'".. worm wi. FO.. . if fh I. ~.rm of the 'lhn!iEI d 0 I'll ~hewo rm fin DiUId I)e~.~~ e e h ~h e pitch c. the 5.e rd~ch the mlQ re ImOllite.

f ~:1:1 WCUfm W\f1.g~ich thlr.' P~~'T 10~ ED WH'IE.fle to !be e '~nc:~raa.pp~y '~othe t'Bet. net n no tn I'm nilOIIi1 "3 nd th~ ru I~~ gOfVe!rn ing.e'00 m pl'eite re v(ii'lliIJ thln e.armThe i~:e~~h. 0" Ig. lin pril et~ce' tthe' resul t o..orM 'is in 'lin e 'form of ·an 0 rd~fbllrv screw th rG.'i!3 a !~HJa LWO ~talrts .: 'ls.ld . ~f ~he: in:VOl'i. .ttBli n n u:s'rng '~'he:~rig:jnal'.w'j n:'[his ~p~ce war.R pi~iI'~""!I.~alm i!!il: bei ng Iemll'lloye d 't Ile'lil! 'tJhe 5(: rew th rea d 'of '1:Jh e worm wi II havs ~tl!"a i.ing at . A~ .5~me" the lie w~u ~d Dn:rV be: 12 .el~ an d 1.0 ~:he' ea r' '~atic wou~'d 1l0W be 1.i!II~h:~ tQ ~~re the eerreet n~!mend!L1tiIJre.~y~ have two d aJ thr'lad~ has bean rellte. and sh alPes (If the: '(18'e. onl!'V r n e lOii'U!:h~ a!nd net m:~H. 0. (.ciepti.aken tbrCHiJglh l'he' centro' 'Q~ the w. st.L.th of .of Unlmad: ls r:aterr-edl to i8lfi. lie.e gea_'f tEH. wll't.'f U~~sa'fifia1nge.ci!'. seen where .L $H.IjI'I' '~DlFm.i!!o.e ii'd eng. poS"itioi1'!lS" c. <->: ~ l '~.~I~tne lh re~d Wu'~ h I rn eve ~nm a k i101g.(HilJe revolu UOln.red~ thera would' be ':space be'tw:ee III IB~n.e!t a ~i~th U~e' wo rrn wOItJ ld nat eng.2:1~ g Suppogfng ~he' f1lJu U' m t:ee1:.e'th on ~he'whe.e hleU'ssing sp u r 'gealr:s thillt '~h rsr. if a.on.OW' fu IIV am pi'Qy.~a_do.24. the -~o. '~hBrEl..PQin~: ora one 'thread .E.Pi ~ DI~.rQf.Ifj'1Q8~r r8ti. 1.ofirg. TaE::T'H 0' ::IF ~~F~ wO~M .'h the section bein 91 t.8F.nle Ip~b~h '~h screw' W191FE!: to be ir.8 gea r r.iir.numb er 'o:I~ starts 'On the ~h d.e n. of the wh e e~ rema h'!(ed lh e: .pra:ssu fa an g!]G.Qrm~ Tile' ]rnYO~ute syslJern is i'nv. th i's: seCl!ilndU1 1reSG wOlJ1~d be a tiNII:fb.B us. WOQ. 'It. .:: -.h of 1'he worm and wh~e~. g. rRea Wf:lA:MI A.erd of Un~ W..ag'es ~nta a~l"errru1te tee.ne d~ame~ri.sdores r1 at mea 111' 'that' U"n. ~fi~.8n dlseussi 11191 m!JJItij s181rt t\n read s ~~ ls delS.5~ .ew ~s ca Ued the.l dlspjaiit:@m @I~U wU9jde in an H tUlrn IO'~ ttU!' Slanew wml be twice th e pitch.. S1at~m'a eta ri IV if' the w.d n~'m.e' a~uc!!. on the next th read bul: the d~sts nee' rnove d' d ~ r~ng . 'This type ..ack and 'Pi rrI io n wm'.24=toort:n 'worm wheeJl.h au ~d i~he' th read be twcH5.'b. 'Thi eye IIc ud:ii~sy:!r~. WlE. ..l4~ .N th f. ~s 'rJI 0 lax.a~illad .m eUilJt ~Ou l. second '[h rB.aJtk:Ji w~~ be.:.~@r' ~ to .~ed '~ro rn 2~~1 to 112.ci rCl 6 Cli-rc.e1hi.. r:Jii ~'M~"""UI!.Itc'h~ and so on.h on the wh gel hla.e '~he p1teih' ImU'~ti'pl ed ~ bV tfNf~.1'hlee~ bl!i~ bl . 5. n'ti]' lliE:eh is the dis'[£InCiE!' be:lWeen . '['~N~ fa m.t.tlnle glear' r.age in each 'tooth ·o~ [~leworm '¥!.!\PE 0...fcr~ased iIi:lif e io JMirr.a mlJl'~tist~11r1 thn.M W~E.4:.it·'e! ~y.s."lmfs'fI18nCe of .ralJHZ?ief the te eth Wiil~ of"g Feat e :impurttin08. i~het hre ~d!' 'W.9 f.9h~:pe of the ~Cf!elj.Jh~lS B with Ul e .j wOrm 'thre'ad' 'bJ 1"1ve: m Dif.!~E..h 1 p:~ss:ibile ftH".11Jld a is.~ltBre dl but h~.' the wlh eel we u~d ha''lie 24 '!Je~th at eire u I~r piloh resUill U ng' ln ."fUae '~nrm and' wherellC:.. W'h.~t1a !1i. th rea d on '~rn8 worm. m'E!'. The WOlrm It!I nd w~e~ I 'wI II . 't'IFH~ Oth9f'.a~ ~hefi!1.ror Insltal!"lcte~ ag. a MO~St(1illrt t n:!.jog the: sarne gif!l8 r 'the: ra!ll~o s ha be en h. i"f the pitlc'h lO. .e ifi!fhl '~Un.e!'itlGl be used [0 fllfl"O\l~~de anai~lhelrEh read ln a I~res[p acts: ' s lrn 1 er 10 the .~o .3Tn. 1h~ it w(lu llidl hEir"!! 4. .f] rM U~readl an'~: i'f U~ e' I"e~u ~t·a W(J rm We Ire' ':~Q I~r~ lookedl . si~e of 'fh e 1 ~'N a. !!:JF W~I'o'\_ .~I.t 2.ghl s.~Ii'ld a 5.0 !"II. When Icu]:k.ati!l.E.alslJlIrillli-g the dj:stanee: be-lwei:! nI one y s ~'ii'ii'9 a'md so a III. cd rcumfe rienQ~.SJUy opp i)sii~.~ad~..ad~ lIlhre I$ad j':s.~d wjJ~I in O'W engfag.e'm m~y' ahio b.c.end.Bl1!lrTngan d ['hB '~Drm and 'wtn IEH~II.n I.8:i ~~6i' *~ ~ ~ 'F'~ A:.iI WlQrm with 'strali g:ht""''Si ded te. F~"gl.~ria:bll V used ~s it i$ n"'iJJ.a nl3 t and t:h.1!Fin D'U'I Oilf J.~ wo rm and whe e'l.id il'~ lI'i.in ~~ l~h I reed.e' lEI! J t'hfs'ad CICllC. ''JiI01D11H S H'APESi ~tWiI'S.all.gl. fii!iilld is.f 'tIil't1nS.L. werirk.'I'I ti mes the p.a.d.~~ ~a ~~I:) IijI ~P~~.' this is tlPLJ'B gf .. mean '[hart Q:nly a h a ~'fof 'ttl e t)eEHlh On I:hB wheel welJ:lB bel! ng YS~Gl an d a 5.imil a I\" p rJ!i 11I~.~-ro-I Ohb. iihrae:gtan: '!h61 n 'rh e adVililiee! wilml' be thlre.dl not IbBEln . a nd ~Iie p:lite=n.:2 ~" can d no[ 2~~ "1. nd tlhie! 'nil erl(t wi iII give' the pi~i£ h of' Uile' 'Ih rei d but !~hij. us.prQ d l1ice' .~ .=.i[I't on m'l the. It 'is I startling.e Q'.ide S iling ~ed an the .o wouh:l now'lb~ 6:".ta n t'h I~H1i tl.:th that th e 'firr::.i3'llern~ tJ!E!th M an ~ .lJUo.9ln ib!3 re:giJlridled! as ~:he' tefHh of: a rack.N'!] WHEIE Il.eJ~ but UTe' ICllJrved ~lfhai~H~ IO~ t_:u:~ cVc:ic.e. teeth (Ii'' ' the whl~ e II .48 shows in :S'e'~Uo ~ . Na.th .1.ed.Jn'f ~".I ck wi ~~h:alitle 'Ie be reprodli!ced 'hl the .

on thel!~'!he I QieU.e.-<I. lJnl~OIiUlniaIN~~ 'II U~e mutUS-fa rt t.ev I ~m8te··1JJ c-'On~~ruct OI'S illi f '~hG ~h OWiill in IFig. b·e made w'u~ te eth ~. a We rm 'w!h.cinI. Of eeurse.s..t"'red p ft'\a~il~!B wh €H':!..a'Hso ~onf]9'Urati.alrv 's't\r. in 'faet Ib e uri I ised ttl s a ho b: th ii~ method wi III be :eMIP.s. [he pl~efe.I!. ressen.Bind the 'w.O'f il'h e' h (J:b.~ Op.f~l.I l T·r. lhe IJj !S~~'l!! is norrna I Iy Y!se.tf-u.r)n will '~e capable of 'long life' a JiI cl lh·ig h du'l'i.hIe te !JJn~t·enelos.g ie (rf ttl! e nat .a.gres es do ~O~ QIEi'neraIIV hlilve a 'into Iljh.~:nailn e:fflci~ncV": 'th~ huger ·t~e· dRaim fSlle r o-~the wo tm the :sn1. rn)iB'[:1 dre fi! cY' '1.n and so 'U"Ut pin ce 'fo ~ a ~. :15:!~Th O~ ~.n9Ie smrt w\Qrms.WQrm [IS in ~m." .8lnd' whe'Ed bIB! aft: rtg!ht-'iHlg ~e'~.l s. and . t'~1i:'lt: it Is net easy' to' D r'Dch.llllv mtilFtch "~:he' '1ti..h()selii~ Th it.PiI.ed~he n am .ear ~.8 W·0Wm art. $9 ~ill::d i1rg.~JC.aII~ hobbed and "the hob [[self ~s illl.r~ 'l4e..a:1fe'MIY we ~m desil~n thalt 'the .dUB to flricUOin iiilIf'€f d~ml~'ntiS1hed Ci:S· ~hE!i itch 'of 'the warm if.s Uile nlSce~sa.g_. mov!Ellmern1.c'hr. .a Ft!Jj.a ng Ie IS usual 1'1 ref~ fred t(). . Thrifs ~s $ ~'DWn! In teeth on t.the. t.:.Ii1tS Slru.. 50~ ~'t gIn be seen frern this illu·st'rati. re~ul\ilng ~Ina lowe· afn~ iency. p:alt~eula'f~'!f 52: .e w\orm Q'ear bG>r is cel1ailn~v no e~ce'p-~i!!l)n ~o 'that fwlre.w meGhan~C81 e-fficiency.O ·T'E..mI'ntag.iu~eS..r.itS. W inl 1~!!!o.i!!lnd thU:Si unreS'.!alct... 51.: h i'Q'h te.m wll eQ1 m u-sl. a·1i d is. Where' 'Itle !lowe r tra rn 5. I~~_\.".8 WOrm shan ls I~rst il1l'fri~nol!'l iJlnd ."ii E TCI.iiiI ~lg. of ~h e' iWO !CG'm POlfHB.8 rna [i1Ida ry f Qli re . ie.~eli 0.~ in' th e· de~~n'I!Ilnfa dividing he.3 I'll u~'caM.p.. J'ts.atuil!'\E!1 cain be IJs~d I~'i!lad'v'81ntag.CH'li!T:! whee I . a Iil_. i-s p i'ac~'ilcal ~<)lllding inr~o a e:Clount the 1'08 di n9 c. 'on I.UX..cd.r glea'. I~in~ctn ~~he..aotiEl:ri$['uC's ·as ~'he plr. The power t n masse's.Oii" m w:h eel w'i I~ have li'ts 'e ill"C U mferre nti.p B ! at h18: Ie be . ~rovide.:.S1-'~L!=~E.Ithe. must nSlur. wh eel.Ing Ie a fJlI.Era dl ~9 IU~\.Uo'w' .@!.iil1 .Tc'H CIJ.mary • I be s im:pUrHedl.C.frtf~~tiil:n1'~'~ 'tarte·s.e' with Uile i l ~O~Sie. 0" th ~ wihee ~ do not fcUcw th e' wonn plrlQlN~ii ·and CD'lfli5 . She ~1d it not be an esslenll:~.f.:SJo 'ccmt) IHicate d :s h.-).ig h g!B'.~ ~H'~~b 1o.d'so the Q reat-e'r wi I~ bf:! ~s Ulie.of~he. An engilneeri ng des'ug)~ 'i:e. A to WOnT!! and whe e I m~d@ 'to -I: I'n~~bove' a t h. few U'Q amalteu v tlOlo~' de ~ig f1! e I" and e C:~fils:truCIO. l'he COfill e rs .I or fotiiiitV t'ab~e'o ~f the wo rm i.ru both ~. or whle'rle 'Iihre du:t~ to be es IP erfo rmled are irriterm~ tte'n t the p tofi ~f8lof 1 tH ltI~at'edWlO'rlliT'!.cu. .ed lor in(!~m ~cn wM11 be 'the ~\HT!:~[~ r:1.5 way 'WOllrOIWS ~he 'HUle '1'0li'm Qlf ~he worm 'S.h::e' ~11' w~ o~e'width e of I~hewh e e~ is nol lIJ's..missi on i. '4S~A wheilii~s f.Q a' hig:l._ This a1ngis whleh is part of ·an &l~'~iSt.e:HI1'ion in m a king . wheril worm Ige=lairs aire used f'Qr pow·~ US nsrn i:ss}oIii.ai ~·e willl~be r ~ heiix . A lJ:l.eet TI1e ~~i~ of th e wa rm rn U st be an.e !J. fe. U. SO" has b_e. h'8i8it '~hliliil Uae· ·fw~ct.wOLVI.. HE. ~~~. f l gtrt~ anJ~lll~s the Leeth cd rm.g~ unti I e~ d1e ~hmad of t tH!.on i'5· hI'g I'~ If~s.ded.f'S ha.e'f ~~t fIT~1a n[.I[_ Tlills chamfer ts shown j.a~is-:0.a. L ~~ O'=: ~il>"1 - ~ \ FI'6 5- U~\~G ~ ~~16~:T Tti:OT14 j.u.tU!!WDlirm and i~s b'laB·ring.!lJoai Ilv euts Ullt! tEl 8th if1I ~ha'W h8..l cre'iSl. ~ wo lim whe et fn p. wori<pi1ece.o~ 1'j9i\1\1ed 'QLf.e-n f·ound '1:0 give s~'ri~frClC10ry rssu Its altho li!'Qih !I is JII'O~.!i.aIr€! '[herr efo're re moved by' m!e~ns orf' 8 .ed' ~nan oi~ba:~h.~f'! 0'1.e ne 'd'e'ta i'lll~·ter..e' mq'Ui f~d POWfH' tra!1l sm ~ssi.S!: worm 811 d whele lin 1he ho rne wOlrksh'~'P i~~'he!·product to fit .:dl teo~h form th.r 'Ilhli.ffiI s' ttl e f'ace' ~1:lgi~e...8q'llI'Euirtly do.dlh.TN . If.his.This not.h.in~I..ed~ (H" ·cut on 'the S~iiU'·f.'C"'~ ~ A. lin ImQ r.fiel'iemciY is'S: rn uch of ~ha eff:1)11I~ :put t F~&'50 S!I-IlQWIN.apy Ib"e -~h~llt.'tha I aCU.~pJ15:.. a.~d ast h e' cow F1 e.ilPB'te the.&.~' to SU[f~ the fiJdius of"I:he'wOlrm~ this i~ most dir1ff~Gul( o p.~a~io than ~he .I) Ii liina de' wiii~"h ~peci a lij'5sd to 01in~.Fi='·L!it .. 'fair ~. rna in tcl'in the a~i.or m '~.-mf.\'HillPed tin i. ~ept as·'smarl~ as.$irliSlte start vers io.as to ~ e lit~ed . nol i 0' . be . I.f:i i~ ts pO'ssible tiC IUlS'e' an o:rd~n-.S.r r{um ing ~'h 1'h read e iill .nD .Cli. ~:I r 'fJO th~t slm a SUd~Cle: elf ·thB' tablle·.h e edt table !tOp ir~ will a.~11 th. TIn e d larn ete·r ~dthe wo rm a 1~0l aflecu thr~1 gv. is 'V~ry 1 r"C r nu ts a n1 d Ibolts.a' 'fiQ.!!e.~e .o hi m8_ltch d1 e 'lhtl98 Ii c.g~ awev froml l. 49 a S BTl a flgille: of I~Ollii'lifld til i8j.Clove r the e Illlftre wh])t"~ o-r 'n.v.. 'lih e rdti'ameter of th 8' worm mus-' thera~Qire be. h e whee I m.81.s' f. T1le anglle.c.usled wOIF.&. Wonrq .Ii" In order to.~leW 'Lh liIea... ThlerE!!' a~e oea8s·iGns~.BJlr lriftio wJ II !be a Ilo.he wheel fIi1lJS-.tung ]h.l ·a co mlprom~::!re and . ~lUb!itifj:~ionburt olso he~IP~. 0 11 e dtsadv. :le1 as the: whi ee.he wheel.J.n icu lFig.al'g'rntf1'f)t:h spu r 9 sa r ~S.s~ the ~ am e' SI~IrE! ngluh and w. wl9lrel:ll thi!$.JCJ.es.ry G6'l'inUa nrt. W.w' '(OP f. and se p m:LI ~tti:ita rt wo~ms iii A"113! m·ore eWlici e 1'1 t.a be ~~. woe:M ~"m'L'b IImS'tead o~ the!CuNE'l.G ~ .1l1:1 fiaiCe 'n.T 'Tb~'E.alll SUi!lnC a rd thr..on-ee~Iy sJa Hip ad W.. 9'iT1d load.~:llj)f iii [fii gl~ of tfl1e werm a l1ld· e thms lU ~a j!'Q'gemlent is 5h oW.(tJ]ll'ld rn 3y b~' vi3lr'jie d. 'Of '!:hB W.O '~~M WiI.pr.. S. than ~hB s~."N!t&La '51':~1 ~}f.I1 n its g~ner:aUy h aVEr a ~ower glear .00 ~f ~!E.aundwrneei len the' 'end .ace _If a sp!JJ.ptdin 8~ t.f" OF- wa~"""iI' / TocrJ\1 '5NQ.rm.1botn we rm the .0 be' w~:a!k. have' 't·o be u nlndividIU.t ~)~~~ O~ ~= WO~M .aIP ~'tnat I for' m a¥ nOlI ~ICCU r liIllelyllt tha wo.".:ntIII tjll1rust be.

ctlly in speci a~ !tln.e~1 I i~ n QI~ .1 teJt~tml~ H~i.ii!!'n't is The pitch Ie'. Tha l"rO~DrtiDns . If ern "S.ethe·r w.ooll.miiteUr con:s:[rll~'t01i" wi III have' ~he l"Iiecess·~ry "~.alPpUootions b~l.!if 'Urn e' may be' ~~'iJ.8 IIIIWQliking elea ra liI'ee t:.~oeditl'1)g! PiMg.jO~slble to use the wh e~1 as a dnirv'9~.i.ithQ'~.a:m e![e'f f k~"Ok throughl 'the ..'lhrat a.e' reVEl rsl bl m.pit'eh rci rchJS a ra i~aigli III ry i:m·. "I ~t~g EL FIr:'"JQm t~me ~o hme in the pu.a1 cas~ iron whe~I' b r·oni!le wheUl:. of b etome5.~wl'i I E'I! {:it: bel "le:c~s:5 ~lry :['0 il a C1!!.n b i"Ulk.'tE:n til at is.~'~~ fOilI '~Qg.rm a I'iId 2. m.4P There is COriS idef8. '~nilml high 'f'ricti6Ji "0 reas li k81 ih 00 d ~ha:~.as it' is.e.Il)!Q~h~ IrlO.8r a'lll ~ is h n~e 'fro m a cli! not a s~ra'igthrt Iinls be'tw~en the' "MO.gW.tJ.es cer:ta~[n tie r ms h ~ve: bee III used apd ~~ ~v be iln iJdvtllll raga to de'fi I'll 8: a III rn the terms .e the d ~~lj.a m.e r -Ua e As wowm g'eal'~lflg does :'S!urrf. dlista p'-I3li 'OfgB'. . '[0 As .sIbat ~t!J~ng :$.P.'i_.a.he gea' 'can be m.11 3. IPilch CffiR I' co.c .' a.II' bel t'h e' til edlbr a rq ghl a ild .a IWBY-S drivel th.~ a'lt~nfJ'~ rrt nle' Ol~ ati·onS'. pitch (f'Il8a'rIV a ~w.V is of !j'tlttl~ .W'.4P W'i'llll r'e!s.gh ~he WG. The face wid~. The .O't~11d~pth IQ'f 't Ill~· e ut.any sltte'm...e~e ri·a~. P~tchl Dn Tin e c1 rGiJ ~ar rp iJ~ch i5.II{) ~ruo -tec h A. i~'IOIl1~VW hen thre' ·'~i9'Uure. tha aetual gea iill the P~t~h D~~ mQtg~ The pite h dli ra meter of' a glea r is! th e dll fJ m~[erof Ihe :pi'U:d~c~rei Ih IAl~O't (Jti:lMit'i:e1ar' d~.t lmlpo rt. i~~f~b~~:t to k!OOPI fali r~V 'olo~:e'to' the te-ch-ntca'~ 'l€'>t~ boo~s'on ~he. A .elii.nd t'h e n cQrr'!'p'blte .e~y' alnd a~se IiSl~the ill¥:IlIlJ glti..tHamle~e..s 'can a'S it wHi represe'ru 11jlyout desi·gln 'Sta'g e'.e1E!~ah'h oug h wt i~ lUlli~~I'~ thall the a.!i:lde 'Ih an ca'o Ilea dl to ra. 'for al sm.M!~II! is ..t tOI d I'iva ~I"l.~IIfS.~hDs.a wej~ !pro Pc Dr1:loned wor.fl~)ill~sa bl.' W(mrn '~hait:~it beeomes If.S!I~ IC' n'tSlct Dinell wh i W.i2IlllV ~e18Uv19~V l:irma~I . ttlle aulu9i11 p rOlPodio-ns of IOl!lns.re in ill erWp h.t1l"t~rI P~t~ .at d !IHinMaUv m-e:ir~:H'ocat that ~s~alti1c!lJ.eCt1lVl.of the wo rm b!JJI t ~lbo~JI't .r it Js d l lea d is srna Ir SHIl. baolk" the: mlath~matjt5.aJ II'~irU~ 'th If!' g~eal" eeth ~ ~~FlI!i bea ri Reil!.m.~ly~ 54 .~:meter .1 'Q'8\ii"!1 succe~sru iIy" If . uSiDJall.eel' st.aUea ~~'~pro ~uced.a 'C'Of!f1er-spo fiI d~n9 pOlj:n'[ .arderllE!·d pihto'Sipho r.e temp o!ne'nt$: lihe 'fa IIIC)WIFlig iII'1i u3:nded 'to a C~ as a ·glU id e~ '1~ A saif~ l~~eel wo...eei worm The [t:b.m U'M~ '[ask in mind .d to lthe IPain~ where: U ~nQlPo.. WOIli'.~~e'e.e! orm.anV Ie rn ~-nee gl to rt g rln desi..'c.b~ e S i.and 'wh. .n . lUillii'Ul.~ wo rm 'w\h.~~ g ea t OIlJ tu~f.3P'w'hi Istt 'the de:pth below p~'tch ~T1n~ h~'~l~d be .[f1'p~ude for 'the 19n9tb .:0 W ~~ iaad to a we'lll I I.ide· diameter o-f thlB ge~.rtioned un j't .. the: 19 r:eat.hc..I ~ieC!E!'s!~.aeili1.a's !.y sIJriiOW1!l1 iiill'!ii1· D~ f ora co'mmercl.~~e~: of one 'tooU'i to .on '~he_ ne'iI!l:~ '1'0 otln.QI~[rea y .ug.I.a'il the inloJff'lfl al1'ion 1s ~*u}wn logett.i nt.1lJired ir. a rn be rna de' e drive the Waif m . l~efOlfle '~he . b"ook t-eerc~'i1g '~h~~lelh.rl(.51' b'J 2..1 e~lpeda~~e..m.stated \iVa rrn gea rin gl ~s 1!i1. 'the po.a.::c@stSrtu'll~ unde na:k.ot·8'15 ~hesl9 ha:\Hfl. I~The 1'001: d]~me~)~r i's·[not USU8111V used in the' rnoduct'i'on D~ a gea:F as [h~ di ~mf.. The djBffi.al~· co nst r ucto r sbo Mid rn have anv f'e':~lrs about his :abm'~y '~:Q s 11.ospbor-b:r>olnt:6 'wh. wlle'fa P i'~ the ei rC.ons 1h a [ l!m ay !be nee de dl ~o·se~ ou!~ ' ..ef'!1 p oi:n"i!jl.=:rrls in 'th is. A ea~e l'lI. As sts Md art the 'beg In 111 i1l'II!J cui of [his.iii nd a . wi.U~rs.H. -. of: ·the letter P. th~n Ui'N~rr:if:el ro.O'~.ig f'Il I he Qlealr ra'~Llr~red It:o I~erfor..~rut!J1 '~I '~erfse.e .rrThitrenti i.lie· loli ~me:l.h!!.u!~~:iS":~a p ro~olrtion ils vft!3Jl 'fo I' .is I1tcn: 0sseN:l'Ei'al' tn ke'ep'tod:herseG e In e r. il"!!v!o'lved ~Brnbe :I¢e!pt ow n to basie .g ht Q '"'t~i d~' pH:c:h ~]n[e is .55 . ~ .1.of a '~leiill~ f)-Ie ls -i:1IIT H~e bothl.. Wl~~ ~ I h Ell a uttom.a Ira iI"iI 0.I lta b~ IlIT'Ilateri a Is fall Ii! j H'S.a~1 p~tc'h of the wo rm 'wh eel tUlt\h~ Th e lIllocth ~h$ckn€rS9 at: t·he p i~'e'hIh'l.lIIII '~n .ry betwEH~n alb OllM.lI~'m'W~! .5P'" ~~. Q u ~ted' ta·S ~4S' ~'Ul'is·alitl'DWs.IiJ.body o~ ~l"!Je.i.i:Jjj eutt ~ng of' gea r.'S. ~jife r t~o ge oj rel. .m 19eaY"1iJ1r'ilg: may va r:v a Iittle.9!U b~e.t1 use .~ii We.e is.'lhe wheel ma·'Y v8. I~f1'0 €i' ( the me.es it'(i'-liI x: l. l1h.. ~m mll2:nc~ it P5 nliB'ce~sa ~y 10 d€!'5.m of ~l1e' t ~IOU!l s.r-rect olUg. ir~.tin.ed .. Im:easulD'1ed a fillU!Il! ell the~ Il U~)~ .i c.) C~r~NlJla.£!tr'ail.soft: Sl'B ~I we rrn .h 10. AI.as I~e'~ thilt: [nie' w'i"H~:e.I.Irs a descl ra ble :feal~Ulr[e i ' ·a[n.g:naf'~ .equence fe\f'€!rti:b:1 e.e!lrllt'hmeti.bee 111 based uporiIJ ve8rs of (!JHlc~i(:a.pIFo:bablv oil h!19lm ened a rtI d 9 rcund ~niiBI wc.II the work'sho p is the ~.!il~i'\1e formu~a ne:eded Q ~~rlve<~r~ 18Farti!Cul~lr si~€!!. 0 r ':'flrri~u[ic'fIIl di ScSi.~1 tin 9:11'1 ~he g'ealF rafio Irlequ i·red! is lHili!. Is [~plP'l1edfra m 'rile Th'e root dli.-In d d -SCI I':.8lnd ·B r:fn.al~V SPEN3ik~lng it. by the wh~e ~ WQlIIlid w reau I~ in 'the d'est:ructi on . ~8ad of: the WD[!jm the' greater wil~ be tne u[ll1fo rtu nately . r-eq.U 81il~l.e'r.ad is i'l"IIcr~a~se..es [Q I~nod U'ce 'I h e· 'CQmiJl'~lnu.p i3JCe£5:.The pitch (:iro~e iSJ mO!i. his.~[Ij'e a'~ll'v U:S'~ gh/E"N'T!1 ifiI terms.tto US{:!' SlJ.of" the· uln'it.

!Oil are on ~hJe pitch ~ j·rU3' lb'l~e e1fl l 'the p'i~ch I~eim. II~.n th eory p'~IfI:io'fll.8 use for ChHJwda~ Thdckne:s~. bebi'ile. reduce..rs'~ P.e' 0.2 l af-a tlti'ofl 'MO' pitch a nd til e :com m on t~n9e'n r to ~h e t~Ir:~1.o.a met:ralll'Pitch b~o\ . . IChmnht'l n. The 'ti~·ickfle$Sa.~sof'Too.~ IGear P1F[Q1n d1i'eilmemr is 2in.f d11@ am'al ~ gear.u:e g lair i:s '~ha..D. M..eshe 'foiEllCe5.('lI. iillVo Ived ca Ill! be _(1IiiiC~dyU ndtBa. it ij s The €I! f'C -. '" OOXJ[ :.o1iml ~ 'the Q1ii r ra~i'D l[fequi red. to 'inCilieaS.~ i't ers ftI e l:e:eU~ b ~co me dmo rm ed .M el1l'r in Im~flll.DduCE a p ~i'r of . 'Oif 1Jbe.aJs~es Ih r. ge~H ts the re~ilproca:1 oW i\!.lEda cyc:~cid'illil gl0il r is the' polnt of' 'th e gener. g.f.~f .ber: 'Oi~'I:h e ilbciVB flOrmuime have b 8e n iln ~JiU'de fo r Ute' s ~kfl of ]n~e "~:i.J'"itchOlf'cd e Di 1liliT'iletef in 'm:~WI e~rus im C"p ~ = CmUlU lar' 'Pitch = Oi.: CnJrmBii~'e'DisH1rn. ~he' hi~llrge 9 ea r 1 = 'Ul I"'ii.. g" mf a g..IA"L I n~.dh~mete!r ct.and is usuaU'y in ee n'1ltaet with its. 'op.Mad.fl'r]mIM. = C"leai'alrAc.of'R~cess .possi bl'e·~. T' ILi'Ii~elid' Act~oli'il The ~'~ of . r u~~'1 fI'XN: 7 g~ ~' must .h.~ Tn is Imsa n'~ '[h. 'wi I i 'fI1 ow I. Wh1h T1l~m.f D ..e3't 'the 1.\18r.@ are 1m [h (9' 'gJene'rating ~il'\ch.mvs .21f.~!vilrtis 1lIInlDke.c 'I he two bals.'Tlh~ fi rst jitep is ~.!S)on1ae:tt !O'~1m ]:nvch.D.liiJiit'" WU.opoM. D. :x 4~'n.PD' X - _ stra ilght I:~~u~etween. . whrlBr~~1I' .e. mali n9 tOQ'IJI~ t~e~ on PIf0i. b!J~ the . II "'!I'~". L. N+2 betwee fill '~he ttQ~ a nd ~ottolml 'o~ m'. b~lw.pi"'tth line.pit~h elrele di.f3 'the 1!l1llJmber.ect 10 rm ciIJ'lter".s: ~thl w V~H.. gre:a1e r tha !1lthe IPI~®ch e'llrele' d ia m e-t-e't (].!lIre. d1.'-· N ~.': Qr~..be' -oonsjifh~fsrd iiIi th I slrna.m.18 ~DQth f1s the llingm of the eh o'~'d subllEllnded bV U~. ~ .QP. cl Qmlly .flcla.B irS.ill1 gi c'iurell e th r.~. T. lIN.s ttl fj t'ootlh prt()lfi~h3' is '9 eJ'1Ie:f~.'k:1"i eHS'S .~t n'liB Arc m' Apluoach The ··aIre erf :eip proaeh . wmll" in Th isis. 'Ie'~. Th e 'elsa rar~ G-e hll i111 Of1~ ~r31led to D I~lrev~n~ Ironjt~iC~ s.4 N lC Olr!l'~ DP' ! cr. have b9E!i n 'fQ~11 wed th rc ugh 110 pro blerns a sho u I dl ar use'. ~eeth .!'r .O m ~:he Um e" i't f! s in OQiO't.iII .e.cknes The.. . {l~ tw.·:~. thri c!k!n ess of: .s ieh :~Iassa.e' illl'llyolute te'e'tHI "10 C!llnd ~~ the! clialilfrle'ti8lr olf the Cif.s .ollute '~h8tdata rrn'line.PO ..s.i5.8indJ'w.3'1:. 8. rcl'.r.fi!9 :sp.~..o. DIP I j 111..t'm thle lina "IiiI!$JalI're O.tlh urnti I it.I.!!!!!!! .Yfew t~eet:hca'l'lIIbe 'IIJ sed. :saMe: m f>Hn.alr n~.as th e' D.'~he [pi n ion !CfUO 57 . Igle'aw~ rn filJrHe:t~ Gll!TntJIiiB ID'GSt~nc~ ib etwe ern 1W'a g.aid '('0 are bel . ....ete'f of [:SlIiank '8i21es.·~ Wlh~h~ DepH'ti (Depth ~~9 set of tOQ:lhl all.~1 his ~.!'elh per in chi ~f i refe rm. fr. ehc. 'The m odul IM'od~l~ the IlI.l+ f' _ T M.e'ii!I~ thYIP o~h.o~diS I g..oug h 'wh ie h t'hIJel t·ooth 'liu.~Io. of a lciV(.lL.. I~he Af.~':S~ sad of a rli to' ~nIP~t sha'flt fr.of illst glei!..e!n UU~.~l~til.s" __ of' recess..metre..1 wi~~ :s-ee' '~O' ~l1le r.3]~. '1!1I1 eire is all:s1o tin e p'jl".l. .actu all 'fact on'ce a flew e'xa:m pi as. ie~ re.llle~t m8lef~:a I Ito ~~low' 'f(n" . be~ause g. "the :a'C:liJh8~ ang'h~!'rormed belw€i.1F. f.afu:g:h 'Ilhe 'pitch rei lIP O! ru~'of lEI pali r (at m:r.t $v.sn Glea rs 2: . lli3·.9 m athl1Q too.el ~' a.!j 'K> ·. 2.'Thi ~kntl e. fh.r + FlO of .ob~lem of P f-QV idi r'lLQI .e CP DP _ . D -4- line = . 00 !CP M :2xT .laG~IUJ pon :aJ gea f' a~ r.g..'it:~h tU~e. er. T N' 2: . PJrl ~ P'ittch CillfcJle'..ace'.e' passi:ng. ANID 00:1111 P]A.rd.b e .a.tl1 Oln.. i1F1e pri'tll:clpl es.~.iiI .j Su PPO 5 01111 g it is rlleoos:$'n~H(yto Pilf..dl r wea .at ts fI.e!lr hals 401 te..[I" ~.tac~. er. A~11m oUig h i.e 'm-'~III.~:n IOll!l~.Jlh Vlih ThWckru:!ss raF Jiooth Oliil .nR~1 I] I ".!. 'ttl 2ft its ~hajfL FO'f 'geliilGr::a:1 pu rpo\s-e~ 1~ tBeth c~ I'll .om 1otlt'1p m '~Ol ..lI!.ing equanan~ 'IimJIIr.alll rUJ.f\el isrn:ed tJ!~1OW'.nel dL ImtaJS:8' leir.alti In 9 hlotJh 1 _ oea~es.~em.liil ~irei a' .1 ~'f. "A.a(!.·: or".eto ~I of ~Itooth .c.hi ~ '~Ilim . n um.N+2.:!'r' of te~~h 'in the.ailn . :: . Th.ealk.th Qln A.h.I'lthiiQ'lj Qltb i wh ich ' rn e '®oatn ~'fave. D'ther UnIT! Ih~nUm bell" ~f '~eeth lrieq u ired 'the onll Y' dh'T'Ui'fil.~.e n Ul e' cCJ!n'.~ene at whlich of' n the too1h cOlrutact'takes pi ace.es~ ~ Th e ~J~.e te.emt t.~II ..e~If'S.' k 'hI u~ nes.hClug ~ 'th~·-aufth 0'11' pll'ef. '!IS irill fa.B'itClS' lhe: .g m·eUng glBifi rs -= .jllfl ICJ1'n~e I~n's .lno'f an ]In~o ~U'ltl yel D' is ne the com m'on ·t9lng.S.~$ wi'Lh ~ m.Ile:fo rl'l1l'll~oc.pnd '~'he ib0Uom olf il~s ma~i.Dhr~meter i!!'1 in~he5.DP~ NI : ()f N X Cf' ~.SlU'm tif IPDs.TIn..si..e8 rs = .!u r _l& h~~ I• 'This. P~) If.i\f.pl~c8bl. OD )t N .Q'~ them.'ti ng dallo-tEi'd bY' ~liIte' En liliA'".O'~h 'ttl iit. is iilil cents ~l at '[he ~ "€l~ pa ss~ i rig..3i~'Un'~1 g!Ba.uie' =: Numl!b Sf of teiuh iiii gear L..clearBfilos Js 'l~e distlnce Ib-etween t1h.e path of .ance 10e1WIf1!.''JI1IO OR FtDRMUILAE FOR GUlAS.pi~~Jh d'na! m eifi8~ E.s.[H)[ with .l. ''.~I.J11 ~ 'tj m e.lea f' H'Il1'lms ulI1til· 'lJ~~ ecin.~ ': O"r~.een gl~iEI! r cemrm res.aJ~ i'espafhB 'For the 9 ea rs Ialb irS 6i n. P'.!! - 2'..PIJ'~ sha:f:t s pe ad lo'f 2iODrp m a nd 't~ at the lm:s'x:j'm IJIlm a.ea f.'x: Ce:1"iI t--. is'~hle I~ngtji.am€lit~f 1e)c:press'ed e IOf a.om whi chi thl1 inJv.151 : 0 r.fI.~v that th[~ itm~!~!LJr ~lrQduci'!!l.: IOr-~.¥ffici'ent pit.w.s: the' n'lLIIII bl. P:.P UP "urn bet ~o1j:J. 'the! same two b pOJlnts IlHied ~In de:t~f1ffi~inhlll~ghe 'l'OG'Ul t .oolk et . ~ 'M'oa. a fil d si nee 10C rpm has 110be: mdU~led 1101 ~OOrp.. ij:s o'l!'iily ~p.'stood by 'fo~ ~O'!/!l]~9 IB' det~i led exa m pi e :step-by~s:tep ~nd' :5'0 we.adeq u ate bO~le' '[h:at :~siii eede'd to.0-1 OR es Winie.~s from 1.~llvl.1il p'. in iIllflm e~lr85: instead of :1 e'hes.M'.DIiIiION.20 D.ng~e Tile prei'!i'M re angl a o:f aln inv'O'I u h~iQ e~llrirs.m ulletn 'Ihe li'Bq'U iI1i!d 'ra'~h)l11'I1J51'be' iIii ~hep r.e'~I'cEtl:1 pr8~tice..tI~cl'bV i the·l!ilumtu.~velsff.ion Grf 1W~ cur 3~h.a p peilllrt~ be to I'm iela biliB but m ~n .is~. e di9Il'th of cut.a tvpi.ijt1h ~f CtJ.s!.t'porti (.on rn. tihen the :te eU~' ~. The mOldu le ls~ "'hereOOJre" ~hLEll fI1 pit:ch dIUI. llil'rO!l] !. iiii pnn:tiCll~ thBlre..ymlbo.P..eth Inn)l t~e p]~ch ciiF( Ie U.eededi by t h e~g:E!i':lrGurtref is 'U..6SIl66:d.eHE~rs iU!3 ad ~n't. p. 1 1 prob.

and .~ g~ar ilia fIIlk W.i~ of tlQo1b 'th-at' c-an be ~ cC:(H~'lmlod~ted iiii 'th~ perm ~tled :s:p ~te the twol ~Iear 't.uO'll)tlh !8 ~a'ii CiB! n be: fOlH'ildl ..5-.3.~s!Sfig.cal" be ~6p 81fl':aJitled ifiliki.ore than Bin._~~I-·-:':I·I"'.tter o~ '~h.lI~Errh" Rmef'lt\ing..t he ~ ~ ilmiting 't'a~tni' is flO~ th e' 6in~ 1. .! d mn t:hat p'oB. s~imlp'llI~ dire'cl divi':s. IS = I~IIJ*'~ fj'g'un~:~l'O!~his El..f' 4. Oh. s.of 1he 'MU gaarsi can be to bta~ned by' ad dli:ng '1og]eU'B.ite ·figu tie~ fnrff the 'two glaBfS.hie' te\~r ~e~~ h ~hiS'mse Iv'E!'s. .e.an'§11'9'~nd [litre.2. PO = ~F".Wil g~are in mash welll. mh1!im1um 'size o~ g." which mea n:s ~hl1! 't~e maximu~rfll sille Qf gleallf '~hail.D:s\.(l1:i'n._Hine~i'''0."....wh~eh b~. .. .i'ot'it Une.and 23.8~i'ng whee'~ mUlt ·..' 'fbr ins..one e!Jl1~I·af'liih 'sp .fal~OmfilrH).[fi1 l1I!i Shouil'd!1 "rioUow i5! I ~"e. J prii'nc:r.. B.8 very si m pile device .el' of II ~e' 1~tooth.·1 oalcula-UQns W'eMld be' cQllsryem'~_y' eX'te:nd.llIi'1!5il Q.o.it tnl d wh!ee'l helEld.rn91 the. ~ n modEd er:t9irH~e 91 ii:U'U.fJ is n. 1S:(lmfpo.adva ntage to h'l!#e :all 'wo.ether lEI nd lone tQ'.. 'The neams:l st&f1dard D(f t~lat: oo'LJ~d ba I!Jsed ~~ 1If. 10-1' prtmBdllJfe.tr'te' dism ~'ce .llv 'tili'Ile~'.20 . N • .11 ttie .e' I(]r\l'8talll ~e-ri!g~h as. iJ U.5.j.. helnOBt 3.4~. pi1oo'h ci rcles 'wh EUl add.o. €iliHJSien 'then fi~u.3~. AnY' serious e!!ftI ~!iln@'eF~ sWde'.ra.g.Ol!! ld be 001 =. h @'f.!:~.h'1:10 the P fofi Is '0 me\faded to girV1e a."" .hi'e¥ed~ ca~a ble of tr...:' t~iSln 'Bin. maasu re m. '16DP 'g ea r cal':! be! 100 h~~ lated".nefb1iS.f3:dLand so.ee~'N.~e:thelF w~iiJ~dbe Ii1111 .a II-l.i. I illi:!O!bl ~!i. .~l -f'rom '~n. sile: IBm U ~db~ llIls.r . . 'if 't.ma~llflr 'gRam. il C'H'A· P·TER·' ...r ~o dlete'n'milif'a..ed spaGe .ar~.'OO is..~eth 'Ill umlbers must be addl'oo to.j Id bE' oD =' 10 .t.ad ca n h19 bS.g IDly W()Uhll bs' 2lO-'~ee...6 .19il"ii.c[! :2 = 4" :or :2 21Ain.~e ~1Ii mn .5idel~d..e..i~a-~edl .one bUI basica..mlllJ.$~ln$9 a~propollltioT1 and .'~ jeu!' '~ila.wi'li be iu:.22..-:.efflmine' me Immcin'uJim O'P rheJllcan I~e iapply ICliU Qr U ~'l8ngth .er '~he: 'MO prIm ci'rele dlatnln~rs .shn pi e dii'rB. (h'e a s W~5.Q~nitJlol1 we ~~ det.~J ffin.~~~~ 0'] = :B~ which i~5 15"3~ In !illi engiln. dlaar31D1Ce 20D' 'wo~!J'~d m ~~ be ~'hl8! $ee '1-0 m~l P~'i:u~lli£a'1 ~C..W or ~ Ire'Siull fin ~ 1:1) a figure !LX .~f10 ']Q.ld. !l!Dil 10".Of .on agsli n th e 'OlJm~ dffiam. The toO[~u:s~d to give 'the oonll'le'(.a!'II.1" b~iank. ~we O"P' :2 ~.pe~1tive: 'Po(~:.'ve S!(HiI1e m sa ns e' D'~ .ha tootl1 'Viit. wlnsn fUiliiiiii'rllQ iin Ime sh. . Tlte :p:~nion 'rorfflllJl~e W\e :s~e'~Llhattine.iir of '9lD~teeth oo.. ~i~t of meeh 81m 10m" th e 1{J..'!(ing '[he ~eet h ii{)r~eclt~v. In ord.. ~~.r.S!~ock h1iio' whrch a splndl~ ~'s mloulrrted . dHarn/8. work gerne:raIi V fin lUIlG.cnJlp.~.aJAd dividli:n.1 sa:m e st.ulfld :iO th~ 'two Qe.i~r ~(iget1hlelf must be 'the eu t-shJ0! dia-m B:ftjer~o...ififi-.nl.outsi'd'e' dh. Wo' h. w'0aJ1.e' tiIh ~ iml!!)timu m .A d~i¥iding he.ct d iVI!$ lon 'llu3'iiJd I:rnd 1111'8'man!' e(N1I11p~leX wairm .20·toodh piln ion is. .i .y IDJS1PiiQI '~1h8 n sam 81 'i~nlFlu OinC8' .eVe"l alU "th~ sarn e+ Th~y' cQlnsist IOf a hie.ea r W(jJ IIJ id be.2:ODJj. P"C."..ad.or a~y IIll UU'll bar of ~glealliS wh&s e' oontre·s. beea UI~e 'llliirEfir r~.spaoe bu~as. Th e (:(iNll. Q me' gfi r 'o~ :90.. [In this t~M' ~aj' ~1IJ IILiin g im'l a pi11:Ch c ~r.~r . (] n ~h. in wiidth~ 'Th~.tSin '" 'Orig.2.to .2:0. :From '1h~.. na'~ aim. II\~ ~.i)min some defi:n.o~th~ 'tW"O 'wilU glv@ 11 'figu fiB . ~m ~engllh and 4irn." .m ooth .c.i 'the Umitfi DUgfacmr OVtHr.if. tho:r:. II Ih8\!!"!:!' wi tih e s~m.4 =l':w:.atnd .ili"'iolf'i< I.ct r.~~et1h... iB rtf..OU~~ U~at can [be :siz'l' used:.arg.tnn..! A.the ." ~9~1.:Ii 1l.r! 1§I. width.. [abo~leJ.and a 7'06.Ii'I e' D'~ 'he: m ailn oo'm PCiif!i e n1$1 in tl11B oo~Ii!il'g $v~be!iTI1 reqm.. IBm gith n:!stri Q1:ion ~~:116DP..~t €o'He: c:tly s"aced.s bu~ moM..i d.aiorj~ of' G~5e:!!i $atisfamo rv resLll~u. '5.e.!! ~ "" ..t~eI.!7l..~nsm~iW. B.~. ri 9 tnt it most iik8!Y is ~1'lit9h~~ 'theFil ~" the m.g!r'e~ter tha n e ~E!SS to. ~ower In 11Ii~~'!:!' I!...ndl~ will ha.iiIi\il\e' .ed te laklB in.hEli desig'Ii'lBf or 'OOi15~lfiU~!f' hIS i1.'~'Ooth . to 'til e' 'fo..!m.3 s~a.Iy Glea r.T.61 1i11. ~a8th'. The .iJ'<!iJIi'!ii~'that .IfiT:UlVed' tl~l'r'Dugliii Ill' '~efiillFl~teand pra dle1e rrn ifilled .DI. The.Hj~ing deS~!)If'l1 of1itei the .~ehl OO~VJpv thfl 4111il.n-it m!BV be' a ~p'hi'::... or 10.erfakanl iru Um I hiO F'fUz' W!CifQliuop.io'fiI' tw~ W pEl'S.. outside.ii!llnd ...tJ!!lnt·.smearns 'tha' the' lwc. 1n (ll!!1r eJ(~. ~.i'ri on" Uhl9 .eC l :&. tha~ IODI = IN + 2.~. .ed as 'th~ s. viz.mp[B'.a:f19net high ~ sif~sSledl ~e!rtli.again the ma-Jd'mum Iia :n1e.!! 'h.caf'll bl' .pi3ci 1il~~1 is.r:tking.d~mdl h"l! 'the' fUn.:x:: '3t&.f u~ 'geiflr~ .Jlnt the' S'tfH~ h)ad~'IiL-g1cd the g~lr 'tee~h~ erf.eded.... .p I:e' Is: CDrll"f.Mgth ~ 1. leiad In !. 'wUhh1i..:.owed but.. sh own W~5J "h e w'J'dith powe r tran srrlissi'on if . lihe-ll~f'Ofe..~'res [be. .00\1 rse. 1101.a.~itlee~rn.I~he di'v'~d helad.c'~ d~ am@tef' of: 1'in. 1-·' .. therefri~r~ '~O p'~8.u~:firt: ~Qi'. 'We' ean nQIiN' ~. pe [!ffii'n.a 'IFarin of 'gearsi wtr~tn 2·0!-...~r.lng hetald~.th.lEn but i IO'n e 'ttruii~ W(!.D'P~Thi:s WQl!illd cQmp]~e.v u~'ing Me Sialme eQualij.( . 8y filpplyhng UlI IS iji) oov'E!' w' '~. ' '. 'have.'~eno !Imater 'th~rI1'SIJIi'L x 1~'llrr r. 'Wih i Ie g at the! other end U~ re w~II be iii me~ho d e wh~ch perm'i'ts the ~p ulnrdl'l e to be.:dC81 ~ r5iiO H P pi I!aJS U! w. ..rm u~ae we s~~. .s i.s: 'a 'method ID'f iln"ae\.96eO !.p all' 18.seou re:ly' h (j~~dill1lthi~ workpi e~e.4~ ]n~ Tb~s ~s glWEl~ter tffili8 fro .oired for cuttingl ge'llr.+' I'ooom mod~netl ifi! Ih e "arm b. ~his.[~e' pelnt mn b e-]iI:1lgl T ao1e te '~IU.~he e. any sm~llle r tn.

ItrI:EAD . IN alii'i18 i'[ lI!1 e. D WM EEl.uying ~ wo rm.eB.oi div irsi ons' i'fi. The gea r tOI Ib 9 ~~r' 'i~ $E!-e u re·d to t ~'itiE! sp·~lll1dl·e.Oll'ler end ~s .81.cv~Mage' the .re' we hi8!\i!'.alll1.V se:~!lJ!red h~' its. cl9ml~:~ng a sp~it br~lHa'rinQ 'iFIIs.urne IQ~th at a []IIi'TTIleiM' m·ethc d ilU:. mn is i.e:ncut One d rawba.8 iii d 'fi·xtil1lre 1.phiildleOur maIldli1sII is' al 4C.:ft e&r.m~th.example COYId be 32DIP~ a r any ol:her ~z·el withtn reaso n.I cd ~. It mlCl fte'f Qle. a tooth is.~. 1"5.r ooul~d be.e".av-ai~aIII13m ast·e-r Imi8!'V be llH&etd h ~ving r40 ieeth In It is~ howeV'IU.l iaa.l!iIllt1iOe t[ n1ul'king an 18 rre r.addU io rtil~ ni.f the 'w.8r'B spi'ndlle. IIiIYlm.EUIlI. '~hel fac1-oR. One' ~ te ~UllJ glea r' tau Id Ell!..etic.d Ipa5i~~5s.J'ed by th e .. !has. 'Sli II ill ~i rg ct d iyij siGn h~ad win iet. iCI 'fJ".ng ewheB·is mak-e~g~ (')d maSl9. thel '~(Jlrm lalnc.Il. c.e ·8 severe ll !m'fmthlns' 'I. a :5 U iii it.awilacik Ul' tihe dlrr'€tC:l In p.·a rII "foln' '~'M' l1ioldl~1 .all the¥ can ~.salrv fOli Un.U'i.eJ tum'.Ei11 thsn b~.fkpi"!ece. of m e halnd. 111ijs. ~e.oj Il'Iatattillg 'Ul e·wo rm" lila ~nm is ~I .~ pr'().a!1. 1"h~ ma:f<b~.bl'. 'tjhis.gfIi I n anQ!~E!I.".ge d irita aU1E!lril'liate '~eB~h Q r ~ Il.wed II!·ii:U .alrlY leC'r.h~liI".ea 1fllO~:h of .:'-·r g'~alrls used t~ co.ni@liefilmgl pr~ ctii ce 'Po r ~'heratie lof '~he wnrm and whee'~tQ.~ trr' fa 'UuI'll U is· p05~ jl~le to rotat·e~ ~hB- .. 10DP' 'Q. 10.Iirm 'SlO'U-u~.I e. of .S' ~e fQla~ien of 'the hi ndlhil w[ll ~'.!:'Is Ilj'm ill1IUcns:.ea rs a nd 'St1PplIBd as e ..M~E.t w lth inils L~~he'cihe.'~n~ -lJroceSS~~i~ ch as h m!bbinQ~ ~s IlJ howe\rer dle rna s·te r 'ge.ohav€l1 '~hei same. ·tJlle Mv1ta rd o~ bead w'i:M r'1Q'ttei~ ·tI'lIl~ '-:Slpind~e . ila. if ~t ~!it req ~ired' 'to GW'[li!iI' . j.oaxe d ana '~'OC'[~ in thWlee.~ g~:g!![f ~re now pro duc~d by (urN. .~tj' is·'U~la.'I~.e1lie.S.h~nd lei> '[IIh~IJS ~fC\fid~n~ . 'f1JhIB W'(] rm S h IJft hi e~i1ded III pwaf'd'.e· wi I~'be pa2sed Orn1 'the.rbahlg 001.d 'Ii? plf'~'ve nl't an ~ I Oil d bel I'll g p~ aGad upon '1lh~ dSltJ8nt wh i~Sit.acv e.di''!J~dilii'l 9 h~~d! 'ngl• 54".Sitar V.n.ave 210 . c. Olfil8 Ileg of 'which i.e'IfI'l.e' ·the WI lli m ber.. rhFOilJgh !~II1Vde5iF.~e win g ivel .The! ge~r ~1i" in ita ot a wo "!'WI.u~ted en tlhe ~s. f~.iiBind fi:gl"S3 stn~li~NS udh.. .!il. i~ol'ted onl\l' 1.O~'S r. tha t u i i'rnde:<: lOver' "the le 13th BIS Wte~11 as betwB:em them i't will d~ublle: the' nUlmbe.a' if'Ilcre.20 d~v lslons a nd so onl bLll~ 'the in. j g. means of' .lll ~hB91E1'a.i bl €:I. n and en) lthe 9th Elu' e Dl d" .aS1te:r g. matswlr' (J.s th. othB!r' tha f'IJ its 'si mp..an the ttage ild.t.e:ali".ber (lif t~eth ma n1I dl["i9~'nese and ~.ii~ D.iI secc.'Stllr1jl!illlrfvr hom~ e~nrs1l!\u~jon.ts eh.i.e 1a'9th ~nta '[he wO.13 ail g~nee r a·!"I d home' wc.. h'oed ill!i$o ree/ttl a n'd th. in . j.head ~s shewn 1III flig.V .of '[he For I riI s:tilnee.rrI.I:sol8i . 'is ·a m~'$1er . iP esjt4v'.Ke.s. o:f 'line av. R'g" 531 '1b.4~):1"Th:e Myf'Qrd .ireg' eel rry'i I'!i'O the :s..n Div/dln!) H'eed..ag.l!l"·o~e.4 6.91ut 10.li m iIlnng m-a~hrulll1e or hlthe the' D..8 bova .~ h:(a'ads.!!.f 6D .sh o~s as. IQaJse the detent wtnJ I\d nU~=l!!1 be' en gij.I _ .The ISOtOQth g sa r ls 'Verry useful iii! SJ th i:s Willill .cjl 'is ava i'lilt)'~e.~EH type' and -here ls Ie."de~as. m:ost lathe' eha nge:whee:ls tlll'NiJt ~helre m ust be a :stJ'ita.lac~:'ors of w-ormw hleEl'1 fI1 e 'rOc. ~efth Ii!! nd ~n..-ace but.n-gI891e:tl! inikJ'J6'111!)wy--tnof"' SIp.t: drops.a1:ed ·thaH the! ..a f 'need net h a:¥e~ resiA'l ti 1ll.un.1~1r 'Y~~it!.r f~"()'m ich facto rs &9 fI1 be c bt~i'ned t h'e wh 60 ·1oo~l. iQ I!ljeturn of' '~hf:l:hili ndlh~.~iI19 Sl. A.C~·5.ti I '~h-~I o.'i_ WDR Ai .e:s.el'iJrnlfl a·-r IP'in ch 5'CFeW. wI'H.. workpm After C1lJ'tti ng]r 'tI1!13' sp]n dlls' is. Oivilliio. n'E: 'j '~mpllm .lly 10oluhii 9 [h ~ S'pi Ad ~e 'wlt:.s rola de· eo.H)' tODth gea f~ the fin aSie'f .~he'r . '~h~o retimlly ~os~.t be Th e' sp indl e' ~cGlki ng i~ . l is n G)it ella ngaa'b~:e.m.ijI .'t.be.of'tili'itli.-. fa et.S.!iS j wllhict.@:1 detllnt way Id [h e!i"il hal'IJ\e ~o hi s a seoond a'ry dsrhllU . -a ltd fi!rm i.lO~· & f!I dl .t dil"l)' S.e.wheel ~Ind ·is dwi¥Eln' fe~ !IHllld b-y lmean~s.tl: WOllm a rJI d ·wn·eel divifl ifll'gl h e-ad ~s b<a sic..(Uretrt: ~e!2!.ok with -thls . .as~ the rBlng e''Oifi dr~I-~$li·Ol!'1!5 .rk.e n8ml 0 tUSU e'rlI.R Clr.tf~· PiifW' . So{me fO'l'm oW a rI! d ~Ol IOI"iJ~Ily mj~vmg tihre halnd Ie ...~ear 'al~ d1 d. '~flqlulked 1011 'th a n c:al1 be .lj lila ed 11m'orner ·~o be e. '~he'n~ f. iiiIn ls d rawbra ~~.is ppUed ~" i:ncrem ~ nts IO~ five ''[e e~Jn On IV~If th e d~~.a m.ale "it.C!rlkl~de'~a· wi I~ depend U-pOI1l the A ~'HJ'nHH dr.9 rna.aJnd 'I h eJrefar-e an 'inl1nii'rDe· ra'Age.ved . 512 He. lnto '[h~ nt~)(t Qi)~:~ th~s r. ich ls 't~en ~Q~.~ln k.gl~'ve dl vis~on'!!! 'of .orse 't~p~1'~ "5 '~he wonkp uece bu I thsfe lmus.ta.od is: ~r.n.v~ dad WIT~h iii ser~.]1 'j 111' a gtJ8~' f:~N" more aCCUW.!! sed ·t·o IP u r'odilJ te 210 a.abl sseu ~IV m_IOU r:J red.a geifler.s.un'Qer with a con tcta Ior v-s ha IJ ad poi nt..ewhil'l is m 'aV be to hand.J'Uilne~.pi nd le.j' ~JS·!lJa.elEBlns .la/MC.~.·1em IIIOil' C. usedl as _.(. IE\I'~n t h aug h ell la rg'B ~e~e on 1m di al~.b I:e: to use: . '1vpe of ge13 r 1:$ th~~e eorn (!. dllf10PS into' '~he Slap betw"r9'en !tWO teeth oTf ttNle1 ml:l St8ir 9 Si!U '~hus. tabh!l .FEN3!S(i!' in the :r·araj~ew~'1iI :be II1le:g I~Q"1:. This anl. It ~s id g.8 ro-f£atiun 1i6 'turn h me rl!i: GQml1T! Qn Iv lUiled ~haf'II the.ooul~d In. IIh eJmfre'ed: and mo.f .ad .almlaiteu ~• th e WOll'lkipillce'.!1I:Ghfe"ll'e-d '~ry·thl9 ~.aj~le the sa me t'oiOtJh S.~uth()lr has fe Ijjno tlh'is.an1 ~ wQl'kpme.oo th e' he Imil.i1I d sI'H:. l2.~bt_8 in ad' by some QomlmolC'l fimtt:u between 'them. '\NOrkp~ 't'O Bee.nr! .~u:ioker H~an is tlhl~ pl.lt$ as U''1IM.tH"I1 I~ .~S -s iJj ~h. The: di f13'Ct divi ~I01n hera d ca I'll be made mtJlfle &opili'MJe...~y or spa ~a' U. The' de'u~:rnr a. a ISO~~ ratio .11<9 wort·.nnp'il~. ls mOre 'th@olr..gj~.l~y au master beli ngl Irl~pj~a'md u[lntiJ all t be mer~1n ~!1~!I. 20 O:1i 30. .a ~le-t a wid e GihQj'.e~1~H'ilg~e . . '10: tUIfI-U.. 00 t Ion t hie.actieall aiS. c'fil.2iF31' .~(U'rilhea d w·'Ih 10 -1-:Ir' --.tthe ' ·g&:8 r$: m H'V bee cornpo.te~f' g'a8'f' mm.'hch t hi ~t are pr~'S~nt in aOOillJracy of the m.todk 'tb8!~:crQns:isl:~.a Ilu' l2!Ii flli -rc-ec.iing.~lr has 1..r otPeW'(:ld~g Irang e i1iI-de-)(:i 1!l1 g' .8 p~r. GQf'lsi:!}'[s: of a ~iprl'ng-~QEltded eee" d i~'ision head is ~hat th e' aeeu r.

i ntilrl'O the hJoII~s aalftl Ibe. 8'V@:ry d~viSil0:1\1 CIAd .resu ~UnQ'lin a flaw' fracU on lO..~i\iisjo" for pn:.U1JCHII1 are dhli'sibl. plu fiI.ii:!Iitk~' ~!i1 'thhi.r~ of ~l!Irfll1 is needed 81lcl .~ ls ~o Iioloik at "thlii1! flr..COfflle eonm..abou~ PG~ iti on 1m'g the hOlies 10 ve 1)1' i'FlIO ~i1lf'l'lifS !as any 8 frn 11"' ~in'U. probllr.nd :SOl fh. but ~'f"t!IrI'IV .lJIli p tanned ~iO g:ive :a hI" 'mry wi dG rBl'IIlQB Df' .ow return to lour 0/11 ~r.ttlnd ~SlO "~ndleate '~he helle the 1Il. BfliI'lor '~"-ll!Iii.e bV 3~.s CliDuntlng wo ~Id have to be p'8rlorDT"N~'d fa t. re~ u~.. set 10 liB.thi's.olll!1g tnern diftieu It~n read.os !of !hal'las .o t he w~rkp~e<OO Ibu t ~IS divided by the warmvrilel. w.1' Ir~ 1m y'€l~ ca 0'" .o~he les reQui r.~ltBd by 'the ne:M~ 1101e fo Ii' '~1and t~is wHI j. iilS ..ga led if'Ii![)~ 8 11V hol~ a s de~ilied.on' mary '~Irise Vi» h EN'll 'the il::Il'M~s~:on !aIb ~oes.8ir Ind !hen h:u:::ke~ ·ta g.e'8i~ lIatio of ~O~.i'sl(n"l p~late.aono .al~lound tlnlB Ip.~'a!ct.U~li~i5.Jlciiilgl 'illS~~'ooth IQ'i8E!r is . The b~~a.rt ste. i.. oul [IIf tOnal rl~ivirsh.equi'rJe. "the few 'm issi 1ij'91 nll:.ic.8 bOV"li9 sxa m.Jn 1 dl~vi:5ihlriI PQIB.mbr:ace' the l :a'no: jL!irSt.1hr~~ 1he n pll ares ~re ca f. .I.llate'.ed ~' 2B in tilil'fj' 4!-~n)b~ i'fiII 'lhe .P alnd bO.·8blI6 '[0 WO rk to ial9JS n~t krl1" "OI!'1$$e ~f.On·s 'W ~she:s'~O cut a' is u nid'er.h ift" d iV1ision pi~a1eh as to Ibe made do.i ratio i.i n g 21 ml .lal:es a:re .ilS mIQ..ti wUlh two l1.~lell'e in. _ l27~ wh ioh 1'111 i:cates -Ull at EUIl~hd~.an lUI 'lUll rt.e ha nd ~e~s· pl'~Yi ~~d with 11 sp ~i1llIgi·'Jola_ded pi tI ng~r' :50 thart the ~'oml'111ng pli iii IO'1lii ttis' pll~ nger: Ic~~n be IJ'I!.I the Idi V':~srun .'so I!ve€l bu~it ~s U iillilks'ly' that is 3~~rmol e circle wi I~ be on '~he' d'livi!~dofiI p~.~h~r~)e~ rl. bll e 8m m Dstlv p..e .~ pi US~..e n' nkefS to h:a(ljJ'G '!/O 5i@ lely 0 nl ~ables a r data I~h arts -fo 11" 1rlfo'rI1N.~e.ons ()f dtvi.h.iti en ind i~al:Oifto register 'Ilhe .. mqu ir~d 'j:Olr ~ ach gear h avi ng 33 te eth 'li!:sfng a dh/i d~ ng ~e.3 r 1$. . n as t~@ {oru[owen'Q e. :1 h.ef. 1'1ha 11 rst S~9p is to d ~\fidl~ ths n~mb er ()f d ivhrl'iOr:lil]: 'l1"..le 'C'AI~!c:iE! ILl'f ls :a mest un Iike'hl OCCU rna'riee' . iii at pCIS'sles5 a.allw:~Vs.e1:h-QI" . The..ing thel ~u mbe. The .v'irsi011'1 d i& 0 Ite~ otnnph!:te t~ m clf t~e.~Ut the me ~iJJ rtth e~ a ddlth'r:Il 'ot 2?h. Th·sl M Vfo I'd hIli dil.y.i but.end' m IJJ lti p~~y.hQh~'circie of Ina dwi'sio'J1 fa dGri~s~d~And pl[obi e m :lis. ~lIfl:d the I~il.am O'!JJ n.Jm be'r.·:nitJ ..li'S: a.r.tln'e '(iIh.t th e' sa me v.. tJ~ we n.n all probabilitv bel ill 71h(). ba n dille: plus 63 Q n €I' .si:nm. The .!: nil m be'. d ri li~ed~in~n 'theilI'I a'..lJja~Elr1FOlr : be Clom es very 'ttrny ~.equi redl in' a we .!l)tafflllP'ie 0 holaa ~omp~Eue turn CUi! the a 77-ho..d e If tal :3~-'ho:ie '~iD"~leis! eva ~~ab~'than the I hole·s: ln ~d .Pi'Uc:h3! "to' t: m b~.~d 'v!tf.00 to 0" hoh~8 wh i eta en able m.a~ any de'S!] red pos. '~lI! ItU~~EtE~1n 1 ~ind 1..~cticn Z!~s a~d1 see if it ean be th~ ..~~I ~ t:h e combh'uf1[1.t :he: pmun~'e'r .ed . lWQ miOire'p.orm.O'itted so' ~ha.e·as a un]l 'They "ran ~herefore.~h IEiI worm and wh.obta in ed.5.no til 15.1!e 'OOnoe (IItrrio iO' the bOIl's and tt. ei reJe IP 'wu ~. di.ri'me nu rnbers rU1 life 'ulnUke~:Y to be d rI'Bsded.e. 'SUIll.u.e~ 'tlhe dlv...s.m1t'.h.of mou nod conlCentri c to t he WC1ur:m bu~ls fix..s ml'l~iitiplle .is d!ftlTUad ~ach iOlflil a dIH1fisr. .n pl.e c:i r'~leIUJ~ he les.'S'ti lilke'lv~oh~Vie 8' tif\CI'~ that ~.e.avaitalb]e: a net qll:..'~€i' circle.s.3 of a:tu rn.t~y olr~· ea.~ "IIIlJ een b e= .tt 'eas [J~V arili>&~ Vo he~'p' \le'IfJCiome.nSWEI:t 10:rud ~ d. is a siimp ~€l: ma ner to :s u bst:i.~.u: Ci_p'V~rEhJ 'Wm" Q'~III .Inidi Un~v III1 ~~~ i ~ wi i:. ease 601 ~' .alue' ~1.~nll so 't'1i1 a nei.u~ion sQ th:alt they then m ov.~: lh~~ cOlrRtai".a.achme\!'Scl by ui!I. Ttre challrt sup'pl'ied wi~hl he d~vjd'i rngl head li~m:s. If 'the! diyisho. of' two b~8dEH!!1 t'ha'~ tan be ta~at. F.r j' The .as ~requ ired" Th.8JCh~.r of hoi'e'S' Q r rm wh~.IIIJtho F n e. Co D.liIll'1id n f'~!~V bouo m bry '1 we win a rrlva at %.plle' 'show~.a~~. l1h e divn S'iiCli'n1 ~J'~a. i'~28 h'Qih~'~.iB!.slO tn. ncU worry.u:mes '1hJe. 11!f1 orda r C 'to .re r'alate di as al pair Uiii t il~ Ol~leoif I) S.~ di~virs]cn p.].s an extral .:II· - ~ "oIIoh ' '~ ~ 'therefolre -L~ t. is-'not pa'5:sed on dUll'iect1vt.1 "ger: bas to e inter' u t~ .1i.tralllu]JII'e' the bla't..[i' the .\lis~onplaite.posjng a mel rh el a rm '~hiiUhQu$ 9S 't!ne pi ung elr j'E! sl.de'~' an be m(]/!. m:s.SJUi~.~vi'iS.edl to 't~8 head Itself and d OI€!tS.e. rna ri. '.f.itE!' urn ber of lil(i~es. iii"'d'IV b '"J!":IJ Th~ fjU!le:.PI'iif.jJj eel 1n a sp~cifi..ClE! th iS. mere: rs nofnins ~fuillg~eai t6lbcn.e1Ve '~he 'COf~ect spaci iii Q~ After 6'1cl1 lIiTIlQ'V&r'iIfIl9ir'lt 100f tbe! Grank.h em neOOSSianr~ the mJmb 1111'of hQi~e$ ~B.e plung.ost lei ivrsi(H':IIS be' . halndle IPJI u s.1:11 m akes.. 't:he'y u}~uallv . .ch Orth".ge·t tom or l I~ther bl ad e.~am.ijWHfiwe tl1J. b~.n p~a'tedoes rlQt bave a :33~'hoiec:h'cie 'then ~tcertai'n~v w]I:11 nat h.itrle.pl.th('firc~9 'to uSfe ~n tll!tl: d ~\fi'~i Q p.enrt p'i~ch.teh1i i'ow fh at a re filial ava'illl.ODn be a I"Ig lite dl'OV'f!. wotmSh!1Bif.av./f. At Sl@l'IFISSeif hOllies is.aid' ~sp ~ovl~dedwh leth .tu ~e any dj'vi~silon .gel: 'NHlXi m!U m lIIIse.lt~OI" a~.3y.49.n deed.ndErf[.dlrccl~' diam8~er p ~a:ie a (:n~i~i on.ha~le d~yi~~cn!1 plat'e than i 'hi.a 33'.(j il1tO w~ rm and whee I lr. .Siml~.e as 'both 'IC. if' .aj~ia-blle: .a'iv ~sion:i.~.e I'n t t-he ~e0 n e but T~:.'bo~h tCD P . lin aU "'5 'S'e~s nt 0]' sari. n o:~ rct~tJa w~th'the w..gelt ~h@n bli!i flI'91 ind i(. '1hat .th~.!3i 0 Dealsi. abfiv.req ~ isif..s an a.kl~'Si cDnt~J~t and rests 3Jgra lnst !n1ilep. re r. flI umber m~ com p~ete.st~ed it.con'sists.!rtl Bin O .

.IrQWln& Sh~rp-e: 'Cl.a~hef" m achifne tCD.e.er dlal.n'Jdl!lJee' .'li ~eab~ e.hEU1i'll" '~9.t'h O.. [ils r.fj . The a IIII'y pfn50n Ion !-n'H d In was.eone.alfii.. 'Ussue 'pap. O P . a rack.dli 119 'ttlg l~~'Ul m'be.~~ may not be pa fth:u ia.1:03~ d 'hell rnethe d li:s.f'v-lew 1h Ell ~utJide di.rmn e' t~le i slnap e· 'o~ ~he '[t. does rhe dl~i!iI. 'wlill 'theref:clre be' prlJ.nd " tie u No.ij d ifi'\I!~~"tcutmr is iii e.l\e-r 'wit:h ''th ~ n umliOer 0.IU'Bi!l'· No.~~~ is ii!l4l).tin e Ii'i~'i5 no..t '~orm b9~ing·~:hl~' PD~ b@~8fn S 'Mo :m.~ I!l"ejl'sonable ~91~h~n~ng to:h.'f ·~.lh~The da~. th e 'g.a.i ~h€l:s:ha Il~ of: .of. Qth 0r dauJ m fn.outside' di~iii.'CO r rec~ dep.~s bei iii gl CO'. .f IClJue rs· re'~lilrecl {lor .i.r 'Siat t~lu.a[Jns~U~e '~he~re11cal t:Q sae j f aJ.itUa ~II 'f III is.91 11"8 ge of t he c!UnSlfi" al"Sol) iIIIereasss.atirng 'the. perm j'StSllb.in~" sha'ping m·aohi~ne or ~ny .lritiJ~! i'~. :s. anlly lone 'IQadl at a '~hme .1f and .010 .~:e.ir~ s.~'r~n"l!ce.j.t'e ir5.e IneXi 'IOO/ttl .altho ugh we h~.rr Nlo 5 willlC.ed EJI. .e' '~h rillg.re.alnd beoomle.16 'Itlee:th C·Il. g~liil~"' IpedO'rm'~nee.~ a eiIJne~ re~th..n 1ntD a~o taint when ~'~i[1hlig thl9 'Cutt8f' 'l~ d~. Wh e n '111is he.e't on th e rn 8ehi'fI1 e f..-(~ Qlr' 2.. th. .r tbe ~.e'[3j~rtob.a fl~ 'g1€~!irs be: CUi wit~h . ~he blank Ind e~rn~k lt .+-~p~ Firc'm tha 'prlf:ticum pOI'ntt a.! re tile .iatWng'I:J1hrC3 depth ea~h tffimle: it i.s.sEi' is's Ii! own irn Chilpte R' 1.'U1Dbut if~.Jt:h~H':S ~.r5. .oe" ln st@ad oif :S'9tlling '10 .!lo IJIlsualhI' quoted a 11 '~he 8~~ula ili::utte r a:~~1110 gh :i't I u dOles fiI.t.. ctmJre'rS' 3. I~nQlrdle If to s:~v·e ~h'I'~ 'na~cu.11]:9 f.~nvo~ute :5 h ZHJ'I· that It was. eerreet OLllr~ a I'll d secUllFe~i. wou Id me.le~ -b:iJJ'twl'll.ea1r HI not highl'y' e.S![rJ'.si2_e.1!.tt .1i.s:. ~ C iI!nl~ shown in eta a p'®elf" ']' that '~.h. n mlieNlJstJ'rifil. wife .1l. th i~. CI rerfu IIV brirng the autre:r a n.ock. [he s!1de' in Ulfi'~: pC$JD~io".eded 'to suw: eiVary Shr:8' 'af ·gear that [mar~ ~~enlq1lJireecl rei Ad ~h~.'910't hi's 18'llhe· wtJ!lrki 119 for tfue 'r.5 W'9111J 10: JlsiPlreju~!!nt .me til at· h~ ~elt he mu..a~.th of QlJ[~ wi I~ ntH'ma'i [y be to () fi eEip the !il:afUlm d5. ShaWl!!]e .1. p~-Bn e baise' ci rcle· '~roml n:se in 'tlfl'e' rUJlmlbe!f of~ !Jleth" then 'the eutt..g. _. d:I~li. rst 'tj. less ~.of ~hs 'bas'8 crrt:Je.~lThowit: to som.s t..~'~H~li! ge. C:'u. If! a rIffing I' but.. It W'Ol:Il~. h its.ITl'!ne.~ ust Ib is! tB:k.) n d .e.art rs. a rri d it 'i~'the bits i '~hat i2!llte lie.seJ~'11'1. ()~ '~4-.mar:terr' what ma ehi flre' w~. ol'. Hh~wife UU.at ~~rgef.e:n.~1!1~: . 'FI'U~"CHlIl '[h..iii ~8itl~Ul' Wl!i~ Of 'wh.Q .thEl! to ofth 1'0r a rnry g:i'V~'nD. He!'put on all~y.~" iBn d 'Ulis. Iha 'la'b~e 0'1:CIJ.ype ~fOII. They .and.ie~e of ·~~ti to I'll! weI.Urlters.ears g.EH'N'G~ '1 'Wi 1I'~[jJt '~:~{~rs.ct~ an! Ncogiil"lised1 bV the! 'g e'. ~ !.. Imatte·r. P. Th~:5.)lm ~nielifl h) mlea:i!l!JJre.li !alC:h cut.I.dw:scre\pa filley im tooth ShiBpe can ile· toler~~led ~In g~n~r81 'flU rp0i5~ geaf.ad obS8r'IJ'ed 8tJIII'FIIMln i1119 thart many I~..U cut~~ ~ is I. f~ 9\E!JfS are n~ t@¥~B}pti~.te Ii in the ralll"~le is gi vern a fillLillmlbel" whwch wm de.lCiath e nu mbtH' o.Ol.gfe'~r~.:51 . I~ . willcut 9'iM~jrs 26~3~ me:ti1 Q'~ CU'l1eH Nc.IP. ncr-t cllU~.f LillS lire 'I~t to ~G'l"gi61t'j an d thi2!rt j.a metlt then sa ~d ~ h br:n V.· seeln 'wihl9f.f!j[J"s (rr ~:2 lind '~3 leeth 'E::uft.3J 100tof' OUJ I.r lof ~:aern r)U II 1 mn 'th~ gear.1 The ~1~\l\I'QllJ1ta ell Ne' dh:~n'g'e~r Cl!lJ in~ ml~'rlo~dlv Ib~~e-en i~U~il!irSJ hav~ on:I'y 'm~ia!t a Sffl'8 I1I1nUmber cd' teeU~1 bli!~ '~herille 'Bf f chanQB :sJ~ows down . irncmudB5.e Iknew she h.b'ei'n.=signed.ot ti d e:p:rh I~rOut.o~ 21.'C~D~ ~f tlh e gea.etsnt to measl.6 ClI1Ww fm III ei~ I h e !ower ai'll d O'f' tlhe· f8:filge· but a:s lh e gf.hlGith 'to' a'l 1. using: tll!B' mrCI')Jlli'l1er.~ius-~:wll!1en 'rhe: Gutter IS ' .a~edto ithe P.h e· diiUl'le'ler af the geslF b~'lfilk ffill!.fr'6C't.e.j I _. b mn fI.ppalfls"lI"1iB 's'e'ltirn'gj (iall'll be regs!!'dedi .Jtside: :dwameter o~ '~'he'~~~\afbJan~kars.e.e.g the na me of the c:omlp.rOlm t h:iiS! 'v~~ollorws.ted below.ral 'ft.~ S .fl'W:er m:a ny' V~a r'5 aiOi..tJmater .CUiIU9.djaoent· Q'&lalr A "frf€iJ'l!daf t'lru~..al.I 'wrfn ClJltler'~ 'thra.f~V B. t'h'tiI' UlI!llJl s di lI'Iec~icIij.. 61willl~ut 'g..a~1over ~he 'WGtrld !lbl!!~ ill mlei:t the ifiii[.a I'l!ld 'to !!tie·2.S Uri e Ipal'~U.ee'tlh we: do.r ml-itlM UJ~ SiD clnly the. 4.AII di so-type . auther was so pll~ased when Jiie.eKit pifi"~bDEm Is: 'tOI .d1 W!Olf1kP.ry' u[ee.aJ!!!' .·.GiUJ~\B'.M teettl ..dll. CY fly II rl:lwn!!3's wh.?'''': ~ N!ow tfu~~ 'lady 'n.I'. g'~n~ '~O 9 r'te~ t: 'Iro u bh~ 001 I~ete.po dli ng ill n i'l h as. _.sI!1'Y thar~ developed thi:s t. t. F.ha:t. I'll 0 . 5uc!n but 18 " pirsf'ixad by lihe' It-elrm 11) +f:.um.0.' of the n mflVglllute: 'CUlIiVe.·w wh I\th 'ltle inVe lute is fiJ:rflrNi~d is Irel.bh~f1jk~liie'n~. ~lIi'Id 'thi's. g ear al't~r~.e'iI'thln th~.arne~tr of 'me finij'shie ~ .~he'.ag. wiIlth p'ride~ ~Wh~1 d'Q: 'Y'ou fhin k lOf ths:rtt.· gel ~ r~lar~. ~re us ~ g~ b'o 'it ii' Iathi\i m ilUng m"u:h ilF'HJ n ..elrra.n~e ha 'tI "lOg se]~ed the torrtlctt :n d by til B. .iH'ly lib e rn arked On the cutter toget.asy It tJfl!1 derannij.ack.~ is.B1ng'8 ~:n .9 .'ft behind 'i~hBi.'~O.ad 110 idlB~ 'wffilm .eutter rae ~h ir( will p." .eililil altilOn!fll1:5'l'arndawdl ba5~d on the woi'ik done bry :8 rOwn &. "the II!".d appea'.~1f1 'ilndre@(:~ngl tJh.$tt.:1.am ete'r imust 'be t.Vlh eSEl '~O fa. YOiU hSllie ~Id'e '[hem.. .va..lqui"red ~he ~'cUowin9 tables dMBfmii He Curb'!!:f rem DYe.rJtit'la~ ~Ullld .8 ra now ImlHdEj' ~'V eul~elr ili!I"HiFlUf~~tu.fou rn:d'til at rv rt is Il QIMa't: tH'1~lp ~llae8' p. :2 wi 1'1 ~iliJt gle~lrs O'f 55-:13'4 1eeth C!U'rIiBlr Nic.1ron h 'til dii. The '~Q ill Fe irs. :3 'wil ~I~ ut 'g.j' I. frcm th~.=.U'I1-er.at:G:crU nt iii nd the d el~.. Crn~v' . e irrvi'Led her ifIIt'Q (:&19' workshop.Ul err u I'IIf[~~' '!~ the I~ MlJch[ng the wOlr~~~ieC1e' .s IIis.e'alw:s o~ 35-164· tee!lh ClJl~)9rN(]I.zeman dl 'then.!OD5~ Iro Illin'this-·:ilrrl~1a n.~.:s ~~de' '~.swa Ii.h"1f IT has the" ~~hi'.psces bet.of gea r ~Urlttters'~:h9t Cllli~.o '~Ul'IB.1Iooth 20DP' ·t1n:e:1I1 th.nS . 1 wt. valr~@s.c:ed rn th e nerm a i d~p~hby' .act mh!J No.D~iiliilmJY~ till e: ~.ila a mend~d curtllng ·w-ou~ be' .he. 1 C.Ipa_!itTcu~aflv b.e'f onl 'the .a ken inrla.' 'Ie 8!h fo r w~ rein '~rUQtp~ rIU~..li'~ is o fo:i!.til el' blan~ up to UiI'e '~Uiaer li'f'II~i 1 it j u~· l\Guche:s" ~'t 'the' rni~ri~mere r ItUaI of the r€i'~8\!'alnt m pchil!iU.8th~1 '10 ~ il!l1g :ag.as o DIi ~ the In ulmber of te eth pl:!ltes U'I'IJ 112D n8'gJ~.iifiln I Tn e' iirllu1liJcn' has.e .~' machiine ln motffiol!l .wir~h ' th e::mschi:ne If'iI!J "ning~.e~ch D'. ftll!!' :setting 1Iie deplth ~r eta t: mu~'t be thl9 cU.shape is elfFl~ct In 't..ii91i"e.~ f~ r' seH[ng '~ne dEi'plh i1s te bli rra91 . dri II !ngl flrHFJlch. mark: 'then ~hJe (:lh.I!" 1.. to eigllilt.1]9D W e~n is. Qi!il the Inurn ber' 0 f '~:. nl~8rmd ~.nfl I ul'ncB~1by U~fl de~l\n Gil eu~.alli dlt.·G·tih C'uU'e.alnd altho ugh h. te ~ me" wh at de y~y do wUlh 'ItlJO.erellP~ney hels a ri~e.andi :sto!Qd b:arClt. of 135 'tel e~h '~!Or I 'WID~ be ~.eft!eded ~ tile sha pe.!' he i~~kled. iIiInLe d"~.WQht far a Imr.l dl~~cu!s$1I g 'l]hle n tlh ~~~5i'b1'6! ttl r.j'~hij'y ~I~PJrl~dlliJl[Nel the sam. 'r:"Ul~e~' NOI.CIHA'PTIER. ~25t:eMlFI e.~nd if ene goe~ av .he.8GCO r.A. sn~g'hlt.~~ II 'GIJ! [ ge'.2:!9 d~:s.ro duce U~e. 'DiP orr CP a nd 'the '~rmuil ~Ie 'flglli ca~iCui.5 wij~hout arliY' "o.iS 'lI"..s. 'w~11 .liU\'y' 'gl~lr "osses:si 119 'ev.a C\Qrrlres.p~h" 'lfj fo'r el<tiilmp ie".EN3ll!i'S lof 111-201 'IiEr.ny 'Si.": !Ol..'fair h a demD'nSlrrartio'l"!!.l:S't be· .wi..~ cut !1tIle'iU'.e 'ou~~ideCnam'8~e'f of tjh~ blank sh~~:ld be' .r~.W8~1lthem'" aM s.

CHJr!. Iinehes Mitro '9~13 S 8: 10 12 ".en ~.m.g. ~JIJ~h a'5 s ~:I s..S: by niudrli:i1IQ n'llJ me ~O'IU II igjht PlassE!J3.010 2.fili'l~'fact the. JOe 'CQmlp Ired to 'Ihe prodiLIIIC1'ion rn l1u~lh. "'.oy' B.otb .m ito '~hie'fi~ Ulie q uQted .4· ~3fJO ~..i'!IilF8 ~lli"fll'[ally S :s..3 siw CUi' a ..'tu rs . i~n..peeds 8Jil.~ be' l~qlL.adle '~I!. e.m aio. rpm ·100rp.lJard the· f'ig IJI ~eS: ~ i a g IIJ ide' en Iy emd do.~st . n'ubb! ing aw. H~'l ~a'pab~e a f~~. dilL li'gh "AIUI. . .rb on 10 reduc·e m'.1iI 01 recQmlmle'll1d'ed.~ide .96: 1._ h.and f. !Ii!!_ Ig lUg.7'0 ' :26.•.e s.con'llJlo.Vpe-'ttUl.2: . 25 2".rN:~bnnQ lhe d.~s~ak·enla·11 e ~h IS iritQ co nl.'.2..IDII hai\N~' . i!F.iElwden workshop Wli.a. 1'..{ij~I h~ve ~:!I) be lP"erhJlr mad on Ie)rt.•~\Ii""'grl zzs IM/ • .pme!i1't.. h Q~d Sind '1 n.~leJ( t'h e bh:i nk and the' other Cine! I~S to prO'!jJ Ide a Th Ii! bae ~ g.1'S !IIug J2 :8D 00' amai1leIJr ~nu I~. wo.a.73 '11•.h DI~ in.2~1'15 . wi mi.h era ratha:. :28.. o .erafiJ~oI'!iI btl~..~Ul!..··. mechine re. .:" 'IlL• 2.i!.m} h ome-ma Idle CIIJ'lte-r. U form ollJ'I1"S r is used+ !l/liith a 1 dli. '. 8.t: earried OLi ~ wi I n. ShaF tP e I.SS ~nv ~paeia nst Ima'Gti1in eJiY' ~~ 'the mea r cut1:i'JlgJ 'VI.~'~ I' I·t.'.! i.e·"When.c-e h ilIlS t\l\!O rrUl~ n If! Ier1Il srll1'ts~ ons ~rsl'10.!.and-·fiillce cutter'.IIIQd 'are of' lin'le..s'r Mlal~rhll CO'mimerfiial !HSS 2%i'J'd·' 1..: " ~ e nj~~n U'~"" . lig hte n :the I~oad fO:fiIi "[he' machi iii e wlnEUii 'In'lil ~ ik~~y to haVE!: w~ be a rnu nd :24t1'" di!Q. l'niChos..~ .. 'The: de. tglll~.or tine I~om mercia I Gtl'ttE!fr.1':901 .~emtil) I.42:.]d. Sihalrpe .~~Jtor ~ille~ 'Th10cLl:t[·ers wi~ be hi Qlh :spes'd steEl.. i~t: .4 3: ~340 .1" " ..' AJwav:s.5 5~48 . !!. 1~. mn ira t1ne ·ta!bl!~ u 'ma(l'h in e· too1l is at his d isposa i Imlav be no ifi. .E1.use tn 'the Cilm. j i This gl~! _ .1aI cunsrs of Hila removi .no moe B. 1'. :Slit dh".5~i ble :so' it..i. "h.~.40 .067 II-~ 1.p-th InOfimra~ Y I IPOSSl!.. .the a eq.II'~I~s ullll'i:kely Hnal-fine 's:peed n'UlSit .ghrl~r·I~fil.:ng 11rm e p:l1m'u m :sJ)!e.. MQs~'com'mer1c. 'wi~hthe I~n. Comm~r.th .l-l.a.ellst~ rli raxJelircise ~. .ect depth I·n d eflegjulate' the' '~ed to! suit ~n'l m a dtdne'. '1".'e.y' be .0 hlc hes.th. _.Ii'a~herha~ha~IKJ but fnste enough :to pwciJ!Jce 'the! tOQith.th ~m.A glea.and Bm'lowif1 &.nd st se·!2 wl'rNat h~Pllleill'ls 11' . .J"¥ the CO·U~SiP end 5pae di ~l'e'a.al ~Y'.al~ one IP~S~.d both 00 ~hese wm b~ fUrnsy 'wl'u~m hlomE!l. ~o be..Ican a Iil d bruah' or POSit!] ibly a dr]jp fliln..n 'i iil·cbJ~:try "ti me is an im·po-rtal1~·"~.a ra 'if.1085 .ijSi long .s.~. u~known mllrors in IJrle am:et@lllln" set-u p jn which cas:e i~ ma.~eds Bille de'~ ig~e di U) COn'. Depth 1 10:8 f17 ..2'1. sUIC'Ce"3's'fu~~"i ada pted fOi!i 'Ih e ta 51k.-II _ :f!'e.~U'Hi'n ~llhlll~Qe ·~eeJt'h:9u~1tl 'noSa.. Sat: -u~ cotter to 'lithe . 9 3 4·. . 2 5 with Q"'e .o:r a mill ~ngmac hine. ' .v.advanmge 'to ~. rn I1III B ~ 'is lava i~:ab~ B: ~~en thIs wtll norma I~ first ahc ice !b ~t Y'b~ i'~"f'-il~.eellLly depend irn gl 0111 th e' 'Q f.d ti"ea'U'ne'n.~t ceh •.t t'ni_e .08 !13 ."it!ii cd' 'Ihe l!Il1r~ro'm~(ef di.m"iI!IlI'II'r av..4· -lf.'154· ~1'35 6 Jl.thlBin the Il'alhe can be.am.ol"u: I he .121' 1 5...e.1m .. oo\mmen~tI rate w~.1034.31 31. riles "'~ ry f~w Ima.mai nder .·thel bu Ik of' Ithe' mms'dall . Prod uction m..255.pEi!!f1i it I 8 [lId M etrie sizes..1ni1 iU' 1·'1: : iI. If a.J·illl'!i. D'!) O~4 ~.! i!'..out.I 86 <.030 . I".Modllli'e! lin ID~e.4·~5·6.l .e..I .49 Ii' Inl J19CI 'D''. 'fa~ cy m Ie tOI 'tillink 'thjaJt . ISOlrpm 1QOlrpm "14.OM • '. tllY . heavy rob~ fin:e Ghwne willl~ be: ..*nd~ ._ •.ima III cut'S: i~· .!'TIa1eu r.I[Ort...made.j G~n __on .ra.OrJ)lm 75.'in...@rU's. .16 ofrToo·1th of Too'.. .id.".~ will .of . This: W.E!lds is" 'EO 'ga'~hf the teeth fim w~ith leitlitew a s~itti.M''t ~uct. .:prtt. -- i 1m IDeptlh ~. biB 'of ca. 'beeJ'il C'Olmpi'led.ll:th in es IIln the' h omla: we rksh op wl.j .s. .5'11 Im'l - 'in ~O59 Ii '.. J in MlIlJrI 2~11 1.!. 3 025 iii 65 .~ eta b!1 shown be ~ow h·.ysiID8m aft ail Lo~[lnl~t ~h an ·8 .~.911' :trl2 :3.t .JJ~f.IUe'r~. s orf li:r~le ~ ~'!HlI'eBq:uernoe~.U II dangleif'".arid s~peeds .o 1 111 ' I' i 1 r~.~O ceo. . nOl be lem p~ed '['0 fun 'thlB CiJtter 1[·00' ~IUi·ckly.aJehi m~ avai~a bl.hav .amle'lers of ~n..fUlver&1BBI Cutt.~g say 'it:!'N:! ~.rau !Jh'l wi:th .a]gBaJl' cllLtters .s~e.o. 45 0 .s:s s~... ave nll~ G08~'!i:..~al \i!\eilr pa.ri'ly 'j nI '.W!_ ~. 042 -..n..2!5 .~d Wi'e"lO\l'a~ :f·~:te w~~ lI1~lura I ~y b e ~~p8b~e of a he\8f\!'ler I.15-1 .a ~'ii:gle £rJ. _ "_ 3. '00 rp'm . bore a ~ 1 hls ~ a sta iii dard s I.a ted aJndi grow'" d a 11 d gliltle ttu.. f.OaJIl 8:ft1 being k] Ild ~c the Cl..iln.exJ~:lnsi'ile iliemS· a:nd rM~iruf. 66 .D cut t.8icru n ilflg '~imes 10 as Iirt:Ue as stee~.ll.~ _ .. lri ~ dI ~ .~ '11 ."i!' dia~ 48 fpllm 75..~' m'.. ! !U!' 'ffi3c¥ Ufad . to th E! 'fig ureit 'q'ucte!d hill ~he table" '111. The fir.8crn Iy n ala t·":~lI'ia.'- i .~ p05s1~ble beMeen l'is-g il'iinds...~ecg a ~~'Y 'bun t Hom e-M ad.:ail:~blil!i 1"iI'!I..-: . e~ds published iii" i"dl!!ls~ria~I~e:xtb00 ~s advS'ntages of '~emlpenJ.'~' 16 '1:8: 20 22' 24.''W·.11'0 .~a~U· eng.O 1:h e 'co Iiim€:1: de.2..8....rk Iaad 'lh~n .._. D!epih.83 '~5..ptlh 1C)·ITooth _To.O .1Qi4l "ii' £ii1':'.er fe~d r-a1J"S '~~~'U~fl1l :smaU of {t rNatill r.f' CUlt iiii! 9: d 8\!i'i.l10 .'I. 0..l!I.8xJl1Ium ~vl".009..108.63 6·~4.1 lJ4 "J36 .Hom.athiel!ilnd! a mlilUlil.s.-If!i.shlown ~n tUJ. .' ..A·-ii"'i.rpm 17'0 lr'llm '20rpm' l40rpm '5'2 rpm.1 iDe~~ _- t'!L'I111 of'Tooth ofT:ool.pth is! ~ .. .1 I >.3Y 'wi~h a suoressicn'll.eichi nG s lEu'..a~e~Jr. :310 :32 96 1 JJ8:3.r[nfferin'gl di.)ws that 's.. .ll illlot BrOI_n &.the m.054 11-31' 48 104- .m..~.te eli.cl. I .b.pped w'il~ha full I i~ew eeef nI 9 ~..A 0·' . tiven so ..ad LlIlg.. ~120 . '~hus e." is.d1 I D'p) Ii..OQrr. whi~I$I th~ mOire 'U"utaln a'l.a~..02..-lil.a the nV .g :s.

BJfNng eme f1I~ as '~h cUI~:ter lrib. ri'gJii:d tv wr~h ~·I~is.•..h'DP. m had its r I j' (Il~· loou.. e ref~~*ng ~n ~he II·h B' m.~dbe ~ltted ~n 0 8 converdlen'l B. whelre the cutte .aft 'Wi S pllaeD 'for sl.peed rang'e!l . '1'alnglod inh i's U'I at the wo fU..n:stlFument Q not now O'ften used.oon'lairned u nl.y [lire th ev m otO'f'i.fur 8111 ' the machinery aarily days of 'the smalllj model leng in eari r1'g lai~h partie IlJ larhl'[ BeMee n a. would be· rivan bvt.aJ pOW'In ~a~J~~o'".funnlflg!. -DN~DlNq ~ loat ilis''favoureld i .The rsesen fa r til is.dinlai [bead s.drhv.dBitely 9 u a rded~ maJkijing aeeess to ~he:belts 8J1d p\d~ey difficMlt.uil rei '~he opel[a. 9'8f. hi'alds..r enid nl"u. a way that itrhev wcull. n vel1lcal'sj~i d~ in such .st m·ethod e 69 . ho~det ClD' arbor :sflcuwerJ t.arlfhough rhe Imos~ vi\dd d memlorie.o al cutler mDunted en he I. A$ thtlte aire I"LlI ~"uindy rota[ if1.Jlpph/~ng poweif to .e belts ars now .!tIvailabl'8 f.8.!. 11h e who~e s.sV~ste.1'nd Us belts were ..JiC'h g~a·ar®ef inhere·ltt. Qf eou rse.~I' ij. aenarat w~ra powered irn this way.ins of h o'id illl1'O: a fil d ro.p1£led in '[vvo w.p lu be used ss . an d s~mila ' ~IP'~s erf lat h e in th e' hne 'fCH1i as I adva ntages.8 cfr"iJ '.s 'the Silpeed WiB'S. th a~ oo'UId be mlo'U nted OrH) the .e bed Or C!.ach~ne .8n d in I· ne ~i't!l.!lf ilEs POIPllI.on[y 'foill" gea. shar' . i~ to e:aieg..ri9 t11111' 'Iih B ·s[pincUe j S' para Imll .8'ther til n~ sult ~he POW8iIF .~clinea in recsnt vellf$ QwifllgJ tiOlr:tU91 changes in tbe 'h~si:g.!Ii!~l.. [gear.m Olll'1!rted Q liil . to ad orr.1'1 i suet.s[s the..dunit'S can be he:avy bulky Iu'm~"S. not ." [al cross-sHd B~ th is bro ILlQht 'Ibour! 8 corn phi'iW revel u ~iil~"'l n en . th~ drive to b q u ated.a!hes are sal' '".tor .iarity hM.S.te '~he n~ed fera redlJcr~iQI1 ·g.r. r a[s we III as tho O.g shairts to plr[Oli' de a sup p[ly.f.re Ilwi d has sev~ral e'stures. hIQW. ~altih-B r~roS:li4hdel.I!G.sed bU'E even lh .D~ai:~ab~e: ~th8f spt9e'ds Md feeds SD c n be' r.o .lt:Ut8 of ttl e ill ea· b~lank ma't9rUat The full pa. to Clomme:n d h. ..he 'warkshop-s e nly Imoto rand oft'ern rlln the enti re I!ength 0.dl n O~' cla~te r brea or 9 ive lh~ hand a r1I asty CU'L each tim..of the lirafltie is av.Jred 'to ~he ·tross~nde O'f ~l11e rnaehine. v.KiUary cu1Un..t .u »-«: ~RT1I~L 5_" O'E.d drwves remain.8u.sit'h.. In 'lthe~ ma dern srn a Il~I. 'i he' c(D.8~ar ox in. .!ailiM1 nOW almcst arll m.[ pOfsie~Jed_ he a liBln .1the worksho.s af 0" con ij'nuanV' 1'ryiIrilQI ~[Q[ so~va t he problem af jo[in ingl 'fta.ael to be done wh~le' 'rhe m3cihine c.~il8 bl e '10 ttl e c~ttlU ~ll11d ~pee·ds.n o'f tine lathe m1self~ Nearly all i l'ogethlu wHIh . 'w[n 0[1 e workshc p 'wa:s im'mobili~fed" h.hieh~ u!n.yta![d1 un~m!S thl~ '~f<H1!eerreet illi'g:orme[nl . u Ileys .~s ral cumlberso me aff.lljde..lnd"tS.fhe.and protect hllm fr· m the belt'~ .. F~rslly the cutter can be heid in s(rme.. eft iii be.ISQ .itlt~IUy ~Ie d ~Vi'di g head l£l. cnaGmmlnatical~y ~ JIfJOU S u n'lts re a ITa how Ihel nged fa r cutfn'EI . fine au~h~n'~~· I~i rst: wO rks.Dots are s'e~. me" hod o'f' cuttm'Q g'eam ~'fIthe lalhe is ove rh j3~tld CQurn'le rsh.[o~-s.so 0 ImmingJ in._. II'n!D'[oris. Tltelle ns a lac m!i. 'the 'wars a rn. . ermlina.a rr with ope 11111Ii' be[I'ls .l'lequJremll'J11t._-.-y c:sn be higlh and 'so.siii drlel b~arings 11'1 u:h a re much more' ~obusl . very much d.1a rv m"ot:ar.on IIV in th e iJ<lIthor's wodtshQ:~[ but in he me 'wo·rksllops in Q a n e ra~ .d Enier'll[U P to t. ~hDS(!j fill 'to '$lm it the siZle· and type of CU[lite.!.wer of the Isrthe· is r C'I[DCk Ilea rs.be IEUilSJuredl as rtre OOnilJf. p~uti eu Ia riy when it e!!tlm. or is.slide' and 8~ ~'i~ se.truo~ W'ars . W1111 autlO[m.uht be. by aU mod e.corrfined ~s It.sndle~ Fl. On the: occash::ms.slide~ Thls ~!ieeOlrHj Imethod used ~ofl nd se n~ideraIIIe favc'U r tll.e Icutter second muthlcd the' retes are fi8verssd illnd the blalnikis fastened ' 0 the Imha mandrel whH[e rhe CU'1ti8~r with SQIi1!lI9i "form (lif au~i~~arv drivs is' att-'8ched 1iO the ~atibl! Clll'Oss.he' fifti[es many I.or nne=SIi"ullft l1nis Jr I In the .:lInd p ullevs wh[rl:i ng aU-Clulnd jln a II di reetlens sndata n rli 119 ir! I!!fle Imiddl'r8 o'~ lllis· activ~ty co.o smaU light gears. !rrr bot.[~e lathe M.Hing burl: a~.corrrtained .8[ 1.ny ~f ~achmel:ns.~Vs.rom -s. pan5lcUl~arhi when.lndret wirth the: ges r b~al"k ads. to f U\jj~Ithe above at. the la~he iis nllnn'ing~.iJrr1 stand a rrds.l1tle a~larrn if'I 9 IHswev·f!:r th e . ew IQvErhea.e-the cross. ths d IYI[~I nQ [lUll dan d ·it:h e v8rti~e ~ s Iiide a ra ~.rract Sp&edL The ~a~heca'f:! ~e m e·.of' poweir~. nl. wh ere the' eur~ter is drive n bV 'h e lathe :ma-::.U:.8 n d g ea rs whr ch are po'tE!'ntliallv' dan Q..f~ cOFuain&ol end sn very .a~hu<~ Wli'fe d riven by "fla[tt b9~1 froml an Is ave rhead CDU nter..I 'Wair 8S W[enSU.Q reus.l[elmUv .:1 r.18 div~.r cu.HIiuxiliarrv rives.egUllllated ~o ~Ylit :h~' W'O'rk r. 111:1 .lid no" . :speedl 11h e ctrtier. h Blfllh ~~ mCUJI'rr_:edon thiS cross. such a'S i. 'tiD S1lTi!I~I~ ~ llI'){i. chaln£H~d w.ta'Ung t . S5J~. The advent lof the Myford ML7.e to fas!h lo n and w.

.hedl bV ta ~ing'~111 evsrj 11"11.BlnlMlgB 'tOI FJ:lrovhj'e . I' fln.nlli the cl~ftte ilI.g s$idfJ.iqw (}t' IImlt:'$riOlM ffl~fl'{.e.~ "Jtttl fi~ ~rf 'r~~~ pa rtlculh!!Ir' d'i~ii'~'in. he·ad i~j'finoo w1!:~:h I~Q(::a:t:imglay a wh~eh reg~'st. 'tmu s provh::lrng.Qa.It lain II ~9. 'shoek. .~'ofi~ed:ar~ the eu..rm . how .ock '$h'olJl~dpede.oIS. ~Ih~ TI1~Sea n be o"ve1r'com. The¥ CcBlnl fU.yide~ wi~hl 81 mQ rse ta:pe'r Sih~lnk SO' that the!y' n!laV be .ood:s.kef~'se~ if the .~ti'mBiI'1t5"hQw"» II f.lI'1EIIW . A~'~'hIOUgh 'til i~imay iiidd .ffd ""nomQ~fiI.ei S{JI Slrili ...ei' tha gea Ii Ibl!lft .mr' end by the 'tai'lslto~.~d se'ri'Dusl".e.grs a~ 'th~ d iviJijli rmg head wllh ien 'c:lilir!!:d. mlay seem U rruneC81ssSlry to use: a _ _ _ • _ .h e! tth rUle]" 11I"ii'!.ocal\ed re a~d.".reated trV the .i. Jl e 'w'i~ Il!eVlol'Je towca rds the d~vi dllirmg he.:h w~11 liFI'Ot.ia I'lII a rilO'lI' .pollrt fo r fh 1':5.-an . arki 1i!!iJ ~l~ce fa r t'h:e dh/~ding: ·hHd.~' the ~f~ of gs'ar 'fha" ".LI i1. Th 1':fI.os:s.i:2}e gearfto.is:ing' b~ ook. 'ii.lh~i' i1]1k) 'th. :sliides a nd diYi:din~ heads. his is aoclOmlprni's. S emQlm!ed by thlB tu1tilil'l!g' .'e:..and a ~he. iSJqlUiire wir~h '1hii:. 56 ren:u:l57 111 S:(Ir:~lt~ith1S point s nd .6' p~ICii~d (an '~D '~h thrust e baadrrt.tlJs eifher IDQu.l. to Cyr~: .iii'Ii~~ 'ti'ru8' ta]il iSYI~pgrf.ank the: halndle'. clulell!: ~:hJE!'aliiglnn1~e'n~ ry' ea refu I11I ~e V b~o(u.ghi9 ~ MldaM .mce' ge~1' 't!h.mnk ~s ~e>d!JJ d mu:n be 'fh"mly I. ..'a~d 'arborr are not 'IrrI 'lh18 wW~jh'the OfiDS~sj ide' or. I.'M'l.ial!ild it II a I~o'h~ve:to su p.!( affed. ~t 'woui d ba bra d ipra Cti(:iB' 'tfl CIJ~tovl~~'..ers illl1 the 'tee·s~.oom.on .. '!..i glh 'the holl~1W n"U1indr$lIIs·to:f th I aU~e:and divrnd~rigl head.oWlly g·et ~n the way b ut wi II~ r:e:fhJeEili the o\!'er8111 riug:" ditv~ I [ is.lllv 'lion 9 ~rLis n~( 'possi ble to IH1t the centre Iline of tine divmd. .o't i I'l!'tended 'kJ take' ~L..a re UfI:m I' 'Ieoo'~ed b:v Imea'I1Sol"drllwbrJl (S. _ 'Ii!' _ '!.e ttl S~ me fit. H.ifii. ~ha:t: of 'I~ft-ing the d ividi I'1lg hea d and ~1:t~OI dlitSpl-at~inQ 'a~"towiD"ldls the 'talilsiIDoGk'.~{ibS'orb ~hem'. the bil!l".e.II !Ii!! nee d to .!M"E!:e n Il' :ait: du~oU~le'r U.B11iI divr:d ing.6. [90th a rh ese f.~ ""''Ii!' 1!..~~.alds~. MOUlnted .vlF1Q head h~gh 'Bnough 'to illk#w ~I m'odl~r8!~e s.ve rtteal slids I.9n1a~e iof us~ng 'thms pa Iflcu:~~ :3JI!'1rsrng-ernen1.:9haft~ 'the iIlustratJlo IiII 'S'lic'ws.'iwboi t b~'t net l!:lnr~y 8!f'e! '~hr.ad .alwavs: p refe rs bGl~h oulter and "II.8' sp:nndhe· Df i.i"kpi aii'~-~ .' _ hafViB been diH~gned 'r.j' res pediwi U :.'mtl·5It be aVo11ded .cUlltt~n9 a~th)n wi'! I 'b.t..Fig H.le~.elM wDrn1hwhU.o~ to.!il af II!ljmt~1 r8icsi'Rg' b'ot'.f \i'it:'rrica I e.·[i~~de ~he:v.J~e i'l: -U.e vertic.and so 'rihe· toree!!"IH.aie In .e I!iI by 'thte lallth e' rna f1I d r..he: d ivi'di ng head ~snot pa raUe'l whlh th I: if) roes-el ide '~hlelii~e'iU~er wi I~ be thel lalr~ er . 'the pelior1m..lih Uf~.el.1/3lnd 1s diriV.g Ihead..~IJ!. lmlon~:s:p8ce fOlr th e'operfltt)lr 'to cf.eJUf Ib iSIf'ilk. be CiJrt One' clisaQlv.gGk.SD also are . SJIlQw.fven if#jB-8'ffan.l[Ic:t'i'D)n.is.~~ flQ.~iI'!ii\\fJ!::li .S aJbnoFmil. .a~ d thl~ re"~iW~t8 g~8 f nt: ieena wrnll IDe deeper 1.ed '!:'iime and 'ii'me ctQai:n wi't'hQut a nv d:f. 'The' ClilJUe-r ~rs!" 'F o Cf)UliY$iF3.f ~hi!li .BIFI~llmalndr'teIIulFlon r bo Id ilril'OIde vi 00 such as. iCQ-mp~ilcat'i. ara bsi ng IJse\dJ. srpiltJ1 dl.at one e nd ov··the - that u nl ess '~h.h!e1d in "the d ivlditng h@illlldJ a Ild it ~ .. I~..~rQX!ifill ity c.5'Jj~ them UI!p1 to' IIrU n tflU Iv:th~" slso' l~~ im ilfultal the need f~r any :f\I r1Jha'!i be L!I .EBlI .tth::=ll :sli'de.t.8 IIJlts.i!I'!ii!'~ __ i b!!''!oii!' .~?.pes.Ql!lr. c.on lto !the~ m.ill.i!i) dual ur{p... whmch ~Si . of 1'h. b c'ck Ibei"9 pasi ti:o ~ eel.!\U' 'S-ftlJp. loads.Wflll ~ ave: the 11fH'8Gt of ImlDvi ng 'til e d j'!!liding head awaY'firo. be:lw~e!"f! thB cr. passi n91 thlto'!l.e.fIn t rUJ close .edan a' WilU ha v Eil 'IQ' be h~ng thy' tt'l) prcn!i d.EilW ~ituck' tl pe rs.as"t hitS. also reoom m'eMI~b~~L ~bomll ltiff . The p!iflii)[c'g'mphs fig's.e net '.8i€Jng .ad I j n th e.e a . .RCUJfE!l' me! r JB~rH WOI~ is 'w.~nd IJ Qtln'8'1i' 'tv.:I rbor~ .ge~llirs~s r D'f ~-he fin irshed 'g:eaw.t he-ai a re the iildea Iloao Si to 'wi~hdf.s~~nd'ieno~es.t a 'is go oel i de-II to Ir'~.e .rais~ng bl.15Kl ~ :5!h ow th e .\-ed eta iaJt1D'OlS '~Q be 'prQ. 'ThJe' a:ribe r ext:en~ i)y' UlIlE!: U siB of II ra. 1~1A"atheil'" ~Ai!l~.adv. IIl"igIu:nd Em d i~ussion 't'he IiZ:UdJli1! fi' .pl'ele.1 to It. Ide\~lly .lf tbe h e. ~en~fie~'The wi be whwc~ ~he:!Jea r bl.. a C!1rnJ!'ck wh h..(Jlvldln.block helgh~: b" using 11 v. -- 10 .o!".athe bill:!d~ the teeth 'w:~~1 be' p'aw.be' ~t. lih IE! authcDJI"' . ~!!O.fryling ttrue !ge!.. ril g .i!iIilli'l OUIlI.a nd .'i: I.

Ge." i1iI.gl' l. N. as ~s.Jl5le ~!fter 10nOICQ Mp.emEl!f'lit Idlu(in~l 'UU~ I~CU~ I I~Ull:ti ng a ahou Id.$. The :1 ed oond'iU'of1$ slia -stilll! lh e' ~.tw'ee.e fevoh..'rbl lea dSGrew':s.acciden~alll bae ~~'a's h eITor~s.~ ! hie 'oon1. ~he'I.~ never goO back to th e~ teto~e.rriCVe till e Iirbc r from Ull® divi"dwng h e.. m e~h. B.dEljust touche. jl.~nv cilfc~es of hcles there are In the divhiio.a..'the oo~omj 8.~phIFig.1jI!faY rei 'e' o~holies rna 'if el !be ufied beeatlli~e' onlv . I. ra~ ndalrd BtU)wn &.a:ny holle~ howev.s.11 8 Ifill!] e esntres n d th~~ til.rtj.one he Ie :w~'11 le b LIIse.918 ~ ha~~G)tthijl· aribi!U' dialm.n f-ne 'tl'iua lattn f!' cElln:hre atlnd the Gfmtre iinte of the d e'lli d~ng head win e.o!lll BKQl!'pt '_: fall. c.srn d'i recti on ~s. Ute: chl0!i.ar~ '~tua ~nt(e Ilij nEll ev'enly' .!r~i.t mer.~ th e dlr~'~d'~lnlghea rill ['S 5m: a:s h'tg'h a.! II1. If: t ~U~ hnlil e' is fit~ed with a . lf til ItSJ ~Qnd~itior!l ~~~ no.8th :produce:d on th~ g~a'f' willi iIl'ot cble 'lIi'lI!'IV radia& bu~willi lean r~n"er'I(} lone sirde w~~hd~ 5.d~ Wlhen demlJ:'lm.a mew iten Q ilMld between Icad . lUng type wouWd l'uJve De-Bin lP8iieGtly sati ~.tee.k.h the: glea r bh.not h"idictllte. feed th'is.he' MbOf' a u n1:i I iit~.el 1 Tile.l1 rise ~Q lJ.8] I:JfO~ 1n 'lh.on af th~ d~~id JlI 9 h e~.~. ~~ i$ imporl'a nit th.oru.. n.rt]tngI~ n:(: 'lth~u gfu is strtllrt oi a Ican be imade frorn .s.sthod" and 'v'.I~$O'!iiI's 01 nJl have bee~:l/ri~d bl!"'tha jjlDflin)C)rf but he hil'!S.tate! in . lII'''B)UntedJ in' ~xacUv ~he 12 .8 f'!l'ge O'f '~he rig.ftews.a. The' do c.d fOIlJ fJg~U. set '~hie." 0 fil e.o:W 'the s. 'til is wil~ I el iml~ nate 8'P1''li .el Iladle ii lC~rr~re'.s p.nlY the CIUtt. is jfiltrang'sm'i3n't owi rii g to the heio hi .e fig's 1 Rot 'n.~Iso Bn BdJv~ntagB to m.t: .ude.\ew hs o:dwh e·e~.leit. menti~oned ~a fl i~wthlt!i~IP' a lim i~~o ~s. it is a g'ood . 'lh erie .n~intl~1the nu m ber -af 't1ee1h lem t h.the! dartum: ho~e r~ Ijj s:ed ~s ill :~ta.fte~<~lettinlg.5 ~OW$ U~hi. NatJu ra.l~ 1.d w'ilil ca use' the' cutter 'to fa.e~SUlrem.E! n alii 'is we I~I ~'r:n. rotat~ing~he: era rII k h~lnd liB ir'I' the s!alme di fE'!JCti.~~ne o.ch·s\':. but when t'h.~e' WifS.Jlm j.~ethe: .~di\~1 Hne.d ~In thE! :prsMious.J9 iii la\£h'cfi' iunf~>as "ii\'. the' 'si~~ of g~a'r til at can bel l~lJt by 'thJs only the!: li"tald s 19.em ~nd ICU1!9Imetho dis.n ~hletutibe'r by' eyl~.5S6!\[. be 'the s~ide that i)~ teed! ng 'the .e8 f th·at cain be CUlt: .iall'5lD lu '~n 'th~ radri u S . shown tin Fi:Q~59.:alpe must be e' secured.'rhra 7II!&ftic.1 e ge-a r bbalnl~but . I'fter liftiliilgl the ~ .lt i's.( .G' d is'ta nCe be.D1'1e!d ~n tl'Gf m orSIB! taper eHe'el Tlnl9 otf tti.J~II ellJn.dela! to uS~' a Iii e:as~ l.of lese h eiill'c~e wi I~be IO'f1I' th e: salme r.leng'[~ of t'he era ok hand Ie Oln'i 'tUlle d htl. baek .s.! the har~he' saddll'E! ~. bIS~calll~:V 'Sj3lme thl' resnitCm:klli1:S ~'mposed by !h 9' !ler~i~l~ ~fide'. e 'Og~ll!'lect sa..rovil~i'ng Uaat the rate of' feed ~s !Su'r~able. Imay be used I~.ijlJlpl il~d. • _ •• •.lOOlmrflod~te <::u~.es.i'l ~h e' d1elen~ pin eng. E"!ilelf:!J w Tth a rai s:j [lI g b'~gck on IV 8cS was ll'S9. bV by u~i I'iIg is! . [p:hO~Cl!g'D'.powftr ~ros . A srn a'lillei" diameter (H. .f' ~he Icu~1er. 56.d~ng head .~e cf '!ltD e' '!Ie.{plo. ~~~ 't.th~ !&J'8 ~ b lilnik.ns.iflk'EJ' a. 111 albit of .es inte tJnl9 ~. 'to a['.ef'ore s'lJ9lni ~ 91 to OU! U~e'f rst ~!OO'tl1.t n O't e~ctu9ld the d IM:ranee -belwleen th e M"OI cenr~re' Mna"!i.and s '~'h feedl ~o thl8' eult1er ~. dQ 'U' n 1. if'II~rm iHJ8:Fu~ :and ~he ralpi:d (. ~h e cen'U'il' of Une ~ rbc. reco.]1 has be en e.l.fI "(h~ d'l~en't pin i sh(l'uld fini~sht in' the :s:tiai1ilT'llgl n.wn ~InFig :9.a~ the ~ 08d Olf'! Ul ~ Gum~'r.!point 'WO. witt) 'U1i8 oentrw:.g~ar5 can tile a OOO'M mloda. ~~om the a rbc r ~ and men by by.s. If it. m.~ be.alndwh8E1~..ag.i'!ii iji"leJSU b to 'fh'f! oorre-(:t m i. _p rovid'ed. To.!'a i nd a Isol in ~ e vE!lrUca I ~ I. .rn~Bdlng b e~.Sto b·e e gti'm.h m. hi..eild an dI '!i~.a.plliI.vliisa d i~ec1jl~n a ridl if :aIM G'li.Bm e tlL'~: uf .v re~o'gni6e{~. 0''111100 ['~.f '~he'nnish~d .ep'B€~m'~iI'1~~ Ii lemp.always..e'will~~ntlfW~ • J ' '.iVS of obta'~n i'n.j.e 1~1~h.i~e 9@~ 'ty.he 25~ tooth 2\(J'[)P gea r b~·]lflg'cut is w~'U 'wi ['n i1m tl1e r.adim "fcglethsr mlu.\e~r"Th e [WQ f.are '[0 be ~'hDlme Imladel~~'The' C>iJ l1:er 'shc.fJ 'Btl nJ'Ifl~ pc ifh'l e be CilU.fJ~'e:but '~h:e.on as.. ~~b.!.'s.h bel n 9 ttll~wi I!~ d~"lid e di re r. 58.a!bll'ish~d lock' 1hei di vid i"'01 head by n'u~1ail1tS of ~he .e A . Than Une up thffis eernre witllU tilii ~ ~entre iine' 0.If 'tffilenu mber of t€le~. __ _ '.Q iT!NlIlte-r hew m.il.f' "th~ lGiut~i8.ate Silled .5" del Glf t ne 6 Cl!. -'O~tijhe CYitt~fj'S teeth.' .fler~n1J <0 Ci~U rs go.e wo rmwh~E!'1 then .m~ss o~' thifIll whal. ~s. partleu la~I'Y 'when sta rt"lng a lell I.Inp.ilU ra Iv I~oek€!d ~n 'ph..h a~ . I~m oyadi a ridl !itil e a rbo r reph~eed. mg.eter plus' a Ilal'f g.u IOf\1Jss.s'.of '~h '~Drm to~th si&. cut! .n always be:i n~: a eomp ~e!ten ym be r of fu rns oJ the era n k !hand le.tetili:i~ 01 .armd usffilflg 'ttl i~r t.ges'r.m!mended th.ab OU~ a CIU ~ r1elr 1"11 '1!!lJ fm and ~:rv1192 iJ1II.g ~h e oo:rrect seni ngl hy il~ boll' ~~ilf!l.crreet cj. l~tlJl'llly.al~ 'error ~h I t ha 5: bee III m:ade sG'fmewher:e. 'Wlidt. 'Tlitu.d: the div:[isk.ovem ifig fHeier 1.~ 0'1hOlle.Qsi'l'iOIn "~.mrol' .d _~ As..~!:h8 dl~k~'e.3 re ( ·W. ~ 'th e f'Il d~viiShjn.~ed some D'~:her a fll'alng.is.Bltho' ea rnlag e i'S . a_ny overS~DIOIt (itJli ~ 91 til e eorn pll'e1e' r.Po:gtr('cnij1iil '~e' cLf~r ~y as:ill.~nlk. Th is" a IsO' a. tb~ to.e'QLJliplmBn~:' it. C~QckW~I!ei then appriOaoh t'be flr.astr'O'il. " \Js@d.ngea rfl'ed out.ui-:allnl 'yibrmio.~n~lI1g the must !Be cd'th~ ...ipl~~dby 'the e 's.arbc'f upwards from ti'u~ cuUsr.ck:the haL~he' $B.l n.swij\~lI~llngJ rwlpe WheJtf'if!5 ~~ I'y~st IQ. ~ '~iuJtckies~.er Une .. 'ij t 'WlOlIIll'd h~:n/e hard to he lock.pp'llij'~ t'O. Illimit ha:s been nU'ic.hilC.has .a~"ii.ectlv MIO\(led a 1~Ii'St8nc~ lE!iq ill a~'~p:a over tin 9' cenrtre oou rately"a s po-st.o~e.:! IOf1!I~'Y free: Ii mO\i'.no-l ol. 'fia'.le.iii ~ampening and cut 'til e cllltter rotates fIlIEHiU\S.f'a'do ry' b !ul'[.~ swlve ["" (:~r is.rtt'~ill' 'win a Ilow :a Iliargar 9 e:alr '~.~H..5. tOI lremcnlei .Fe OWi tiIFie ':ID001:h a nd ~IUil.to 01iell' is: ne:edad alfld i~hh5.ml.:s(iwdese ~W. m~c5~ :r1~dialt"le and 'm@jtl~n)d ls to posi'ri~c.JttfN' and Hi-an no~e' 'the f€'adiIFtl~1 ~~nil tn~ leadl'~rew h.Si't daU..t -~h~ l:iln1B the ver1rica I S ~[diEl! S rMIQid'ell!'.'ttll ''!/!l.a se'r~ of J!Errksl ~lnd fll:S 1 g'l\I'I'.!B~~d~.a .rit'h CO n side'r.od [nt'o the 9<r posi ni:.r'it e r datu m hOI lie .r !'ihoui d be d ir.Q/tatty ~hl8i cutter WSm'ou.[.a1 :sJid. ~.te. !il' at 58 is s. ~f.flng iff til e e ut1e rs.~:i .II'.nda'xi f'1IQ prncass. th@1 .. Iil'lI1e 0"f Wie O:fII.~-:sI11 l ide! fe~d·~sc.nl ~I.~ i:~:u~e' with .. di sta nee lias. cArefui ffl8~iiPul'atiOIn of the I a'~h~ h:3 Irnidwh eel p. ~. 'Sha rpe eUUEU clf 2% rr in.e r.w 't·hri.~liI.tJI!tl~d Ib~l .dd ~e posiliic.I~'id:ernt.ible'~ ll1hh.dl' m aJgf!I i1\ii ngl Q~a'sa th e CilWireet seHilrllQ' can be 'obtl i'lified wi thi Ii1 'ififa9 Umit~" A.. m iet10m sle:f' di ~~ :slJi1 C)u~:d be' ~gedf L'O !o~1taim tJ1j.

llcw a Oe[lh-~B ·~omeet "ttHe= cu.. Illf' 'I~tdsis ~he eass then :~Wh"ll.Selll1 a e as the mcunting point infh~lla'f1CO tlhe s~{:e ..n!Jb: '~10th~ O ...ll'ld 'then 1Fiilrml!'i r~ock 'ttn'e' I i3!ithe' s IIIdel IGI j'fiII pO'!iifio n.~r gea'm'. The . L..~ the' m aijJ erne.A_~.e ere UmIeS.al~... :Il1.. he·ad pa ral:hi'l 00.rl. prohmb:r~ Ui e IIJ se ~pp~. (I T"i I''''~ ~1.sl'ide ls attaehed to·~he ·raliiS:illJlg.~~ cou by !he sr2ie'<o'~the' ge. 161D1 'fhiSl m~i sho~' J:r.idi f!! 91 head i.j.~ ~£II th'9 wH~. c~ ~~~ ~~ 1"''r+E.efbo~III aft~lngeffm. t::il me I:J nlilA!tJ po lnt f.~Ct ~ln be made.lO.~.e used previou :!ij.tlii:tlfl' 4' ~ headronn1 ftJ'f' ~'ha Gh (j' Ii/I.j..'llfa~ i.(j :!illif1Y ofl'e Orf~til e m 'may be' ItCh os-e~'as.e· 'oorjrec( eieptim IO'~ ~!Jt dloe~ IPf..Qw fhe CBnrro a~.' T~IE .dB I Ge!IfJwa nne a. Flig..at t:h~ 'ileli1h:81~ ' sl:vde. TMt.eM me same 'ife~d~GFaW handwhae.~tl~9rr.fi a~mmouiil.l"pi iled bV th~ C!li'IJiS:~~ slUde StreW wlnic!h is at an a..r.a rII a n Ql~e as ~hHlwn ~ Hig.drv~ntatg.centre' Ibin~ Df 'the eli vid ir! g.u.U~its.g' 'Vflrocal slrrfi..~f'the.8' ~'larg~r.e:fr~ of @I ev~n!i ng the s pi III d~u nQ~~ of the divh:ling be'ad and prgvidh'lQ mere I~'ot ~mlp~rJt. The \le.s~rnl'9: . in fa et. W. ie n gth. 74 1.::.iQe~ .sed aCCIordung Iy.. 1.nJ.. 'rlh'a $lid~w~V .m:p.aln~:blJl~:i'~' lei .eJ if. The m ".~!illatjv·.'~'~IGtthe :Bl. ill d O€iS"...S..g"ett'th€!' '~f~eii' o. 'wlhich has Ihe . be I~.8n gl'!3'crf il!l'le'~inrarUca n is d s~ ide over u til []~ I~O!I1It. C M'a'~e ~he .ly" 'TIll e~feed in 'th is' cs se is .at right angles t to.eSEl'l1t al p. ·6.e to ot h H D:~ gea r thia E 'Iealn be' Clllf~... 1M course.e. BoHn th ls a nd '~'he ae~:1l:iI liP ~sino:ll1.ortalnt ilIlli1!di s:ho:u ld .rnt~.~veUln..cu'tlnle:r.aJ PIPHe dI by '~he h ail!'1£u.1 Cenl.tJliE'l.uoelli Il'IId PJfra'~I~elto. ~IC.f the woliCtp'u@ eje~ The' feed has ·to be! a.s· d.ng h3! tITa n a .g...fiijL!en'c. ~h Ii! ICIIrr:lU:e lliine err [h'e V~ nJeaI.e 0 r ~i'ulndwh0_e ~Q. u"a ro proVjd.h~1jl [..he'l]l ff!!'!~d~lr'Ig bV ~~nd I. .WiJ11:1'g ba!clt "[:.s I Ii! ·3 plaloEl! fll a power 'f'9E11dbUf~ '!h!~ ~sun i.I1UJIt ffl're$@fIl!~ a ny IP'r:ob~em'e.t.5 . 'lheiF.n~ wi Ii ~Je in the p lila e .0' gem ['h e drivTd~"g head to ~l1e requ ired ing I~..1shows irnpa rativ\!Bl I~O set: the .ad1u$~menl~.'t ·the f.. 1:he· 'swi~elnng veni'lC:all w~V as ~n t lire p r1eviDUS met'1h od.• Once a'giii ~n It is !his '(:EW~'U"".ownwiudls.ta11\1' 1 d ifterern r~om tho!g.ab ~~'m 'thelfle [9 ne as means 'Qi~"~ee:di'nghe eut .ow .:en. ()i~. Obta. ~~ · .·Ib·! i. b(i!'~y~e it ls PQ~£db~e't'o'.~W a'fl.e:l.9'e 'llI' alf.t~llli'si'n ! ib:~mng perfor:mned~ g 'fA B' mlB1!hods o..of the d ~vidIling h eed.the.:a 100ng . 591 with '[he 11 a rho r 'C~ iii Ile u:s~d 'f.j ng he aIld fa r eo~ougih t·o a. T. RJ!I.f :~hE: I I1Jcal ~'llid(3' V alnq 1'his ls m~de II~H. an 3.iI!l! il~9 't!h.10 the w<)lrkpn ece i{ tilfl@ fig\. """ ~.ril~ pass:'ibU!~ ~to lower I h e d Ivld.rBU~in.·J.l. w.1 pg.g~he ~. The p-h. 'lIiI!E! a..lfli:~.:_="~~MI T~:a 1.~ph Fig.U"lg.fmec.rUca I sl ide has ~hwee ~e~i'5rnO'tS.wivell hl1 g' "el1ica I m·aV not be l dep~h acrees [he f.ss'~b beQa 11J5'e tha (e sp:~ndIe of 'the d~v. n ~~lli ~ g..y:sma lief a na.ea'nD om'...f.f alP Dhfi I1g bath thl3' de~lh of' cut and '! h e 'med are '1JI.ilee! of ~he' gea r w~II v~rrv Utr:cn~:gh"iSj.~~. rhe .lb.tter. .'15 der gthJe:rwi~H!i th.i n'tcn.g 1h~ The' vfJ'rl:iual :$JJd:e" h4'" b~~n' 3t1l ai'·8 . 9 ea'r ea ng hlili a.gJ!l\i".e~ t 7"I'PE 'S'-I~ILM.' ~eft-sh:n: t:.!o"~'iC.fin ca:~sl ide e~n the n Ie e S.... 9 nr~~r s.'will-I"IlQ~ ~ 1'11'1' the· slatii ng ~.c.

h. N OW~ by' m ovi r!I 91 the table ttl and fro and watching !the 'QlI p !between the two arbor.snt te e-'slotted ie91t ter te .e~:d'w~111 8W'tO be set I S!JJ rfa'IJ}8S so ~tnl't. datu m ledg e an d~he ta .ClllrH:slli 8:rhcr hi!.i3!f OU]flld a Iheads~c[lk pro'Vidm'g ba-~h a 'oQ CI d eent:re hei'giht a n d . i5.x.~.o tlh e .~e af machine _001 is ~ficreasRlIfI19lV Ibe~ng fnr~roduced Into the hCl'mt11 w..ock. II SlilPP~lrt.~. howe\f!\Iil!"". EM IC!1tl~ngllJ'Spur glJ1!JT to '_.iEI:b ~h .S IN THE VER1fiICAL MIW'NGi MAGHIN~' In raGel1~' )fleaIS m Oili. 8uppolrted~ ~f~~tha . :square be.'Moen the.no iced ma~' rDnlv Q.Itte. posi.the bellSfdt de:rf\I!le." If no setri 119 d a . iii 'pi Ly til eca use a's..alP III Fi g.rn'~'lI110(jis.:1he .a rn~chine tab e or .ldh'~head of the type' fo-r Ir~~ ow~ng ~oSlome ~9BSClfilj all' wm Ii! 01 n sed a . be remrDved otih. 8u!oma'[ic al~gnlng system is in~o-rpOlrated in 'm.8 re rautolma'tU CB I ~y aligned c.onto lhe u:lbl~.a's: cut using the' .I~e red 9 e.' 8 \ii'SII abll! HI.illliih. em EIlchinre ta bl. Fig.~.hinge fia t mount~flg sufi. a . [h'A~'tv ~'e to t!m e :-tabls.10 do is pro.ne fi}(ling boi~ is.hie.ace [he IlrOngest ijt lise it is' aSleiAed .e.ng block inse'rUng betwe'en tne head In cuftiUIn$l.~chriinle has 8 g~ared' m d rJ\I'8 tln'8 n 1_' ~uIi spe e:d Iralnge ri..pt-ed iln~o perfo'rmi:n:g O. 'The cutter ~s ma u nted onto a sho rt stub irrbo whh~h fits ]Into the ma:11fls.adl and raisin.rnecUy.sU'cl'il"afi . Tlhle.:~tde.ililld~. [FirQ'_ show'S _ij.lle..13 ma.s.uli~lb~ea rbo rand this arnor iii I&QI neads t.ito a !$.to r d ireet useful r a~. vEi'f.e' f1.J PPQ rl.:e. so m'ilXi rnu rn .he' Id."(.whene~le Ii" the div]ding he.d w~lh ill 'fi ne f.ad i~t..be usd to o'btain ~ort.!alt-ed by keys lind a ~II B' bDi t 'til hlas .f'!~.e tlllr keatJ 1$ moun:red on mi~ln9:1fJGi . as 13IPos.n machiin. A loom m e rcma liy produced div. in. D The: geslil" blalll1k 'ou!d b 'mounted on. and 10 does net IP O<SlS. the model en: inreU3 f BllrW>8rys.obv1rcUJIS.e or tionlstn.~sj~uW'ge'ar.a'grarmm'ical 63 V how a VIE.ot sO f. head a 11· IOi.. p en'stl til' sBti srS1C[Ory ior use' on a m'j I~~g m 8cih rll'lle. 164. So me ma'AufactUl rers lof small v ert ica I m:illing macn~l"Iies\1 r'8COQ. showsth~ Imli II inO m'HIil: n ifil e s'at lJ.tlWr1 '~~ 301 Dr 40i"jp m is T~dU "I. f ' 1 -. wlh'~n il1rtended for USB on 8 lathe' it is' usuaBv desig. fOl mounting orne iii velrhcal~ sl ide.WOf (llivi d~ing heads alre desiglned .a:ble .alc' and SOr no problems I rom irliQ meehmes rBqru I. 'the ventic8 l mi Mi'ng machiIFN~~ it 'II' nQ.il'ct. '.lmlity of the m~"n .saUHty.ns far remo.kevw-ay being pa ra IiQI t. 1. 'a.a ole $:1dewall'S otJh. is ca pable of bel 1119 a da.Ml!IJ~tv arid SQlme Hlcne!S SO!lri as.1J1ilrBdi¥iding bread frent bea1ringl 1 rg'ealfs Illif\g e r. N. Ir(lmay be.8 rber.be pc~:Hti(!ji)'led srny SlpUiR GIEAR.d '~ro'm tlhe ~IUp~ on. tMa~ 'millst toci~s to IPsrfolnJ1 tasks.it does need .ID. iln olr1derto.gear.raIl-iM'v boll wh ic:h [p:aSSr6~ through 'th e IiIloUow s. ' 1e malfpf1i. rwise i~'WlOUlllldoul~ the f The: downfeed mOlvem eni 'Df '[he mill pn'g m a~hil~re qw i1mwi I~be :.sp'indlle.ack ofanuJpPDl1he gear arbor S'hClUlI~d miade as SinOn.a.'51Ittion 'tilh US: ll~eV'ellilti g n furth er movement 'Thre 1.'of . The' h O~Qg['. ovg.n~i 'is onedl clc.~i h:a'¥rfl' lie E'l'rrI I t .~1 mining ms'chl inill' is :!ii'9t up" 0 p.e of'lhe m:ach~nia and 1!3:he~ld in pmoo by mreOfiS .is keyway w.pur g~a n.eo. but.s. 52 ~hows .tS his me chllne 1 c -mNrG ~abla.S ~ijdewavs0_ tile tab.n dOS8 tc.!) b~ock are fastelliled ·to IJ. 1"'8' d/~idln.he' vlinb" j!i' IS pOS.arbor i-n he d~\!'idinQJ heae t:oulCn ling ~ UII e I'ong a rbor ~pin iii e a lId '~'hn" by o~leili'll"~i 9 'the e nil 'fe~doomw handwhe e.P'fOlr r am1d1:he milling mac'fiinelabie'.s 1hi~S! ~8il!'li~iiQ'n[gei'ng dc.niilsinO 'tlie n~eds ef the .al!"u~ has many uses oth.tn'i 118.'Ih e clJirter._ 111 d.!! 1i1i.ed m echsnlam ens b1i"9 '!.pi Md 1~.se to.~.d:a(nding 'wh ich on e.Ii • rn10unting onto .lli~k shown has CiU .o~he r mre~hord s 'w.l.ml 'linen the dh/idirlQI h.o.J:91ith:l. he'd iviid ing head malin bearing and thm'~here i's liittle Il~.bring 'lh e ~tltte[ arolJf I~mo8 pOtitio.E. '[ he latlh e.of tli!:e' qUI I 'ch:1lmp~ng devirce..e PlJo.this n 1his tlbe over .thDugh '~t is.vi de a closl ng presslU reo ~f no.~l\'anabl. '~hen ~t m'8V b.also ke.s!I.Ham ~h€t table (fr.so 88 "to Q 1iJ.yed DI1 both lJ[!l!p and be..ovides an ~deal~'surface for mOll fl1U"'QI the div'idill'l'9' n'e.i31' 'Q1ea ' bl.rod l!ce' s.er than indexing 'g'e'ar bli)n.o thaJt ~o. combat 'the I.~rgor 'the 9 n~at IF ~'s.8 .e-ight MqjU]red an d th a n I. ~helref'o r'9' 'Th mounted ijn clos.k .urn is aVlI ~11. Provl..vered th]s: 'ty..pful'.ridingf he~Jdj I his i's perfeetll" satisfactorv .fJ on.a is.e' i'n'QI me . net lin d Jg e~nh.am. Th is ns.secu red '~Dtil e d~vidring head ~rv mea~' O_'lJ drawb:al pass'ng' ~h'. (lrne.'l8. A d ivi dh1g hea d 15 a1so a ''Ie. gas r teeth W n I r'l'ot be: sq'DJHi ria to' U the: fa.o be .ing a.spindle bot~m be.aJlIi1ls'.'s.o. 65 sn[)w.~5.a d.aring a1ntWl !&o is well r should arise' ~n secu-rinrQ1 HUI' div.type' and rai'si..orkshop. A wo rrn aRid wheet~ dhJid'illi1g he'ad Is an expensrve .(HJ'gih the IIh'ollow.eS5' e u~h~r a large flat basel .'wih ich war to move tha d~vidrIIg i hB'ad 0 G bf~in t ~QiJ freer :SBU'i:ng.rl'!~S' with .ding Ituft the.shOIP-S' 8 fe bein 91 equil 'pad! wiirth it vIe li1i'ca~ Mili II~rng rna c.J~ed 10 secura ~hel dh.IS aotn tha raiSJlng I:dock and m'l :1 flII1Ic:n iiii e itsel" .S! gleared O. w~l{ be iil'colllsddelatiron when 0' .d~ng head 0.! dhthji'nQ hetd ba.~ b mitte...I'm must.'ved flmm pl~an W rn~ing. 'rl1J£!l 'QfB'am 'get I.! an~ m OI!i8 !lorn e' W(lIrrk.8 mlillilng 0:11" rocating si:lot keywav . a simp:!e m.as d:OS8 to.1r beh ind i~n i versatH i y ~s.o-verlff~n![J.ec< aUgnmeli1. The rs ising brock i . ~'~aIAk po.9iI~g.e Ml'i ~e the i Irr~sllil n 9.a'S 'its so potential' is' discCI.6Ir. t'D pl.1.e'"lhey .tha r :!'Ta ~hei'r n jJlureht' nc'mwfl~JI d"J'ri'i~9~ B~sicanV a laths js II t)urn ~ng rnaeh lne Il!njrt with il I itlt:le iflg.t.ible so as 'to rpl ace U'n. m~y be provided w~ihe Id fj UmjI fa~ inr which palll'idiei '9'ach Ume I t.alhE~11i of iU's. e' CUR:er. F..sjloor.surp-risi:ng thiit .oo of the 9 ear.iii serV'iceable 'Cfjnlr:' 9 he'ugbL The Myfo~d r ~alt:ne' accessory . ry r ll~ss<ess pr.slmp'intS $ysU.ion by' means .8 n hud is a tvpi~al eMampie o'f/'thi'S. le~lle.lrhalill 9 th 8'm the .! rpu rcha.tBu Il'.s Wildon ~nd 'fuurow" it W]H l!Je 'I tles'~Qn" the bjlank has a eorn.arDor . HQweve .e 'ba~ter' '~!O ~u~vildle' 31 a ~I:!J!J.pm en t .111 lIP Ireee . s'pUlr gears 'i'~ El'SiSentiaff to is a fig n tllne dmvidj ng rJead spi nd~ para Illel e ltO -the t.a re p iiodurCing nJ~lchi.a~io.g.1i :S~QW spesd dri'ie~ ilnd C1fII mscl1ine 'of' is type ~sid'asJlv sui~ed~or 'iJ see lirS a gsa f ClI1l1er.

~OO .' I !! - 6. 60 s "'OWS a 63~ Irnke'iy 'f'alll sem eWhi!Blre between :300 a fold 65" end so th.13"4. '10 ·aliri·v.ais .l05.a GoI1~Em ian r :angh:flo use ._ . . ~4l32 ~1§7 .'1 68 '. 1H~\:l! O~~T' ~i:li..liltyS. J"" "' .e all ~he' re'q:ul~'red d:aplh IO'~I~~ ~" ~:f he desr re d to'o~hi dlep~h es ~ dli\lh. .. ·~O4. ' CROSS. hl'lv' I~~[ om" .1.1]0 1 .111 . .method as is ~lM~iini ng a 11'a ceurare dE!'P~hl readi n gl ~51 ..1 .. il'o "" a1.'1 . dEl'p~hl!.i't-iS'1'i~ ~.11":1 ~rljc: de'II~11b er"fl!m!fd~ sha'IIOiw lUld t WI ~ '~)est~ng e e th dBpmJ~ of cLiit by mei:B:fI!\S.1 s~ i'de' tOI OOQ._) .116.23!5.31"' .15rS .00 .5 .~WI.639 .282' .4~2!: ~511 ..144" .1~4· . _ '.28 .1'0:2 JTl7.e d~Yidiing head ~s. ~*e. be co nV!.¥ be e. ..'t..ovjid sd by '~h'E!l' OVlSr~airml :11" 'thE!: d (vi cUng hora.ahZB rd. ~( may' ·.s.104.2.196.:S om ewliia.53. _ .0382 .n'!!! of Ih~.~rn911B i is..249 .th. bV cun:i Illy .rl..l 6 10 1. .and the wOlfkphH~e. .811l1g h!~..lOe bi~. up to ·alb~lJ~ EP/4" ln..268 . I~~' 'the ang~e' OfF illl~liiin..2'4£1 . I ':V_J '-II ...1i41 ..8512 "...ang Ie 'of incHnat~'OIr1 chosen fflOSI am oum1 th.nC"Dmp'UQ~[In ~in.n.2 .1916 .1 17 AleSI J}g~.164· ~1.of a daiPft)) o.th to the Yllntucal pilonBi' '[lAe re~uI[ diltafi.. mu:s~ be' 'fQUlnd of' detenmi nrung lh e' ~~p~h011: ~1[iJ. . 64 3 .1 "2 1540 .S!Q ..mc.'10 set tlh Q 'V€i'l1iC'I.216 ~256 ..ng he:ad ShiDWir1 the! U"velrSlr\!Tt!1 pport tan be und ~I:J tnll gear. +13. ·~13.208: .10. U~B: · 78' . "' . .cut ~hel m I[]!iv~:d[ng he ad 'sp ifldlei 'maku.165.186.~27 .'171 .308 ..22D .4·7"0 .j11Q1 '..~itkH"!1f.109 !O'iB:3 'nea.~n Qllilili'" PQ$SB5sffion.'~10 :125. This i's a lease -where' know['~d g)3' of e ~emeflti\!!ry !r.1'39.ss to.2.'~~el'!#er. 81m.. noiwn o k Itu~n it is iii) si m pi e.e ·~To~ Iawufigl ":taille h8S wlii I iD V. '32 . for 'The photo'Q fi~lph filg. 'Ule l~tDss·:9Jllide' "'(n~~ds ~~llIJ~-~\~ ·w~ ~a lhe II • tl> 'wilfh' Ilhe a _:e.~D:B.r!3'S s'hl~wrI ~ro thiF3! "8 m~ ILl the erosen~ :sl'irte. II!-_.atl:g'e:.d.1 17 .t ha'ph.:210 ..II ·tOOll1h ICCH'w@C1 rrU)Velmen~ degmmd~It h~s ~Ilf'e~'d.. i..'18a .. not keen en 'th~s..fj: 2{~1 a EyT' ~PuIi:O ~s..1:29 .J ~~ h..a I!::: iI-!ilII.~i nglitlfter eentaet ~c$ be·~rn les1>.~.6 .120 .1."" .~ ~~1B:i riME! ~l how' ~ pc "an ~it '~s (to .3:'~'4.gB:ar pm-rIJlude~ fiha usa ~f ~' . ea~le~ atilon fa ~ de'ta rm·intl' Ul e' d~:5ta:n~I.':I.ie'd !by the cosi. .IRg. ~.- - .35.A $h~" .720 ..t.4~IO I • 41"~ '. A.23.20'1 .' .-III!"iI!I!!i.336 .~ '11-.82 • -.146.284 .3.l·mle~~ry .tw..ldhy.sl idle a Til e .~"D .~IOI11 .9 .job.-p~h ls ItiE!a eh ad.2:5'13.rs~ij>. rnollin 91. [.5 ~l.. ~he' §ei~f ~fb or ~s s!nown 'with ~ 'IS i~ rtl!llP..~ on~tih is :sup:pon: bai~lng p ~.209· -240 .wi!@. III .. 439 .g~1he ·ilu~hilrr.l~:n .:!' tifl!l.1391 ~14S ."2 . With the d ivldlr.m.f11 u "tin ~h!e'·tlOrinaat dB.22 .ei'emen~s: 5"'" 'The 'oJ '~ig lIl... .d:!ILb a ~_. ..2ICI .oJ "-"_ .E) -c IFQ~sl ide is J1fH}\i'ecl i~' sim ply ·twi~~ '~~teG B~t~ of eijr~]"'E!if! u irefJ.rail ~UIJfJfJf1. JJS4 . ~126 . ati'di Mg .Ul7 . .~e:nili!.~:na. . SUD ~4·1'6' ."O~ li~W.'s a 'g100d 1/091 'to h~'Vre . . nIe'" IU~~gll~~f~.!!'l'i!Ji':ent.2.140 . b~ pcss~b'~e:o t 'fItna in th is..!' cross-.24 26 2-8 .213 .:DSS.312' ~33g .OS.42'.'~.180 .~'Jle.1 52 .e .a Ii11Je 'ttll the Cln and [hen re!pe~aJ~illl'Hal ~~Hi!' 1 loperatll:o.509 .11"D ~ lfj9 .2· 'T:his Iltffl'B! .It"~ VU I. bl~te. .360 .:jJ .ve.1'01 . SGrew needs e't~l"8n.lm·e. C:l1"". ho.319 . AI ~"the Ie et:hi CfJIIll then lliJ'€i' I~jj.7 •Irl915 .- !$O-m 515[J ) E-I N~'FIE ED 60'~ 65. U nfortu n~wl V'...d to I~hi'~ .QI~.:2 14 16 l. 'lO .of gEA~: DP ANGLE OF I NCLllNA'nONI 35~ 44tl 04!SfI \-.'~'Mlmttm .. tootti QBa rr' ba.264 .Dgon(..i~ rlli' obW~' .f!jb~i e d b~ItwE!@ii sJ~ 'tJhe CiUUlSl1f . :150 So'me m BiJns.'.

ed 11ne minilffill.Eu:~hi'i!:l~ts:a!b! tJ!: c t is l. been obtEn~'nedl ~eek :S(H'l~W IE!lnd~! once' .11 ImprQV6 .i mlU III SU1pPG Dt 'f'Or lih e curter ~ Pi gl. a s .Qi ea rri ed o'~u.h of the to Oit h art IQne .pro'vi~d:i:nIO tbBlt a :s'uila!b[e'I~1'iieki~g ts 168 ls ·8 photo glf3 ph Sd1lfmwhlQ Ithe! pl.aibau t a di's~ad.d bet~~.~.i Is~.f to '[!hat de S'c~ibed wh ~rri dea'~wIrJQ eolurnn a'~ po-s:ifiblle. O'f botth ulnits .sIIDifeC[ DIviding.e d~~taml o 'fr\'l m ·thEir h e~ d.s.b"y . di reel .~.n til 9 b ~ek 'side. plflQ'Y'e's to btl if'iI.~ n i1119 machl! nef 1001 rn "1.p~cia Ily maft(lihed to the head..' T~~ whoh~' Plr.SUp'J~lort.!J:sual~i ..tass.~pported by .Ofr-he flI ~lI'ar.'Pa'rBII~ to thie.SI1chillllt$ :ShIQWflIl if!l1 pDs~ti(:rn.h~' ~hB . and be'M"fJ en thus b lalnk :llndl the d.(he cu. slj m !lihs.r1 bu'~ it d G8S.Wi nnovem. l'jlb~.8r'wi!111 ~1116 ilk"'withd raw ~hE3' b~a !'!iJlt arber 'from the d.' IRg.be clh. T!he phOltQg Faph c Fi~.aJnd lC:l1I"I pc s. the euuer !b~ IIJ1"1ie~UI1~ the phO:mlogt~lPh t~hts.811l. the m ectnlllr"~sml. By llir!rn9 il~g '~he'wh 01e hie dldown to lha . 'seni f1Ii9 .S. '''IrI~s !s 'to en sure tih a~ 'bh~ Cie'Tbtl!li~ heiJghts.m' 1'>(.w lu~lf~qnCln 0 r so of' the lo·one'd.. 67 CIampi""" ~119 .el used _ .BfS ide~tlcil and tha:tt any wcrkpi'~'Ce pi~lGed betw8Bfi '~he' two 'wUI be par.®!lrFIli.l~ I'in a h a'aid .ce. The depth 'af out: is wirth CHIiJt.!!' to Fng.~ ~alJpllied biV' the: -taitD. Arr. H.i3[d]u~tmB 1111: d Qwnfe.p~:a.a rd's '~he' d:ivij:d~f1g 'h e. Su-P-PQl1in~ .g i~n the Iathe. '('h'e' sidle' away' fl!1om '!he lli'nlill in g rnaen ifII e'.c@.lJCJ~SS is.wiliiti 9' n ee. RII. the . Tn IS i~ '!l'1!. .aI~ c'lampijlng.et'Ei'~Y ~independe 1m r {. ~Bd .:1 dllvXsi.l!lll Vi8. If ap~rQXrma~\I' SleMt~'ng pOSnrC)'al 1!J9fV liRh~i this.pi. ~~'~k Ol\!'er I~e: nOfm.aJ tali lstack..fBg . 6. SI..er CLMt:er '00' CU~ TOI cenlra Iese' tn e 1~M. .:u.\fiI.~ er r.:aII pad 'roth 8: I il~ me:x.sd rathsw '~'l1la n .9!an 18li(t1l'"a the fu II td:e:. itn a ta.~Ulpp(j..nB' ha's a v.vi:de' sam e assh3ta ni ~e~ HO"wE!lIiIer.PI~ort_.ry I[irmiy-.Ulin{).:su!~plh~d. :t.w'llins 16rverarm aoanfn:. 'folll' U'n..arS:B the' 'ta~II'2 ~ lopera'to.e'.gidJt:y~ 81 I. Th]S ~s not as ri!Q.l1 l.itiloned at a ny co nveni'e nt b.66 shews a ho'm~'!ITUilda d~m(. bSJB n .Aliiglfl'.5IJp:por~ 'ICS eo m.andl i'f 't'he m'a~hi.1l1 indlSpendsru but jWlai~ch'nlY' (.~eralnml m By .. rle.f'I\!.(1 Myf"ord= type! o:f d iVltd~iIfIg'head f$ blahl&l uss d 'the.iJ\it~~c.p.Hi eient t~f'N:=nt:h'e' tiala iQ.1i'I'O unU 111.~wl~y' 'from i~:means that tha !ilju1j:.d$dllresulttiMg I IQ'~ tlh'e .!.sbie.s. gl~V'in.fiiJ1 ounrted .Jck..on head w~th 'tlnle! C:1!J'l1.e~d i.~h(ml Ilowe Ii' th e head 1m thtel bl.1'.!Iittfn whh . IDe:ntralisG. 'wll~11 be ~!Jip'PlI ied by l 'the rug m mn~ RD. Once '~he ..flriab ~e 'thlraat li'iosit~c n" thLiUl lock the haad 'ffrm! '!j W!I'l dl!il:lflh 's:im~hJr 'h:!!' the m. .f\o.alP pi cad Iby' mBalnl'5 {l't the l~r()~s~l~~:de: eorreet 1~~6ilh)nh as.e.the· tow. GS·..~my.m. lof the.. epth 'W.r :arb or :G. If: .'!l.tt~ ~fDlJ'f .iilig~liflij' rt is..~!:) 'wlthi I'i1J .iv'i oil h B~d a nd lnss rt Ita hnhEiI csnt re' in be· cip'8:fa"Un:~ g.efli~li g (H"I 'the: 'type of rn in in.su. The: f.9 nto a.spo~:1 I asr.e.to 'taite pi ace' aeli e ~QSI8l to. litre tai~ .e.ii'thlin wou Idlco Ita inly J.Uiirl ~X!ef'irsf.ra:imsi n.elillel 'to tlhe table.~ts. the ~JUtJti rIIrg . best to cut ~hB Qui.Y8Iuage :a-s tl w i'11 ~UIIII be ln v~e.Dm~ be' Settt'OI d a~ '(h~: 'flne! .ef!ll t h El' ta'b:J~ !IJ mel the e c:eruraUsh'it9 bG'j.9nt of ItifJ qu'i~11d ~ rinl!!l111e .(sll .id 8 s tin a I~per.o~k y w that h a.~t IoU a ma chi ne bel n.Jm overl'itafil9lt ~Howifrllg.n.ehl e .

B. positi 0.e.es iiii the h"tn·il. Th 0' leng'lh of ClJt Bxperw'e n~ed in g.matS_ed.ed ~i't h a powe r f.fig.Itled to.BUIII" 'wades h alL A m'sclh ime's genera I usefitJ In as. de 081 not usu a 111..e.on' In s'tabiHty and I sui abh!! speed '. I[n Dln-d[etn reach the c~n'[m nne r IQ~ t.nI1IlJIlsed[ . d]hi'jdhilg head and nOI tawiSlrds tjoe tai I S\iiJtlc su pport.all 8tt8Ch meeu.. impo.ri~.des ig ned J]l'i'mari IV ("0 pe ITO rrn :9om e speCfi. 1'" . On hOf~'":'cn(.o~!the' a mall..m' ~ at sre und the prof! IIi erf'two adj aCEl'lilll!ee'th rill dthi'!i'" can be ccnslderable..1/.a~ mil~ers the headl is usual~y fixed so t i1e ell!rrer wi I [~MJe ~o be den~ra r sa t1 bV 1lJ:i1'1'9' 'the crasths'i~de 1 r. ~"I:. Gealf' [OllJfliRQJ ls ena ID.iJlPpii'ed bV rs i:s ~ng the t. 618 ~tf8#sin9' ~hs cy.I.teu(s liis.e As. it has "~r ess IlQusnUal than the' wOrkpufilClSS tht8t ven~c.e short :stUD' arbo[r that was.tr!e' machine.able tto tUUllllQI in 'Ehe CUI~:tmng is . Uu~tabl e rOif" the hori.elti' call mat=hri ne \!WI I nor p I"'Qvid Ell surfficj[en~ I~q IjJ ired.ama:.8 ihg in ee" Iing h.p.16.nvo~ved is l1he dlst.e Clutter rr8\fOfv. bly ~OT!igl euHe~ra rbor willi be l. c.ys by t'O. .n·. l~ Ij". t ~ "OiP vediC'al ~ loon~re !tnls nf'lha blank and se IJn.a nee r~gidit~ h1i.rtao't iUi: he 83 . the fud. 'ur.the .y a.ne' div"ding In'ea~: and a~s'gallllDw :II wQlikTrng cleanlrnoe be wee. the a.ICH'ilrta I m ililar is ba~1QaIIV a p(. and 'the: mil ~i mach i ne is n ng. a rea:so. a ~ d thsr' i&.athe' ~"after horizon~a~iis pr-e'fe~.al mirchi ne wo rk. So no.sed. he table handwheel Or tabla PCW9'f i 'a@" unit.' cutte~ Ii s set' to maChine the tQ[C)'t1i1 on.aUJ!uJde of 'Ih€r cutler.lJj. It i'5. c.c 'fu "cUO E"II and wtien ·t true ma~h.ppear h&gl'l on Ule . ads. m:8tt. 'Th~ will necessitate the urse' lOW i . ~~ i:s.btai n mar:dmu m SLi p'por~ fa r bo· h the.ab le.t he versaf Iity vel1ica I rna ch ir. an ge. i~'H.a~ mac ttin s' t h .e' the arra ng1em.OHINE Alii m aohi ne reels 8 re . 691 sho~ the arra.111 to be re'iiche ~. . Once aga1inr arrangle the CQ.'mBn~s ar'S t!hen fliirm[ly lock~d and ~he 'f'98'd app ~ied' by' rneens of .i's· enly' bUt Dn the' mah.'he' path bErtvtrean th'E! CURer and the workpiece is miuch shorter an'~ require'S lies comlponents wh"ch should be Ir1efleme_d in gmatEl!r rio i'di tV. part~c:ulalily when eomp~lred wit 11 the' err Dft eu t i.squira' maclililniI'LB al~ng ane aX.:Q I p~la This mea ns 'tl'uft 0 n the ne. AI5D with tha mi'ming machlne . used in the v.. a n fill [tthe wCH'kpi 8(ce a III d ~Iway~ cut K)·wards. a p eral~~o.a~es dl is cuttingl tp'walrd~.ig ned 1['0 W11 hsta nd ' he type of ~fun:es ~ invDlved. howwarri!' rhat is sU~~JBcl to .a v.ed.d c.e Ii wh ien malta od Qilf 'whmch fnlcl1ili rile' is be r.0 ~wa. han dw hea II and if the! m'a[chhu~ ~8 fiiH.fill ta i~ pport to r th €I aroo wh ie!h c-an be S\J provided by he cvararrn of 1. work arbor i!lfld ta.erllm of divLd nll1l 91 head.em'cai mi#1:ng m'a~h'/ru~.n't.ic herizonta I m iUi'ng Imach in e lor CH'lI e wi1hc'u~ a ideall fer' Ie .edscrew Sind the' cut .alnrbii~ IP lalnB wh D~'S.a ImlnirnQ.In til 'VEH11lCal in si2!e Bind Sl18pe tn '~he!tabl e 0'1~ ' A. Fil Q. h ~ t a I rn"IIer II' L' has 'tile '.lu. list allnd so-PfOYid[si the baclkbu!l18 .mlll rnl Iller 'the [Oll.t~stoc1c: .r'Soe~~yt!hie same 'way~ The m..rroSIl-'trrfn/er~ •.ab ~ean d the Ihleadl of the mach ina..se mCve.i'!le ca n be adapted to lneluda other func'tioAS Ihen 'the' m aeh ilM a"s v'tlrsati 1'ltV hi.achi ne th. IGEAJRS IN ' HD _ ZONiIAlIM[IILUNG [MlA. hor-il. when used f('ur 9 iJ'~" eu ni'~g is.alll~' th is.:ff!Irarticn~.ngem a.his mav 'b9.mp. why the blH. hBrent .en elr-." 'the edg[e of [OY'er" lng' m.".ain difference be1l\Neen ~'he two rn iUeis. drag ra mlmat~ co ~ ~ I. Curnl~' B SPUR. ehhelr vel1j:eR~ 0·r ~h El' ~."won. i L.ar emphasls ~engl'th de1S. it in pIi'8C.rtte r rotates 'I n t he 'lie ' jf.utllie.V Genera I~yspe2llki ril 9 gea r eu lti n gl ln a mi il'ing machine.trilf! th~ case of thl3 ho.t .zonta I m ~~ n iiS h :5ilmitar we II known 1halt the ~atjhe designed 'for mod el .Singe 1:0 tJh[8 spindi.~ ~Si I~ene~ted hl' its pop 1Jj·I.o~th of" the.Bllrity vertical millin'Q' mechlne.h orjlont.oduc1iDn machine and ]s normall V e Q UII~PPad Wlith 8 I~O 9 I able ~r:a\fefStl3: lblJIt I'fI 'USUrJlUV hI'S: ~ lilm~.lete sat-up so' hat'lhe cutter ro~.eon~.

! I b·e':sa:Cif. w~ e i"II it miaiV' be' itl'ifIltCe~Sa ry to inereese 'the' t'Ool dialme. b . it most ilikle~yw~jU b@·~ the.e!f.Mr~ . 'iIi'lhe width of a pC1int lilke a nUlfTn~1 .rog'r~ ph:s ha'v:~been d raW" It:nl!~ lind .ath e.orv ~:or alii but the Ialm~teir D".tIr~·iVete' h i)v.too wide' th'9tn iiIl'o:l: It IIlIDUg h el e'. 1"'otll and GlLJtt~.s s'[3ted / ~ ilf" .[)'f' IJh t'! e:Qlmp!(HIl e-n:W.p as qui te -a iii umber o..mle~EH.! o p of '~he g e\~r to eth and t ~.s.d ~QI the' f!Vl aeh bnif!I 9 of a wo rm ~. On! ~e rwu31de they I~ara be used m'any rti rnes and .ate'Ln WOII' ksht).l1jltH.sel.'gear toom 811J"id ttU3 IbOiaon'il of '~:h wownl ~'Dw.i v. .rm is. IIi'i i9 1'rI..-.. .f!JI"M ~Al)e.a wo 11'011 Is b:asjca Ily ..wil i be ~'IfOV nded oo~ween li~U.IIIE!!.rm Of d til eeu Id eVSjfi pr'EiverlJ'[.~ting nH~ .nded m 8'li"9 GIH'.r.ed i 85 .I!iIII"/ Tin erda II' te IGbtai n both the 'COIF !r6C{ pnjfi'llel i''nd iii at I()utsid e' hils 'WQd~'Si'tH)1P bty.~" ~II .l"lea d a liI.rm .i IDliilly two plr.ealJi{IJnce a1ngl.of a VI~~' ~s:tta pte wjuh ~. thef-l ~hBI ti'p i a:v.[i1ln(!'1~he widtll of' th~sfI.e: tl1ltii' ~-ncllJ(hjld iii rtQ~e 'wDII~ biS 4IG~ .h.Jldbe pre dUli:ed frc m !r(HJ nd sE!'Gtlon".I llili fP S' .t.~ bush 0 Ii :s.rabl~ hil ~i" fo fro t rena b~ i'ngl t!he a-m'at8'.9p~ed $t..are rh B Va'!.the' tip b ~ e d n!l'f'lJfcrW 'thefiU lth B. ~S'Otber~IOfe it IIP'faVS: to ~s. dlspth ISlf cut.e rneu nited 'w.SiiUf~ <ilri!glle.ev~ Ii. ..tti Ag Ii "Scrrew thlmeadl.r:s. J ".e' one ~re:ffi~nQ nd . ~e .me fDJop1lJI.. ~ ~ ~'<¥ .~ i'tatb~le~h a !iI'gJe:wlhl~e'I~~ The boo ~uised 1:5:.o'rbo.orm !-oo.1111 G Jlil~ 'toc'l res"t in UU~ .~e]il d Sgmtel ean b6:Sit ...1 ~! D~ 'the plress..u re ien~Ie of til e 'tooth pooifi I Ii! utSi~d.ootUh $11 ap..liltt ~f jr~ hi. 10" in Ch~JP~~ir f5~. 1111 ~ ..m..tins I ' tl.e bOih CU'ltf[:1[ ~m1dWfirkp'ilGe.s.glr~hd9~ i'~: ~a'ta'V.alila!bh~i' n then the: to 011 can be 9 reu ~d to .d cuttte rs can tCI so me eX1:enl b~ A. . .r ~ r ~I 3 r. .~ts reoo:mmended th:att"the: i IEOD.and 'the bhll nk are oCf'lise·tly m Otl nrbed..wij th. . '~.e·~.a r :2£r' pre s.flersis.ueiS a roCO~'.siare in 'B.!~ ~ti's essentia~ tol g:rind 'fha· fulil"m ~oo.e~d. '" 'Ii!' .ar w M'I be .chine ~ocd th~ft f1fHjlV othe"Alr~:8i8: be !5uf'~able I~ ~mlPorta.e' sho:wl!l in Fi'g.\odIlJ eed by' s'lng l.B ny d1j'fT~'~efle@~in the bo res (Iif' lib ialnk a n. .ShC'UI~ .· . ns of '~h h!f ads erew' ea e dw..tled.. II.'I..f des]g n s. t1ne 1[.1'1. to 'makle · iiill ~hi in itse..t $ a..it ~ ~ ~ J ~ .ter te % iln.i9' cen ~.~suUab h~~! IQ:BIt. 1l.le.alf.at 'I h. Thrfs ~&dOJlll18 [nthe I.o.~tis i~mp.l and cutter . n ~turE!!llrIv a 'f.ocl ts also~ O~bv~ou.he: Ulttar Ih.....! g.sura an gil e.~Blicif.s'liy 1t'wtu eoms to 'me.ilranee.(.:I ~ lb L g~' iii !!l I ~ ~."d.ITth out any :eccenttic~ty~'Ai~ iii m a'lt)er O':~int-ere·S:1 the .~ t_ r ~. 11 Hlustr. :bash~a I ~V 's imli h:'1Iio t '''Ie '.fj ~.I ..orti1flHOL11a if toa.rtEfct -prafi Ie Sind l'hi'S I'S.e~·po~:n'1 8: lb ow~ng as it tirs imp..leevs'to wncrea~. e r ifilr~.6IlI WBiV a nd the· ~ead OIl!' hel lx .aiek fo rm of th e' 'iil!l'l'te.i!Iu. If the~ U~I is ~PO n:a'rrow.1-'.Ene' now 1 tCl.~lgel.~1if iI'!II '~h~ alm.:f' .ew'GU'tt'liir1i~r'~ou~ uhl'iliill have a 'nat'Em..' ml~tn od bliJt 19'f8at ea rei wil'l be na'Clelll.s f~' wi~ (] I B'IIlly lprodu ~e mOI'. the 1i~1of'the t.1 C)dia..1l1 the aGCompanvi'ng pho.I !I} -.Bne'n-a...P.iU mliJ['jIes~ Cl~~st~. A.t1lin of 'S.'a fiFCf.41" ~ C~U Uei.~f will Itot b~ 8l g. a % ~ .l' ibeM!ieen thi!!3l.iI1 . best dO'111e ~In a bJ()1 alfl~1 cutter grinder. Such a bus h sh au Id be rnachhled all 01!/rr)i!:"'.!!. FDQ.s.e e..r 9 rln ders are baoem irn91 mig.1 'to the. .p!ui.ides D~th e cutter '~lmpolrtalnt.11.1iL{H'.I'ccamimodate d bV prOV! ding .'~l.e' ta.f the W{'J.B' by 'thB ~'~na$ -ha. J.olf ilinvo~lut.~ !iii 'Ijd ~~d1i a" 'wi. U8.:i I n riD ~.E!l of ~h e~ pO..S.rel~1'tl[j'e!r:'iilm.It h. I'fthm mil l~"g 'glear i:. co. ~E!. or :29~'for Ul e 1 41h1Ji aiIr18h.1 a nd..as. ~~ IprevhlllS'rV :~ta. 1. me in Ib o~h desi:Q!n~ng a ViI d .en by .aniS lie of' the' WOf m ~SJ.l.h hiDIe ~ f.e the a ~b(rr·s meu iI1It~ng d~ a'.1. :all's~' o'fg:re'a~irnpo.. ~l .! :s.~tn th a QaS. NOll en ~y .I sl"iIlJIcl.th~ 'tlilll!lil'stsllDleveiopedl• 't..".n ~I\e l~iJj:t1tt.. si mUillirr iIn p'rffir!rC]IP Ie ~o 'C(lJ.scir.r~ali"lce1th'ait both 'til e cullle~' .~ 5ereW th. ng 'I~..~ 'tw. 'th 9:iil gll RB nue d by m.iiIfDOili":S shown i.he bcUom' (jf 1he~weiI'm and the tooth 'WOU~ ru b on i~hebalta m IO'~ e' 'WQ. :e ~'!liilm b IY .

1.~V .e' ~loQ.L. ~.stll!~'S.SiI'mpUfy" 'the! slel1iing pro cess.e .ie If.g eqru i'pm. riI ijifjd s[rHlw be uS'~d as a datlum 'bOH! a n. mlodu~a r ~'i®~he's\. O~ iC'.hl!adowgra p'l.!npon tlhii. c:yT .iI st be '~n10100 dl cond idon ~0.of 'th~ '~..iJ'~hievO'd-.pp! y a Q\BwUI e· ftilfC-eJ sa' arS. holde:r lait t he.a." at lea f:(.r.J sl~'tne.. C~rIi [rlooolmm.. mlerorn et.ng~ifili ~i U i.A II:lril~ra(rtilr 'H~ ~.arId and a Ir!~!r~h. I 'h l measu re the t~p wkl. 8111 rc IJ nded i'i will f'IlrJU be pO:9sfrb]e 00 obtaln a.. Tti@ pm ~.. The lip of t'hL. ~~It.~ I~\j~ BUT ~ ~ T" OV!i~. Tt-i~ liOO!!. di SPGsa~.p of' Un.d! m I."If 1'0. ~iiii!!bEl $E.. at the 'warm b~'8 nk cU'~ to..C)'mmJed in its h..f'Ui'l cress:sUds wn~liinrUcate' how i.~ eases be filr 9 faa_II" ~:hia th'ose no rm~~ly' eneounM.o the: requ il(l\~d a II"] 9~8 'NlSftics~.e SEi 131' fh~l. ~ ~B'.8 Iit~l~ pral~il~ tal 1~le Ili~caite HWi S!eJ of ..a ifIIvi!!'S wi t iii go c:d !:lharp 'GfJJrrb e rs.g tthen '~h ti..t! thel COfi~e.the 00 rre 01. mad j. Ttie f~~lh)Wli~lO b1esl" Iis!i Ilg ~ wide ta r. II.-I!.Si a.I. :no( ~~.tarv 'motnoflll ln ei'l'ne:r d'ire~ltil~)l11will wi Iii hltiVB to b~ ii1(cr8'il:lSOO in 0 rder ~o prodElicfl'~he' cer md. 00 il'fEiC..omp:~ln~d s~m'e' k.i1liU~~ti lentEn 'liu~~ galp~ '~:htHill a.[ust .g ro.a€y m:~[y' be C'llen 'to 'Cluest~ic'n..ree O'f .g.I'MWr wi~ ha.Lt:lit A.nl mos.aJoquired and SU Itlu'iising:~vfiO cd 918Ug~fig' r. of lbo1Jl1.l '~O the a nIQlI~e'.tn a: .res$stancl': ~o rmta.-~~~--~ ~..m 'f'8Q li! i're. Ji m8'~~ and p:maced I.~'n€lE!d 011'1he :s'i de . IIi'N5!~li)C.d to f li!f'lUlLSt lts 'iJEU"~e u.~ 111 t: e.. ea ftiI b~ qUfi ~k. C:~fJ)$e ~h.Iorin and try' aga illfl.~lnd t~hi..e.!: 20 D'P .c~ is a tUl'-' 'w.ri\i!'e.~U'r.Di. th~:S.!iiI with .la ri ee t... U must. 72.f th ~ Up witllrl 111 m'ic rem et~ei and I 'g Itho UJ gh til e: deg.a~ j..01 m ea ~u ril:l t ~'U! one 'lool used: to cu~ tru.~ngll'e' . ~~ th~ lCorners loUhe! !.being a S'cmWi.I'Y monon wi II~ baue gOI!il&.liJ@ nO'th]~g I ike. ~~L.1 wi'! ~nct' e' tpo ~'Wln~l~be lig hitlv hi .l! Wal '[olPlO. By f'eferr~flg te Fig. tOCi!11 ~:n~o the galp.-.in o'rdsr to oiilta'i n '~lhe correct sret1~'". I.. '[.liBi& 'th~ b een o. '~iO I~Je h WDW 1iOc lllFClI.41h~ Sind 2r 0'" be ar. ~n curder for the too ~1:0.8i!1alm~\8bl B'.QQI."'t4 ~ !': W.idt'h a S th~r9' is: fioth i181.er u P1t~~ "t.-{equ i'pped Iei' be p:ro'Yifb~d '9Q ~.55 mlay so IiJ nd 'sol:{II1H'~wh at ~a~rd~lLJlS bl.red in n g~lI'iarall s crewclluiTng loplet:t~1i(H'II\5:. 'flED cOm :!il~iJjlelfl'ilc€. m u st be. nell!Jertheless it 'wi~'1be with ~fI the' ..P a r!elli1t = it elii n ~'e 'GlfYJlliI nd in. 91 .'L.81111\1'[1. OOl'li'lMtly lit.$.a'lly harve.d 8. '~t:ru~ Idle~'tm.~u.id~ In nl~S1:easas '~hQ~xt~!i ~'le8lrafl O~ P i'lO'v-id'ed 'wi II~ be tOl'. The 'Wli]'rfl1J..een 'E h 8' WO m.~ 'Tfi. n..n s~allndI['\d~ 'tn e t. .~ffected an d th e shie' of tha toe I wm rub On th e :sid Ii O'~ tha 9 I'IQoY. tills nermal wayafll&i1 :then 'If.an d wi II h3~~ to de 'WI 'beM w[th i'Si' 'ttuJ.l!lrr.Fa iflUre to dc.. c.I..d 'so' . ~I·'~i!i'li liT~h. &f "ltl'!:! 'fi'rst ~Iemng' wra. such as .IIII' G A ~r-HlWIiJ just· be. hayer .rre than e'l'llr!. me.oou~.~ T 2. a iboo~ rrru:n:le f(if ~ SEay ..~nd on I.lit ~s.:. 'the' cci"earanoe and rakle lHllQ:~esl ~'.a~~s-tt.J ii-li~U't.ap be:tw.iC F1G 'it 'W02M ~.l . o.~jb 7%:_~C"TWLhJ!~ Q1.'M' be" adlye~eiy .oms wah speci.. USGld 'oor .LE'!. TOOL ~T hL'@i.Y Ti-IE '~F F:e.asy 110 P~\Odlt..flr 1['0 Ir:'otarte 't'he c uttie'r . a 11gillelf' [or lIfIIl[ :a cl ose I6!iPlpna'kim'I1Uh)f.0 ~ I!.~.a~ '['Q eeds. Tru:!.. Th ~~ n OhE!'!lI' t. a !lei be .i m a'nt.icro'meterl" 31i1l~i~'siby .e't us.~AT .tllil fi rst tC!~ae the' of '~hIB: m lercrn eit.w'idth f('JIIi ~fEM~SU [\~ l ~lpplli~e iind iiiSlOJ how w! d c uts~de di a met:elr thiB Q"g !~.f[I.u'lF 1i:]:'iJ ~'E. C.!: en tel" ~h'e'~g:iiP and ttie: S~'i:OI~t.true:~ of tp 'I he 'to 01 'w'~~1 . ~lGss~b~e 1.C "'iF . ~~TnhlG F. lIh e' re'SIS{Ul fo'v reee mlmiillld lng' thBf~ ~he ~('lO I be ma'de from rou n d m a{ariai its: flOW' tal 10 .E.150 IDe.ja gs e{' both I]J~..B~GU r.gSSIJI2:lE.. 'U1is wi'll ~rKe~'1e!liat:hi~ t tlClfJil "f\rlom' cuttfng aI.01 ·ta:lilgli:bl e 00' 'measw ria'.li.81sU'ri'n.TL..e~ 160 P ~r!IJvid:ed Ilh:En 'tl1ru~. ~'2CO'>JE (O~rE.lC1. P.tP ~!' fa f' iliLStla nee'.. e used to advi1 magIS: 'with rca ~he l[.e.b.o a f1JJl.:ow.C.ol'der ~un~i:~ lrequlred heU:x ang. In order tlO VII ~dtn . IiUJrm aJl.~i. . rNiO c.. aiM .a~ l o.."s.t ifiI"lfd ~s us.a2""" fOOL.reaLSOm1 ~b'~e rea:d~ng.ill ~S. I" t ~his 1Wertis pmdluQed no irmal tn the 'to 01 wil~11be seen tha~ a sel1:ing ~f4hrr ii's Ute Up._.L. W'e:!~. .' pe. ~ kG~ T ~~O '~O~ CI"J.on th e w'orm ..r p ! a~' wou~d enaible the b~.Hilvi:lr.g. .e Di~ 0 r 8~.tai ne dl. . 71. 1m: OV'ei'f in its.

rfN1Si fIIlg W8 h~rve a 40~t~oth spu r t'tn.112 'H.the' IIsnhe te n tfflle 9~a rs .13. ...~5 O.p~ ~ced 1lI p.~.E.ooi'7 ~1.:ns .on 'lhlB too I order to eOI"!ISU"UC[' C!i divi din'~l head 0r rotary 'ta'b~e.nillined :by DETERMmll~ Nfl' THIE.JE .I .042 .Hill 22. .1'428: ..'1121 .M .00 3.. wi:~ h to Ii'l: IlJ t ...a~mIIIi~qui to '~1II t ~IwO'nt111 'm.06 . he ~Ie~ds'~~..e ~CI~ waul d frrH:~lIie~iy 1~'LI!~h tJltu:~ 1001 over UU! 'wh:~Gh Un.t itil: m.'" L..s~Q n e.flfi .~'hows..I P(.0'7.57 1.iti on the cl:aim p.25' 10.u:a . .1.'t standi'ar.D~" '''.l!i 'o.008 .'. lit is t.021 ..'~d ln a ~uitab~e 'ib~!cllltHJld!er.M~e . ~i 'to Onl8 's.f the' W'QiFl"1l can be: c1hoSiiatn '00' .44. ms.e sh C!IWlfl on ~h e ~Ii':st....l'h ad I h~ifi.e Ihol.8!ir:JI of alMJg.58 .JiDi1lS .anglle. e.6:5 .les 'iljl1~he5~ l~h:alrt.210 . on 'for mO.E.'fJV Df iI'~usira.m preiV~'OU$.chm'a'vbe ~Q uare .Tlld D. 7 tg[ll m cUM. .51 1.1i1 '1fI'8 Gila n.. .'19 '1'.1162' . .a[W'~rm in ~/t~~h is method is 'tJhar~tnr:u'9' a re no.~.a~ring the al!ii{l le fram a set' olF ta:r!ig:e nt lab Ie s.89' 2-43.i)l'iowirrl{i[ 'tila'"'lloQI '\-0 reek ll!J ndew I®!ad. d rHve gealfi" ~i~ 1b~ Cia 'S. 3. &of GlIt.QElti 2"~il 2.-1rf.:0&2 .1MJ' ~1S6 •• 01 fijO~ ~Io..l.m or :5'eGU.D~ ~~ hcrv~ wI betl~ d Ita rrnlned bV Un die.1 e.3.eded in Ib cl:'iJi:lnmewh f1~1'5'~ a pp ~V '~hG ba n]a 'itO se dr1i:v.ated by lNllid Qisarh'lg "nnB' !~eadsmtew .a ~n matter 'QI~ loo'king 811 .!iii.04~ .00 -2:35 .eta: 4 ~' .!1JiJ"1 .ria'S ' ~I re'adv be eil1 sald ~l1at.a r ratio 1'10.P'~ glea ran d we tJliie I esJdscr6w ca.025.03 1 1.40 .gli ve li'~ the co ii"re~.8·siii fli e·'ll.039 . If"" IO. Tlh.1l1 be adjU:6l1tJ9d by k"n. redv.d~err' In d n making Icontac~ with Ul'B c. . Th~ IP .pitchl!' rwh~ch w~u e ne..'1912 .ew.2~ .340 .d !bv l[he: iC i. . correct ~r. .iu~Qulnd -Ute to 01 .ttl us m.Qw]:ng whart.. .~D.m~'"e 'the ~i:rotJIi.9:3 ~241'4.! fA MIMI I[JlIt'h. glf'ig·le a s ill .~I63 .11511 .~.05:7 1. thus p :$'Cl'i8W f!".t..!'" pas r~i\il. rr.fro'rn When sc.a r pitch Itwg'le cd 'thli!' 't'hr:ead' ~s.r».en.3092 -S1U l2.1856 S.117.1(]00 ...M ."It~hlgl in ~h]~1a~. .J'n t he duame~EH· ot til e WO'fr'WI.shap9 'd!e.f.'1i201 ~1il8. 'p'itoh c~'rch!!' ti~uj 'tlhl8in r.eqJuiremafi~~. s n ~l..a r . 'lip 'Width IElJeptlh IO.at' lltU~j mand'te i~ ThiEl! MtiO .1'..212 "~10 .0.eIIl"J it 'is. shown Irll1 IF~'g.thNfU lemln be o~. .loa . .a nod ~:hiH. 11:1 3 11 21 1& 22 2'4 JH8 Jilin .g.1.e: to I i:s'~ i~he..85 3.MlKM ~~is premra'b!~y n~alm8d tlO fit' the 110QIIII~'itj ..pon'th!9"typ~ of u tool 1 eq lU'ipped~ Thle ho~.e~.200 .11. . . '~he P.a~ 'the 9 Ililn~ 'I:hail.00 .94 'U~~ .110' Jlaa .048.57 9~42- 7.eI:.066 .. .:38.0 11 . ga. 2:1 a :'90 32 . 1iIS2' .ti 09 a'nd :5.der IlH Ib0)( 'with .079 ] ~OO .NJ4. 1'1.tHIS parasibi.A.l}m.t27 JM .1237 .OOI OmsidQ' IDi@"mi~t€lr~ [POD+1li!i:C!1Il:es:M/M trct~liiI.(lj pe~lild e I!!.~dva 1it~"S for ba flIll~ so alE the' ~mo u rrt ~he teo~ c rde!f' ~g c:aleu I~M '~tM3... liIot di:HiclIIlt to' dete·rmine Ili'nelU" Pliitc:hl I...00 6..n'9 tJ)"H!! cMtlen" b'Y means of a . WOf1m has fJ 0 eM. n~e!b~s~e shape.t harve all h~II..eIlkl ng 'the 11il1'i~b:~e i~wlve dl.s: Jjl.~ei~I~lirng. ~ll~ '!II:::~AI .:~OI 1.t·~ ~f ~t1e Wo!i"m. The math emsttca'i Im'1I31tlhtO. ::t5 :2 1 ....om in Q:ly.Dr~e'd:lng ular its p. ~'1.JOSoo .e I~athe '19 . bs hle.D6~ .030 .. hel ix g~wn the' P'~CJ).31 .is on~'y' . '(h e' he ~de~' .00.118 . I.49 39 .011 v:'ilnrg 'Wh'8Irl it is tIg:~1tel1! ed i:lhl~ bole will olose eomll ~e!teily .'kn.1 7 .cl.~.00 2:50 .17. Th e' I~a's:t eel u mn sllilOWS the 11Ineat .'I"~ .~~.~ i'~ .ISc46 .8'9 . .OZ7' J!D4.i n 9 ~:tI 'Jtlg:h nh e' sl de.and "Iittin g r 1 se I." ".97' .o:n 1.01<4 JHl J~ . .fil.!9 1 1 8.e 'Ihe ~c. "IIUX .8.811 .601 ..E!''~oo!~ ifill th e h omdrer afte r h has bee III set .l .!041 .Oi13 .aod a'ilso ell mea ~s IO'~:~iI'm IV SHB:GliIlli1ng~h..45 ']. and ~til e 0 nty IrlrMrm·fnf'on .sn 4. 1 ~IOWtev.er.:~ "~22 ...OS{.031'1 .HI Ii! I t ~ti:s «Cites nOlt lJl!. '1 a .11~ hB1bc .1 ~12S.screw is ti glh'te IfIi ad.a~h. JOI3 1 ..thrs can (d'!JJ ring ~hE!!c~~a ilin g :proces's so oncefttn B' m it toed ls SB'~ Ito[ the' he I~)i(. .059 .39 Et47 .ttllco.42 .e~ I "rnE Hl.. ippl&d with a :scwewcu Iti:n 9 l!l.-'DJ . 'the di am. .ot1l.~.e~'OlmM.:1963 d iyidi iii Q 'l'h Ii (eB.ide clf eilrjllrance.Orm '~O~S. '!lQ~~1 .0000.p 'Hrew ~'8 sl!)i. R w~~.ANGLE a ~~O i'l~outside' dlli3 ml~ter.O\1 id iJrng.~IP:A i1i~hi!S !O'.~.e l7a£t~elI~rwi III1 n O'~ be do n e' b"V·'Si~n~nl[lJ'10iV@T th e W. :!N)reW 'so' i~hat UU~ bes~W. Dt' '~n.1014 ~041 ~£)M.~ .02'4 6.-153 -on 1 .&J.!)sa Qi4 - 2.'H)'~ ge. .. ~1111 ~1Q911 .73 .no . .ll14 •• ...cm .d pib::he.t 'I'c..I.lie'vtil1H.CHAlN GEWHI8EILS.rc~lmferB rrtiu'l ~enlth of tjh'e.10 5.2: ~orn ..H ~=7'1 3J4 2-61 2.13.il!J ~ 'U~e ~I~mp.~n that th'e a~r~erirnlg::t~ ehallilgewirH~el'5.~~ ''!j~.2 .ete!r of tl1l13:.n e r.~29 ..~~~ ..l'S ~29 ..1le n ~ sl i'nple $i'de u'nd ~O' ..P.t we.C.JI~H Jlt~ :31.g ewhee Is Ilfi eede d 91 .R~I. ea rn Ibe piredetermlined~ rMo ~'N l.pitch ~:~ re'cqu'i red.00 SOl slrnple as it' is most ulIll'lijlk'e'ly thin the pitch IFieC!1iJ ired wi I~b. :~hJiJP.Li~'t :WJ&l£ formi "'~tJ . SeleoNng tha Ig.51 . i. ~~Ml2' 1. T~e 'fill'S.085 . .~ 1. I'~US fa r beUe'r U]I ~pU't (h.U its hel~li!l all:l~'I'e.199: .aOI .054 .r.o ~he ~athe wh veh will Ilh. L. An O'~hiEN. 'i s IPcss Ilbly th e n potS.a iC~ III IO..!!1a~ .2'~ .~ntre 1 ne and i Wo rkinlg Ih f'c:HJ'gh an EtXSIII"npi s.avide $ "r.~ b ~ " 'II. discl:l. Ol'il.(jn r.(1.3.s1U'[~ the' desi'g n mqd iram B'lltls. of IPCD+ [6.23' :2.Ci5"7 .a~l.19 2J)['J' 1.ssi.3: .4.al .9 :EtS th i$ w~'II. 'e~a m~n~tio fiI' I:SU~e iilllIlmbiijff' of 'teeth a iii d TO PRO'D'tJiClE THE. .ifi '..-.av not be red th e' chirei n.~d an the ·ga.a.155 .ol"lmp 'Width lo.HowEfver'.hQW .94.aflt!f.. .e wh o!lle U!'l i'[ rigld. s'tage' iSt m f.513 th B lii:.U!.21 1.otalte .S'ecur~.148 NO .fe notd. of Tlhe tire hel iJi..I ill d' and 'so..U ~ ~. (J ."1122: . 5..80 . '10 12 14 .e the hefbc: l t hi:s we ~ n deit'. 51 .s 8Ind.Joh revoJllutioll'1 101[" ttie wor~WlJi'eCie.JllIn! .s:t p robablll!3l tti.!WI'~ _UJ.O..D.h2iO .. t hi !GMming '~(]lfCe.. ~A"C o'F ~ 'P. 1. 10.7 .053 .O'wfro.JLtBrr ffis net f.. ild[e Ii1l'lfy tl\el g ea.11&7 ~1'35 ~6 .Ii)9~ . .tii!! f!I d~nj il.7 ~ .

II" ils use1e'SG looking at co.4 '1.D shalfts.BV us.ot8te five times for every sJingl8U'ri~ o..t g ea r in tEl !!lIle~ .fG.'~.'7 7 1)-. chaniQewheels.s-J. 'h'e-s ar.. Ttl e '2Q.30 f:olli the OI.ecuring nut c. It wi I~ be' beUer 'I. ~:F.400 then by' app..f iallif. linll s. It fo[111 DW'S.~ tsi~dtadi.! 'one :b e ing .w a nd the a des ~11f~d plto.kn.nce the to. :affects d~Ag" 15 :s:no.ji.s'· two IO'~them would .. 0'" obta imin 91 'the 2::iI from ij.p~y~Ing' oth top. and 'the ske.. .Eilm eter o. en 'dle wOl:kJp"i~c:e OVI r a df~t'ance of ~ 1125 i111.ow hat we halve to cut is WOlf.'two divided bV th e (H. A 4D '~. 50 anJd 60-'"tQoth gears.f ~he lea dscraw.ar~ In a 'Us n ol gellFS 'Oi'l~V 't.01p:~l~ih.nl~iFly rDriJ.8 Il.P.m.e. em are other w.ttl fie'ad 'is ". m 0\(.f '~$ i'll.)"r ":r~ ~T.. In th~ !Faltiel s'hown . Thai lattni!' msndrel 'wijl~halve Ilrr-ang edt.4 'fl. rotate.as the dlri\JIe!fl~ the.1~sa 1h is.'f 'tthe.mel ~e5. 111iJle SIlB 9 he:re iF.::::: diD±'2 . p.and the .ain lI"iefeni nOI to p'r'evi.ever~ re:·arlF"ainging I.5 in. P.~~iloof th e 9[sar 0 b& pla~ed on the banjo must be WID' .ion we get:O:P . 'm-hle'pitch of eseh .gears.5It)r . be Hsted ~ W'9 . This ra'tfo i's··1~.e. m'Y!i5't [b e fh'9 :SiPBed rafo be'(W1ei£Nl the sa rne value' as' iii e ratio betwee n sella rale Slha ft.lut~ID.8 alr i:s net often imeluded in 8 S't8'fIIdard .l a.hch.. ~ ow h ls is !W.of .ith a. 'FJilom t I'm hi. chalnglewheels: Is ~sualliv -.'Qjealliis t'na nu m be.'U141. is.arlll OJ he.g.of.~ fast19n~d 0 nbll .U'ote"~he wilill work ..(E.300Jj€lOOl0. '~rying '10 s:CI~ve.rJJV UflB'fa ml'll be p"r'iiJ(~tict!11 dij~ffll1CUIt ies ow~n. '!'ofit0'2~ ~A. 'QGto!"S' ~n Ia pa rUcull!. leadSlcrew Sind this ' _ jllil h ~ve!.. However.' r~o.lvi ng tlFIil~equsrr. so.. th e twa phdles.any effect on 'lil:8 overa III ratlo.08 found .hil'if 'miiiJ Itl pl ilB. in or. of teeth plus.E!lS!. fer e.~erore"Dfl our own an!d [must start with flrst pr.W' I~haV€!ito..v~3i1_ The 1hr:'~I r~:njocan be obnll~ 2 n~d bV the.w~ three more' WaV. us d r ~nl IrnD.ou ~ . are' uS'ad as d riv€!!rs wi~h tl.:: .on 'shah w~th the: 30. wi l :hsl'iil thl& m'andrr'e.-'loo.dle'r '[0 [D-P.. ~s d SOo! bu~ onll. c.ted ea:rlile Ii 1h. ~tC alg.a.: Ara:~~.al~h e rnand lie1l ..~ ~I~" If th ese two gea rs.aft It)F com POll Ad ed.aLhQugh ijl" i's z _I .~ds.vmded into two.S ttl i~ al 1: OO~'~ooth10.0~t~H~llh lrnperial 5lcrewcuL-ting or eha'fitg.O'I". l.ear SOl mu lti.5.e.~ C i' t.a~ .es. 'O:Q~'t'Ot h [J. I n h~s.Z. 5~Wt.inci . it'O'M.ndl that' 'the spead l I 'to bridge t[l!u~ p.12. so an :81lmJl'na'iva may he ve i'o. lor ~025fin.J !N !4~.eads-per-Tlnch.ch .Y~O C~ . "E S-H~ oe CO'~l'oJac:D 'the l train' lH1llJ..glto .ew wi'll Oil~'I' h ave to rota~e a pafl of u mini (1rdBr . r.11'il 0" tihl9 lejiJ'tjscrew..'V'olve 2115 a 'U nrt~an d must 'therl¥.8·set cd' chu'nge.oath g.r.wa\if illI f ur gears :2iliHect the loverall 9i8alll" ratio. """'fn""OIl.125 in. overall I ra:l~o wi II n nt be.be: GJl 'QI~'U~ sh.wlh eels 'feu" hhi] pitc'h.~ orr srn a I~ rl<.IP. res follows: ~rd~ IDr ~WVtt:SJ IOf ~'~H~c.a know now I·!"lICIt the r.!I. rOt IOU r g eer 'wi'! I be . We' now .M'i.h::Hill. (. In epe ranon tih is wi n p~loduc.0 P(10 duce r'hi!s.- pit'elf:.aIIIfeduc1i o.si o. 'fi't!t. a f! d c s.e-ndl ~3stgear have .B sllJglgl~ted 'tl~ein cou~d Ibe !!Oho ~ ~ wh~c.(rl.3 [1 18 rge mear i'nterlering wi'th ~he s. iii nd boua m tb 'lh e.obetween thel's :spe. VS ~n wlli ell the fau i' . is "en .in !) tou r d ifferrent sJjcz.n of' 5('~.. which i. This mea n 5 thart w til an 'I h~' tMBdlf~wu..'m w. 5~t.i!B. ra:tffio by :201gfives I!. iO'f .l.he fi'fSt .ed Q..1TI()Tio-I ~ 'l'il' oreti ea 1[1 V p oss.fig.a slow.t:aoUl ga-ar d flWS the 50-t.. gear.he 2.sill~\fJerugalged the lartlh 8: :s addle~ ./. which is 1041.lpj. s:h ows.!jElwheels..8 MBnm."(S." the lea dS~f.-I~TOOTH "g~a rs ca n be arra ~JQ ed and sti III[ n'l':a~ntB'iii! i 5:' .E'!ars.t iSJCr!lw iii 8S .ous dl5C'UJSlS.itti ilin .~ [lAw . There sre q!JJ ite' iSl few ways.reomes Ih~is FiG 74- raU. 'wi III. 91 . eou Id b e Uls~edthe 20g8 to OItlh wo uld 'fit 101111 the l..a r 'W. Tlhe gea rs sllhowilil 10"1 '~be u ppe'f I ilir1'e would be the' driven gum whils~the gears :Ih own behtllw.. g9a r I~M2D'. .025 i11-.ars..l 11 U.QI an d so IIIern 9 a'S: tllfle 20~ and 3a~tooth DeB 11':9. l g..above aU ~he gears ¥i!lQu~d JIllot 'be on driv.I s ~ ~.e..h waul d be generated . togle~h}e'r wij'iin an fd~ En I~ "nle 5: 1 ra:l"i. arts raraly'give the 'pi:u:ln 'bULt q. ~I..2'~:i and: hi e' olb1iler 2 ~1 ~hese MO' t)l'g elMer woul~d re~ uIt :jn an OVEl'r.lis 40 t. j cut the worm 'illiG lli"Liqllire' the clrcular to. $0 we wo I th~ea: -Is-i~ajl"=inch" !If we' vlsh we can c!hrling e' tihl9 pi:cJch to til r~ ads-per-i neh by divi'drnng til e .y.8 pitch of 1AJ.'jibll'8 to a rre 11 gg the~ j 1 'TOOl)4. m e ba n.atts.~I041 il'llrhJ '11 ~o gi'Vle 9~5'51 ' I' r.~ TI-i G!'"~2 ~T~o S~~~~ 90. it t 'wH I nOlt.ed: w. 74.So'metitmes~ .Blr. must he the ..f al smlalier gea[r" How.fi'iile threadfi.. Mli!)ist sm I.eds.is so ~:hatthe -c. wle know tnat til. wo'u~d be tJfll a l ~~'6.~rlging the roUlr' gea.a .\6:E.ealr sO !mey' rte.Bwlheel !he ~ the ch a rl 'f01 ' a u~aa'n of a ehan QiewhiSiel'ISio cut th" 6 nu m bsr as.tih.gure' ..p. befo 11'8.N'~ rr"IF~ IFW~ (X. A2:E ~li.d Otlt g.clliG.I~es. ''"1 .:h'ss be n sta. Ofll8 of !he most poPIJ~!a pitches.'O the lead5:_cr.that t:h e 11:e. lire 0 nl ~epa raifle sh. move a (USUliiI'OO of . 'Th H rtaJtiolof 5 ~ lcan be su bd~.hjlre' rotate at the same sp'eed . r o/i.ive's.. ' I . pirb::n of . D n measu ri n Qlj we ·fin rl 'th~ t the 1(!llyt6 fda dhrllm alter is ~I.y' if ~III '~hal .set 0. tandalfid' pitch '[h s probIem we exam 1'111 e' how te d 881 with a sl~nd..d. whidl give:s us tthe: 1.alfldl p.~r~ftjIrHJ.

eng in8eJfi ng .s( prod ueed. "5. %. wh ~chglv.nce~f [h.zero.~ 'U!iiII.r'.tJr. gears.e~n s. [Lhen ijt. a ]process reqlu ilI'ed we 'mu:5.omlporiient to ~e 11n.exact seT en 00.111i!l1 ptUl ant' 'wlTth in the lim hs 'fixed. Gene'ralil'v' spootil'ng it is._ t and if .aloo 1.j 1 quotients.ay as th e st.e ~e'ad9crew IPlitch .iii SJet: of n wn be'res ~n ·ttl e' :fo'Uiowi"9 eXerci5'9 sp ~if'.acUv lEI nd sVlen if . i~ is deal~ 'woO h in 'he dlr. Wlnie!h 'w~U gllve en answer of S wrt:lrl ..s a mlatle-r lof si mlP~e IProd u'ct it {TO 1 ~In..of thijs ttuuefO'li'e the top ..gtine required pi:tch into ~ti:s.uctenr~ we life IOlng ~o pre dlurQea :s!er've s .. Th-erla is.on a u):~era.•haweve'I" it i:s he metlhod that is Jmpona.jet wi II be 10 CIDlAlpi V with '~h'B.by"'s1tteIP' wit n ca'lll'for al c..I rema:jnde ~ 30.the' readell' now ioI3peats the.rinQdlnwirilg imrery o lJ.l d~rvi:~d(Jn : 1000:~ .s.'o'n ~s u SHJd~ lhe orD!J1~lru~1 Un e Qlr rad uoed r. 'n :Sl st-age in 'fi n.0 keep w rna hem. tam pera!u re.) in'~o lils' baKom ~~. 2 ff.i11l~ one .lijll1d th e lDt closo'r the Y'a IIjj8 of th e' fbew fr.blai n the pitch .'l h.aJ 1'19 lor what tlheV may ha" W e''f~m h fraJt'ti Dn d rthe Ii rst one is...!iJlinlb Ilr.ad d 'the: den omlirUlitor of the p~iviolus fra cti Din ~'t)fHIJ' i hiil911 x 5 + 1i = 8\.e'n de.prod M.d iyi ded inte ~h8 1194 9 ~ving ~'.8 nee ba n d and r discysse.t b Bltwe·en what jis id€lil~Iy F&qjui ed iii nd 'wn.EI Igea'r~ so' wh-=-t can be made i.ns 'thi:S"frad'iCIii oou!lld be ca!!1~illed ~OWr:libut C~Ullie!l!' cd I·gur~smay not s:e~ 1.r.JaJ 1"1 a Ic.aetice 1~ w'. c~ rre-~t.aC'tD on 'to tn €r 597 i'£ilfter reduc~-ng to ·3')(199 C81n rl the Olr]gln a~1 ia sm allhi! r wi II be' U~leerro Ii' U b.tali I he Ir-n S1.rN iDs sat bsmCr . ex.f1en ~livisi IOns se~mli 11.e' 9'")(am.~'re h~ :Q delmQnstr-s' e.an anSW. pOi'mless de. 30'D P'~9 ea r a 111 d th rs ~s plr8c'tJ&ca ~ ent'husi aSTt and '1.~ not. IFrom ~hi's:!:llerfr&.Hl"lUne'equ ip meilnt avtf Ilable Cia rmot prodluca 11.\p ida n the' rema ndef ~nto th preyio. 'fn'~~wed iI!\ se.a.age n l. in"l rIO dluced.Oi~'~If.ake' as many as nifne (I I' :5'0.arUve' wQ.1 net and if it wec'e 'so mClth ing could f!Vlf te'X~ilOfl~p bu~ pn:~v"lde.r'fi!1 rne) mul'tip~y n u m'ar.r 0 ri.H n_ .d ttn.U.aC'u.n 1i14 IiIn answer of 1 wiUn a relmain~er (rr 'W9<f.d above. that can be of use mus he ~OUT'ldi. always file sarne I ~~ 30 j j The '194 Is divided ~nto the 1000 giv~ng .st be ~. a rd p ~~ch oompJiQm i:5 'I' 'fi X ti1i~ ~Ohii.ne :setling it out 'jll!'l a sirnllar W'1Jfy to nerrnat Ilo-rnl.I appea r the t it' is n'o~ lo. li18vi p And h'GW elese we ea get tOI ~he t at two.ple ils .s is to. the 'pr. 194. 'stegle.5.~ bel. 'flhe nrs't 'staQE!l is to ·hen the CD'mt~onent will b~ r:.folio-wed HUUl .i nnm urn hB is.~1 made a n:y' si mplar as 19.s.tep.l by tlhte q u o.cidij'ng .oliJIS examp e dhe exact pitch requl redl sO we h~ve to ~tfoUows.trodIJ Did dete.uralliv !two :9u eh We .tlIildthen ~e('id .'from H~a. [t wOUII.~t'C]r ~tc'p~~'n8)of ~he ~Ht ~Ii..[ i nd t1he I~.plf.~ilent: ..9 ijs ~ prl m e. Now l~ht1! simi~aritv with leng Idivision nds b!l!'Ci:u. 1II sin 91 one t W. . the: j'\ I wJth .and 10m e h:a.a.'fnce.iSi to. I'm ina 'tJl1a gua r rartic.om pm. . is 'the series 0" succes. one having 11000 teth r)u~(nen~i!l~p:irt. s14tem e nt ~ "e.e1t. g U 5 the In'ext fracti Din in ~h else -as. a nd ~h:is ~s· aeee rd~nQIy.OU r e..although: the' 500 leeks fJr·[H1i~sin9 .u.ok fDr the potiible It'D CUr a worm thait will ma'te lecX.tcu 0 .aUca.Sr .c.r" so some latber fraction possibl e to . ow ~e'am . dhu-net's. ·.dt.104.s~'We we l ~'oaa 194) 10CO ( 5 970 m u..V the next Mien. Ithe end resuU wiUll be' e'x8.0 5'0.t : e IIB'St driven 9 -sr but f ~ i$.o giive . 92 . of Q.oe IE) bc.r gf 14 ltIl'lIirJ rUler" ke~lPl 0 iii' repeat'~ng 'lh'~s dlivi si'l~n 1~:noCess.rd in t the a bov.a satiis. I 1 lODe] I 1:000]1194(1 1000 ~94)'OOD(5 5I7C 10 1 ) 1194(8 leO ~4)SD~2: 28 2~'~14(i II 10 le'ro . (io~ng ba~Jkto !DIU.~ 100al 1194 ( 1 Th e 1000 is. he method wee wi II use the "DOo/11J~.aotio'n reg3.pi ied by "OOO:~ 1 lo 1'*Y1.a~ltctlY'he same { serilN of Q U otl.eVfous dtrvis..an av. So our fi rst twol frIiC~iof! S iEI re' 0/1 allild V" New for ~h 11'i~~y P'elift I Mu Itipl~l the e (V1) b.e. Th e.8fi'thm eti c I A~ hDUg h 'we a.alntag Btl us '~or '[hlf3 srna IIIle. The enl if malnder with only five divisloflS~ av .li'Dn is.kiln we eil nnet U:56 til e frQC[]o t1S. refer to' thel ill'\e. ttl . The IliN~~xt.. Th. but as the m'a·1ll ides! h. to II' ado rm a series of" ~vls ens stanirng from CU. ad~.ys a 'lOI~erano .elJlw.cth'e'f '~gl~res .. onent is a~eep~:able .'t gle-ar to be ilS the' firs. 61" ~ 7'.al m.I Nm a i~UJlle..91 to ~a .' qllloti'Bnt' in the sen'BS.rn ask o U se Ivet.9 divi." 8'11).aG~IOIiI ~7 mfY to and . 'frilcUDn~ As 'it h'appe. he dlerntomilnstors Iboluo.di fig a '$tI itable app..Ill eomj:l.rr no qruesfiQns as ed as to why tni' Dr hat b\l't it ]S inrO'[ . Sinoulird any reader Fa rt'U rJlately tl1aug h math e mat· cs.ltie:s d OW. :pitch we' r'eCll ui reo N.~'ontinuc.a n be su'bs:Hritlllt~da nod ..t d rive. .e.111'-1 ttiB remaindelr becomes .amy' oth..af '~indirng dille filmy fraction. S'@il.resull " Dbtalnl.air: ca.c.~ :si U'bj e1C1· DIIll d·. bu U rn .194:1 or lA.. . Is ls only posslb 'e' '10 the IC(.Br of S willth .ar orig in a~ fr (Ieli on '1 DOi¥h~:.faetc ry . ...llI's "f.ons~ S~ . r'8pe9~l.a with 199 nee' t ne teet h. 'Tn e desi gnlef ttl nd the .I = . oxlm fra.1l lhh!~.au lt10lr 'S02.~llled . way a'S dOlns by dh/d~n. 90 ilnlQ.and bottoml I~nesmus' is aCiQeptable~ 111 Ur exa m pile wei kflCW 0 be rnu Iti. re. ~ we Ii'JJ "nct sm't a 'us un of wh~e!s t. the Sill m e w~th: .awin'i' c.'X8 m.Q:1 a I pmbl em o'f flI use d pr-ob .'xa~l~.m i:!ie. wh~ch In . . o~~r tlhe d'enc')iminatol!' ()'f the last' rae! ion PA.s.ne method '5~ be' Imlade:1An enQ~nlee.em.f the previous '~r.action (o/i t.r wny s y the' method works .~ ma~ 'take mere.(: h . Sta\ by dividing U·H!'OP line (1 OOO-n thi's case. FS an ..The ra fS iIIrmaid' emaUca ~way MU m ber a" d 'SiO to o.uit Til e.Uy.es lUI" K 5 + 0 .iml~11 the' ~.~ust 1iI 9-ed (15) and .r.er nymban~ ~ the co mil. sl 19hUV sill'1'llpl'er ~ CBu Id be. Thi:s then girve'5..n our le~ample we have' (ilrrived .lletel.s.ban cl w~thin whi c. di.his prcU::~5iS: divlidi'nlg tl!he remai'nderj' -30. he Qpe.. inito. vea rk in wh 01e n urn bars wh.B nd the '!'Of~ 1'1' l t.~ it doe's nOlI:Im8:Herwtiich ffa'C'l.q UiE!'n ee.sped1il~~d ·!liohu:irrce.rJD[.pl e ROW Inob IIik:e tMis.st ~ ~iC stud V Uu. broad at' '~hi~ ba nd" ~hifie3's.and tthe.act~.aJGrens 8'11 divis:iol'is r&Qlub'6 'Frc m Ul e.~n d nerrna Iy we ul d be.arnve at .ave a g:e.:Elli'i ng What the: anrUillWUf hliilis to do Is determine' w~'mh 'the number D 'teeth in ..~94~ But.t .I i~O .[ m athem.rcl'es~o~ how many QIUlot[en!ts I_:he're .us diVhn'ifJr. o by' " divideDj b-y tile fiR. However. .o de81cri be here' how o.y imlpraC1i~11 but isis ~-OOO/h· c. 194. ~n rOdlOaI~io.rgle.s willi deci'de on the sa mle w. so W. ~ 5 Do IBxae..gear to be.C'ti y 'e' same. he smate ur cafllfUl l work' hh. Th is Is..eva n.dle 'lhe 194 'n~o ' .p~Hlie ~'9' d fraiZ:jon he wi I~. I--hlWeve .e r'a i[ wO!J ~d Din Iy be el(ilct IV ~. Ratio = '~W.v "'9 1194 'leQ hI wi'll g'ive LlIS if th1S ~sgood 'on'aug h~' "lh.us~d ' . Vil!~ ~l . fn thlll'seril8s ~5~r and add· he numerator o...I pr a c1tlj il ~ pro:p ositij:on 'fO C is dona. s not mSIMdatolrY.!p rOC8iSS but this 'thme usi I'll Q UU~ si m. -Uu~ ext stag.e s i:in:l of th e' 'to II!Ewance' b~md Is US'l.1 pitch.he 11000 II n.~'w i$fQ U awed s.

OCHJ'011 :25 'Win itClh 'i:s IIe'5:!5 thi!lln '[If'H~! pilt~.x7+31' ~ 80:.arp.}Cpl.. Iin e.O.dard set 0":' changlewh e.!!rs on ~y I 'fi:gtJJI!nes .a n nJlJlmfN~Ir'5~ efiili~lir' L~IS :s:m~rU ~s '~his.~aluse Bt Cl8Jn Ibe I.ellis. c'rigi n!ail ~ri!'eti 1111. .22 .as..es of 'f!F.~11l1 all h.. .y pitch probleen wi'u el~e . have been ~sl~d'we get:- 0: 1 ::5: ~&ciS 1 =.u's Qo.i!I[)n fiot 'Ih~s h~t:lh.~ pilch erra rover t'!h e "tih@~ [..s 'fOp Illilnes t09Ie~:n8r and .-ion malY l~e.e.~ti'.2.alrd eq u illj.111rs C!3!n be 'i.{b.idlBr.sta 111n 9 'with a II'iDUg h 1.at 15 11le.i:lY the new f r. d~lf<ectII~'wi'~lrH)u1.!1"om.a~e ~Ind 0 ' Ig.7' a iJ1d .]'S.aanG. m U~IUpIVi 091t'h e' 1 g nd '51by '1 n~ pro hI'l. ~llll e we'fiB ['0 US::I!' t!: i1:S Q w combiWia~ion :~a dll"u'v.acUofl obu~irt! ed m l 2: .~~hJ(tIU9h and 61 are prime' .ls' fog' ine~.d] 'l:jh8~ if we i'~~ ..1'~~n~w U\oH~ I~ritch cut.i:S ~I~ illlcw. e p rather 'the iii e' m cu:~ e'xa ~t deci:m...fI1 ~in.ra n gl~ 1\~ir'fu!'turr~ IiJ ire menrt. f1lUlmDer '~h..oaJusEiI the .ai' ..85 )( :2:.e'~~~~ 'two 'fr.65 iii f!I d :£he!i!'e afl a I'~ stla nld. :geJ8r the iri"e. IQ Uiii ~ to 1L dl 1$ 12 .il'BSj3: UU~ a:'~'a lab{~e.y.raasi fiil!tj:iV cl.'h .of the ~.blE~ :"'ath ~he 10 al~d '~h. " 1251~e\~d5{:rrew' pLitchl~ which is .lgI fhu lfft . a fh rOO W cUcn o. are mu~~:iplied by 5 w~ arrive .~' s.1 .3.31~ue.'pp:~cIX1ma'ti.1.io JIl.!5 '~lHt.1I" ng martter 'wil a'~ '~h..16.l!: 'Ii.ove di IU pom and ~\ftlflie ~w'C i wh~~ls 6..It~ve tril:CI.IJ Id Dl91 ahJM191 ~:he~ the line.idOI1i IS. 1~9.r generated .alliU~UQ h UH~' ilEn ena r m av IeIe g rea~6n".mpir.an fUlii~r of JJOiJ0008 whtch Is ve'ry' III ~.g .e!II~ly.e'h m'ay be Y' gO riI s.4)5..2 i[W'Q 'fraG.lF..bt~i'ne~ ii.~11I' 10.tor8_Ther. l( .~.mp!~eaf ~ e :30DP WOlrlm.. we ~lc!JIIj.o$e II' to 'I n:8 va h.ralC ..10\4.~.D}h smElII~ r 'tha n '~he e 9!iH)1I"" 'o.ati'on..~ltio ilS. 9J ~1.2 sod .Tn is '~s 'fowtuln.lls such as . 'ffin:a I . ' iL. 'frQlm aloh ot h eir ~ the ~OPI and bon'e.70 ). ~qual: 1ID101.q'ua h~d.pfO()(~ma I~on h~ reletchsd.u~'of the onlgffiWi. .1)t$S:.Qewh~~11 Ibe litoedad then r~:m. stanin'D fr~.s 1II btf~ ct'iing the :S ame: '!C' s 51 g.i'v~s' u:S' .riw~ we lean ebtata a' flI8W fl'smuoifN'lfom: :3j and T"f 'two plrl~lme! J'liUllrnbeii5 are' iildd ed together: u.ed hlV a little ml'H~i'pulh.'1 +37') 5r. Thjs shows .e 'the IIB. The pM!reh !it) ch a "f. JSU It rn ~ st be ..e .'>I' til..~oc~du!!'is IIIJ f'lfti~.. stalrl the proC!flS~ih w. ~. eh a ngQwllri'e~l:s. so [iF' 'bolth.I:~9fUlII.aJ \fa lue c ~ose flO'~he e rig i rNl ~twOI .~le.3:1 6 ~ a II1d 61 wH I nOft n Qrm" IIV ~ be .on c ln the fiOri es is.g I an.eadscrew! 14 ~ "'1 t' rhe!11iby 9 X' 13 3 x 3-:)( 13: X 7 . 50 "~h~ltwhen the' ~tW~1 ElJre! added to ~rether the e.aii. fThi we 1m p~o:~nn9 tha ( a I~'I he interm@dliiate .7009 gi\dnlQ . On Iy O~I€' '1'O·tp ot h whee I WP!WI Id be .ftlTon af ~'tn:f.l. ~~ 1m-s(eda rrH·~ '. i liieq 'Th e .on of iiii in Iffra(:ti on fo~rn 'vs . ''IiIID!J11 d 'be ~ X.Cih eir~o.!i_i[ned iI'D .~ r. to b ~ . 3f it '~hen S: iiTil rs~lke hais been m'ade in wh ith eta SH31 it is pO'inU e~s '~o :pm ooedl ~DJ rU.rnfl 'thlS\ lkntOwl. wH I alwa.'fact 3.s wh leh le. nate'lv.:.:aJS a va I ue of .ti'ons..ii i':s on ~y .n o.' I'lb" ~' ClI a(I(H"!1 !If" -'Ii. G·o~'ngIb~ck "'0 35' x 1 'DU r 0 rig'i na IIleJ~.c~~ .-125 = 451 1( 65 .!5ur:prh"iing jll!JS.n b.al! u e wi II Ue tD.ed'g e the.5: betwee'I1i' a .eJo rel' ap p ea r cert£llin th~t the best we Gal'll obl:a!in !'iSthe ~cii~c~lm bg:n~ Uo However.I S~!. StU'1PI"~sirri.'"ij.twh~~carl be a.anlg ewh e ell.'im'ul. .em' is Qllncarned a'nl. 0 u r UWi'hJ.s of 'it..Gf~ 1fH3iS r~ac.~~ f'fillet ~o'rQ~S nOlt t'h j. t37~2 8:' 1 ~I = 67:.etwe en ~he! 'Yii!l11~ e 5.Q W'~i.giBiiil irS 501 25l3~1 combination~.ctiol!il. a~ln be! d ivi de d by two @j"\!l]nl~'s.5 wlnich '~n tU~1 'Q')JP ~essed if:J t. ~he: nlth IJ~ a~~ of de c!im~ ls i.f. .~.s~ng 'fo'jJ r 11Fl.8 check 0 11! ICnJI~' CD leu i.a r pitches h.Il!nd .s tlh·af~ ilf we 'tr-eat 'fo -.e have i'n fa.ai:~~b~l~.aJn .!1. ~~ iI~r W. is! I ~ thi9: '~U~d61r.:D)I ~m\a]i :~ndeed. are 'Uu~ ~.m :597 if' ::tiI1b sl~H:~·wi'n1'g 8 A ana r of JIU'ii! ov~ If .rds til e e'nd of 'the se-ries to dO't~lI"1m[nethe changewh eets ~!truefll the p i ~.lfH.g '~1h.s but it ls II!1llven1hsl'9J.QIU n9S wi II 'fa eto'f'i:se 'ibhus:~ .~ D~IP'.'i ill 'h-rc1..~~ b.fliie .La .OOO'~t whil.~dd: 'ICH] Inhew' = or .h~lP..any if.tions towa.plIJS .Ill :is.t h e conti nUfD Us 'rra~t~ollfl m.. .l!!Iw.ay be wa rtlhwhi~ e JH'odrucin'Q' onel is ~ w~ wIll ifiI Crl.~W~ 'GI~1.'70.'1 -. 3..H.av.'in ~S '.aictu.~:urB~la minus value.· .S.albove m.~!alrti fig '. x· 10 . the' ra.13!1ie usu.DIU r se'I'i.~inh~.IS ~8.t 1n the Ci $ie' of ~~.R'E!:pe:ait'iili1'Q 'thlis 1P.gti'~:a'f" 'funrctHtH'Q1 i'n U'I8 .a.sus~w.s be Qf '[he !Sim.~~~ .f 3 5 .nive' at' [.~tun" n'.Ons we' kn..by ~ ~i.of' 'l'he e ri":gli'r'ib3 I se'r~ as a l'Iii!rnalle.~~'n e 90x SIS ~sinQ t'Wo lC'-too~h 'whe~fs .dl wU:h i'na 'lZIa~'h e(UiI se!i~!. h~\i~1f19: te liiJiS~ .two On" 60 an d ~It -an be 9lee n Ulat '[he 'fi'lll.'~he ~q'~.bOlt h 't:o pan d lib I'iJitfom fi.n we can S U IlP lem em .OO 5Sr.3:s.acti'on~.:J sed ~r:JI :~i0I!11 ~ng a n. ~ei7.130 'W.II '011 uU~'nwi~h ian 1 imp rD\femen~ ca fil bEl' ach~GvecL But ..@hiev.." li.. % is attractive be..1 GllnG 67 :~u:e':ti~1 mn IP rime ~ umib ets so' 'I h. ~11cUH~n>g w. 'U1o o~r. . j' .re~ii'fie.e see..i:y' L!lsinQ the S1'Iim cern bi J1i atl on .~i UI'U~~'~fll!il.ihhiii wou Id n:ece~$i~tate . 98. riFal~t~o rns ~ H'-: a hie ICO rweet.m.lrSlCh tlliie orig'i fil'1 I.~t l~tOdllllCEl drS! a :serl 8:81.51) btn~ct. ~ leo m llll'ili~' WJh. spprQxi m a j on .ain wOluld gl6rnEu.aotion .. [For nu m bars g~v'0. :sti II 'furtJhar.X 1D 0 10~:Bnd ~her ~4 and 13 by 5. ef rIle'alr'~V-tha same va~ue ilitl .l I n 'I'll I e caiI I .iDlS!i'!! een .e camp ~eted seri:es.e~e 'Wrac'~~i rnnS OEi rnnot be Ira nsrpors'ed in~o chaling e~ wtH~ e!!is.. .ni gJ Dru~'of"~helcther-ff.~ Q1~:v1m Q an erro.~nt![. 'Theil f9.al~fifscti.tw.].e'f.!i~ W. .'~047 of wllill hal~ ~ .f e S8'r1I11e' :a s '~heori9.~u.oiflS of.erMj"tr[fJlin o. • ChUV'U) ~JiS lei~ ~oe'.e v.t.Qw '1..if w~.1Jj m.". u:S~'rig on~y s~aln ala rd c'h.3j Ilen~ we ca'.~': (3'11(-2-t5) . ~§. 1 ..erms of !cha n ~'Ewhe.. !!. tlhe sam e as the fra~~of1 'th at inlrUafl!ed 'ttherwho re plf'O~ess~ a nd '~his Is a~ It s Ih QIU ld be.Iprap erty as fa r a~.a~ I''Y'5i'lJ pp Iiie ~I 'With teetfl in n1~ I'tu P~:E!iS:cf 'five lSi rnd so whee... U1.gj"~ hQ.V5 be POSll!ll:ibl.tu.UJ e~'feIf O'f 'i'ta e' I.e90.a ~90· t~ot h 'whe GI~ '~f" lEI\tlli IalbIe..i.. Th e n ext ~r.n icn LaQ.e 'U~li s' W~JIiJIldilb e ideal tl5: the' pireh eli! ~ wou lid be .e 'g'et % '.iiiS.. us.y' usiEtd 'ta.owms to 'm e_sh wlulh .calcl!l~'~[hJn is.d U ii1 S U iUt! ble'.of''Un's 'bN'o 'fra'c:U ens use ct U!5i.f e r U n.{lva~~ble a in a m~ n.tOIl) til n d . 1~ :6: [16(l(f)+1j' ..ava Uabl. i9lre be r In.a~e! 1:5.f' Qf on IV .rr'oT'~)8lnds. 'It may f!lO~ !i3lllwa.ove1 JJ 04..d.HJ~.$. lts V.lctro:I!1'S.'~ri3ic. h 'f. A cltOse a. Shou~ d a '~pe~uall eha fiI. f'ra.[USlt ."r 'tlnle :5 81mle! v.Now th~~~ ks QO )]1 1111 mOn7il' plFom isun g.€!'II~dout. m of Uhi's 'trlcUon..w S OlOIFl :F. 6 S1 31 67 801 .c~i ons have 'Olflie 'II.~ f~n..utS.Q f'r.tlh beor.'e~~ias . ~ of! m~ waulrd Une'f." fl!fC'1fI 'th tS! fhat if we! ean usa ene' of UliG: . 'wn aCln iii re' D of:!ll.. .llth8 e'frO.at 1~O .s Uie'iu~hed be~Qr~ lallliy 'e rre r is fou f!ld~ It CiI.W. 1i '.~e'n 8.e ®®I a.ed adeq u ate if ne fu I!'~~n~ r j7 wh leh g iva !Iii.' e~:aLmlP'ler 9 .3l0~i.x 1 lort u.II elos.ait' the 'errer ~n each suc~essive '~r.ali so ~"hel bOHl~m' I~ ~)QQlefn e r wei :g.1 aff1F~\e 811 a ~et 0 f . Ir '(tN.allue. ~8.ett! my 'Gh~lrugewh~e.add th.!UOIfl iIII '~l1Ile'~erles . • 11..dl.mllil'O.~ha n'iewl~u3.~ en ~ hil~ f~a~'thou lor S.ing I~O!be \!!'.e' "fi n~11 fracti OWl ilill' [ti. h W_ u.as ~he.ri.I' r.ar ~lly:e w~: tlinen ~bt.-.-n'gewh e e~s.the If' metlhods hi a>ve' bee'liIl fou rn.or a' I'e~i"u:::ed\freu"oSlo. fq.b ditto.a.8376 so Ure 9'li'r.s.etho ai of s e=~El.

ch: ~h8 l:'l€!sUlUiT'l'g.W ~_4j]1 J5.lffied by ~.M 35"'~. ·11 tr~ a ~~'a.ilixi't.a led by' UU~· I ra in ICyf whe'e ~s sliJgge's~eid b" the ODlIi1Hnuo!J!S.Ed{~'~ b reMove' t:he hlli'l k .vmng for .30 3'5 x iO.oLIIllith place of de(}irna [!. to' ~h.ptv .pp'l~~~.~ 16 IC"IG 7t..GUA:11itAIN ~~' D.g i~he sadid[e ba ckiO retu rrm1.tI ls m n~ be 1~~.(:iI:'o'F'V if the pitch of ttl e :iCl'1ew ls 'nn e .1 (}01161' 9. 9J(iii!.en :3~'~Ile'effecit oin t!h.'ca:My $i'm~l~ar'~)Ol ~Iily other sing.ol1 .a t:.. ~I Th e ra qlLMlI'ed r. d a.1JHriked Jj/ measured aioru~ IDe ~8n'lm IIIf'lIe~..JIllsideJred "iti:s:fa c.gn.e: .a Iil~ 3tS~na I'S: bain 9! th~' tJ 'wi 1mbe.s p .~!5D1 .m~s.tJing S worwn. (.~f' Ig:e. :s:lm~ght~ly'rnn.e-d ~P"which ls f.t be: {I Pl:i~ied iI~ if~ leffa e. a n.rs.:'4~ ~]..The metho..~: caS'S It: wi. PI Iish. stti111 lea'l!J'e. u m'aUnod alrlld I'Ba[l-$cg'.allo:~s'the I'ea~ing edge af' the ':100 If whi:~h In SSl pc'~'itivElI r.t~ll.~ malrl~.pI'I 'th IS it~ai b"l ~he Ji5 .pi pi ('!IF 1\·1E: S51DO(lix2 1.t1l' h~llf . tab~n IO~ '~h le:ff€i'ct: on t~'le 'WOlrm Ie p'~ljlZh IO'~''setit:in.!Il I~ncl'elr' ~.. fig.~ show. jugg lln 91with 'MO ~llll'l'dIWlhllel~.2 12 1"=.~ iang IlrH:lS Ib sen ~.65. I~itch 'we MI.~te cal~clJl~3tl1!!:d bi!l~~ to' 0 IJJ t.ay' fO'if .! n e.e.i'ir'1 if d'l'I~hel ix.!:ci rcUilla r p. va ry '~li!Jllml. Th e eu t is Ilpp.~Otg le o~ the"'!Nlfnml '~O 8'mlteu'li Iejj'ilgli ne e rs eD r-e to WDn'y' 'f1~i~:'QUft.61.it:Ch 01 the g.an d ~l'~. 4.. The f r$l m eth~ iJl ts qu'i~~ sstirn.e lWO '~le\BJ 55 . Fr.m right~ fii.&l So [h e .oob~IBn rCIJ't:ting ts 'the' di~ta 1Il1C.! I be' 'the trBe('h of 'th e wor.y." e ". 01 tih e tn ~I lhlmad-all11glilJ .d "fay-au reid by ttler au rh er. e irll Th e: to p nu mbBr~.orQI~€ 'fa [.l1g the t:Oi~ll.jU:5't. ~ 2~ so 'ror' Una' 30DiP 35~ O.fijsls .5..!aO o12.and 'IJl'ie depth of ~he eut shallow bu ~ ~'t ~ III oil. i5: !1.fll.~PJ!~lyh1g 'the (Jut .g ~n .th~t: :Si~d~ of tihli8i toe I. tt th e' wonmfwh eel ls '9: In Ell 11~'Qalrr 1'~lr aind net a :S:PllI r g.81r.K a III el~e ~iS %:~.H:.tip(!diet.rre~ti0.tiTri.sugg Illn 'the iIlu$'1ratio'f1' t~H~ '~.al){is crf: the me: {li~lri!iaG11i: ~16'r¥thof CUlt has been eft -.D~·Un.L'eldsing 'the ir= ~2~:.8 Iith'e: fUued whh aln 8-'tp i: II ildscll'"e. ~Ina .h 10 P'~'slide 'W th ~he CI!:'O:SS."".'ini 0. Sb~me pe op~el p l\"'l~e'l\"t. ts un I. 35 ~ .~n as )1:701 !Si5M.ittliil .~In'r~f1 fO'r~Qc'iflI'!H1] no e Shill uId rh e deshJIf1 ~equhi'e'rnent n~'oessital:Je Un e' imfodlJctic n [):~ a cii).J5 rnu l~i. W!l'Jlrm had be.u~t~d until p.d ~..Tn e ~raiI'II'S ~raveb~n c~'~cu~a.i on:s. '5Y S'e'T 'V.3!i·~:30 §.~!F5e IpitCH 1tIrelSds.l X ~~~ 18 35 ).oam:bina~hJ.~.~.thlB' n~ ~i~-:.aMid by dl'E! eonti nu~ws 'ilTiF. .the: o.r ~ i~. n~tli1er m m:hi:ad is A itO'S I'lt the: U~:P51ide 10ver t:g. meth:od was ~l¥hl.p..iliflQ '~he'CfOSiS. '76 wit.!h'.e'see 'that m he error ~:ttl Ith aug h glljl~ater.i n'g r'S: pillar e factr)r~ AM Hille. l mm:o.!1.'~1..tJrDlv' M r'.m.r.~I'I. L'f'Ct.u.('Q'f i withd rc8wi iii g :a nd re!pcsU~iD'nh1g '~'hetee " This ml!'thod .sw an di :if 'W'e beee mes 551 >..x'. .. aftaw' windi. ~I its c ri'!l:ilI~'n~1o s:r~i(n1J p berfo.25~S5::<3CI ~f!. ~'lI ~ ~YlilrTiMIN SS)t4Q.ln:g iii Wl~rm 'l'he . 'TIlle ma~.5~35x3D 351CJ5 ~xld~~ii .the neld: cut.)(' I.1or neied nG.o~ the j o'bta~'n ..is hi:l'S tnan m.~~ln h:niV fl!U m be i~." 'faer. .~tch we '!lijf:E 8i fig~re heU): ~u'lgle' in' rJl'i'de:f' flO obta'rnn a 'm&s:h I' '~Jhe w(JIlrm' c"e)lr to the with ''the Sp.~d.and a pp~y Ii! c~t by rIIU~~lnS 'th {ili' thia .2 35 J( 3~' . i's: neve-rt:h e ~ess.e' .ive.t ~h.~C~IO n metn.t!~ fltiild' f'O I'm ilinm. iieoomm e ~d~d1 'fo'r cLlIt. tM I rllQ'il'mll .irrs.!IS' !~ :3iS'xfi{ll ~~ a:s.000'4 which .2~ li5 ~OOI lEU~~i(I':~lTJf.erilir ~ To 'b e eerreet 'the [p.c:p = 1I". i~~ .JS !iSiS.er. iiii CiOflP.o. 5~2 Or 5. W01Tfli 'w(l~11 heve b. .[wi'i ~(>ut ~[I~ the way fOli nd I'l"i P rtoil1~:e:. . 'we Q e'l 55' X .)( H]. '35~~O S"S!S6!} '35x30 35'.'.co rrec~ lOI the.0 35.1'!i~. he.:h bv ~hB eGiS.P. to :su it the D.:a'li !!iI.le .~e 1'1ther~ @lither of 'the'se candilhJif:!l~ w'MI .~.ch pa 5S tin en".K 15 I'lIl eS'ted ara iffI .nof 'tlli'Ui~two mu~thods can 00 used.5 .cd.. a.o d i8lbtOUr~ 3~ Oil" :~Ol 'the:n hllll" lmolst air'.ec1tion S a'Sican bel se en 91~lln~ fr'8.~pp~.to.a~e 'the PQi'nrn~In pr. t. ~or' iflIlsmlncel.it'eh of th e. Q$I:1r tr. OP Cif '= :55.drSwffing i " iii e 1001 ~nwh ich: cs'se: tin ~"t)Ooi: be~o.e'w'orrn 'Ihe o'nlly r ~ i'ffe f\ernoo b~"ing ~tun ii'1J 'thi.8ailr' then ~he. E'~~ OCT ON! ""!1--iIEl.f the. The depth of '~IMl!' Ie !J. (t H. go. g'liU trai n 'way Id .f@ li~7iSi 32 .rg.r:m cutter.ewUeh p ~35:lilOi ~ 1I " llill l$~~S.9111".~1 3:5.'ofdleWD'Jfm~ In prOdl!.a dJlIGe'~ j" '~he h.s.ttl! rlr~V101~ and dle pitch rO. :a hraU of the f s){is of the tlrle worm willl~ L1~1 .SIlid'fi~ '~J:!.5. witihdrawi ng tllil.alcriQn m'e!lthod~w.9~e Sl g'e ~r.nd u~t9d w~'tJh si8Usfa ~lilon when ICU tti 119 dee p CO.o:S. )ilI!315.too ~at the :0 In.as Sri e~min8t~ofl of 'fi'g.1'1i~!~tifN"I . W'OWlM Is the' d irita nee m E.t'o ry~ The ~\On[}iWrnQ table has b~en p Ii'lep\~rrli!dsUQ 9'8 5l:iill th ~ 'I'fi~~ of whee Is n t h ~~ cain be U5i1NjI: H) p rod ute.~Iod fOfJ MO'SI a.r . WOrms.:..&lited :~. TheOllfe1:'ioa'l~y' hfs Ie ''-Ol'!Jer affects t'n'e [p..acnoumrt~ ha S bSE:Ul..a.O\)E12 ~. but the pltteh cCJIlllScli. crr nl. 'f:'om'pa 1"1 ng th~s with th e' p n'[~'h geller..a'ilnlS .mwheetll: that wi'! I be i'li!cli!1ed and rn.1ide .elli.a. e iDlrwv'i:ll1!wn. ~M ~'~O\JI'toJ ~ ''Tl4'~... Sl~nl ~i'fy'i 119 lit. The.. aplplyilng . Th i:s. ~Q 2S ~JlL.Wii"i .~~p'''II1'~ ~reWcLlbttu fig plrlcl~~~~.a rnlaHe!i' (rt d ivi di ng the eli-roo la.aG~uii ~~nlwC!!jrniri!Q pro'cadtJ re ls basi. hlf'. :p5 .44m~ :2: Or 55..1~x .nh~ "bliJ'iG~ !iJ:s<ly l5~i de 1'1.o·~ 'the.~.ocatedJ . .ost 'm'odEH ICI'F 'worm" of .F~ WIG' I)Jfl. are'h ie~Bd.o usel i~h 'CI"'OSS"o!i nd~ on Iy fe r e' ~C.w.'Hne flIl hacv'9' to be leu l.o ~~ Il!tLstD'.p~C. ~ __________________ '9: . ]$ to ~h!Jttil II! tn pi s'lljdeo\ll18 r :but nat: h) 'th~ 'oorfsG.d.stu1I. A .' matladal bUrr.and descrii:b e=d irIi 't'he_ ~d'e EliIllin e!6. 5 where it.f' ea.8n gl~ of the.0 6.1r then if..~gg. ''Tl-IE W'bl. js g.

eted.o thread dliall. Th~ p nt. f'BJ w~.rms 'lUp t(Ji r:i'nld includi~g C. the 51mpll~st'ran~ most pO~f~ive wt81IV is te 'provide t1i1 e W'O li'm bla III k 'WiltJ~.3 . . ~ e~s'l.~s!um)ci~iI'1t.e. D. (d' '~h&' ha:f'ildwhf3.J! n"IlQ~h ia!' tl€lleith .em6n~ of Ui e w:o r~pliIIiC8'liS '~he cuttfng fOllim u~o'ilpaS:ses rl'vEU' ~m.ali n 'the 'di'ffitl!.qLii~.lts.veryth[ns.c.ivi ding.am in ~I m.ge'liI. E!I lor h~ U'n.xi ~Q m US~ be sUilll fill ~t trv sind f..f~ wil ~ be' bl81sicEd ~y :S'i:mtl al~ to a SllijP. I tis· u II'iI com IIIon r!() fi nd th:is 'Lype~of c1'ivird~ng head.g 'to d~ .1!li1B !mod~flcaf~OIl1 wHI ha.ing. tvp'~'of ij.:~i. tthu'f:ill Gor~nact~d !o the m i~Unm rna chi:ne t~bile s.n.')~11 oW!S ITO m ..t be O~ pGS~~blie without prDdiu~i1ng_ 80me addr~ional rooJj:ing . typ_lf!iS. hiow. 'The ~ili1'ee~ in factg "Ihln sl'iilZle of is ·iiil I'Qn~ Ile~d m. Pem.em p~ oy. to the le n reot die m.fj ~biO rt eJ.r\kshQIlbut is hou!d . tp mU~ t!La WI u'silftgl the s. Th i's.eilfrl'g ~J'~edto g:~l!iIeil!:. ~liFel h. The l!ll.'f ~'nne li." t!he IleadS/crew Bind IIl'I.itche·s i't is better te ·8.i8Jged they m ust r. w111! cfm~rlmif1lel t'l'~e sile .m~ ~Ortm ifl':~Idje:'t:en:n: '[)fJj e I'll ga'gf81 witin 'the -eli vis to n ph. The' ~.i·r:Uo.. ~he m iUing fIIful]ch~n~ s u p~Flcr to till If! hi.~d. 'Th a' euttln gl of this tvP~ of 'wn eel Inl~19 lIilfEIN~Jdy be 9!1I1 d.l iM is.Io. the. ~hl~ tEfeth C<!l!n th~n be IC~~.'E! bJant.EIl~ 'I'h i end of e\~ch C.at!ilil ~ e. lIJlse'powe if at 18'111lb LJi t: 'to rota~e·Uu~ marndlr'lEd bV lifl~allSllllf':a handl.cutting wo rms. '. a co rreet e p.~wn firsl p.t S!O~ m hums ~he~ h. f'B Bds~lrew Df the ['s. C)·f.':yl!ie.Ol ta'ii~toGk and as tlt:lis w'iU then le~'im]n.~.' :to '1118 sp~ed Icd 'fOf.m~ssion po ii~ltof ~ ew tilts whee·1 hes'l iUle ~d~B n1t·@i9~o'V'Br tn'a . A :S~'fi!·aVle free: to 'wot ill i OIfi1 atJdll.~..S.~lIDe a tendenev 'f'(}1f' '(Ih'e· lead~(. 10" wormwh!8'~~ were' des'Cri bed_ the J1 fSI of ·thejfH~ b-erng a si'rir'l·ple i!.i~U:=h [pes:.va ~.s 'lih·.n alnd 9~'IQniv ~ri:~lht ~ut~ ealn [be ·telllk. ~ta:il'Idh!i ~·s n tha o h.1ie~n~ tu r·!fi.xes of bo:tlh ~:hEl' IClcmpcnte nli iJHFe at ri g h'!''''~lnght~SPrlOduc rng rh is.· a nd after willl1 ~Iing baek a Cii d ~ind~~i11gl.r'ovi.bll'e·i.aid. A ~t9rrr atlvely.l'!.e' possibi'e'l~hal SO. "b ad '!For.eaclscrew . tndi(la:rJor to e'l11g~gB 'U'lIB' ~e\adse'fflw fen 'I:he stQ rt 01 te.(UiiJ:irsij:on' !dlevi)~e ·0n 'lhe· .thi.""ii IIII hal'!J\ll ~o m ate a good cutter.a I'f nute.@. ~:a tlne fn r 'Ollltti ng hel igI ·gears IbILlt. dlesi fa dI pitch 'I.a'l~n9 '!!NO'rm.h·an'gleWhee i ba flI.p~e i 6.1J) u IF' g ea'r su~table 'fror ·sl·owm ovi fiI g or :~ow·.rse 'l:atpe·r. For rh e re\i3I~'I'y COl [:"86' ~.~' m'~leneld t~ th h~ wau!d be 'snmle fo. Ic·win.f th e· tee-lh doe:s' a. 'n o~ 'olllo. The best place [:0 'fix this. ai. Some "0 rim h.lwet· pasSl bll. 8(.0 be: irico rpc rate d n n t til e ar~~lngement :b u tit is.bl..ill 99 .a~-.~1r19··e:wh ~'15IJIEI d. meu n~!8d.n drmll ed.e:th 0 Ii '{rlsel a I)'l'. in Un~ Illa'the" a:s: the m andrel is aillir~a·d)y' b. nOlrmal irl!~.lest he.e is e'XlE.tE wH~ hay·a: '... lh. lii.]li.!ifd pitch. !he ~h.~s the' ~8S wi t h t!he Spl!J r giea r.a:1lIow a §tdfi£~e1iidv Iiirg8' gear ~rali n bJI be' 1.end U'1rTI mealf:l~ UII'3'~ 11) Ig.G]/f the P.~~e' 0'1 the ml.y' ·Olntll t!~'Ir!~r end a~' the Ie<ads(: feW as.~.pi nd ~€Il.adSie new will 1~'li)Vie'tD rolla [e faste r Ulalf'l '~h'l lath S: malnd re'I.hee ~ but the tJ€l€::th .aJ s~n:!~eiall d~vidiI1. The: n.81~idglock le!nld 0. a 'rnf.8 fa 8 mte.an t~ e pitoh 10" tih e· ~adliE!i IB8 dscrew biS$Y ~nrng lEI n 8-'tp m 'wc.ke' i'[ difficult to ehtatn the de:pfn by' UJlIS.0 ~II"I~ l!.. is wi U I~owe'r e ~tre:s~ in tlh the g. flt1Js man d [f[eiI~ WOU Iidl eft f'it)!' tlh e· WO rkpiece .el~e thle h e~frx.g head ea Ille:dJ a sp ir. reset '~he CUUI8if to' the correct depth be·fa..Blngli13:of ·th e· rna llrng' worm. 'wc'ldd bi!i lenl ~hvan d inVOlliV~d and S}G I's outsidB:th B' ~~j~.e'm iIlln"~ mach~n~l th~t ~s ~.fj 110 I1.o. A f!£l'F qu i~t:ef 'm~thod of pro ~ueirnQ: th~ 'le ~th i.s rg'taoo.e·ar in t!hle· h a. .I ge!2!lr 'Cell\'iI be ikey1ed onlGI ~tThis gsar ii's.fi! ndard 8.U lh 112' stu rti ng: po.8 !li. ThlJ~ 'liN1.~yice thaft pelimi.e.It is.• It is ~0't :simplly ~ ma'l~8tff (l.e~: tQ' '~~.Ut~lf1Ig mErthodi willi m. de:VJ.ug'h in m a illV' 08'Se:S ttl is may not: .51·.~WkW.ict~u. h~ ~ bo!e.ne::ttien it ~oS.at· a n .ar[~ iin1io· wh ieh . table~ ttl e· w'arm of: t:he dVliiidu'filJg h~a.s~]b·~e ill sa 'the t.is is don tal' imind ust ry biV mle-SinS' of .circl e h o~le's..C'. t.ears and ma.P.as been Male h ed.te! ~. .eil-s.! n gl or pl. SleCDnd type of~whee II i$l ba sie. ·meth. in th e' ffl:V'IB'fSe rU'mutlcn u r.E! th~ d~:vjd in9 head 80 d a~so the W.piral is· del'ermined bV <lhe n!t[io. I~h. d'ifficu itt to' ar~~ng'Pa 't hls om.stu rn :5tro k!e·~ tlne· who 16 oper8. ·0111'(!he sh.ri1 i"~O'II'''O IT'at'e a w\orm ~lll'.o:f plr(ldy~r~ng' tine h~ iX' wi ll be si m iWa r 'b'JI ~hB method JUS.C/rew py Imrl.e· f~tted intc' 1'18 Oll! ier e nod!!' wili ~clh wi II Q iVi3' g reate f can'tr.u~ tJC's.geibeing ~n (!.h Eli ~e. tYI~!e 0 f WD.lit m Iy be' bi9'~it:elr n '1.~nthe'i'a sp Uf' gea f wi'tln d' the·li1!IPP'fOI"lri·ate' nu m b~Ir crflle.te'.pel gfthrisibook.nhe~.eve fse I h e· l.ltho..t be possi bl e· 'tOI 0 ps.Orik~']~flB·.i !Ildll.rm cd diivi:s~icuil h:ue p wh~ ch co u.V'e ·~ob~· made' JO 'the c!.ql."O to. I') r 'UlI.i.e II microrn eter e!'i a I~ ~~ ·StorRle· ottitie'r m eU:uld ml~y havB ro b e.~plAlir:' gea r ~!lthIQug h 'tthe a ngUng o.e!! re:sUJlt lis 'rffiu~Guttingl of II Re . ~ha'l is the.ons.t'tne .!lII11 01 hiBad.a'lli·)i: 81111gle will be very ~8r.a I~Vsi mi I~'II" to nn~ $p!lJ r w..ere rnce· bs'c. wU I 's.Bln:s . U"I :sug.s.WrrH~ r.itJjlllm e ost oorta~1!':1 he wi'l I knoi'W'1 how tJf) lU~e 'it A I~lmane.iGt]c.II m ean 's. .~r·ov..ead of: this i.~OO' a rllg~ed at ~h8 iii i:d ~~ . :Siup~IV such 211 hlU1d Ie w~"~ehwi I:~fit :a ~IIIth8~11" ' 2.ath~r l'n ~Ul aturnin9 'opeM~:iQ. 'riQr~!e'i-~ ma irIi' s.ntILl fl!"1 wUI le~d ~g n·i SI.h ~tiFerS.ha nil ~le.~~UaII.e -rI'lQ.d iilll~t'i! r()t~n.ai or heilix. ~!o mlal!~y revel Uitions fQ I each 'lu m af th. ba~~d WO.'U.th·at reSfu~t~n di~ ster ow i1'1 . d.diia I m O"l.mlB PRODUCIN G Wtl!RM WIHIEEl. pa rUClJ ~Ia I~n rly tiIJ·l'!~ .dle m:ove'menl: '[0· the. .or·. lThle to cd r serl es 7 .h.h. i.shown on :the di aI One@!: "til e.a .prm du~ij ng bl an" ~Qr hel ie.f h. Us.ividin 9 h e\aJd 6 irs 'ij"!II~o p lf1(nfided 'wi~h .9.lt ar·e· lP~n of ~ he~l:·ca'i CYN€'.limwheB~ '[h~ hel ica I form wH I h ave 'to be' g'ell"ilars1ed In a silm~i r w:ay to '1:hiat ~a desc.. . Thii's. F~\O'm a piOWielr' tfallJas.n).Th.d be a 'lwo-p·iece iLl n~l"~ e Imalin pent bei ng a iLh 'malndf'SI s.'~BW wi'Fla.li.whelil '[h~ correct di.etler of the t'nre..40'~ wn I be eO.endiecil 50 ~hin . S"e(.h ow f t hat '~hrea. ut WI II ~hen be o:brvl'ou~.tad worm.f' !~iI. hlel{id rne untedl QIiI ~he IOI"OSSislide'.escri be{~L Til e.lm!lBte'lf has been reached.'I de6cri be cl but ~he elltter' will hente· ~~ be mO'lHiI!h:!U:I end drU:ve'n ~y a n BIJJil: ilri:iiliry (:uttllll1l. .~th)n h.od of' d h/~ding ls sern e' form 100f (J!i1r:ect .e:rrnI' ab~ rm:llE!.D.grn.topping t!tn3' 18.. The me:~od .alfl.pl.Un.ul~· hQ tit16 in 9Xt tooth" GUUi As w.U't and IIi"OI.i l'lV Js in .fo! mla~n 'CicH3 ~d u nt'i~ ~he!serawl n Gl oper'~Hie Iis haVil:'! bif!en co m.ed. ~IO a d ~d·t!8 ]ead:5~rew) not.ilmpllllF des'ig n of Gear lib o)t as the a. U.d 'to .a't~on m'ust be Sfllt.d dne~frt~t]Ol1f '~h.[:.u'! .e ~llthe mali) drel and 1'1'1'1 C rde .r~'oiW ac:cepUnrl9! ~t 111"11~In iim'8'tte!jJ .whee~s.'h~il'~' IQI~NiIlr·~I~gl.glestecl I[.a~.curad to UlE ~a'I~rU31:spfirnd~@· '9iUle 11' on 'Ih e screwe dI Inos. whi'~ wm resu it un e ~Iy' a s. .• Pb1i5.iblv ~ si'rnp. 't h.je!r 'turnij·~~. '~'Qf' thee .at t:he end: of ·H.Sles ben'UQ Ig.:11iIr:$Ellr tln.·imporUlnt also :thlis.(]1 depU'l itt O'~II pIn but ~UIwi~~!!oJ fH:!lCe\~siillrv I~O w~thd raw thi8 ounsr .1 be .eh:in h!! ffl.tli on will ~e lengilhy landl pra~'CIn I.as· whi:.rk~h op' i~: rn 88S/JJ'oS nd it may' no.lldl ~o.eeth do. ~:s-~Isp ern a:~FOrmi olf i d ivi ding hea din wbic:h Ull e'worml sp. :~I 'wn~ net be PlQ.oh gf all D.w a 5'9.:~h cut as.i: -Slp eedL ]n '~:~ctij't ~s ·la.etUl'rtl IiV Ht a h. 'WhiR n . 'til e IOI~ n m stfai. ~.~InQ ie b·eGa~ th e ~.pa.ed.e.Uow 'Fo r .erU''lJe with 'WGUJ ~d wu th.and' a ISal so.al~boIi ~a'rrvi ng n.!! liO o~.ntlts a r~' 1I1N1g.e.o'f a tra~n D'r cha ngewheei·s :s.exfng' fUiI1€:tiOn to be used with out in [~rfe rlln 91 w~th ~he S1pi r.~]lldlle dilrec:t'I. :ag. 'to.i'5. iii n.aIIId as· U wi I~ no.ailllimg drive.p'we ~Id I~H)t bel .e·to &Id' ·an d jts< o uses. The elJin~ng :spir.to E!'nemv bii'llckl ash.pO'W€:ir tra nsm:bssj.e'rati"9 the hle~x i a AgJe.to obta illi"lthe 'fi~qtn'r9d ge8 r re~ijctD(H~ ft.ol 'O"'€I!lI~' g eipBnl1~ ~n ~Ind atsa add n~ 8 :5B118e IO~fee~. maodrel~ ~'n any I~rf the· W8rY!!i no'rmCl'II~lI em pi nv·ad Wfll~fiti.ImJCI.k '[0 ·Cha. Si): ~halngieW'h e eJ!s willO have t·g be used ra.m~111 ch r8..h hi' alr~bcorICO u I.rown iii I'iI d Sh81lipe~ 'tiJl'I1!!' 'Q'f j.M vf1Qn:.~nyf'~Mtdei" paSSla~l~S.

D fo r a he.oteeth~.a'r IIJ!P. IFhlta-mJ n-g th e· 'CUlLtll3'r@'r hob :riS Slh'fiilJ)~eas (rnls. 'the ang.:m~~ \niill h.cuttiiliig edgiH 0 r t:ee't~..~icaI'Hlea'~~ ~ dffiviid'e' fh..fi le to 'U.oP.ella ract.~ e~!!!!'u ' :r·Y _ .i. U they w-elre in mash .!!.. 'ifh 9 h e.f.m~II!'Na~dspeed fleaded tOI !UJlg't-he ..ih~sImiB'liJnS.to adj'ilJjst ttl 9 po~UtOtl') of ttl e ")flU rei...si ble . ~:tg.ngdool..p a'rOii nd 'the worm 'fOr " sinh Or ~c sf its ~Uaimetef. To m~s achieve this a wDrmwhe'el~ is. :pos.dent.m~h~ih dr-u~i9nf. e~n be nl'Qun'[~cl 'IHin'ef bltweEH~ ce ntres ..Ii ~h·_ .rmw\h e 91' is hlollowed ~ut tmlfit over' 'Q.with ~he changewhes!5. fOif1'l'n. nor th e de. .by '[hJ~ e t1l i:~~ock lcelntre.S' by m ovi rnOJ 1he· ~ Btlle s9d...shaft itS l1e ~'I'(ltied'to pr\OJ~iidalaJ df~v*Fn)m. 'with ihe' I.-rsH de'i' '~h. . the: cross pIns.Of 1J. r.alra ~Ol'[he'I atM. 1D1!I cu liVed to su ii t til 9' WO·ii''ftl t 1'01 the' norma I 'W'pe o.lea rs "('niB f-o'rmll!llma'IPD'. SP\J~ ~~~I~~. IG" ·r.b 'it wil ~ s:ta rt 'tlO cut tJeeth ~Into 'the l r.~.eQ ui'i"~~I.s o~ "the ' 'W'O rmwhee'l bahlS' cut.e ri..ha..el. P05i.alch~nBw." v'I'ry~nQ 'Iengths to be lused.cut·at w sa me ti m). [h e e quh/.iii ow :~h'i!Scan be a rr:a III SJ. 49~.' .U~. _ I! ""'""....E!ti~ it'5 fllii~·e· ~. a"il8 i1~:b.he'ldl i....e'~tian f.ntv· ~i 'ucrthe gea r b larnk~s once.D..~·it:n.l '$'~ eh a' 'wary liS PYI Pi':!iii DJ 8' A wo !'rmwhpe"1 ~'hlrieded fO'I power n tr. and h ~IU ~'~de' dlam e'IDer th~.a te nt d ism'rt~e fa i!j rtd tlh~ '~ace' of ~heiWlh eel rs.olr Wangl IlBfi]cdi.WI:ll!'i(~C6 ~ . .rotate tw. shown 1D' '~A~ Il)n the draWin gl~ 'Thl[~ deSCflp'ttOml Ofe iC.b~th 'thi S. where lrt w~11be ~n o'".e~e<ssarv equipm e nt.I'lII. be as 'ho!b as it' it calliefl.etaDJ~1 '10 Un~ r l~nN~'lC'f..Th e 'wc. o'f thms Nxt!U rBI bl.and U i$ del~iF:iedtn l~tJtil!wh~e:1 with ~.a-va a ~o{n'QI are of 1.. TI1~ g eu~!U 'Ol:lnl\: irs· mounte d Q'Iil '-91 iIDcti!!J reo s.(:0 rate.st.a:~n. wi I~ C e be.udill1Q a suitralble .QQj'!~:.1!:!OLl1~ [Jng'silm ~ Bllli:t·g t h e . a s. "fiXU..aln~ef111lilil!riked 'L~TOIMtive lett ·the·fl..~.. d~J3' eUea'l..i.e.it ny~ f1j.~ Hn is b@ii ~g the' d islanoe be·lwe~n two i[. ~ I 78 snd ~n . C.11 shoVIIS .!iock. ~f~.ut. of w'Or·mlw.~ / / Fi Gi. th~Ul th.on we rkiln gl an:itudle ~rnd bl)'th rotate a'~ the' ·same lfio'hertilve speued a·s. .~ wormw..~erann is trh en ICJomp~ C'om m.eot I ars... 'wra.-'.T.oul~d be 'U!5 ~d .neel.d OWl'wh ich l:J1rie an.l" ~ HGwe~er~ ~'fr Ime! probl'Bms ouUinedJ h\i1I'~'B bun Uindl. shalfls slJc. sS'cured to '~he verti(lall ri.~ttj ng h0Ucai g.a.and' w neel i$]: 20:"1 ~ !'~'h~n ~iatlrie '[h.ansmlssion...a5 the 'whe:um i~.~r]\fEl shain liSmade te ~eSi OIP~ then it.~..gne s nIDrW Ii1 in FfQ... d(£ll1B -IOn th~ I. .Th'iS. i~. cutter at ·the raf:~~..EnrSi i2md th e' mlia nd ~e~1 liI'D~di~"g .lli~d .h·t£H'. 77.aw to In. The .. bo.th e' disl. ~he' wa rm and wbeel I even-1full Ily c pcftfi:l'me.'i rrl. '5!--iLOVJ~o1'. The G~l!'1ttnuol.IIOo-ij 4_.el plr~v..the lCutl:i 1ll!J1 ~H.ijto0 d thlsn 8t.5.l!. a 9jllfleater P. carry out: in the ~ '.IIlfle wn their norm:e.ewuive' te th e' wU 1 be he Illow se till at t~lrie ~lpi el[ e tn whir eh th~ eha ng~wh e·el is n '~sY€ldC<a1111pa ss th ro ill I'Jlh it.l!mwhe ~l u n~'U th e Irequ'i fie dl dept.e' ma irn compa.r' k 'j't 1"'~Jii"i ha 1Il. Ih is. ~o g a. is sim'pll" a p teea' of tub e whose s.h at rhJht'"'Iiil!ilG I'es t.~i lie ~Q 'ma.iiI hebbi'ng_ m.of tM]s.~md wi'tth U~ i6 .For h'lsta:ru:. The a ij. lefi<st i'f w'i II be a s.glis r.:'. 'fed in~JiDll D the ha al..·~~iorru'i1l·d .1 PI'U .nJ e lilt.eeiai ImjJ:~hln8 ~.~rivle':S haft betwea fr! the two ~ oOIJI~~ing-5.ds.8dl. .!Sim iler iA pro.o the lee·th 'bLJl.lde·d~aml8~eif'w~~.a~: 1S'.1 .&E.e:ds'a~ wh ie:h. tin B m·&tt..\oss..g ewhsl8 ~ ch in 1 H11 .- ~u:tlh1IQ " " " ~!'J I]. Po 0 AMD C.Vii lent ea r:llnot.0 Ii1Ita'ct ~mli 1... '1F"'"'".. i~ ilia prod uce s. f:Clf aJ smmillar spu Ii' gelBIr' by' ~h. tin te' bh~1n'1!t at Blny pWletlete r.eW.m·arndrelij.n e tOQt'tl ~B!ce'is calnr(.e.a c:!\"'galrly~lII1~O'f~:~ I ap uY L . bee III obta ilneti'..o pro-dulCe'these 3(.andi~ 'hlas 9 9.·.1 ~h!SlCft.g. If ~~.rnm. ·g\~ii g to.1::yp@. The' cut~i.!i~ng a \!e'rtic8.h eel' ...n its 8QU .tal1i~'i11l po int for . . c.JjC .. r~O£lll an'U.:~A~:pt~rnat CDlII"f..sheft i~ 1~lfovildI0~ with ·8 81i'mpl'Gi) .~h~ ·a ~CHlg th~' be. g.~~ ~~ .Qlr.e b~d . Th e ~e !'trcslj ~'ha'ft:m u at bG'~iealni!d tQ' ·themaill1~athe.e lCos..ko the equ ilpm e rrt t.. Th I' fa t~o betwe~n the Wo.M NOT !1!!a'!0w'1'o! b e· p~lOdyced by :~ prnesss '~Ih eel.er fu:rt.~~?O~D1oJe:. rna ny IDmratel!!111"S ha·ve Uil@' l!ii.ea.II~ spe.as.bl th:at 'wh s'n '[ h e· blan k ts 'falstened onto til the '~a ntro DJ t. r. PIarncu~ ~ r wow.:!filI~j r [f "t:!hll "fh(~~re'has.etil e ~~n~re..!~~11 b.. way 'tJn. or .ew.ove r t he ~.Q w'ishiJAg.oill"m but has galshe 5· ICu t· intO ~~ to.lfm and 'wh e Ei~ on ·thEl' fix!Jue is: not hn ~ona 1111SO long .'O.il'S it is.h-ownl . Both . alta.j'~n:k ' .. . A." .w ..f·i'!rI"i.Md into the hc.peedls re'l...81chanyewheel 'ral·~O' wliill is Ir'IiIQU fI ~Ied must lone olf me chang.haft wh~:ch ir~ dlrHVe!i1 '~ a' "arm 8rralnged ilil :sIlB:I'h a._~R G ~.~. Once ~gla ir! 1. rill' OW'l~.EI.!i"I~i3'lly ete.t: rs WU31de. L.hlr:s s ij nIOta ~~mp'l.J s II'i~taI~iin1:S1 and the wOilf.s has b!Be'~' 'conde i11I Sied beCilrU5..I' U1llllS alii owl n 9 ho b& lea. PGis!~ii'ib~e.. ~'type of m achlne' 'i~j:s ~lossibl e' 'iO rolate· both cutt. . .. of ithe d ri~ef .e 11101.J'I unsing I :S:PIUJi"g@i)r·.f' ~~SH~T'~iIi!.D 'U nde rsta ncd UH! reason rot 'thls refer '1!Q Fi"Qm'77 ~·"·he· ~nanma I' pitth is s. i'r 'tne ran.D.111 b is..JGWH Y Th£.. ·b.~ell" e rtld .u~aritv of t1tin~ n teeth .f)lr curtter as.iI.h of bJOitlh se ani tJhe"~)el8ltih ill be.dl.' i.h e~ls alA ~hre'ha n] 0 andl the :stu. .kJnOW~1 as hobbiln. 'T'r4~ OF A HE~'C~ ~.I'8p ·to me.a~ ~h 101Jt-e r end .e.t:!!lpenltil'n'1·to.e P·.'th emil .!. of the w·~rml . '.stie.D of 2~:'1. .pherr~11 e'fllds: Q'f thel QOiJIptUng:s..IP.'iii.~ght of nit.i~· if thJB ill ng I.e· mandrel m'u'.~1f s ~101 the e~amlJ~~'·sh~!WrI i'n F1§. th~l.~ehue:lc Bnd sup'po:n'@d . ttl e botl)Dm o. . .~l!'1d s liral po iII'l1 !Jng 'lG'WOlrds th e ~I~r~he head !. '[he blain k 00 the.f'th e·'~eethare not slra Ig ht.'B1 w.U~~inll ~ w befaal':JI:~e' '[he w'h eel be is aI[ta~!h amen.

.PJ..!m is 1h~.i 'Sl~ eh as :20 b iand .pli"areraLb~ Y' cIT' !:II s pi f1:l! tooth 'jforIM . a I. IfrHllbbi 1lI. Th oS m'8iilOetri~~11's.e in contacf witllh t!hle . [p.~a()'nng being obtali'ne'dl by' means ~If .e.onm 'h'j.· ~n t h~eplhom !)rillp hi' '~lgl.~ly' re ~ij'O.I! l1.eeriled ~e~. lir~ FRiE-OBIIN:B M eCh!lul~caIIt"ola\lt. li! ~Fre.dlre~ to dry be.B teeth alN 1:01 be I '101 oibtain bilJ[.u nder'~Wi Ell i nflue:nce .fuc:t. mSlk"9' .blallit :fir$_"Oi9l!itl1 "Qe5he.5Jom.' at wo rmwil. rna.re 't h e hob i~: h a r~ENlIled1.tl~ ill$.C) G'orre(.eln menti'omed [that' d1JBI Iniob is: al '~~. i j ~l corutn U.le ju.j< More· mm~~u~nt5!tT1Uy'.9 0. in -{.~ti:~whe!ra tt-'tl F 01. ~ r.~iii lhe bl SIMI!( 'fi'r.l:) l.we~e[ ~th e~ W. 'mre.snded ~nat 'Uu: fil'1la~ IOlnllre Idji-S't:anoe' betw'een 'tin s WOWIin an d whe e I·iis ..11 'tl]'ile OI~1 ~e'I~e-f I h:al~ to be: pfrodu~d 'by' ha B1 wH d] fHillO~ TI'I. 1!i1~. ~It has . • .el!i..~lly e b'I'8n'k ls .worll!:pieiDei durilng.paced or s ll1'i.V tflhis m ethc d.ch wo~j'~d be fa r :SIJP e~~o to. ~... own to(nh :51pa(:!i..steeL llh~ I ide.de' af~li1ar!bon tool :ste.i! I t. T_fie .mu:st be d10n ~ bef'C.91 m'eUllod and I~.f 'ltflh e t:olJ~:h lea\!f~Sithe blan k. oilCDnS'lI. IC-aIII s om e·tim es be l!)b1ia~Jlil. my' 'Sil~i:81 's:il1e Olit' r.end tihre 'm8'~de'ney' En jnlCr..'taltin g and SQ nextc 1IIHi nQ ~s IE! Clige'will l1i10~ reoomm. worm fa J1!rd whee'~ It mSIl!J ~eem lrarUte r '~range to read th:af~ 'the 'fh:st sm9~.~ flIloe' m IlJ 'chi af'fj!ha milliritIe r'fal hals been 51 lii1em:o.e to ii'OI.Q! tn as been ..pl'f'ld61.h:.8 not dr·ive.n. Fa r f:h~s reas01I'1 'i't net F1ICOmm ended 'lllia t a Il1 Qrd V'!l1.'gj:e r eno ij:gh thelli It is bertte'f togia.v'e-e ~~ Th m'i1ed b e :~l:3ir so allY whel·1 't~id I IprodU~' th~isrift~o 'wil~~e' 5ati sfacto ry. .it ms s.on is.mh ifforlm: lirS ~.QI~ the blan~ wil ~ IH.'tlhor h:~s ca:nri~d 0.IqM utt1e tlrlll 9: .st. iltw.li1:m-lli.UlQ.alnd '!lea~o".eal .fore it n. "'as' R'nJ'M:~tJ.ill . but 'it es fi1 be firsugtil'm with oditllng.JILl! I!'!i 'l' 1'1 whe8:~ b'~a nle.i di'~ idin'91 hila d.81flrd.en.FrI..lti e.er.oom'p'reroodm rea:sy 'is sim ph~~ heat traM.acqui'r. I t an a n.i~.Mrn.ari..O. seen as1hs uamngrefi'ge a.eR r o!i)U'~d b e U118e!iJ~ i:s WfHJ~:l!Jh~. i CDIJ~ld Iff'e Ib~lr~.m 8th:.Ilt Co IIIId e"~" hcl~its OWIl1 repil seem e nit wh i.~a IGi~ a ..utIH.ed 'iIIi1 .aJ~'gl~'it: f'~lUte ta P .i.19 w'Jhei€!l1bsil!il$ll-cut: Wv· 'bi ~s_mllilllml$e.ch ti n drs to mra ke the' he b 'ell! t mere '0:111 nl~ side' of o 'lhi~!CU'tltleJlF U~8 n It'Hl tihe 'oth e r~.rlll..lrement from the! ac-tu$:1 eern po nent after tl1ll$ p:rooll~sfa ill's~ Aoce rJ1ab~e' ra5:lrIih'S (jim b'9 ~bjtt'in ed WI:tIIl ~'piFEd fi.~he".~'nd r. tlh. ..l'~hra~t CD n ·'the 'work. i'l co rfe·~t~iyeut.e'~ ~u'c. 'hobl does nat ~he'n ha"i!!i'8 [G Q~nEl:_r8.'tt/y SP'fii~ th~ l$(F~'h!..sut h .wa. tire'oome'alnd caJls f.18 nJ U1 .: HobbilJg.e!~)8 on 'its mlo'u nf~j]ifltgl _~.ailm loa .de5ii"rtatiJ featu I'e'l nd the .~ Th@' aU.!: .ailil ~HarC h m aiil1't" '~'Qr h&s: tl'athe~.gee r 'blan'k . :I!J.[t5~ °a cD'mplle~~ b:nlti'nl a nd the wh~e ~ hes f~iI'1in~hJed with one tlli] O~tJl ll~ thalf'i '[he· S~ ron lJI"~ IP"I[]. .el' used fa r 'tlh e fixhi res "!@jed not be' a. lit 'is :81 si m ph~ l'i'U~ltter l.cutUng' toe Is ra kit .tthe're. 5'D.om eli fiIille'S C8111ed.oftn:e cult_.iii! i~orr1m· m'\e nevi ng I el blUt it may bel tO'1!)m ~th toO lIlth sugigelt ~h the CDrlsttUIt!c!" :~hOY ltdat. i:s..term'i n'fM~ bV dilre~t Imeasll..ttillit alS "Ime '~IJ«iog act'i.d to IfJ r.S'ill11 01'the free ~obbh'1i. i't ~s ~Iil~~.i.er'.~lry .cuttWng ts' oon~emp ta~:ed-.Q1f1m a n d~'he. ThID$ mea firS th'.'ilj reitil at.J.lb 'wlili e "Illy: rub a nd g. Tne.tn '·d 1Il.or' ~ons_id@rab'~e pa~iencel but: IilJ ntess ~it is do.~in9rna~1~HJi n~'1CH)1:suc'has a' 'flyeuftrelr' but in 'the ease G·f· s..st c.= n~tlllJ ndr~y 'I h.ee whs!@I' h crbbi ngt!!'~h. Tin is i~.is a J.arm-reU ev..~ppro~~mitB hel ix a. the meth ad to 'i:ii 0 I ". t h.e a.ad.asEi'ly' . tlh.rI round tH'lds'l!' ~ower: but.e.a..attAilehml9M is well worth .or .!! i~.n. 'IrNa: 'drag"' Is grea (Iy red ueed .be' u. wutn '~he' 'if the' w.~~~miih~' .amrrlll He.e Ii'iesu'llts D~ t: the rna in :prebh. I~S 81 h ig:hhr. a WO IFm and SpUIi g. but. ~ 1J'II. ls ::nJm~rtJilJm'e:ssu:~glEr.~ WQfffl hl' :th~ la.@'tne hC. masf: (Jf the rel'ilo~¥e.'The hlob wi I t cu~ be:\tu'f"if .op.5 ii:s ClIUit.i~e!su~t in hill~ . '~he co'mpide cu'~il" ..d~~' mffllillYe.81~ holb bl~auSle :BS.lel'I~' ~'ho''luo.e rolriS inail 'gea.a~i~'n" fl!' hl. t~e s.at th e meth onl Uur:= tliN)~ m lI5lt be c~.~W nQ iSS'! a t ~he'.g~J!!i'1i! s iBre in :S:pi ral 'flbwmn e as ~his 'w~~11 pilwl8ry:s rlU'tS.n 1 Wn :5tHI hobl mSlny ~rmwh e~I's:!b'B..has s~i'!JellisnH~~'~ drHl 'rOd' .. IU'~I Fe.O\l"idle ~et'h but i~i .eb~e Ir'leSIU~m.ellfa~B heat .t at all tlrnes be e I1Q£'Lged WeD rk at .r! The hDb .n~d HI (.st rr.31l~or 30 an d 4!i Tio a niV1Dn€!l wi!Sh in 9 tjO :pr.dje. ut v~riQ us '~e·SI~s.oduo:e a.~s<~ri bed~.~11.ed Ijij.the .up. 1thU3' '~ooth and me UU! "their pWIQldtlClion ls ~o ·.Ol!1S w~:denllng 0 'Ihe :s:pace ~'Hw'een '~he'te~ttnas the' w.e: csses '~he rrssull't h~s be~en t.s 1[1 ashed In 111 ms 'Willy.ofthB worm a~beit SJuftlb~'f ga !5J'h s. ieee' wh i. "1! .'~ ••• doTh.ar~ n'oce'a:d$...as pro duced SQ.tn 0'0.l1g "f' ~ny :s-ell"~ou~ Ij i~rtt:e'mpll..IBiS.:tfims· can b~ done wi'th a s ~[tti '!.~U~:he.S.gle.a.~1~ille'almll'lee ilngJes: IIi1lU!S1 bel ~pfo'vi'de~ if th. ap.shrou Id 'be.laciB'iI'g .du8tr¥ I hobs are ':f.f"b!lla..e bl an k 'iIiI~II'~ stop oo.me reasc llI'abl.vf..til ifl!tly 111t 18 qui'te "oeli bile to' dc.

.eet ~V '_ .De euuer used rnust be . SIil-e~i~11~rms 0" o:ea rling.alrlQ'ld5 e:)(!p eir~ mlfii'llt~ "lilhe s uithio r is co riI v~n~ed thar~ .~odue-e th~ Sirna I end &ha.e:~h a~ 'rhB s rna II e I'iI d h'ClYel ~.I ~recrsiQn 'Se.h e sma I~and bu ~as..suclh a $.!ul!Q ine Iri lIl'g desi'gn e ts 9 ccQmpromi'se.n~." .iiililu ra:lly na r flower 'th-af!l U\'u~ rge '0 n cL Ilia 'fo.·I'~.i3Il~.y ca n be a ch i!"v1ed.l'!I.iel opmel1l~ fJf' g~nEHl"ting [S'nag being ~'ha~t '11h t8Jtt~r hra'!.eorre.91'beve is G n I mil lIng m'acht nlei i.cL As.an Liard rsPtJ M.OCU ra.h e '~1~ 'step' :is to aC~lI!Irat~~~'Y cb'aw au t: ~he b:~a ".e"fiii{ .e s.I!IIhliO .o!l.ish~ru:ory I Ib..e·is tg p.lallnlk and cu'[t~r in betV1)!'eE!'I" 'the 'lW\Q Fa'r m.chlJdL Th e e~I'mlpJ e I~ler.fi~ B' . Flil M:li!Je:rOIi.nan abmslve te' J'e'I!T'!IQve 't he' 'high sadsfi! c'~ory pro.c!h lit leaS'll .e~am!~'le work·e.~.stsn~' thfDughgut gts ~n(if'" I.rm-clJ ~Iei" a nd a Imi II ing m ~oh~ne?' ThE! 'TtI e CU'ttl!llr. 5!how~ ~n Fig. ~.alny \fe'P liS :b eve ~~ h ave.1in e i.y' 1mac h in i"'9 ~ltOteg aV'8 i~able ill 111d wi't~h 'the :sa..alng e rin g' irts.oo...:ilng '0t' Iiny k~!lel. ~~ eh:1i'p~:h (l·f the: looth is ... ~ eavEI'1 'Ieare: pro duc~cIJ _trf'l/' Ulls cQn&~'ant diEiipUiil m ~tho d ~o InJn '~)09eth Sir 's m'~ath I'~ a n.· ~lbo""e n rn8th~ d bu'll us'i!il g SltamldClfd lCl.slble '~I"Ue.nd fiUng if'i! iO.eta I-on m and C:P.e"i ii!)Ug~'y'•. tha'rl ich!at This wU~ mSI'n UBa~ tine' conlicl.aU iii 9 rnac'lh i111 e 'tcu:.e O'f ~he' ~pecia~.Sieli"iinOE!ab~@ :profil@ ~sif'lig a is! n. as ·they . th at. ~ perf.rge end as: wa is 'the CfJ:!lS .101: possi bhi. Th' ~5 .a.'lv thmu''gln dl e '10 mil b&CC'n-H~!J$ bec~ USB' a5.lltter th8Jt i$ ~ 'compnlmise forr .iIl'rn~gm ~Qh~1l18~.e'[ua'Bf is . hQ"1[H.ereno~ d.~. not be: ~he..I~n crd~'r .iJ sed when ciU'l't·ir).r\essed •.1ijre ~ metall~1!9 n C.cs··CO rn. is ". 'th~ 'finfs.cutter ava i~abIe..IfilJ fact :i~is net it g're'~[ detr~1. fOtfiTii a ltd me-~t 1:11 .Ome IfilillrrOWf3f at the· I_gil e n.u D~M thlenl a succf.ilfa ~ili..~lO.0e' capalb'~e: of pa~~'T.g 14= ~8· war.·4GPffflim ~trul3l "Dantrle ~irile .sa me Gutter OUI' 'with beth b I._. 'Dfslu:li!i rge I r\(!l..orm"'ehJtte r as Q the fIl h~lP~ ~ g tooth i!i CQ.i"iffi :a rndl!' ag.ll1dl try to pn)dUIDe 'the la.aln 'II' .i.hTIJP'~~ 'm'! ~I i'ng ma. .'va'j ~ab~'e.Jl~ tOlg:~ther wi'dlflU~iFi!lnv fi!'~ed ~O'f' fll in.'!i:o!'~·IjI·"'D!:::!n "l.~ i.l~ceu Olll. lllil e m@U~ ad is "the sa'm~ 1'0 r €lJ11 s:i2jes 9n d type 5 so if the me<N"od of cu.!·eltooth widlih at [h 8 precis iO'1lii wh i~~ i:s' fa rtu I'll ate' rei 9 il~ is h~rlg..il's'O t"he r~rma/r k made e i1! (~ir that a 11. {]'" slalndal~d' m Wh1g. dlowr! laach si d~e' of .sm H ~[e._~ iC>.d rn@.case: Of do j'n9 a f'I .Jv!/Iol [jte p r.e. .ui' .~ a lri!ih]l.A :st..Qb~titu 'for Ihe .e~l .[.alnd it i51:sorn et1tm-u1s d ~~II ratE. 'ail'~~ 1i. deliPlth bervel 8ft'11d Ipn:ulluee Igears wit~ pa ra i1181epth ~eedl d .Bf!i. Is.tica ~ ee rta i ~.g·itmrna·te' gea r a rnd 'welfli9 e.ent ra of the j?Jle ~r" SiD 'U'H~ u 51!J a I m ethndi .oouilld be.from the ~Sim·. hal' 'i'.elend.11' ..~1'01 base a III the! nece 1. ~~e ~JUrtar mY:~I.orm ~~.SJ18pe:· 8n·d e:lirm'Ii"~lte ..i'lOr the . .a. _'li!. h~lJ'l~ 111 d el~di of tooth '~hat i~. .alnd ut i:s"quite ls~e l'O ~rlvef~I~'t'h'B eLI/Her cGlmpi.1 the' '~OO'th 15.uipment ThB irrml U'~9 pW'ofl i.a!'lfgi~~ m tIIrst. _.a~d 'to end ~.e~e.lIi~imb(11! '~". ittn e" n.EI n 'I h e' '!lJot h OlJi~ to j'iS cor f'9C~ "iliM'I' lea\ile at t. 80" Wi~h mitre nk. ly-s's' ~ ~I'\0'vkU n~ it: ~s t"llaI «s€ d 'en-etUg!~ ~g 1~~N3iSS ~hrOlii g'lh til e sm. ~ts ~1:e-nQth~'That was a ·:state>m. 'liIla.i.rde'f 'to a ·wl~dt~~ -l1Wn:s 'WI U I~rod wee' a tooth wi-lin rr~s.e.i3ta ry CU ~:aUDns C nI t n e: iis J"!. ~I slNieeabie . p:ro ~~cEl.iS'l b lie 'to P.JIl.ail ~lB en d of the r [0 ot h. onel the limi~ed amOIJJI1~ of eq.h.h'tl'y' .o. Aft'er m a:kilng ~'.Il"OdU'IrH:!l ~he!'toc'tin it onEl.~~.en~hy of nle roode~ engineer tlh·aJ~: is CQ:[i.*"II ..e.'c:h inu~}s·m a k1ersthem .pe at alille Ipass .Y 01111 it.IIIfI\i\hlrds tow.2DIJlP' with . 1. FIt !f) nd 1~1l:J tJte F' repc\~dtic'ne d~ 'wil~~ m ave ttl is m.{ be 's:talndard b I!J t.eg..~.Q I!'I! cli'ttTio n. A bevel gJB8 r' of so rts can be made or '~ludgIItH~lf '~oll!Qw~g 'llbe.kab]~ f d eg r'me erf iI.i!!i.alnd or!i'e used on ·8Uir~CnV.:}~ t!ri3 r wit h a f.!3Jct Ip'~"sses· Ii! n~.. 1.r~s '(hey' IParalle~'depth be'~el:5 81fe j rrI fa(:~ a IIe. sug gest~.8!Clilnets: alr~ 8.s~. CUt' as I N' I~~~ i h~u~th \iV..CUJ al~ 104 105 .orh . _ ~..~:.WI d~h. .aWl9in9 ~I'ong.f cool!' rse.enlgth but ail.~1!lT'lIUs1. I'n f.prOdlllOth if.u~'8S the [ the' wid~h of ~hiEl: sJm31~ e'nd 0'.ath ·ra d not n CQflI.a mli.e ·5me oth e r If\UJnn'ing.Jt:s~ us 1III g Ute .Oith pwc 9ImSi5l@.[)t"h'e!l a. palf.Bind ~s CO rre cot"M D~e ment of bon~ mO..iJ\l·e tiIh'i.the b~lU m~ltho(rto fo'illow Irs. n01! a perfect.1jI9 h.b e IPrOIl.~ 'to~th ls [1.rH1!eds se'lldolffl .he ~p~Ci'.'f.amlaie~ (s .nl.e [."-!>'Ii!! Ji..a ~ !l. to cut a ecrreet ~y 'ro rmed beV'J!. .aV'1S be s~ with pas~!!'a. H owe¥Efli.~nd so' tlh is 1:1.hed u:roth wi dar tow·" ~dl~ihe oUJh.f th!9J bl(P!lih [SUEl simBar 'tQ the st~l!'1d a rdl gea.n:c.i!fD'llr'll tendency 'to bind·..~~'~he ~Ia end w ~~!liH.e·!'!!d 'of '~heto.a.'~~c:a'. t~n!! ~h.~llle~ d'ep·th posit 10 r!i 'ku:"Ihe arn'iiue-i.d e mer hodls~ nr:timng W2N3.oath f.ignoJf1e nae norma:! '!rIarY'iWi'9. !S.. '~hi£)l o.'iI!'i!O Ii> I~. The prafi~e (rf tthe lQ.elmp~Qy~cLThel.as it did fom" Ith e h3rg'e en. in I~he hGlme worksh o:p i'f"t. such i~ th e~ ~f:'ig. 'Wi'th the .'~ n8!t reo~~It i$..e: pro .. m~'ke !tWo usua IIV a .oduted on Im..a.. ueJ(.iJ"'~~'~h u.~~II for h hg h to obtal~If'i til e' .full width to au'it the ~ lOse a ~o ar~Ti~e at a compJ:'~mis!E!! with t..rgle e!ldi &t the t1filo~'hto' 'the eorreet th{HJlf'~itu:.m. Th ts m ethc d ea rtI be· foUowed..th e 0 [I iii rge' .rrt.tI eellctrtier ®a iI1 'be~ ctTIo~elnr [0 p..ulFJ!s q.~ po.ljIB 'Ind .'!..id O'f al ~'kme'~ fit~EI' reouH".t The ne:l([ 81tege ~~s '10 fi.ant nH:idie in Chapter 5 and it..lfod ~~ a p'8.g. b e '_f'~IIGwed 'wn~~h ·a '~V1Plic~li .al p]r\Oi:n~'e..!:p9cls o.do pted pfe'v:ic u"sly wi ~ I..a de beve Is.P Q'~:si~ ~ In crder Ie 'ffOm 1JhIB h. i'sl o.a srpet:i:ali OCle~h cin. rnaeh inelS.d 1:hre.ofi ~E!. V :I.i r o'f 'm~ tro' '9 ealf!l'S O'f.l'he wh bou t e:nd.!LI! tlIr L -1.rectfor' t~lelira rfilElI end :So' ~I:tat \I ~e r e' ma li"e oAe.alll. IQ.alill eM d t~liffit '[t will IilDt be .flg bli"J'e~ :g'eiIlM"s' ~nd ..!~V il!iltil"c duced be illfbti)i powE!·r "~ra nsrn i'$'shlfi s to prom ot.~~'sio h~S8 U. As.iJ.ge'r seem 'EO be ~n'favGur Ic'ut' Uiie fe. I!. ~cn'BClt r.:5 .xpc int AI~ ~a1I'ttuI'a.. WI II !.wa:rds the lalf"e e iIJ t IPAJRAILl'I!Il'EJ EP'1 frli '!B..rifi!m'. drawn in ·nfrS. __ : iii~lIiW .l~iHfu~· Cg!fl't~tI:sruon ·s.u. gee t:iii.rll '( IiB n not ~. the bef\'He ~tHa de1i.!!lO(lit n.h 'fi n:a I il'as&lI It ~:Si u~ ~eeDfld pa~5 '(h. ~[. ss is .. it ~oS. . the s n1'u:!i111 e III d fJrIF 'tJh. been p'If.i.ouhll' !be 1'\e\i.20 l!8eUl and .i@n~'. be'.d b!J~the :teedl wiU n. aSi w"oul~dhlll.(. l$whelfet'h..o !h.it) be d r e:sa:-ed bV IP'. th e r8'for8 1mlI:$ t be th iIi .:adrv@n~ of' m edern 0 ene r.WELS no I~O".'fore Ij ·~t~'~dtilil ta pe'r. IJit181 n' 'Uooe turuer' It.a~n~ ~hiS1 ~'S'.Sffl1811 e n~1 .ed fig..g'UiitiS ~he p rrooed liillre a.~'rrd:s:title t. lea !..d re'q U ~!fIe no it d1di~fionaI dfleS['i.!!rrt ..P'en i'f'the h B.HtD no stlll:l" a g·e/ar in d eta i'~ d esci'ibe '[he .S IOOfill'l~m ~u N'. we ~W1()W '!hatt the p~k'h '~o"e . __ . ru I"! ninlg In w~. .!11l' ledIJe!:" fequ'il~d ...lhe ~rpe.:'i iV p ooduced in joblb'~1r:'I19: 'S ho ~ 5. > I~M!ld [llJ'ilfl'£:l!iIlN'$tU!'le aetual'l" w ~'U be the t'n e~lre.tgih 'the small B'lfH~~: o·~tne"I1{]·oth 'whi. 'to.ft51a rrUy ch.!! f.li'1lt.alnswer i8..xtEH'liSivlI3'ly IIlsed ~WI the p~lS'tj partic u lalf~V dIU ri ng the S.'.re th~1f'l jJJst 'si3t.

: .If ~ ~!!ii'" ~ '0' dn...•. ~Ii:! ~ ~'i.rm..'9!? ·C .I!l'(i e.lU b 1:·9tn'e Oaf I1Q ri:Z!~ntDI rnmlleUi and' :so . a· Verlir:iI' lf1i111nf} machine. e. dh~idet~' by' th~ !l!'~n~ of the pitch' .~ G -A Ci~ T T'i: i'.aiW'B' ~. ~he la r·ge 'i8lfld P'..c.e be~el and woui d Ul en.0le~th and . tQ~·E.mtjilill and. [bJ'B df:..C~LC.€N.'~. ~:~ .. iI1st:ruct~on S ·tor m'c1chtnl1ng· to CU ~ 1111i S 81l11iIJiva lent S.ar I~asier tt.~~:di:ng head at the tel QWJ iif1ed aliil'9h~un 34.obtai n·ed ·tltris w·ay~ palnU~~'Ra r!y if ape'x pOifflrl.JL.e' e~lIJh'.QU Id b~ Ch(HH. at Ji-lJ~t l~e .QO0 d'ialm:eb~. wh~ch 'in m] s ca~s.ad. 11 R'fJady' fi_f.seIJl. N!J<te filu.!L . pef1.ftl'1le:se_ ali1cl i~heJme~hod iJ Stl~ 1-0· o:lcul ai~etjnem j'·are sh.. J...e' ne. i~is.st type eif mach~ne Olffl 'which to cut Inurn bel' 'is themm to thB '{Ou rtll ~uHer In Ibev. sta n dard spu If gi~alr 31rrdl W~.~ IO.o:m ~hIs facel to ~:he l other pro.. I are baise.'" ~il'Ve·rs~he!Ilfsnge .~~ il.a.JD 'I' Po ~ '2.h:.:2JS ~~ ~g.I. ~~II<ltl..li.. .~iignIH.f 'I:he blan k.J.)(ercits:e.a.':. both ta j'Q!e and' . (~.e:d no'[ b~ da~·afim~ned.i~h is %p d Wh1 ch wU111 .iiilloce !@\'f U~e· "oa'n be' se~nfTom' 'tln A~t1rMill~Un.ch Q1 VIes US . IJ..~s ill nv a W.. with thls m'~thodI a~ ea leu I. iJI r bevel has. ~yT'I(:"Ifj.. _.ng IFi'g.!S bry d~ I fee eele u h::lit'ion.ctluld 'figur.O'f 21]. IRea.I'f a beve~ grm'(i ~\P).eth~ 'iIDhIs 'lyp. Th ls ca·n I n. / ·'"7'~(.. ~nd 'line v..."I'm d'It!IIpth o~· ~ .0.a I.g'm c..t~. :ifiiEq ulrod e'ither "(Olr 'r'unher ·cra!lh:~. h'ow'a\l'E.r [Jestri prio flII w]!ll!' 'reatu m Ule '~ni~i s.OUI..2.eiP.""" 2.~s 'whil!.CJ1.e n ~hon the t'H)~ depth..owIJ en ~he. The re~lSbHl fa r 'thi:s m n in.ulations e'r in~h e~ m~e~ ilnM1Q ~t. drs W IOn 'th~' ~dde{ndUiflil '¥!ih ieh w·e :~Ullow' Jf.g rnachlne.·"".a'H 'the ll liI·e If. wh ieh wi II giv~1 us a 'ng u re' t(ji~ JlSIll ~t~s fa QW' POii5:~b.~.'!l5..the correct cutter'h') use for tlhis r lbe.. 2.'~s.1iJ re ~Va 'UJI rlr'l'i. it is ·f.-000..! wh". m'th ill OU"JIe'f~ p 18' of gitNalr r!.0 Il'1I 91th wOU ~d·suggest.nI tne Id!rarw~ng es t. This ta'gure. 8.'.200F' at thel sms ller er de'term~'ne dete.I.B!n hereas"th~-s .oCe§~'!i! 'the!' .D '- !"IQ O£. [(.IHowever.FaWDoil:t.ce i'l ~·. It.s: alf [!ric h p ..enlg~th 10r ...gle.. 1}"'[)1'~ .s. t. :80 s:haw'~liIre be:IiJGiI gea'f we1t.ecSen~i ng th e inrner fa{.r.k}t:! ~iO.jS i:~~Y$tratedwl'1ef!l dis(lU'~s~:ng be~'8~ .C .. .. 6 eu [ter thart' WDilI Id be used f.pe·lid~UI~ar 'to th~ pitch 'be c [l'QI18. ~a III bi€1.i[).aw~. a 'f119'IJ re co of . J."t.I~ ze 1f)J~ 'M_"f:~ ~~ 'o~ 51.e wld1fl of at. :5h'DW'1l1 'iln Fi g~80 and co me'Si (nollt.:'.. 1'GB.~ es ra 2"~ "t"OOTM F~ .o iiM" 't~e 1he .a:~'U rate 10 wi ~ b e iO~~ or 1.5:ma:11 en di~ ml. 'O~p~ .. .E!lndheld iln p~ aGe ~n tin·e· '111'1 ~ n e.~n N(j dets i!i!d. by se8'11~'ng the dlF'~~liI'ig. I'" .d~. 0.~o. Plii. °/.o r al 2~-'tl0o~h :spur gea r..~) .C.f....le to delle rrnl riI a th E!' blla flIlk .. NU1"-"~J~' ~!:) ~ I Roe Or' T'~~7N~ . aUI~.or the tha ttJb ~es as .j(:~11 mMI~iilI 91 m lBtQoh in e! Ir..0.thl8i a rb!:l'!I" .R~L II!'~ ¥().ow b~ (1i"Nlrked C._.91th flf Ihe to OH11 'faci!lJ' ls e 'simiP~V~ mat'tl·~ r o·~ go od pro'po rtJo t1 alnd a fa t.""iI''''' . PlliCl4 ·Ottli...".. e' be\l"el ijs ·the' cutter ~ha1W..PO .ant to se rem: the CUffed' cuttelF'..~110... !i!~~~ uz~~'E.ip Ll'r gea Il'.alno !l:!l.. ~!n 'l:h~sif'! silln.ai:th OJUg'til 'tn E! cutter' 'EG' te e use d .•• ~·M~·I!. I . Is. .: 3'!itJ 4.V~F':28. ~ . .nably iiCCU.¥.8pp~ ~to ...Dd of eal'~uh3'thilQ 'Un ls lluOllber is i:s :p..~' frul'Bf face a 111 ~n·e· IP'. (~. 'of Ima eta i'flle! 'tha n [gil e'[~h:e'r·the Th e C1uttlBWis Ime U n~ed IDiiI !!j $ hcn: Is.eM.._ - ~ til c-(. Thl s: e 'ttn e~liI: lirx'ss '~h8: ba·ck ftace' of th~ tj!l!th and a.~t(. 'SL'iJ t! .meHa. OUf '~ee1th wUI thare-'f'()fB be .J!J1ti ng ~~ iis l'mJpod.gWm..'om IP n~vi:ou~: rdI i:sc:usskrn is· '~P...2(tIDP '~il)oth. .:€llO '" ~ -. ~.C. The· ~angth of the bae k.. The d.amHeimr i~han ~~.H.1llrnn'Q Qjm '['fila. "r-ac~ i:$ ~JIh.elnd rn ():l'iit! cOnel an~h:" wh~.tanlC'@ fr.!r nee ~I to be' gnl!a ber SPl! r g~a r I':~ I a r'gB'r ~ di.~1falrn'~tlers.. ~~..0:::.. ~n be ·f(n. can b~ Dbt.alwJI1 ~.1~-""~~ . but as lhli·'~· not is.~ ~ '2) ~"ai'u ~m'"1 ~.rgea r 'CUl1tU!J'f'.!il SEiLE~"r'llO~)' . iad deterrn in in gl ·thf$ dim'I9n:~]o ell as it has ~H) b..own as ¥tB: but there ts n'D fi_..350.WL'To'~'$. The ~hte g:l':!ar·. Ir~!lUiOlnab~.aln e' s~. ~'i-lI~1H at) "fOOTjI.t.pe·C".'J91l1i01 dJ'iiiding "te. kl to sudt th e ilndividrual re'qui~emenls· of1be de':. ne-third of ~he· c p~:~c.r..af·1les~h i'n Ill:hapte~ !i'The dcrt!fled Iilnes 'ijn f~Q.l wi II not: Ibl2i ':I:he No. I~ As. !.II"·ilif:e resJUlts.. ..S ·tffi1.i ne all 51l.tJr:t! ~ .•.~t. .c ICHl tine :s.L·E: t..D.r I !1~f78 t . ~~1i!I . an d1!' as 8 ~ dv rea stated.h na 1.bi·~il'!ikll1"reedbe g·tv. The: Fest c.~ ~'~jooJD ~ Co"JT ~ .E.ali'necJih"oml mOre tE'eth . N:ettt.ind" as can ·anv the drawl ~gl [s mad e folU r' orr flve tl m es. • I.lso.a..The 'CYittE!'rwe' raqulre f.pind~e bV rn eaH$ a. .)".]'011~ The ~ 11J.300 which' se~m's. o (h·..f a -d.='~Grre.d rn ethod[ of 1i~1It ".'nt gea r.bi .B 'P.' 15 .: l:"o 2. does. fUll'i ~siz·e.'l ~iO.O~D ~.s [s a.D.qu h::ke r .a IfI ~Ia rd sp'l!J.n ave ~Q hi live h .n lie d irme:nsion.

obtanin Ih e' cor ~\ect s ett.rda I 'tit1 ceknes5 .on the inne'l" profil e produce d Iby the fJi m.and 'S!O' i.: ill1 o~har word s.o. n 'must.aU'id:s. Tra\!l1e rse' :the ercss-s ~I_d~ i. ~ rse AA.iBlpex' po!:nt ~lnd pa ~silr:1g ~hroug h -"the cho'ii'da II 'Ehh~knE!'Sli.t'..u.itrlg.~ 00 usi 09 't118 d bID I to ."'- . ~\ar~II.nat . of Un:~ tablh~' 'afiLdwheB~ P!JJtOfii the h lout to 'tll.o t'lfi e' ri~g'h:t by a di.gl .s..e billjilhk .ef.~1l1e oor.ss than ~hel !'ine wo u I'd m OVi!9 wlirm 'the l~lfne .ltJkmng off.alt 1s l rnesns O'f' il IC'~am'l:il I~HJt M 8'li"fipl.ern" to dial z\e. bu t 'if WS WBW8 to' n'Hilve tfl'e1 cuitetlf l!Olver .~ ~~'S:r ~ ~5 i !Iii. .!atn d 'OOCIJIIP¥' 't h'l . in 'faiij'~Ib~oom e ill i!'-i3ld~a1. Ii 9.I ~nG.rre!!!dy Ul. IOf tn.~ 't'h e.I 11d erD~s~s.e ~'i nes: .nk ean b~ n 1 TIl-~~~~ ~~~ 'r-. Whell1 the r(i.xa.e M'I 'tlhls '!ls.._ po..[ com rnence. 1his 51a'~le!iis '8 h OWfl in ew cf' 'wn .:i~:s...'s. use:d ~alU\ttdlel~ te tile t'ab!I:e-s~Jde:wa'i/s ."~ t .~:. 'lIh'~ 'oonditi on IOff B'achi tootJh wi'll be i!J 5 '!iih:OWf'll :~n tne rdtlllg.0(1(1 vi posi't~o'n' . D f g~shiiilg.fl..-.fne'r movement n.JS5~~ me lI"{gh:t' a fniV ba~h.:9iFtD.~lilig . XX . IFina 11~'i i:JQar bl en k can be' the Ifig'.o. Et'lfi~5. Th~ m'~'5:t be nujli'it:1'1 I~nllasm.ll 'ijft .o~ rap.daUli' lh e ~h~ .aJchtn~'s.10 'nU oenl' ra r~.'!ll h to each other' bu~~n0 ~deu'for ~he G'I IBrto mesh ~...COmmeli'N:e. .tJnB' ~OOd1 mllG~.... well Id w'i deli! til e ItO'llh S'apl IcryBf.e'[h harY'9 been [. tir.on 'the p.rree't p ositii 0:111 i1has be en mfj~hedb:u~k :lhe q u iII 'fi. m a1pel( poi f1Ii[".e!l·ctlrs '~he~e iIe we' 'wh censi del' :i3J !Unl. Eh..fHrs". Hoes rn USl f-cd Ilow the dotle d j.t i'nte~felr..~ the:rn leek th 0: tabl'e V'ery 'f! rrn ~y i'l"II !~Dsiti:oiO.94.~fDn~tlii G! '0e\aill"b'k~nk arb or ~s i~nrlSene d inte "th6: divid.roa~'nad on the Cl DW!i.F Ie.-.j ~Io. ~ .Bib~ Im~ re' trC'li'Ililfler ~\O :z. ~m~~e .rhmUDh ail .l1 ch~ng dn. .n..e.ar~ pa ra Ihl.iindiwheeli I be n ~~ded lQ CY'I .he t ~arge' rtilif'idl~.m.~ell'l I ~_h-e' iilt'g'@ ~nd 10m.ui'sc$.tit.sf'p.rry on unti I a II 20 '~.each tooth ~ ea.o.dieptlirl of .iL 'W ~e. If a EUiwa~h dJvi:d~ng h ~d Is bei I"iI gl usedl! .g tJlhell'l by ' liIFI1811111!3.\Jtt.cLll!lied by A.. 81 shQ.4l!5~.a.!:h:SJn 0WIiI..c.~ l r. but: a 5.an. cite Iii Q8d. in All. thl~n iln lordre!r to cut 210 teeJ:h th reo turns o~'the h.~up.e re.tJnd SErl the m i(:r~ime~.p~eCi.D..1n Of$fr.Gt~y'ttre' Sa:mlB W~V des'cMilbed '~0f' SPY r Igrears~ The ~:~me.. n. It!!111 d needi Ag '~tJi rther' euts Ie w$den ~heIhi 1"'98 e.one (lll1 m(.-h tlhre C8i!i1tre po~ltDon 'by' . DD 'lIl'O~.ut.wi'llg the 5et.~i ifiI: ' :Sl!J'rn~~enlly .' its !Com plle~t! I'B1ngdl and r LJ j 11 ~~he sma end p.s 'IhsoIn-y'.and 'Hrm~I'lS8~1Jj red by mean 53 0".d ell n ~1:sl~ d ng~ be.U t C Lo:~'ki~.II~ h. 108 .olrle-h:al~!f of ~h iC'~u)r-da~1 ethi'~k!rn.lithe OB'rit.~pr"d I@.t to th €I dmum h ole ~n t:lInV i"lilng af ho itfs t~.the r~'8th.Is.a~ Ith@' li'n.~ a rad ial~'I unle'.111 Dlil t.it m II.appro1a. .deutti~g ~n '~~B'n fh e: .nW.k u pwsr€i:s 1'\8 nu)~e' ~'Dble ..n T~'G.:plel'ed. hav1ns h8d ~hnre p. '5'e~ the dilVlidl~ng head I~'ete 11I. Iy!d~ h_.. the.. IPDisiti'£i!n ~inIh e d il!li.a 001 Wer~ to be taken! Y' tflD"'OlJ!g h -the bh3111 k after ~h is 'C~. a~ . t'Dward S: 'the bai[:t of tile maeh~nle LIlnti I i:_he eu Ile r elsa rs "~he!WtOri(.~[ throulghoul 92.til IFig. :a dr-aw boiit.to r cn~]sibie: bV 9~1~lJrr .h::ll.lrean n~ Ib e ph. The.~.rne .all!1'Qihlwh i~h ilmthe ~ats. bB: 3 pp.itch cone . 'the p09[tion of' -'I!h'Ei! !s:-mall e I!'Qd raJ8tiv'9' to 'Ute e utte r must n m be shape IObvh~us~ if . ~frlDWfll i~ thle rn~bev:e~ whew alNr ....e.g 'the Rig" 12.hsad 'the e>lltti utI :~m)c~Sl.orsind ~!e.d .Wind t.h rguijh 'tile QP~ 'pof.lI'1rn.S1e"tlhe c.~ oolt~ar I .r ~~Qlog~ph fad t~1~:i e a'S.whi(:h mil QI:V'S the m. Th.~-~s(JI ~~.~t(..e: with '[he 'smalll end p'fofi.eB.posit~on r' 'w.''M'ili!ll"d m o\!!\e mern.ro.gII.enti'!ltglth e Cho.eStte.1f18' 'i111.'bi.. Ii's.rel~lH\1Js.~b AFIiii!.ra:n~ ~~u.cutt'e r Wi~r elr!ltle~ the bllsfiIlk by the ~ma'llll end and leaviCI' a:~:.e 'WurU .ce wi !ltd 'the: t uttEJ~' ba:r.'C9tii1t!f. [f SfJV (]vershotOi! ta Ires IP!s.e.fr'lJr the Q. LJ'8lV'td g~QfSlIthe . lbe tooth 'fornn "!ii~now ~e lts :~engthJ! tU~'hl. en set th~ l'. lJ'I'a~~d an but [jns~ea. tlh e whol'l b:ta.n IE! c~u:e!r'dowm to the . posi t]iQ [fl' by '0 rn e!illn. 84~ alnd we wn II elat\f'1a m.the 1i!lJ'S. gee r bl an It ·~lrtuJ.al 'to. 'PlH8idlV fer Un!1 l~iLlttifili~ tCD' .t'h a p.ra rn Ifig'.!i.e'qjulred at f'i'a"e Sl'lU~III~ 9. (. An\f add~~iona movG:m€lnt tel wi.(. '. d)GWnfeJsd hamu:~hNh.ou Id 1!h ~ n p:a s~. i n.e·e~i Jilig .andwin'8i8Jls lJlinti I de the cuner is jU:5 t 'tOi..n8 .Jslh in the s-ys~8ml'm en wind dQwn alain..t'be' 'Ie~OIV~..P~').f t~1.'ng head l~lJiit a !.eeI.:e'd in. :5e~ thle' s p h o~. IPQ]'n.'II~ ha I.d Oir be'j ngJ set of: th i~ l8Xa mple.it does 'no~p'~tiHi'~hfO til g!hthe.".~. pre-:viOliSJ'y held bVthe reSi'ltm 1~.

~ad b~~k !:'9 tn'elf 100lrigin~I er stlll ~1'~ngposT:HClns arnd then .f HiJ.g as any a ee idJanta'I' mOrvem.f.f!-@!ded fro. n:eeded '~~ r.~ilid be ms<al~troIUs.or ttwe q U.e.a!~pa~~ 'i~..tanee thi~ sea Ie IU\fla ~lil1g 'of 'th el' cli'at w. flOW l~ kleiO~hi fa IlJ glh a'lll tJhe te eth on the! b~.8 FlG Bj.!j h. lenl'y >Wi sm"a~[1 amO'unt (iW Q.si'dlets the tee~h b ~ing i.JI~ 'v.'1i" of: 'tJh'ifJ. Ib!~the ~halp~1 shown un F~g~85.the seoon d !~nd.hil!so.[.1) 'is muvtH11. recomm e. pass ms..e 01~ib'eJng div~d~dbV f:ou r.@"J'./~"f '''iiP:!.a.ettrngs.~'Qd.~chi i~m..'n.81P1P.n:t~'Ii.centre runti1: dots XX neu~rn b) their original =·MtaTA.Pw.h8' offse.t.'Y tadl all.~'1i1d! thh·d.I~..e~lr.is rnovement W1t~ bIe in the upwarcls I' obtali rrled by r. . Sit) t tt.ng IIJs.e'Jilt d uri ng euttin 9 j ~"-'_ -s 1(1.a1 .id!i fiI:Y.911 m ac:h ine is.oonld . H OW.rla'a ~)iJJ rll1~ I~Uts malV not be SOl no.._backl ~~ih 8r:r d when saui 11g1 ln '~IOlll!Ur tij m e'8the n lii m.~q.f U.au Itl . n t~a cHv.rE3. e .Bm. as.~:n'iJ9'ifi~11 1~L!t whi'ch 'wiU restliJ~t 'fin ~ smatl :s.t.hjs fJ bt~il'lJed from dn e of Ii= IJG. i_d~Q1'0 II!OWS' a true radial Iine. 'thtFl\~e it .y fi'lrst ratlll r!f1limg betffil tUner 'Bll'1rdl bialnk '~o ~hei r QriQ!~lI'1a!stiSni 1iIlg1 [P ositlO1n arid then bV displac:iling them af!lllE!lClUa'~ .qluall'tfJ'rs c. Q'f -r.any 'foU rt:h e r 'm'a:tari a l.. ~pparent~.~ roUib'{es ~n .8 mo dOWfn re ~d .1.c l.ts ~'t ri)t.as g 1I'@!iL'EI81S '! h fO ilJ!Jih 'th~ 'C:!JJI.v~si ~nrs. m.n ~I[ fB:K!ifJJmp:~e [nas itO '~ee-tlh• tltltE~lrnfcue' '~he '.ould ..~'f U.g usedl ~ s 'eH"l1 pa!j..ow .n.~.ea a:Fi[e~ win icih . qunl. Ii!: IlJ L lihils wm .1J'lCI' ~'~.d 'anay ~.'v id'i D'lI m .. to aUh sm!n~ r'i.flem'E! rat but Ttu~ '~QO-'h callil p of eo ur.S nts c.e(ftthe poill'us. in Ill}!' oi '!..be:r 0f te e~h Itle~ng.1J1a Mlrt.~as'~~'ght .a nu mbe r o.$!8n:ts . S7. A5 the 1 [ di mens io riI bel r.L 2~~6.fjlfrrUit!Jer by the sJin@of '~he li'nI'gJlllel.!r.lerUoiill11 m'u~i111.. ~s C~ rrsct mr~cro IInlete r dht llisad ~n.:i ~ r~m ovi n:g' lEI y' JiI'1[Or@1 m.l" .O~.ed fa r ~ di'V'isi on pilattte A d ireclt d ivi'siofill diy~drrig' '~'-e.l'ti:elr .\1}lpa.idi he\~d tlilis n9 but f.A. m'e ~OO' the' n:e.~l@!s'be used.The q NJJ Th e: 5~GI)'Ii1 dl.d ial movement . . tim e in.3 mis!talke' is made. DPI~ DSit:e' d irec~:k~I"S.atQ~lllmpl ished lD.a~:thhi: p poi rl:t.or one~el:g. 'til rou'gh t h:8 to eth .e~h: y HM.oorreu~~t ra'~ rf1i I'I~ it rlrl~~ . T1hecrrle~'i~.F- fM.avin 9 !bei n:g ter'l'uJv.i~n !U~ m'lIJ51.at~lil_'~all n and si nee' tbe ~1.) S.t 'mlrg'et: the e'h3Jf1f!la!l.f:" 1J!'1f3!se11'i-n.C~')ii.e f r. 0 n all be' l. wrtha'lIJl removi rag .rul.01 the' . fcuth e tllIll rd and ". . ai S~.lll1J9ir .haw" i:n Frg~ 80.. ~ho ~JI.a$l. g@ back:~t ~eas~'onl€!!.B1:h u ~t: iis im pttrtalnt to rEHili'N1!n:TIlber JlOt-ik "llhte to q ul II seeu wei'll afltt'E!.a. back 'to ea flier te~'t this 'is.~s'eiir 'the '~~fU~'Iip..s~. Ju:s IdliSJd." .oomlpl'lei£.a ch 'tooth wi I~ n[k~. I be~.se'p'be cut ~n [ust.11he ri'.hed' In the sa mii' di rection of IFc:)'ltii~iQn s use d 'ill!1 tiihe in iti a II1lOd8').:Q.9'j'USNng ~he 'fin e 'the.:u:tEI!m'ellilt 'it' ls .o .b'e an awkWil..~1E2 b I unt of ma~leriaI a'G't)!Jaihi removed ~i'lli~ b~ lba~9ly delecta Irlh:! and h!elV8 no I sign ifica nit B~ct an the~ 1i'1'0 rm anca lof Jpe 'S'E!Oflj.. lind 'lltU= se..8 mcu 1fi1: of lrorta!t~on mqulured.4~ ~Ej.si m..es :~.he CUJ'It@f m wm b~ up rand down rathor :ze'n:ilhe rnicrorneter di'a~'with alII -rhe' backl ash enmmw. the' Hnished g.t!li1 ret9"'~lJIla l1Je~.a!r~iQ' d~~.y _.i.he-!tWa r. apiPrg:a'!l.( PCi!!i.adiv~iI'l'tag.96~ w~th O'W Iboth ._ '~Ig".otat i!I1g.allways the s~nm a fiI d e ~(N'1Isi~5tS sl m'ply of m'U!~i!lllyifng hlallf' lihe ~ p'i Ich di.e.1 t. a \r..Ihi:s ¥'lIO].allly 'Ih:~s ~s GSls]bh3' imp 'b eca.a'bout' irlS.C 'th. ~i!i:e:.. l'VPB of m.6Ilnd .red h 01.away 'from '~hii ~I fll th6 plt[ch 'l]ne.Blturn. Th 9' !~~'Bir end 0'1'the tooth i!ll noW liIiI such ~~ ~~!bDn p a~ wni the cuUer to p~SiS ~hrcug:lh i'~ with~ II.lv two p~~s!e3.ctatS'd el ockwi se .a.e!!ng to 'the II~ 1m Ciutlti r to n 'ljh is.p. imlp~lrt.f'dii. rei rn mb~r af tQ. Ell1"Ilph arsn'.". Whare.rd fTle'. ne'MV ~f e g-~ Ptf{)..lit p.~p ~lied ~'n .of th e' n ICJ.ilna~math 'hi)W1ffil ~.~.on a ed 'Iru[e r. .b~. aPE~ R:I'IklT ~ ~s '$..n detl :~hi!t. a ln order'to obtaS1Ji1 dne IGOflmect .:Jl..de gf' ine the t[ooth liCl 'the .U..third Cllim. A ~hi'rd a nd fln.~In1g.SJettl~ng'~hen 'U s:in{!II 0 filly twa re.r Uis bha rJk FrO ~r tu m.D ~now ~-.h Pl ln Ftgm.]1 e' l.iI Mow f.du!Ce e rille si.~midl lend pro. a~ an 811gY lar dicspl i.iiit 'the des~.s. :alrigII~ to Oth t but I t.1illi1 ~si's. ~ pr~ ~'G.L WH'!l.e'i~ 'ilhf.th)eQb~ f!.all'l't wh en ~ntra:1 isfng ~ha eutter 'two 'mcrvemerrl.~l a...t'h fa B.5.OJ:9 dil 'Blqua~'to h~ifo.alflk rlO]11 bu~. Tn liS :SiSCO n dl p~r~s i:s.a!Jh'in. lhe raaS{iitliil why' '~~ is.ll~ed bUi~i'fi so. is..e!li n~ do no.~'~~ 'lFli~ 'r: ~hI.:see IFi'g.. ~\.~ 'Si e81r bei m. C"" rr. The.~~.s..)!tng. The ca'll~u Iation 'is.a. the e .! r a~t On al 5D! 1 li". ttU. the di'v'~d~ng ~'H.!fJmOVe th al ~u rpl us III a~i8 fir:(ii:J'n the [ottHlr sidta tQ'~ ria~ the te'OU~so mat 'Ulllis.e' ~ 'tWOI Cyt~.J'T ~ -" "'- '-r "~'I po's iti"Qn l!'te!'atRve to the' .[_~ '!lieeded t~ obta'in 'tJbe co rre~t J5Eftt[ng for 'I:he seee rlJd ICiIU t: 1'O:r 'E li1. _ :!IO 'me~hi.e.~ se the e urte r i'rn 'the $!eI.l[g ~eh:::ilJoiaitian~ .e 20" lmooth belVel ls to move t. 1~lirecti on iii n d th~rewom' 'liOI e:~h ie:ve tlh"e and 'UA 8' .racticraill w. CDa dClwn E:!'i1her ~id e .n~m s di5UI rlI 09 of .htie'Ul of s'tu flfl.~I>.flh.~ 'E"'J~L..eq u a I 'm. be.a~i'~n of: 'tille' d iv'jdi n gl hea cl 'wn I be G'F:! e-~ i~..u rl~r' Ci~ :the!" to Mh in de.e'dhom lilire~ top pa n of 11'1 ~nv~:lliule CUIWS.p.'~h'i cuts. C'apa:bl e ag..IlU€liilll is rem Dved ~n lh.t.~t8d.:1'1f'I9.. The 'f. billlick b.A~ if lin eQlr di.w'i ~I no'il'V b~ .s$.031 eur~i ~~tum both IC-{LJ~rer and m !~ I' • .[e [ to .seti ea r:g be .~' b f~~t pa.~di~a'ill it wi II p!rc.z'Dna[~ atntLl1d~ the dri~s aeement erf pi the CL!ftlJ€i:r than ~ 8Jnd F~:9ht ~ eft' RBmn.i3' ~)O ath th~ckne'Ss 0 f'i w'l nl h ave to lbe taken . dividing h.is :po:si'~i'o:111 .a.nd .!..ly both tQff~~!N~lt and bl..o'Ufilrt i'~1 the opilposim dimct~oos.s been m ad'e' ~beut not re'mlo'IJing i11!lnyN I1hSJ m iitlirial fli'om t{~e.

. 11oo:I. ssen tln~~.t of 'twol C ]rcu ~au" lia rdened.""~ c:e"-JITf.hop\S.cC-I!J.B:liI'tre n 113 .derst~aJnd til H pro bl. olf -:s.~p~~·ifh." -T~w'1" (.~nd alsn how 0" bV Ln~i111 Q a'ne ~lJf:U-~ronl y '~lO' n)dUG8 a ralngle of ·U~erJh.lJ ird'd1.. p.e:en irni~'i!!iItrril' ~~~ !I."(' Q~ ~~~~ !'~ WitlhoUft d eu bt th e Qima:t!B'st p:robh:l'Jf~'th.o:nI:~iiidle!i\edm'mplFactTca~ Zii'. a 10.'Si.mall 'sea] OUi'i df (M@I Ell.. ~...£ _ .. ean be.!1S ~~II<iJiT (I~ -.s:ide conrs]sts efa CUNe. the .~ I~i"""r·:::"-.es f~II DII1UD 'twa disti ~.~a"enu grea r ~ee't~ I .I .'I::Si.L ~OLl. l P l8ehi!O .an in "IiC~t' be. The Eillagram showstrnat .riI e. .prod uce th~ . W 'if"1E.a. nll'm'be ~ lof e ~ tte'rs ne~ded te toyer a ~ el'!le!On!Jll8 I~~jles ~msay 'the least.:.!)rQlPdafe d ~...::"" ~.!i!l'1ld.vmriM ~tr:i:ca~.J! ri"..'1.!~n.".n 8.'I!"I "p! '~JE tha t~n iy 'a''~II~sm a IIIIS@otlO[tl'" r~. --~ " ~.aU r t~! m·:a.ed . . no rrfNi~'11 ach~rdng m "H~tl1loiD1s as it is !ilO~..~.ff ~he llOoth and 5iO '~lrQvidel U'H! .~~T'1a!.ating m~ch'jlnilrv.r~'_UT'!. ~ F'16 e.ych a la rgle e~penSlr ve and p'!JJ reha s.a!~lel'rc r Ifni CU.dii u s' ls CEi ~()nth"llualll¥ chanQing'.·.11h e ~tm'e' ID. s~artjlingl with a IU\o n O~JJfii'oed eu Nle and tffil..is.H11 a IiIl.ern'fJ~L1e!'l"lling 'OUrt ~'I' each .ll l~Jlllf~~ I ~ ~ -i y ""llg ~QO~tu p:D'lofGll lin is :s.' .ol[\I'ed i'.8!Of! iSfm'i liar Iin Ipf:o'f~ Ie t!ti.alndl i'r ve·ry' s..IcuHer bjts C!llr buttOn's m-f :a!p. seccn dll'y to b'a-ct to. ~iI1tftj is.~ all" mOdu I!Ii ..ceo.~~i"i'm. ~n Chap~IBIf 2" 'it..~ i~ faJ~ m ~ch Iess th~WI ~h8 ~ j' S'atmlB shape a 5 Uj'N~i pace between two s lSld..!!....t tconsidfH.:lj'aI~sed sh itl~~I..t)t~1 is venti sJma'l1 i'ndeed~ .e'ffiS '/!(!itu If" aw·t11 The' s. ·T"irflorc:A\. ·E. .~ ~~'~iY '.i n gJ en a i~ew may be c.amal[.. '~~M 5:.d~hait ]. l~iI1 Olrd'e~f 'to u l'l!.~ 'th. :.llti.ma III t th& bud'.even m!~H'Je so :if tha cutlers are alse he me-made.c:a t:ed~ The actula'l t~nnor b~.cuHlei"' Glel ell ooillsis.1 bhL 'lhe GOS'F.cu:UIIIfS thaliarEI' ca·.~t~ir mloJ!JJmJE)d air some p riu.autti ngl ~e thei r :s.talFi arc ~f\u~l fl1r. r3 r 'e ey-and own cutlers na!~eiiim' Hg~8B~ ' wile re .o . 8~ ~h~' ctlU.aj(nitV af hobby works.!!! of GuitNng 'ge~ rs to.n J.rJ' cUlltttiars. p. c.an dl tihO'tlC'UJ el inv\ol u te iI!Ii ."'lIQ'j.cass~~ (:~ear~..1~WGr ~s make jt:i.fO I!J nd. ar e edg.d rid :it$ base !Ci11iiC5h~1.139. e.e' ~t a th e outEn· ~. .. ·prov.1~iO ~t:.ke.n.01 often ~ 1.'f ~l1e..alb~!8'to 9U biSili'liiJte a true Iradf'us for an lrivo li!jl~'e m.1il be :to fo:llh)w a W'O IU gh an nu I.ICO~ L~A ~'IR.) c or three cu r~@r.n·b:_ .AP"P.!l1 ge'iilli:i .::i'IE.t . n t r'e'" in d1e.ITt"G e '~'"'" s..l1 '~hi!form iR&l1 tooi!}11 tot m alke the 'g:ea II' .~~'auWrabl e' to t he \l"a5~ m.'-'J. p..I~E ~ . ~ m.ti11Ut:eCil ~V a tru e ra ~~us wi~h vewv Ii'l1Je d..d uus.~C!lUa I Iprafll~ err UU'=!I! cu tie r 'wh~ch m'LI!En ~ e Un~ ~ nv. fie C.about ~h 'c~n~re Iiln e' and e n~a ~'5!'~e fV srillla. the inv.~. QIo"III:.~~"PJ'~.24.1'0 lute 'folr the ~IQo~:h [profi 10 req IIJ i'red~ Rer[~rtliin!gl back ~..arB QDinci'dal"lIt a nid U.'. _.1i1 s puro1ducnOlgeoe' Ilea I~ filrS1: w~th n~ tooth p~aifnei' ~:r.C1 elements.~r ~paiEh awo!.ij d6d ~hat ~he 'co~ect fsdi'l!I s ~s ~'h.ea. Oil n a!'$D be"s. ~~ ~'Y ~. \.s.~ITu.:: FrO" .ein lJ1lBc :5:i~e· 'the· tm!UEl' ridius:~. ~ .e am ateu r 9 ~i F cutl!~r '1:1 as to face ~ii the CO$~ of' Ul B Ig. GI'a:.pabl.~ EU. "F~ nilmb~y:' cwi ~ 91 pjin~O'rilS: an ltoe avoided ~h~n may'be lWiI..ullt-em.e'.Niil'llll r.e. :1i1 M c na that .o]ute lCli F1I8' hi..FI!It00 'Ume.im a n'~l.S.PB\j.G te.i ~oW ~ O. QUINe' '!&.O1'he' "IJ o !iii eseU:~s've rv rewa rdlrn'g an d . the' sta [11 de rd n I) Iifn6~IV ..t:~rm ""~'m li. C. burt fOfitlUrh3iw.. tGl"1!fed frV hJ. '~I£i:'t al I 'to ~ DCIqIe: its Icen1r8~ t~ ~hown in' fig..:E..e ipltlOO p~iliit't' bothl die 'rue inV10Il!Ltg~liitf"ile end the SlLIti):stitiUting Ira.swi I~be ~Jdequa~e te CUI~ a I ~ tllne gears reg..ly WIU.ai Fe ret[ u if'e'd ftJ'r s project til ey ar~ ~s c.~ ~~i:)!~(" F:~.ie.n.j' 1. su b.ee bo~h sidi~~olf a Qle:a r ®Qa~h .a it P Cl<ssi:blll 'fo'r t'he' i&.~~ I :b e 'seen '~h ''!!VH a'~ the d iffieu.DSi."bOiN 112 .ght rt 't~e a """f' ...aU5J"a·~liCJn lo:f p rod ~ oi !fIi'g ~ tra in 'of' g·ea rs :[0 a r.8.'Y~5~ v e..-~ '_ . ~ 8Qded "f:olf' eae h O.ii. G~1i" ~t) (ii..e. fllrsdy 'riO .a~:a.~M.~r me~Ui~li ae oop~ed IV Q~ "'"i.dlu:s . ~'I!!'.:h~'mF milined C. :s. .on~JT~'If AT~~T.81~r· u ttilfS" ThEu'e' ...o.~re ·e·ight ~ iCunJers ~n ~ ~am plle~e·set '2i111d as a set i.! t1i11s IcU'r~e be]ng the ·conlBe 1. i~.' ' ge'ar Sihl. pi·tehl~ 'the.Flij!. The m'eUl'IG d1shawina throw: ~Q 0 b1...pm: I~ r-ea~iIy P liiodlUoed b..e· a bsen oe 'D'~gee r h·obbi rlG] or arh e r gEl'IlEn.~ee fi! t!~:e ra..Bcce~p'ted n'n tll. ~PIJ.

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'br" slx ,cuh~rs cove rl fiI,g '~;he 'r,:a'~'Be! fnrm ii[ii 111'--, to O'llh ,pi'ni,am upwalrds to a ack__., 'J1hli,s; 't~bi-e'j!s: fora IpreStSlilUre alll'lgie of 20~ iBlil,dj'SI fioli whe;ems ftor '0'11,8 di,film'e!w.all pl tern,. IF,Dlf'
other phelne~ sfm p!y dhdde tt~e 'IJah.ll e 9 ~ven, by ttlll IODr£1esr;)o,f'1I)~~iflg ~~~~,~r.all IPitch l~qUifre~tt, Thll wi,~IfJh- IW ua; a srlJr[Jge,ste~ mi'ni:miJIlml wi:d~h ,of the ,~!U~,ef' ,SlMd:-this of' 'CiOUr.~9 mUIy vary ~o sutt thle m'EWitemtaJl avanaJbl~el,
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One a;dv,a:ntage of pJ'od u cln gl ~fD r;J,"'s own I~:utte :Us"ther~ il'IOfilJ~'5UJ'n dard ~Oirms rs G~n b~, em p ~~yed1~ and 0 noo Ilh e, ,pl!iin~'iJllmSJ ~n\\!'Q~'YIed ~av;e' be en

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·'O"'II'IS, "IIS:" In5:

·'E~' oo ~W"~fi' ~
11.79,
'1r~~d,"1
.i!!!,

cutun, fih s' 'hlillorwi'nm ttlib~e II'Sits tJ1he b llj,tt 0In' Si'Z?8S, 'thel oon~re di;sta nea b:a-h\rten-hu
1

:2 31 4

,D~l~

as·!li~,
21-2]5,

3l.:i5

51'.lQ

,~9..6-®"

5
Eli

26-3'4

15,A)f]' " 0,,'26

31.e:o.
lS,!5I

l7-~20

1$5< '7.80

"11..00, 9~40

'U7 4cl1
i3Jl

4
~,

8.'70

3,M

4 ,4 .4

'form '(oD~i"Olli pm';oduc~ng ,yea r eu t.rs. Th e' ,lIc~lil\alll :~l~eaf '~h va rilolJs, d rmenlsiof'llS e' 'wi IIII rti'atuifilil ~~'Y' e.JllB.nd l!IllriHJn the f,fl!IlQi@l d ialnd D. P., of 'tha, 'ge;n ,cLllib~rfllQ,!Jj ired but. the Ig:en 8'i'jll m etho d rcA ccnsUU~li"c;).I'l ,all d
aOT"Itl1~S "TOOL S;T'~

i1nstalnl~e, -if it i;s, sn 1!3<s'st8nW'ial ela:m'!;H"!11' 0,1' ,~ de;s:ig n th~,t, ~h:e: p'~i'l'me,1l1 s: m UlS!: have as fe:w '~eth a's possibh:i!'~ iii 'U'I~ ~Jhre, preb If~'m can be, e3,sled .b1 in1crefllsing ths" pre~JUr~ angll,6'. Pin~,Dn:s,with as 'f@w' as' 10 or 11 teeth brSl'com~ ,plifac~ical if '~n'e I}re-ssu riB aing le is iOOlC ifiiBlrlSted '~I 3 OF'; n atlli'rally' a I~'Ui! e Iml twn9'gea r.5 ImlU~5,t all SJo Ihavlt! 'the Siiiilm ell angllie. Th e fbnQ~!i~n9: tablejl IS ~mli 'iin, G.C:n1 C apt to 'the prevaollJ.$ 1,11r' o Ima,v be, 'of ,a~sh~1alnce' prcfdlud I1g 'in :3'0;' pm~5;ur-e a.ng]m i!CutterS.. The d t,~wln,gl fig., 92 shows ra "lyp ~oa I
;a'rI;!ie.,
fDl!"'
I
I

:su~G'ge'ted '~,hat rU:JIl·/5i~andard ~rms, ,b'e de~ l-berat'Gly a'~h)p,t61d Ib UII 't h e OP~ilO;" PS o',pe ill' :S~~u Id ,an,,, ,spe,!!:)a I ~o:!ld e t tngiency

'~,3S-A 61'.50

Z
~,

3
!]I-

i

16 i

9

~~, , 3.'0111 ,2,1-4G, llUi'1l 17-,ilJ ®.!5li> 14~lG, 1.nD t2,& "'3: 'fLOO lQ& 11 6.00'

315M,

v~ n.§

'17.7'~ 'j'.72tlLO-B
~'.~,

s..:m

~,

"

4.. ..,
4
,ill,

8.50

7'-(20

lLA6 5.00

2.5"]' ,

:2.:95

2..:30

~.u

,4
JI.1

~,

~O!

byttQns,. 'Thle' $:tilUl k:m ~9~ lbe yuj,d'e ~ncnllilh to 'prov'~de ade qJjuriBfh9: ~Y'Pport: 'fo r '~I'De bub)[)lnlSJ ~Uii;'th~ clntnng Inad Iu,pan 'them i~,hi~!h Ic;)wing m ~;I'!IrekUlg lengtlh ,Qf' cut
(i\J'ltilrQ'gl 02.E. ~'S, :~II-'i:':'IMIr(, i!O 'i!J:.NE C. L'~""~::,

d~stDn91 be-twa en IthB 'twa ba rdene-d

fffiu;! $Jn;s!llnik c,f 'H:u~'f'-or,m cuitel!i' ca n be m~de, f1f,Ulm ora in arrry 'mml d lstee ~ ba,!i se:wion r. 'the ~ClJllJ a~~ sect;io n Id:ejpren ding tI pon 'the size and '~iPe Qf 'the tee IIRJ'Qst fi'it:edi t,o the Ir~~he 113 nd -a,ISOI 0 n' the cefil,~re

a:l~size'S'.

malnlJfaetute! w:jrml be' bas'jjcaMy ~'ilm~i,arur f

~bael

~,_

"0; 9i~ f'~is. ho~ ~lJ s b~fIltmaut{,~,~ a and
'~t'QP,tljn9'tl}~I"'. Th8' cu:tti!'r'S'mm rh's pin"S in

p":hrltcg~fI,f'!1 fot 9!lndin,g;

fhe;r,rsi:n'~~ ~nii' for' U$,s wi~'h[11I'1ii '6ur-€!b'" fa.rm mM~~Jng devir;e. The _ !!iu"Qrt~ In the to:p' W'i~h.e. hi1i'd'j1~ liFld

5j;d1!.~~,

~-

"~'I.,;.D·s~'E'I;..,

~~ltetlit~n ,
,8r6 MSdy

I,

Afte.r. euttl 11119 th.e! shBnik, 'ff.om tin ~ !bar m rat~'riai, 'ttlie"flrst IOlpera,tl:OIli1 '~~rto lJH'Ioduce' ~h ang ied ~,aeeupon wh leh ~Ile buttons e' are m au n,t~cL AJ I ~UiltUngtoets :n,eed r,elke' arll:d elsa fa OI(Cl1B 'all1g les !lrnu f'I d the adlma I cutUlflQ' edg It_ ~n tJh a ease ,of '~nebU!H'H~s the! e' ,a'liJI1es, could be p ~\Oi~lidled by' tlJ]lfiililiililg tbeml to a taper, ,gl;\i'Vn@' ~'he'm a ~n:url-t:Dn~:C1fl~ s;,ec~lon. Altlhough 'tlli's: ma¥ ap'pe air' to be "~h@'si m:pl,est way o'f: p'lIa,vid~'n~ the' .~'I:ealr,afi'rej it has its dJi.aw 1!J,!3jcksas an y rne!l'a:1 Ir,em,o'V'ed fTom the :~'Op' su ria o~8 af th~ b uttons f,or' sha rpeni.ng pu rposes would fiI,a1uu,~IIII'y r~duce the d~am~t,er ,:and 'tllrH:~ eerreet ~rm wo uIdlb~·lest, ~~: fa:r peW9f te ll!1se is a PQr~ llel b !lJ1:tooWl ,iii nd meu Ilt it irnto the: shank at.am ,a'fN'g:l,e.~ h e!' aetu fa I a fil'g,I'e ~~.n~t T

,8inl 11

me~l~nJl'dlii'l,g eli u~ipmeliit. Grfp ~h@cl!litl:~r~:h,ank:itna m'at.hiFl8 'Y'i'clLI.a[
addidotn;t;;Ill' th:~ niH~il.!!l~'r~d ,!:!lnQ Ie of' i5',o; a, ~'rotrala:il'O r rnNIllY b~' used bu~ 'Ihe Ilng,le ean be
[j

tnen set '~h~! m itC,rOm,et'8'f" dial to ,~ero.. Mov,e till e '~abl,e tWo iI'iI ch6is - this wU I be

a n'gl. Phl~~! a huh e ce nItre lor :!iilmihlr (Jo.inta·dl deviioo lin tb9 IFIlIrl:nd f8'~ of U''b e rna ~hi ne 13rll1!~ b;IfUll1~g II~ IdloWIi! 1~1n'~(l ~~e ~highj' end Q,t the sha,nk
'f'OIIi rneasu Ir~'Il1; -~:hfe' r!lgUth~'rsenti

a,C(U rataly bV us ~In,g: the m~lchi "e' itse ~f

bt,gjJi filled

'C!I

ui ba

ea~S1i'~, a n d

mors

f

turns e fill 81 .,1101) pi'telh l,e8d~cre~ ~.iUil.d 'm;he n, bV Mlea:_ns filf' tho ~u U~, 'f! n,B' '~ed, ~O'W\9f' '~heImi! r IUIltil ~1'QnC8' B'g'tiln j u st nou~hes 'the cuttsr shan k~ When ~'he dlfiference be?t,WI!itll811il '~h'8 dbJ I 'I'lla,di ngs is

20

me

sa'tn'stacto,ry. Ideally 'the mHIUl'itg of "the anglle-faoe 'amj 't!lhe 'dtin~ng o,f'the I~ilillttl!l'~ mCHJnting hlOles shiQ,u~d ,aU be done,atthe $"atffl,e Htli Ag in ord e r 10 9 ua f,a,tqIU!€' the
a hi Q t:. deg' ,es of a.ccuracy' ,ean 'b~· ae,1h:i~",~dwilt'n out. ~h8 neEl d "Ol!"
QP~~,~U(IU'f11 ;8IS

cri~]~~all betwee ~ ,4~ elld 5ll! wi ~~ be r'

ven:r~J

hu)I~E1!s; ~·eing

The m i11~,ng m:8Jch~nil is. idea I inr d; is!
sQua~'8 to ~he' f'~lle'.

.'15 the~' 'th e' '51h~ln~, 'w'lii~11 be SEll! at a 111 ajf'lig'~eof i5~te ':hie mll,l II n;g ma;chi no '~a\bIe. v.ntjn e,ither ,an 11!;!I'F:"i,dmili~ a fIV(;u\t"Brr:face' (H' suffic1 en t from I:lhe s%:aln~,'to IPr!!)Vid:'e 8, seat for ~ b utten, lt mla.Y b@ r'I;&-oe~~rry he to ,~C't,l!u:i1~11 .. V :f,olEim a recess 0 n th,e' sin,an k, !o~he.rwi'SJe Ij/lln'u~rill ~he' ibU't1:01i1IS ars pll~u;:e:d
,.,
Hi! iP;OSItUU':~m9y

FIG ~ 4-

II=O~\~

i!}0'T'~

t.. ~~T..'e

s;r~'~~ ~'~'~ G~
i';,J

(_U"T'~ER uSlN ~

~T

T,O

'r:=o:~" '''iICc!''a~tllJ,8'1 4~ tOl~ r,a'ke the Iota II a I'iI gll~~ of d,e
1[)OIi) fac0

to rn e:ellSJure wi !:1'11 ,~f'lly !i;pe-ci.a;I' m ea ~lIJ II' ~n.g, '1'Q,:oh~; IPositi on the! fi rs~ h,~le in .~ oony'eili1 ient p~a,cre·n.ea r tbe e~ g:e' of '~hEt ,

Ibe i,chi ev~d ei:th Dr
m'lI l'ing'

~f till e bwna", ~ n a

be' ~9li1~ h is ca rl T by h.a nd 'riiling 0 r
ilor [h 6 horne

W]I~ I

• .,

til,.

Fl~
~'E

~';

S.~.!I.CW~Ne i-!IOw THE. ~TTQ:>J"~

JF!'osr'FIQ

~o

Li'oo.J THE

~1001':"'''''l1;t,~

beflO,r,o ,any turtling 'til kes phUlEil'. The ill 'r,8cess be-~ use 't Iie· au ftn Oil' U S_f!S 'a ~ I)i~on r ~'tvpe tco.nlol de'l" i'rl h i~: MVfo~dl Jathli3l cU'ild 'Ih'e ,riecesSi be(:o'm'as. n Sce:ssi1 ry when' us]ng s nSfn ks I'm ~de 'f1o,m % ~'n., ~hi~ck m,~te riall, 'lh ~ hol'e~ ru r ~he'st~m'$ Q{' 'th'e 9UUO nil S shau Id lie dr'm~ed w]~h out d~~h.J rb.~'ng1:11e I setlilll1:g1 of the ~""an k,. ,as t'h is 'w~'11 e n en~i,n,lHr'e tn'at ~heh Q~es 9,1:'8 :Si'ij'lJl~ 113: ii!~hthe v sng,le,d flcH~e~ !For- m'il"YO ItUJJlto n :~dte"S a stem dma'nfu~t,er o,f '~, in. wm be ,deQlJ'~'~-e .bu~ ~hj5! ~Tualy h:afiV'~ 'f,O be '\ialni e d "~,oiriliMe' very 'I'm a'll~ a nd ~rN!~arge butltons. Th,~ dista tH1'8 ~etwe'e n tbe i(W'rOI tn,o'hf!'5, J 5, I~bhli,necl ~n)m 'thi!' cl'ii'iEU1a'in,d wUl11 b<e 'iI~e relev-a,J'!Ir~·C~ re,eJdrnng divide,d by diel O.P~ be ]ng IJJ sed. Qnc6: a'~la ifa" ~h€H'e~ no mee d s

un,alb~~8it'D be 'set at 'tthe ~Iathe cent re hel ght lhJs pOiirI1 t needs 'to be' checked

m'iI1lY

iI...

1I,iIi~

tQa

Ib, ....

!IHQ'III' aili!~1

~!

d rawin,gl 5,how,s,
I

~~lfiall1k ,allild '~h'~n ob~t1Ilin th~' d~,s1alnte blE!tw~~.Hl me two he les by mila IIi.S;lOW the ta b~ie 'fe@dscrew iii n d m i~'If,ome'le r di.aI. Th e 11:1 Ikl'bon$' wi II h'iJvaJ 'IDQ b a made from 'too~,:s'h~,el; SlFII:v>e,r" S't~el ls hJ~a ~as 'i~ ' hii r:aadli Iy av,a il'ablt!e ln ba r f\Ormi~, f@IIi8~hi!e'lv

'S'U ltsbl e ~~'g~ Anyone Wl!Cl5SlB5iS'illi191 ,DIne O'~ Ua e too:1 and eu tt!E!,r

in

e~sy' t() 'rna thi!lEe ,an'd 'Sli m p~,e 1'0 ,rrlil'n:1EUm ,3 fiI,d temp-fil!,r. 'llhJ rn til e stenflS dowr!IJ to a fJJ e\~s;v but ncil: rdop py iit "lin Nl,9 ho,le·s in the shank,i t,ile n1la'i~di;ameiter ~Ojn the' c1halii"t i being ob~lined i'n ~ simi Iill If 'WCli't{ to the 'C" C8'1I'i'['[;e dJisuln~el. Pa 1"1t off ~ e:~vi III 91 the 118[1 d a bOU't ~ in. Q:rSD th~ck-. The fmn~ C'i0alll'alrra~ :Sling Ie of t:he' !C~rt~inigbut~,gf'!IS h,~s be.en II:a ken cla,ra I()M by drn ling ,t hem Oll nr~i 9 he,les a\ ,an n l,ail"'l'Q1l,o' o:f !J,03 b1!Jt g, :~o~' ra:~e' wi Il~,~hi;Obe
3 'Olr 4;,1<!' wH I be :S:aJUsf:actolD'¥ ~ OW1]ng to the hld~ niil~I;Ofli of the Ipi'lI'lh!l; needled to c!tmBilili ~he:,d elBll\'"anc!i3!!
fE ~ l!Jli:r-~d ,_, ,ab~llit
00

wornllolp, SiU ch-as the. QLn:rrn Or !f.(~nlriifiitt., wUI be: a bh;'!' 'to ~ rl nd th e! ,3'1liI,91~e' aft~r Ihili!: ib uUon:5 ha:v~ been h ~,rdel1ed~ If ·s!.:Ji;talb.le 'g ri n d@f fir.; not a,\i'~~i li~b~e!hen the t 1inO~ '~i'iI~i:sh irng wUI til ave' to be' dOAe:. by l f5a tefull m'ra fII j'pu'!artj]o n I[)~11;1 I'll oi Ist!onl~ :s ~i " p ilHlardening i~done] j'n the us ua ~ way of ihe~,'tl"g 'to !:l ~nefry red and q~e'nchirtg j'lll w,ati if" ti.:llm p!B:ri ng't'O' a h~S;1,r-aw Gg~ r. au The bu'tton'S' Hire seClJJ fled In to 'the shank bV Imi!3la ~!i at Leoii te, w'h ieh wi! ~ alloWi~hem to be' m o\fiad tOI the ICGilfln'"lf)ct angle acilitelr Uley ha'v@ be,a fr!1 p~la'~'ed ilnl0 th~ir ~esil;ecU~e'h!o~e,5, Jh~ ,jhigh e.(j9le~ (jt~ 'the' bubton''S, ,ne.ed '~o be at an 81f'1lg ~e lof
~I

9 ri n dEllI'S

deHi,ig f1!led

n,

i

,ii ~ glh:;~ 5i11

,~u~,t to offset thiis; ~ ng~,e'a rnd ~o to Q'bta,i n 'th~

'top "Bike

'wu II be' required

d

,abo,~t 4'5~ to '~h~1 a ri\i!'~ fu II11b!Bnefii~

Ce'M.l'ie! I j,h,e ,S,Q lt15: to "flrib'llm 'lIhliH!: rate! lGP.nd

e~ea r,anc-e ~lngiloo~, fi'QI., 93." The' tooll is see fil'OW re,ady ft.l.r use.
"'17

I,

,~

fro m 't h e firo nt or tutt~ ing faCie ~nd 'SOl ",0 s~de Q~e8ranc~ is' If,eQ,~j ed. When r

rill aflJen~,ng

1M' ~'8Ji). p..,~.
~LIa

m~ ,,".0
~

Stilil.J p 04..:11
.. IiiiC'J2!M'~~'
t..I~

c'!..A',,",'liP

~IO!:!I!:\oi 50

12'!.I.. .. _1E'Ojl

'\

~o;J~~!::ii - ,=blTT~ ~2.S,

. f ~ l'Oo~ l
fii i G

1;;lW.

91

.h..Ic501<. .~ .ta~Ji:o.;~

i:~

1B6'T"'l iP~,O~C1 t<J.~

-oo'~ !Both side s cf' ~ Igea r eU'~1II' ,in',a the s arne .profll e ii'f'Ild so Ibattn bl,.n~teln$ -Un'e! ,ailile
blU'ttt~" 8 nd p1i"'O~Ulir~ tln-a eerreet

R.,.

{~D M.O:fcJtJ T~'llJ.ih
pr(H:hJrCEHf;f

(I.,IT 'f15.~

same diametelr~ It i:s p!lssib~!l.U~ere'f-oreJ!1' [e) ~fO CIUlce' a fo Jfn'lin {lI' tOlo,1 W~U"l1 n~v 0 rr'e G of '~ha: 'rw,ci CUNe-s by a mea$'~red dl spbl cem,~nt whn;h C~n reed ~!'v b~ (lbtained by ImlanipuiaUngi 'Ehe lilll'he t:·op, .slide Of' ~.tl!rr:j;al:!J~,in's 0ne~.bliilt10ril cUUJeir l i,~of GOU r.s.es~'mp~ ra ntll qu i~kerto make. B 'b uri ~ ,cIDt~:S, ~'I{«JIIi' m Offill ca re j n WI!:& UrStB'jI ·ca ,~nd the tiil tp:1aceni'l! rat be:lw·eeu"il '~he CllIlt:Si has u·o b I performed. BV8FY tj,n1U3: l gL0EHf' a eutie.lf' Is n:r.8llde•. ThE!' two-button type ~51 ~;tm~~1I3' u's·eand 'l~bech.a1nc&m ,l)ll!1lerrali t·o IS rn,inim.i:5'ed. It i.~ simp!bt 8' C:~'ili'eoJ

·t~h,ecutter centre. s ln ee to do $10' wou Id result In ,8 to,oth 'wi~:h ne Ci~e'ar~lnca or rake a nlgh:I' ,;aIn,d1as ,8 con~~qur€!lI'lce ~t

sha'pe ~s not

co

nce.ntric

wi'! h

sp'~'ci"9

w:o i!J Id net (:I!JIl but

swi'ngs ,andl round;aI~QYlts. The dh~'9wam Fillg. lA, ml.J:str.~tes;the ijSe of a s~n,glebIJlrUon 'CllHe r. Now' tha~ a m earls. ,of lJ'rodlYcing iJ' pracrtcal ·i~d~'B ~rnati·v·stiQ '~he 'U"IIJ e lnvo lute ha~ ,b e~n :S101 edl, ·the r'e'nla~ v n~,n9P rablem Is how I~Q 'Provide: a :$llIi'tabl i;!1 barc1K-otr Or
j

m a ints,i fiiI a k·eeill ,e,LAtlh, 9 e,d ga. 'JOe a Iter UnIi!' shapE 0'" thei tooth V'fl .a,ii1!Y way 'W'O ul d o,f ,c,OUlr'se. ,aft'9ct ~h.e f\!Jlrm i~ 'we~~'dl prodla.~e Bind :So ,d!eiStrov ~h,~·'whol',~ cO'r1Icejpl' Off 'the! 'CIlJ'tte:r. The melhodl ursed! rDTO apIP'ly re,Uef Ie nQnfU~llll side 3fi1d fa~·a Ill11illi'ng C'utte'fS cannot be adopted ,as this tYlpe of ~;ul1:e;r alw,avs loseiS ,~ ITr~!lleof ~ts 'width d'lJj'rhlg ~he :~iha'!ip(Hlh'lig prooe6l~, 'The :SQ,IiUition is i,o i pply OON'ed re'l ief, t:~u~ Ie.cce;~ur'h::
who'le '~ot}th bellng' 'pro-duaed
00 ntre'...

prQbhi!lm ,of [providing a r·e~lef:e ali 'form t 'CUUSlfS i5, 'iln6If,@i~'S;ed IDY 'Ih e ~act th at the 5ihape of the' tDod, must neil be: iiff~c:ted when 'il~ has 't~, ba ,ground In ,o'-der- ~:o

me r'ell,v ru b. The

Irs' [h e grlIfH~!iltg. is ! Iim'ited ~() dlS 'front 'waoe'" rhe' form 'wii~ I rem.i)lli!1, conSita n~ and v.he euitt@r' can be g i"QU nd ma nll'If ~ ilm~ s u rlt'~1 th e 'W 0' h 'fi n a:1 bre9ks, aw,ay ow~ ng ro rwealklness. iv It -i s Ine~:h e ~ a n I~g'!i;;y' nor :8tfaJ~ ht' ·ro rwiEllrd mli1Hih ir'! i1li.9 Dil,er~l'tlo n t)C app!1 V eu r\f·ed fel !e'f 'to' ~I mill Itl·toott. el rC:lJ!lta r Gutter;' eernm is; f,"'G"iSJlllv rna ~B' C~j'r en· ,allre. 'ba tkJed ~off iQ,n a spec! ii'd to rm~r18li!lvI,ngl ~~a'lh 8 ,and ~his tl Il'ne·Jf:onsulmn 09 p roc~ss t is t:h e rl'Uili n falcto,r ifII, lH1e ~,ug h. ca~~of'~ e:8llf fJ~ fters ..Tu rn i[lIJg p:~a:in 'e{lJ'1enrtricshans ls, ho·wflver ~a s,in'lp ie opera tllon to t~-rr:you t in the Iilom~1 wliD'lrks:h op~ Afte~r being' maiCn ined in 'its nQ rm:iFJ'~ 'Cln'IIl"'@S the W~ll':jl:;:plh~ee' is eitne'l' m,ou ntad in affsm lCiBnt:res or 1!'11,QV,8 !J ever in e: fC'iJJ r-:ia,w' c:h uek sa thi!lt U,e &!r.icianuhJ; e~e:II:nern~1!1 " . be' prod.uced bV nO rillial[ ~tu rn~n9 o;pennhlll'1s. 'Thi~ is ~.he wa~ model ~ngi'C1Hrs ma'~e thei1r va'h;'e gear ecce II1trics for ·steam ~!ilg in~ rnodsls. If'
I.

so

I~OIl'1I gl

l

~,e~th We a,rel !eh witl"1 1iI1 sT:ng'hl-:t·ooth cur.r.er', aDmn~orilly te~mad a n:ry',.,turne·r .. The ·fhjl·cuuer ~!ii 9 'W ry MS ~f ~I tv pe' o'f c u-rm,e'~ fii d H'sUft~b Iy' hell~1 ViI'I~]Farro r m ,ill ~ I a 'tJ1fiedLr~i as oJ a rno:~ a ~ tOff~a.d Iaw eLf ter ~ Th@ m'ii~'n dliHeriHl~ ~s·th~lt,as, ,onlly one ~)oot.h is, IC;;:U tti ng fbr looen ji'e-v.o~.u~ionat the cu'd~r ~ the sw~rf re,n41o'lli!1 .r,~1{!: is, u 1'iI1!tlfecte.d

naturally

~Ilwe~

an,Cili

the'

OIJI~ra'lI

i

:SlJ rp.l'i~fng,lv..by 'a g.re\~t 9 mount lSi n.gh:~pe ufue·d ,"y-cutte.rs a re p'En'if'~¢t IV sad~~ifact'(r~ '1'0 r rEI ea r [;,u.ttiI1g 'i fii fact, '~h ey ha\fe Q na adva ru~ gJ8 over i~h~' MU ltl'~ooth cutleT ln that they' ate. 8 K'treJi!11B!Y
1

prod umto~.

'lffim e:· [lneraa sed

but

net,

S;I rn p! e

i

There' is, an (J:~d fable t:ha'l .s~ys r,o·aSL po rk wals discove red In a. iP,ig;!rty was burnt lalOWfl and when, the farmer, wh!I~5t rflm,o~i~n's, iii ha,t' IC'Ilr-cas;s~ bty fnt his flnge·rs:. H.~·'Pu'l. i':I:h;fi~l9iers 'lintO hh'i,m.outh to easa th,e ·pa~n.alr.d disco\1lered that ~h~ 'h'Oit s;ulbiSl~an Ci81 O.n his. 'fif'ng,er'S had a pl,ess ~lnt· :sls. 1 'fa nm a r so ,JIll tea rnec ta he

to, keep

Sh.IWjp,

'wn

'ifn rmet~ a:b~lurl]its nerrna I 'OO;lure~ 1.I;aBtU'I

the cJyt~er F~··gl. BB I:~lirst tu rned and
i' j,

thait '~here wa S IrlO ne ed
I

t10

ea n ~:hlefill e prndu cad bV mill iraga series b of gash1es hUo the Ie ut-te r !disc. H Qw~ef r these teet·., - being QOiIlH~~nn11t 'with '~h,e Ieutter ,s'~Js.- 'wnll Ihave' no ·t,enef a nd sO will In~~ Cln~Ib 1IIt· if we mo IU.n~.UnB eu rl~e Ii" on

a Jii

re'l ief tif) the te e~h Q'~-.h,e cLIlttec' .. Ae"fe!l'\811f1(;-e to Fig~ SS·wi'll .shoW' 'th·at the whoi~. ·tooth

mai n~aifns a OO"M~I!ilt. iC r'!lJssr--:sBlm:ijon 1',.ll'ouQJ!lO'!l.li,~ the IlenJ~uh 0," m.lle' \DOU, ;a n d be~a:u:se of t]T~' .~~o-~h IEr.cc;e; fIl'l'ridry to ~he ,are of Irota~·iofil.!,an i!rU! 8urif;aces "~aU ,aw,sv'

Fi91.,

aa~

tEl bOII!.n

wh!~ch

~I"

ce nrcrl;! ,B'ndl ~O pro ~uce a ·co~rf\e~W~ r,e'I:~lVed tOOilin fO rm. Them' Is onl~ big e ~~Tag in dO'~ng t~'I:6 inl Uh.8rtt eveI"V''toQth ha~ '00 .be :formed 3 bout .f.1 dfrffEin~ e€~'F!iUi<c lilt ,oont)Ji",e ~lind ,~o ~he act: of r,stie-V"ing on~' tlOOUiJ w~ ha\!l'e tQt81UV (ia'S~lf'D'y,~d II m~rrv of' Uile 1.e 8~:h ~~'fD~(iJ.W ~t. In lab t. 0 ~h, p~~ th I looH1 Qut C"· '~~e· tp_m pi ~ne' d~$Je CaJlfi b~ StlC.cl~sftJ l'lly re,11 e\led 'by ru:mmi8 I ·B.ctEH1tri-c ~U1rll1hilg m·~thclt:i5i.. If we 'CIlj[ '!=i.waV 'fr,om 't:h e ,dilSl~ 1 '[he Im,U1'jla1ed ~Ind .ell
'h ~
1

~ccentfl ca l·tiV 'iu m 0 111.!~' to

eCGe'ii1'l"ri~

m andrml

an: h a boti.l [ the

we·

ca

i1,

sty eye'ry"~lme :he wa nt ad roast IPr ~ r·. and H' 'is ti1'U1! same wil'n a sing~e~'IOr()ith falF'!fn cutter, ,A ·ru Y'-CUtUE:r 'C~1I.I11 made witho Ilj t producin.gl ,:!l dt:sc Sind t:heril (:lII.tling slrip' ,off !t. A pi ec~ 'of ~q~,a:~es~~~.i·Dnro o~·1Lere!:1 $ 'is ~ I~ttm:ai!" i,s ~eQ u i!'ted 'aM1dr 0 ~,e'e $_tig ~in. ;sc ~'V\~~' steeJ iiEii 'the 'O~fvi\OIU.S ,c:hoi ee, The size lOW r1rle toe I 'will nlartur.aIII v d~pe Ji! d up 011 ~he looth ~dz~1j~ 15 9 oing to lIProdu ~e; 1'0 r ~O!l[;nl~ %'1 fQ. squ are se~ti on 8 ~s. r,eC(:i'm mended, but fa f lSma'i~ 10'0111 fo rms i~he,n ~ s ifil, or 'n~ !n, 5.q>u,g fa m,a t~rira'i m boa ulSl!!d., 11'11 IDrder 'lD' ma k~ tf:.e ~u t~eJ~g me '[o,rm

b urn

down ~

~e

J~

av

o'f h-olid-e-r w1! I be ne ad,ed I~. whT,~h to m ou~ni~wh i~8th is: fOr.m~ng Ilifild b-a.Cj'kJn 9 Gf1 ,op,e~art]Qr!I S .a'1I'9 U riI de rm~e.nr A, ho Id9~
r

wi~ ia IsO b~ I
d
nV'fa!

rl3'q Urlfed b) ~,up pon' ·and th e· ·tt·o.o d!1J rtng its curt ~119 I

ll8

BIn U ity Ibc. ~he' ~e iii U~e is: i'~:u nalle:cted but the t.ealli'S err '81Ipifill.tti ng i' o'nle hold:e'r can be .1.pt'h 'sEfn:ilttg~ Th.I pro~~s.~ '~Gl' ~ rQdu. "l1hi:Sl.ld (if' '~hfe miich illl1 ir1I Sfi!l:t.h e fo lim in ~I of ~I'iI1B' GuJ~Jflra nd .pna'le: 'to 'the . fJyWtifB~' ito.B it:s.h UJMfbnulf'iif~e~y i'n this Cr~l'sl8is ~19t s'!Ulfa'bhl!: 'for' tlli1e i'n~tial 'l:liJ fin iInQ'~ Thhil. ItI\k~w~ o rdi nii. SYP.adtolPifed to per1fo.Qw ~:he.li' 2.euIHiiFllgl. 'n' ''''l{J. ~ff~ de..8!i1 d wHh a Iitt Ie 'hlg. p'aicki n 9 ~i'eca' 1:5 posi.2. t)rs 'fDW' bo:~h ~hilis a Iid the am .nr~ b~DUg ht h'l~Q iJS'e wltin ~ut distulf'bi ng aifJ'lV P. 'ha I'd e.h:e r Uru: !CUilt'9r hes bee n hard fa ned IJn d IQ'fOU nd.$. j -~ .[.~ ~tP ~QvidE!s.'h~lcle.tlh duties. E i B_.g.I"'OdIUCil!lOI a '~IV~ .. (JR(. 15 :!d~ows. J op elrar~:ions .~l!IJl\tel'. tnem palSvtj.a IP~sitJr~: 1~n1.~I~M 1i!£~~a"'M.u·.i'. tlhe ae~QrJf:1dt:c oH~ e' e by '~hi"scase.~II!~s in 'tlilll].IUriaJc:e: is: an tir-'D cflln~'re' line O'f' the.'s cff:s..l 11m srZ.UY tllJ rnirn~g..operatilfig laMitJudEi' a 5. '16.0 ck-~ff th e ctlrtter neeeasa ry . ~In thel el1f1·'f~ce of th ~ ha1ch! If is. 'es~roythe ~ d dEl.n clth e ii' mert'h.V ha.s€!! of thei 'f~"ishe'd ultil.§ pll€!~e.J: . tih.sk)'[ and 'S'O lOin 'tihe 'O!'l. It-!6 I1QJlf~'I'.B curl1Eu th e wn.hTIliller pr(loo$'~ brlli.PPE.~Wi be' ml~hin. DI~ -JNI .~ Wide ell:H~Jugh to aeee m!MIO date :bn~hl tlh e C1U'lt€lhi" .aix. ~lS. Oe(iUltn:1!~.Flgl.ed by be i'ie.111iN~I !Q:liJt~III ~ F ~~ ~7 Jio. A'ftOf' hi a rodJenin9 ~nd 9 ["j n di ng.!.IFig 'bbo I itile pa'~~Tn. h~:5: ls Lilse dI1hl "ttle 'tHl~ T d~r b[ltl1i1 fa r 'l.!$tJ'~t w'i'II~' b:e the' ~-alme.r' ml¥ hl'il:8 'liosi'i:p' u nd if the load 'which.~ two ~ed'hbu.~'aU~ 98.e felllativT8 '~O oIlb.~Ind Mth 'lh~ fin bolde·r rota. o'tho diSi .is al.d t"lH!B'fI ·i.IJ(.E!llctJllJii~ g~e(i!1f ~u.RiSOi:l FOR.cd 'o~ P.ped as til e c~t.e' per1fb'n''nle-d m'IEn1!?~ time$ b~eallse 'tllil~ dtin n'i Ag . It ean be iJ:ireutiito. 'faCiE! .t' its: 'botp.ail so 'tn e packi ng pieee.c 'w Wif"'ilD'i'~ . u n~ :FiB~lan~e to 'the: 'ru'if)a~hbe.U~~ 4[ t= l"'1f c: U~T'E~.i~ion~ 'T'D Sh:B'fp.is~ '~he.8 bout i~~ oWn .. '~~rrnTlle. The ~10'l.of' r{lm:ti'llil'l.o.Ha~tly fOl'lm a ~ d crl.S~by m.~~ttne CuHe'l' b-eloiw ~'h oon~re H'1il ..~a'._..~.\i!\e ~o fhe Ciu:MEn.a:ohirev.on th.f'.into t he holder but ~hi5:li'm.O ~ :D~Wc~~ ~fJd .JIIV CU'1I10' m i~he :s ~mii! Ii m.fUe ..3 r ~uin:i.['Qo~lh pro. 0 .s. In ecceiilif...bhe key 10 its V8rsat~ Ii'tV b-e. wOlrldng face'.te r ca n be turn ed 100~er . ~ i[" '7 .potrt "thlfi!i Cutli1f wtd~e it 'is.an'I:nle' I .'.oo.n t!'iIJ(!'n '~he OJ :Stllill has a dl!!l~ 'to periot'lm 8. FOIl" the 'forrn ino o~ ~lratic'~ ~he' p. :th~ to 01 c8 n ib e '"10 liJlnte d wn 'b'he sa m'e h!Qrder' i\~r the .ticine. Th ls w~ill '~immi .w~s.button too I wi I~e@.H~'~' 'ru fufiing' 'mandre'l. .IV en €I ca f1I be 'IJJ!S~d ~j( 1Il 'rimEllI~ t h @l a d!V'I1nttag is bG'i fIl'g 'tharl' if .tffin'S)l trliU IV .' sooond . lin e s'lio~is I~osit]o:n ad :00 'U'Ui.ejnS t!he"bJ'1J face .llflore Iin 9' o.I""'l T' ~~~< .ri. Figl..alte ilny 'l\end8fu.E:'5l MAY VAA'¥ 're 5Y~-r'D'i.tol~. sti~! piro'ftih..$uch a' hQ'hJh~'r.ace'd ba~ik. typel of cutitJer aetua III.p. tJ'lt .! 1.the l8loutmal ce.::v n the ~Iil tt'e. . pl.of '(11 e C:!iJt'te r hes nOI 'eln.n Iil n.a~ionea n b.top_.~..3 ekin Q stiip ~ S: pLaced albove 'I:he' C!J'tl~r~ Ihi~.tinl:.f tbe CUlH)8f' is d usp:~all1'ed by tali Ict~nt9~ln PlmQ "l_ . •. Wh e~ not bai III g La sed f'Oli ~~tti ng.en~r~'c.the.Dh:lar and if1IJbo lifts co He et operadng po's.thu:s bnl'nQi'~ 91~helop 'h~c~'of '~h e~ h. 97 ~ d'U~ 'ClItttEu !In eco.~ beeom es ]ro!b.'5"F' i CEE'P.tu lining DJU' '~bsckilln'gFOW' is.and 'l'iru:.I:.uef is .gali ns't: tlfHi! upp'el' ~OO: of' tlfne . ilfuaed1fild se ~he '..TA.l.rine' wfii~h ~:h.t 'n.oo ~he apPl!"o. s h a rfl![H'1!i '~he idlldlrilr'i'g1 :a'C!hJ.. Fl. iU.~'t~l"g arbor wh ic. -rn1hlefOlrm re'l.~tJf.al ge.rmi '~h~@IJtI)e r 'OD linc~ dent w~ tint nle centre II~ ne 'Of . tilll~d.(~ il\JI .e' c ~iiDOUru !l3Dne€in~ri e A.. this' 'is a .'ip.01 d I . bfliil!'igl3 c~irou~a. e end fi!. '~h'Bease of' 'the ihrolrde'r and pac\king . would ~ re d!uce 'Ihe e~cel'lnri i1Y ialnd: . No hs op~.il U~e' cutter is.cutter $8 shown Wn..ld D't ene 8eHi'n~ on a UTi.toDith OlliitteJf' lin Dun:UmJi!J the cutter leJccEHUItric..Jl genera:1 lU..~nd .lIltre of r:otat h) n.ol e af the '['0 p faClSi :is g re und a n 01 'thniS OiP t. need nct' be :5.8' button to 01 8ijl8 in Ib!iRine idJse.c!1 b e~.

: S :.F F~G 100' lA.3 be·irnG tiha. one' tOD'lh at proce'K Q·f tire.pp rnxl m.nry to l CUi t r_Another' a d\I.allrde n ing process 'ms. 5. flleilng :sp~ci'ailly m. 5l"'t .hllg a cutter of I we'lve ~eel11nr more can be s. 1'00 is Iilotprovided wtth .JStJ".ijSV to m..IE:. Ca:re WI~~ be needed I parUcuI ~·V wi'n the 'forming oper3'tlon.1 OF-I?&-aT .lilng equ ipm[9n'L A:s reB Ireiiu:lv IOU iiii ed.~~!. ba r m.arnd 1'f under IO.f mounUng is superie .r the p:rovis~'on .~e.OI p-euiarm thh.FTii tb e p rod III cad 8ilh I rUnml21 previcus t!C!lOI.ry Ci)n!y 'h~!!6I'1 ~t.lch3in'li talnd to' halFde'li1.rk very' 'well~'~he m.J.:Q]u.e by Bf:3'H:irngl 'Up the' bifank n C!J four .ei~har n !jOI provide it w1rth one QU' 'ingl rtcoth and the relief is IP.c. th' elemeat ~s in Ehe cutter lecoellirtric~tv.5'~lI"ewed i'o.ay as. W:ith t lrIis type o.Id1i.a de for [hie.adri v1lng 1~.ttinrg iill1to Lh.'WA.f the spi'glo l i~. The IE! D1 d o. '[his is a glood p ress OIlT by' sBffillflg e'C~el1t.iUa t. - liflale rial . Thls type of CLu:ts'r eeln Ib piriDdu ead slJccassfuUy n llhe heme wo . The aetu a I d~a.om.ay po rtJiJOtn~ Alth(urr. man l!I:f~eture Orf g:81ug e. 'one off' t~ pre of' gaa r Ibut 'if ii-~ j rntend ad 'to.~m YfO.5.d sb the ~o mp iete! a iorm r.rovid'es bV bori.-. oi fClIl[ ar fo rm eUlfi@Jf witlil 8· i . l is e'.flycurtErs aSJ$embfed f}OO ready mr flg l.arge :aceentf'ic.impie"'YJ)e '01 eutta ks.f.1 as Ihe.ell satrsfalc(r(J'ry . he d i'.d O!l1 a 4it in . I~t:s a. be machined at'. redyi fII 9 cuU: rs whe're the GuHimng le'ids are! cre-w Ing ~liomlth8: rn a IIIdrel.-ru rca itself..ers ~s: to pJI"\o.caU'!H3I the outside: p'fofil .O<SI of d'H.acto.: II a1 cl a ~np·i.tlngof the CIIJt1:e'r in any ..atJa d lse a n··tJ1e' .r..f cu ttB'1r 'l::he le. Th: . for inSlanei'. "the ... fh~ h\mi Ruetf.. e in.8.kil'lO of some :Sipec"r:a~ too.!ir5 e~.ev wH I always run the un' ~ru~Y'~ which IS eS:Sleli'n~IB~1 a g'B..~ 'TE. msul'~i After forming."".mreterr a" d profi Iin g win~ttl e buttlon to cd is 08 rrii ad ~um.n'9.UtJ~. vi ttuan V nltl.! t '8 hi ca. Provld in 91 ~ h B' rs ~fef is co n slant for a I~pos a~ions O'f eu l~teIi" a:no arbor" MU rn TOOTft ICIFtCULA.I!ue:rs .')~ IIiS ~'I pnJducingl'the bom in the !athe.ttJ riall e SI. cU'l1rng furees willil !be r~rat~vel~ h'i'Q .A.. An en ire~ivdMferel1li .·~Bctlililrcut·10IUi~ IPonion ~!sDI ~yon i'ls rc~ mlpi'Rgl n IJII D· secUJ re it to· e a th e dr~viIl"I 9 a rb.ccen'IJ·mc 1'1m19 n.ilr1gle~poj'ntRv-ol.er' fir. lif h.inJ.sembfed ~'..t the. 0e !serv ioo~ i'lc Ie" she u I dl be no.i3imeter ·of'~he c. [J'BS P ifl9SBnt .sthe· am au n~ of Hi sto rti on suf:f red in Ulle h.:. It ~ intend ed 1'o.s a.e millijng rnaehine Dr ~alth spindle~ This typ.ere lJe-rfeCt~y . lind tbe barre CSi"Ilnot .'v]de the -co~re.f'Of ltunJe.!Zn.and eli" by d rUi 1'11. TO ~o..-JCl.re a re onEIl c r two' warys in 'wh ioh tJil e p riob'h3'mean be' ove reome .appra. d iSI.one' and th~s 'wmiU !have 'tOI be d~n.m:aI axi:s\i' 'the: centre· of 'i~he hoi e bel III01 pH!S itic nad ~i'ams11rlc8I1y' 0 ppositie the o~t-a.~nt~iCB Uv "fro rn the no. direction 'without tbe 'fear of: the chuck - m.JT A..A'g SI. to p rcujluJ(\e thiBl ~lU.u'Uer iBJlldIdrUI anle Ie in '~'h centre D·" i~.~HI'1Idl ~ne ~s.h cult. if til e IC.1'fa ce Df tha mea n d r[a~ ts s..ja. -To IP rod u aa a bl a 11k •.91 in the l\.a~lpr'ei~ch wdll IBll:5Ur<e .gh th i.uUous .i1lIin triUcisml the ma.:"IITIIOIIiJflIl~ o·f .Q'mewnart o . ~he·hole ca 1111 pan·edt-off dri 1:1 'to C.81l1ltag e' ~9 thm .gl and se.h e.w· cMudc: .iith 'the sp 19m.ach is tOI rn iJlke ~Iie: eill tteffi frnrn iP'181t m..: cpenlthJ'n and m.f sa~u~ .. saw OlJr~: rrorn the 8heel a fill a.r 5 mall I s ThIB tvl~e of CU'lUu" shown ~n Fig-. CU~..h w As.aUv~n "Ihe four.u18dy.s_ s:pi'Q 01.IB chi ne can be ~setto.u~ mlnl.mum di i:l'meterr ot U'Qe' fi n is. srn a~:1 problern be. are s'hcr" n with morse tapler shank5 1101" direct f. A.ng 'ts mCUint~ng holle' ecc.a-bove 'the finished di.~lre: w'.-[gff.~aldng cutters from balD' hes the a. marFlllJ. e'ach looth.~~'WE IP~QOt.U tta r ls evemua Uy rOI be rn Ou rlte. .'1 . .w.[ form rei ief to.one ~ettin.Ind the sp1got Iii a meter smlll..ERS Tne :!S. ui l~i ··o(il·t.bors as tin. r'oUrt'liI the i . .i n 91 m.antage 'I:hartmost of ths mdch iflll nQI can be' carr 'ed out at .appened~ Prafessoir . thesm'a U cOomes If'It ric hoi e wi I~h~ve t'OI be m:a "B ~ntjJ ~ I.iI1I!r cu'r:ts!r'j ~Dr lind they aliso provide g rester rlbg~d.of a Iclamlp"~ng nut.JI Cl1 as 9 au ge pih1te.viDE \ - ~:L.ing' tI ~J"gle~ jaw PCiiiU ~orin9 tOaL TII(. ~then ~'h in. di IImeter.k.dl bo ~e tan n at be: IIBSS than 'the di !iu'rtJeiter iCrf '~:he0 rio i'f!lla I s'srvice b olre plus tW'nce. arnd IlJs.3Imeter of e T th e hol e ImuM be ne mure [J~temn 118[lf:of a the fin ished bOJiE!. U.lt1..Ulrr. m ore then Y..d~. OVlerr 'E h e yea rs :ma n y '~CCEM1'ttici f¥.son'le~ USB. cut QiI!iI rs Illn irs iii rs Q'Ular basis then lit 'w'" II be weill WQ'rthwhtlle buildilllQIUP a s.l is basi cal IV 81 '!i.gned and made 't.~tle[ll"jaI.r~'c.k~hopl but ~~ dces necessitate· I attachments hi've' bi'Ul'n desi.10 ChU1Ck rneu nbed ar.l~'\r fo·r cutting the. The twa .. tor U6!!l'~ thon t'h 9 raq ujired thi ckl'!lle~s.urn a rna III d re I bu l Ml~ke' su r'l9 'tlh'~11: tbr. the l~ malo p rob~ llfm hi 'ma.1 iev.i ~Iowef.ild the ~t11 tter $1 mps on th e IlJplera·'Ung man d[f'el it wi I~ not a[ff&c:~: l e U is a~.ftilf' po rUli'ls.tocik of multitoo[Jh circUi~ar cutters.R C.h 8 Sa me ~!eWng.

adYBrt !Consequence. iD.: '(.i~ltej!l jiGl'e.1'~ e ___ ro S.to how 'U.l'E.~'irIi~a '~rl'ate dl wl th O~I'[ sp eci·:al~i..e r r fU.pthlli1 ·of t has been publ ts1un1 be .ed t ~n 1he Mlodel E·mJliflEui~rr~ Th e oth: an di so p'l':'roduces Ii r:eUrerving aetlon.on.~ze o.~s.as .ll101LHi\ owwly ra~I'eV6'ill eurter that posseSU$ .Fhe 1001 will as _l w ~r t=. I· was sem w.e]i'8v1i:ng attac1hmen't Chaddo~~ and nu~j311:J'tilfl.s'5~ssi.a.. )1 _j r----r===---------~ ~---=~~--~=-~~ -I . a Ad a :Gea reh '[h'ftI(H. 01 had been in·EleIi6.r pedo.l eng lneers' Thfl s:. Brft'a r lOif II g1\11 n1.~ng :a eOflit'inuous WI"ffiI r.1 "'t1:!! ~"G~<E ~T" ~"" JJ.about im'ls:pi ratij on and aRB'1i ~som d lscusslon a.___ ~.owIn 0 1m th e.8 ~:he mect&ssary d successfully rei ieve eune rs up to .d me ~nted be.I iii d. 11""1".u:Jlily al~.ur~osi was ~mmlediElitay aroused af teeth lh s lim~. FtG.H'n·ber of teeth its ra 'che~ calms Inte '~heirr~o. Thle devmce can Ib~ made i&sm'en't '!]lave [I'Hl de ~d .el 109 ue· ardverti:B.twe'siii l.' IbeCaE.~ 11 So!ffi.~ cutUUT' is . he ~alme lIIlII. ~nrfortunartely. ·pl. Ne\f~rthel.e[li"~ This to 011 waSI de s:~g ed a nd [made wh ch :silze w·as.lI "fIr-iIie.ks 'fl' ~I'I I:nO't~rtype.O'PV O~~· l!!lag9' ~i'\om .iithEl .Q th i Ithe e'Qu~[l'-.Inch is P e[riodi ..~n'thls probii e m for so me' m e wh'en 81 ·C. at"irOr:flU9[..Jtied .UTI§~S 1l!l!l_.es it round ~o ·'the ne::J(l to CCJntirrlll.ssli'ssjng lwe!v'.de.9in~lble and Ceiln de8cri. .JIlg h 0 ~d 1310 (D.al rs'. the . and th 0: 0 n e s..m8nt.1F of tifile ~dem 'EnJgll1ee~alnd ma:k'in'glall cutters wUh ~he~ame number s Ic. d ~awD 1I19.ment: in by. fH/Fr~ inro d ame.rms 'very WErn _.flfif:l o~d a' Vi ete rl an teo ~ Ciaif. ~1'.. It w'"11 th lis 011 Ipri nit 98\(.. ~\ !Ii 1& \ _ QUI.ess l bore' a·n~ po.'lJrT -.e.:::Ii~ _1o. mOist rno de.or r co rrect backi n91~offac~ion 'to a 'tooth Oln oil 9 Bar cu tier ~ in~·then ~[nde·x.H~ie material~ ro.1:! 1-B. I·s bJ' I rrry sise wittlir~ reaaon bUlt d'i e dav'ice workEH:ll CHi how' it w'res constrU(..S:1e·. "Ta 1F'Hre: f'N12.!itl:!:ti 1J. I wa s 9 ivan tih e m aid no 'tin e cJ~..s. Cr._. e 20D:P ~lnd of_.~. Is fa r louttem crf i2! I~ If.neal but as '~her'..ge.Iii!I.eth.deQuafte for..'ion is D~ :I!'lO a~'htoug 1.9 J~ Eu ra ka~ Bnrd a fu III de'ta iled gau._1(19 I lOR LV~ ~eiiIJ.H::'h as sHyer ft8' lor n ffi.~ o -'00 ~ S reentres u'Sie..' nc detri.i!uoved fr1!lirr~ess.:S.

as IOOlm pI et:ed i!illild i'r~c'pe'rati on wur..'Dif' Dlii'l·e eces n'~rh::. The secend Ipawltl se.snOBS.eU md 10 ittI'ille an eh 0 f JlI. .ee'U" I raireJhe~wh &sl. -..B h.sarna .! ' M ~~ ~-..mJ~lleted the rei ile-'IIing ecoon1tlr:rc 'wM~ h.shailk or mlafll:dn=~I..". II.iln!gl 'the 'Q(lt)~H.'111 g:8g in gl ~n tthe' [@0itm.een two ~rf~re:'S e an ~I IfiO'faIbed 1!l':)i.. of the rate h st and a~fterilll ~~9 ~y gaU"9. '!. . wi II .011 ba~k soo p and PJlieVieJnlt~ reVBn.artj.eI u:[r. ~i1en the: Ig. 127 .ave the ~!.:8:tru1 to moVe U~I clllrl1@r.a net r8i'U'ae't'~ the e uft~r l~ la Ilk 'm.~rnJiVern~~d' '~rorml rotaUng by a n arm an gag Ding: rlial a 'fi~ed ph.g. wi Uh .l I i'f . H(lweyer:~. is.. wi 1:11" by m'll1hS.ri!'1l 9 and ~ndexing Ute ra ~ehri~.I~fI d'H3MO.'th e' p rmO'type 'w.9S .mUH~ 'fIj)c)Bd f. Th e! Erureka d~:v'f1oe'is.a .~~ ts mvs~ery qt"ickly !lJnfoh~s.under tJin.~W~' '"fern tha hii rm tool.As.d 'from JCU~1eF 0 .fa'mre 'number erf ®eetl1h.fj Ime.¢dle r e~c:entlte prrrl~v ~d. of' a h.~s ~he' m oV'.oh::ler.g ~5 :~:ps.". - ____C!.. secured inthe aneho r pll'atel:i. its}! If plrev>e nltiB'.aln eC-Gen~ri.orn1 tool. Ilne iirst.rds the m'rm m·ol '50th i!itwn e n '~he' 9 an~.'ts vi SU'(llri$~.e~ .~OWl'S 'fJ<i3!wl e.H'lf!s n'5: IilmipeMant and . T!n. ~s. the d rawi fll'Qj.~.athiering.:- ~ .tate ri 'Itae rJ1ef'Or~e' Q'~lCnI a~e 'wi~h fRpe~t.eme.f'!lt In e~ed 'to giVlH dl e' l~DU~1 i~s.pi ate w~~11 ~illl imi m ~.adv. . on ttle .~ p.. As' H stends he bi an k WQul~d 'me'rei.1 iis do ub:tf1ll.OltaU on .. . [he ratch. 1 I ~- ~1!!"!'01O"1P..at~helt .a'nI 5 9 pf uWHjh3:xitig' the III 81ffilk~)of\rleeUvp Ifo'fided tln a~ bOJ~h Ir. '.Qfli 1'. IIDorml IreHa-f'. Iilmhlg behVE. . l" ~.of~hB d lsi on be'j f'iliQ 1IIilImi'.b(:l1!Jla 'bed ~ent.iI1l11fl1:uenco' O'f 'th~ !!iie1Iiilvi'ng elcC"entri t wh ich.~ i:s e~ balck t:owa.S!.rger~ool£h III Jiofiif:e woul~d n~ed 't\CI ~nclrlease the siille of tha re~~:evjj[ng tc'ot Th. en I~hje f~~r~he~ w!hle"~1 nl~V ai.et whee I and 'gle. '.move ment Ii's oo\t dOO~u~~ to vi~..i'h II t u tte t. m:oIU A'~edon 'the largest ofU'nIE!l em19 flillJr'ili'3s.)nth1i uuu sJV ~'t. The drelli~~ i.days .s but a ['ryo iii e wish U j!1'g' to CU[ 'Qlealr.f te. :. -.[ p~wi is.:iL l! 1B. .he! uVGI e of levewns but once til e ~oo ~ i..e rHJmbef e.e .ual:me'.g ani! cbrn ent operaited bv 'rwo e!OO:en~ri\cs p~ ae'i3id 'i IiII the leU~ batvv.olperation th.s.so ba [ncteia. adv.Qve 'ths w'tlsr b i~lhk nv m . W hen o - A' iB.!.ave started 'to m.d be ga ined! bry 'the 81dd itirc)'11 m.re rid no relle' WillY Id I !b lei l!lrbta~ned ~WJI it ~S" t:h e diu V Oil 'he seoo ild ec~8rrtri ~ t.!'OJ Ii'! .! r brain k l1.ca~·ed!t:O ma~e. ~tnJe'm's ~mes1: 1~II'ar~e' UJflml .~.urg e r dli a metBll'" i.~tu fnii rI. '1 .:iC each to ~th in 'bU rT1 wh lle "~he Qttn ref ~ ~Ad sm. rndei. . the liiatc b e't IPiaM arlLd h.a:Jilit~gle wo'ul.a~i~h..scl bt!iM~~V:Ei ill w..r~Yi de !h~ ~ W\~Ief i salon. The r. iiii ~gUr .S DuUi n~ d c~eiliow. n e ~thl8r d iff'iciU It nor ~om fJ~i. TI'1I1S cLll1ielJ" .~thering cemmeneee.ve . the.lv ro.h 81el' (i tern '1J iU1d [h 8 cu Her 'Ilha... . wh eel.a I~a.~ be:]mg m ac:e to lrot_Je e:ocie1lfrtrr~ca I~y s'lJ:ti Oy. by the pln ~ the n rli1.an dl the indexl !l'l:g rl u ca.e r.' ..S Sle an ~ nl .4 C!:lf'f ~.. rdche.mh.s~d~ It ls not so lei~l~'V'tpa rticut®fr~IV f1:om a is'ludy of the drawl ng~Si. and 'fr'(:J..8li"ng.. Q r indax:illlllQ..2' on.alt8'~ let!].• '.~ r~'h8' n (]~ma I 1fIxis.=ri~ pha S~'~ We now ha. beftue 'the' Igathering is '10 th's w.8chlsd Ie w~ alr@ n~l rO''lat:ing aUh~lllIg'h they"are nlo\l!'ing . . !:l~ ' 'glen e nd nBfid.tem IJ Wl1lit~h is.l moVemt.'.

'r. 71 fIII~'.1"wi II~ s~~p 'and th~ 119" Aft the .nt~'n~.. 'm01 ~ H)17 -and Pa'ovided these .wnt~: wih ich eorn rn e [l.A-n:.ie-telv IpaiS~ed the "'0 rm 1.ll bEt.Jle\$. JltJO>tlJl1ted.\0.a~lle.xing 'D'~'ttl (Ii ri! ei~t tc. bee [11. shelp p[fl. .g!s.-"S.ghl" Th €I' euff. ~~'F'=d~=' _~ __ -=. '~uner b~ a nle wi II s:to~.:omtlrN. Cd-~ l~I~ I~ iit I~ " ~ ~~t. PWg.(I re ca r~rr1J ~y III w~d nD ~ 'r'O o I~rob I~rnsshou~ b~ "l. aflva need UijOl to 'Une 'fo IFM a nd ~. 101' ArbOll~~:the.f' the ne~t 'CYCl'i1.I!PI be'M.N~Oi!li i'\.Qe d~SClil'S5: gl!Eu'I:er.. .-ll1o.i..(t Canl' d In'Ql wnts'n dl8:d I:)Oi 'o.we' "hlHeth lila 5.ive . . .. I.. ·- I- :a:Fi··Irt.&cefi!.~ the cutler lilQ bWalnk.. ~u . ~ ~~.:~. wi~ l&l.. \ 11.f ~:h dm e'tlh aft ~'.n:~.:alr' bl~lnlk 'wi~ be rrH)vin Q taws ~dI! the: I form tQC'~ and I~.[f'HXH.~.!!..and ~Ichniq l.J"Iijtl. away '~r..'fllg:ln. ifiid IDpiln. ls rotlltti iii Q'~ B Whe'fiI '~be' WDltii b'Edilil' eu t: ha s.lLS. ~hie t:.a '~~I~ .'rr-~~ .C!BS w. rM:Mi rei8i:ched :the ~lndexhl.l'l!fj=r(dJi~vir.0011 and I~h Eli g:.giill : Co I-r·~·~ .(HlIl too.omf)~lrfiNd'm~~hjn~ '~'t'h' iil rn"J~r .l of' e.. vidli!i!'gl 'titi"Uf!: 'fQrm fienef' o t~B 'wh o~e'o..t)sse:d j'ls full e. ltfue '1001 IS n tinis is n." but.. .Kt..'he' ~urEi'ka f!fJ. 0 co'mp..I .$prea(j. eeCle di to buUd..." ll"o.. d 'shewn ln the ~Fi.~I die.aG~Of!! ~ e'g'i f!1'ili.dli1a tQ m'ah' . I. .b~'QW in' u£~ on th so1:.:·_· .Bfatb 't.~cl. rs ..( N'JIt:h 10_MIb.J ~iI_'5E.!i 'f'o rill to o~ !f@adry '~IO..5'~me ti role itthe' Imel i'ievi n9 &tcen~fic: wi'llll hsv'l!3Ii 1P..avell..wi M In ave.tlC me !J~~a.ai '®o m i3J~hlne.ith t'h'l' ~lIiirdB.'ta il~ed aceeu IfIt~ of the Vti'ri ()UIS n'uilQhllliIin 9 It. .Jnt O'~ tr.'I(Jfpa'NfS rg6fi1.~ a rnd I~lltti ng 'w'i. 1j~ ~$~ 1 1~~!ftte'lI" G).!...ijltlndl detailed s8't ICJI~ li"a!w~ng's. ...O'~h.. JIill ~ rr$t_ .I~ ~I._. ~~E:' i.I..r9' tooL .~ ~ 1~6:i' 21"""t~ :.a~e sta riJ~d te witJhdraw the: I or bllirM. " .

em set up ire r t.be o~~d '~o '~Idr~antagle'. . 'Ii)..ade '~rom 0iU>N~r ba r Dr pli3l~e' rnateri at If ba r maiter~.pa rt-off to 'U:1~C'kOflS~'and .ade the nfU~IIA f~ etu fie of'the..ifta e' l:IilrlWln'fI led 1meOil by m.w~'11 a .g m 8~ihiriI e'.'~f bu:~stcip lea.en qlJ(a.n de~~~ng'bM\I.B1!ilabi!e then '~hi'Sl '(.f)m81t'e r.a d~alrnn!te':r" 'T:o III iameiEers. o Bl~ ..v :side .are to be pr.hO'IU Id IbI' 'se~~o is.hei!u'~c:e.oblems..1 ""' "'~'i'riril".prodM.ii1J 6' ~~d:EI. the billnk tun a' mand'lil~! s:Ufl:s. ~1tJ.~ch~n.!Illiil{g€' ~'s t'D .Ulm the o'llJ!u·!d.j[ .Cl\i"lB Ii' ~:hel :~pinnd lie ilixi Si of 'l:JlIle' ilir'i.~~h [1"' ~hl_iiI1tryin(g to :S~' i .Fi'~'.~i'a . .. t":li ~ I 'm oUlrn.e 'itw'elvel ·Ieq u al~~y .F~O~ ~hIQWS SJ.. but: ~!'1iIlla:si~r mm~0d is 'iO I!'lem:ove..~ e.. cl fllmp... aC~il.aa Vii lli~g[eiiJ1lJ5< )tID sh e~ mlsteniall $lLlIcifJ'l as gSlu:!le p'~I8I[I~ then r'ilJug.L. line '109 .ace 81rl! in ord e.lillwng dewn :and lmto.ag£ll~'ru.£I.alll1.j!. iS1te .ct oin~ lru nct'i&f:lli'fillg !)If the device .lr~ry '£Sbts. hori ng '(1OD~i ij:i used I[(j bri 11£1 'th e trulJ~e ~o l:IlPI har\!!\i9'be. HOb. ·rna~hi "~'ng ~h. ba sic' ~~.emf.off GO mplll~:tle~ ffJ'..ide !f'ace!. CN' the 1li'. ~.~in 'hJulf~iaw Chlyck.~.St 'the ~aIGe.lin-9 ~'hHhbJtts In a lQutl:er . it 'I itHJlle~ric:ky..& """"" 11"'.AIIO .aJndlroel and .:iGa 'C!1l. ~p'uiildl'e o~' a verti'JC. 5hCiU~dbe:'mke.~abe U! { 1lJ~ ~n.mall.tin i~h 0 n Ua e s.&s. :~s d ~h1\111 'laded h'olriZ~fcIItll~ i!1 the dl'Vl]d'ilrlgl p Iy head. I'nt'd -.jig' 'CB'1'1l ~fe m1il de' '10 Ie The p~!!lj~ti'ill" 'the rotarv d~ice ho~.t th]s Un'l.sllll~. o-·.. IPn~v.~CHS~ Tin.vi 119 3' wa~ll·~hi:ckri e\$$l~railW~.l is ir'lrte'ndlec ~o rel iev'e 'Cti!Ir.Q dlwCEi d fro m 0' n lItO 1~l'Odl!!ltl' . O'~ ~'2.'U 131 n's' ctltte r b~ank.6'i~nbcr ~hiU .snsU re '~~flCE Ifrliliicrt'~1" bBitw"~a.t 'ek~t$~' not ng'hi~ flt between the! 1.(1pg is o.an error h·~r~ G~u~d mea liUS O'. Th ~ bore 1(j81r1 ~~ rOll 9J~arl .ph!O.liiS 'ito the CO IIflie.~i rn iif11 C'om ~'le'F dh. I'n a~ it 'iI. earrectly but B'f. C)ncf3' .Iy.8n "the 'O~:t and ~he bore af ·.n-re ellSUIfG 'th~it tfH~! i rn ifl 9 t rUII'1\ir1!jJ.ce the III in"l'k· a n d Un is .n can be· lu:sed to iadv81'!1Jtsgs here efV~fii if 'the I~ng ifa e-er wi III h.. . mlClc .e 'tih is 'i~ m'By be .Uti at ls impom1iU'1t1t rather tMe bQ~e but . ''fwe G~ls·.Is'··- nexm Gpe rati.~'n~ . ! l t 'n.'f .raIII1itil hila ny i~tH:mU]fedas 'Liley n ..oed..e 'and 'niian by YSding th 8: 'Iab~'e: 'fe:ed!s or'ew .r"the ih oi'es een b.ted on th6 d~~w]nJg:s.@n h:~.3 1~~tU9: C1lJttililigl o~lll~B'lI1d pa It-.'~Ol Drl~. I~cilill 1111.e 'teeUII" A :~iiffiP d rUI~ing.b/atllk. Y'!!o'·V!tG~ I'· ~e~ flS .a¢tu~llga'p b~il. i'Mm The Eu re'l!ca is Ii!:ut a !dJiffi~l!JIt '~(J01~ lPartiQu hi~IV if titre ~a. t~li I .. de..j the 'Sil.d ~he .8fe' m"ill)t .e '!two.}(..l~laCi~dl ~o'fJ6SJ thlii!~:'f~~mtI.iIliilng.bt2ili n >eli iJiOO d '~!J'~'cldV'oon$"l~nJdiil!lg '~his f8'theili unlqua on IFig. c.:!lh hOI.~1m1ill'in.II 'U'~~ ..la'~ u 'gl~911!" ~lIft. 108 show-s I' tv~.d '1m e' en dI ~ iof ~he 'two ecoo!1U~'C~1 t11e' m.Ule be'illi1QI used is OJil '~ to Imal~e lind 1h~ ave r3\ge.~ng . lbore mus't be squa re to i~hel '~.itlJgtaI11i!.~~~. wn ov{utlang is ~. tlh.to aeh i'eve' [I 'fo r' ~he1 rea m'iI!n'gl IIIr.d~'usfQ..'Elfmell~n~ I~iter ii~.tl @len cl"!l~Sen the:f!i '~n ~.5 Qf the g'~PG bS'~e an -Vn._ tlIill~ Ib~:afi!.arg· I!!1J!ed~d 'bJ"rD~meacil s:e(.m 'the IrotSwy ~~~Ie.e loonl inlijd.Po.!.~ta rt te part. -Illy ea refUlmrrV' Jf. .out bty 'mandrel js CCI"1!l'ect IS . st.r ~t!) ~ :aCh h~'v.!.J U:e II" ~fJ 111is. ta.::_.eho~'e~ The.d£~nBd h'Dle~.e iI:1 e.a lliI."fry .ri!i ra~ ~Ii ~ tlII "" .n a SJUitable .oomffC~. OffSEliI 0'1' j " '.bla~i1I'd b"m~anG'f1l'aA...~ce. ~hi~ !D'asi.h ~~ Q'PlU:atD om t~is a'S wei i '!I~n~ 1·S.j.. d If '~h bh~ Its' .~ ~s tin an achme-ved by m e~lr"rSO1f"fhe Ila ndwhee.~t~11 'aI·ow I~bc Y u~Jl05 or so thaJri til..s!uIi. 'll-IE ~. do not c rom Gam pl:et-e the ICUimng o.. The: Tn~ fled It ~iDr '~\h:el fi Ilffing opora'tlio fiI".75 itUa mete. .e~iins.ter ce nil be ·oons~d€:r~~"A'S.k dow1l'1 ft'a~ . Imo dle~i thEl' fH ms-. i.tili y ~llJt thi6 m tOI p.3.drill' I m.ou~llV st'ail18d ~he 'rene-v~nG: .rers.iiiIl Wl mbe r . bUl~mt: er p ~lOi!IJ~ el'isa stiliC l.H. The firs. 81· is: l1:v. .oltjj \ 4l.aJ~..'B I~ beMae. euner a nd ftBSBil to 'Ihe IUleQ'1iJ '~hilcklflless ir..rl'ofllh!:l' :be'o fie dil~aedv m.a"'lJe nOI Pr.ween theteie!t:~lealn be prodU~9d...!'.th e illi" re5p~mi'~e bores.lj8Sin eal. ~~ a hI lf-i n(!ill tJl1!ia. ~he .ab~nn ~~ Tnlen w~thdralw 'the ~Ii n.e ·u.n tllern tlh ts ~alfl be u s:ed itJil) f l'iill'sh lind :sbt'e eo liIi1.=ot1 1!11 UtU e' en the '~hidl!t slde.ca n be m. Iing h.9)111.• No kv!'e:nlirlfllce~ ls reCCUl'om'e n ~B:d that a sin~l~8'-ilP .. or driU ing m..ssarv too.n fa.~s been m.r.pOneflts. .. IT ~s_ NaT 'l\.t~glra ph .. I S1-2e.1e o.rs.~vte..aI has ta oJ... o~ a sl ittiil1l g! saW' m01lJ 11~ld Q.!IE:_ R-~ [) OF "~NE' CID"f""'irEe e i 'C!an b fJ I~:urt:raliSi ~e' fo r fulU re' l!J~e a fiIId So ~.0001 but op:er8f~~On.h.v: a d Iri[II~~ SElJni'8iS Qf' driills:.s. be.ffi'@'li" ~:s ~Vrali I:at! I~ !fle8:5!DfiiI being.ilt UI~I e iiii: a I~hud~r ~.¥iCi8' i~1I1U5 E!.i!:[] and s~ov~ilV f~ed 'Ute: p-alrti I1g to QI ~'n .af' bl:an u even if: U~€i)'V.too.a'r~or' -i n 1nle. iM U~B mnd~x sl eer'iJ'S this' op til:' ~tiOflll ta'['iI. . 'The .l.n ~h.the Ilii1l'the h ijlS be.

iuS't be.amp nut seeu rely u si n I} two spa n ne!rs.OI'<JD [CuT 'F-ltiEi~~o. rema frgJ1t edge of tlHo bllJ..' ~r :is. n dete rm inad 'tig I1Mn tile cl.n or: K.la~e 'f. ~'E. flg~hE!'fiIl' 'Whe'n !h €l' cu~ re:ac EllS the.llist G'lif ~he p~lLJn~leit 'inte wa~ar".Iy.nd so rs'mai n u.p~~v.a. o'f the ibl)jttcn tooi.ay be rotaed on i:ts.'11tool alm[ost up tOI the CliJl!1[.acf s'I'lver :!i'tBu l..ming IPrOC0'SS w.he eu : just lFeach.ve me~a ' r.T ~'1- i'o"!Q-.tJlile ina '~ow bH~t Slea r ~ ea. U t1)lilf a 1"11 d 'bY aga in.tUlBlIV I b~~(}rnl& SI part of' ~hB Eu reklal de-v· ce as mcun~le. Of* the n ut and .l!!'i '"f\-~EGAo.CIJ~O c.f I'he imi'Ua1 p reeess. ethel CiM rt and under thai he'lIJdifl!O illn IFeed·~ ~Ei!" lns'.iiIIll p:rmi ilng.p set lof Ithe teen'll 0 n the alJ~er ~hen sel the m icrom et11.nd ~nian cumer Qri'J'Dd9f sueh as a\ll Ou().'LI1·eirwhu~ the leet willi tJ e brin:l~~ bu~ do.S IUJlJ.li ed dep~hl e[f cUlt The r depth sheull d 00 obtain ad try' means.'!i/iee but 0 nilily g.U'!orl~ IPiOST.b"f ill bDut Dn&~tho.Ti~'- M"''Ii.r - sec. not d u~ .alntl r~he. s. Imust start hil (J1i"Hii 1ihe igap's between of h B' teeth lEI d ce... it wnl b~ .ant but it I. Til i~s...ase _ thel f\1I.h e l. th~s [Ii 9 .QU lilt Iha' Ipm[~IouS! oparations bur~thws time: button impcrtl tHtlh. ~~ n.aP>J OP' ~~ F~r~-w t:'UT~ r:n'hOI'r.o~ a dJ'US1. IR'[Ia off the lfi{i UlIIiiB .iUi'CS of the eeth [~nd nQt'fa the ourit!uI I~P5.then dt~idB' th~.u or :5. 1 1 1 sh oW's ~hlelBtU. $ltal1" by.OI" the . Tn h=i: ·toQ~.wi g.rt OO te I s8.!E:.s.n.d 'the between t he cutter 'tc.u.. car '~hIE! am.tin B gfh ar om lth~ ratchm..T'r-IUII'iJ ~T - ~c ~1~cFSAW Fee.9 132 Orpe'raUon is c.~~ ~ IE.Iorce: is "raken Gin [n e ra~ll-t 1jJI8I'wlls ~nd thli s i·s.te II' diia ~iFi rlt th8 e.0 and do. th~ ~B'C t]lnd 'tooll being Imell"eJ~ al . 1'E.s Bl 'ngru re by 'tHI D:JP'~lFeq u iredl.a1"fS' it will re mo.l~ IliiBlEIched The l~a:St mach ini mg IOp.es th 8' runt ad ge .a.SQUglli~-eliuJBd' tool ~'g[" 11 '1 Sho. dIY/din.ru p "t Iig.wJn{J'~'h.n.ell"3thJ'o is tOI apply cthe:~of'lffiml iefr whlich Is d(HiU~~"wirth l tlhli) sa M[D' I:nirn'on tolil[~ ul6ed jfJiQf t:tg Ii:l' mni ' l.or tO'PSI lEI51 ~he5e 'wilill nave pa~sed 'belween tlhs nNG Ibm~ons.lill~e:N [ JI. _1l""~ ~ndexinl OF r[otal.dr llilhe' 'shalf'll< of the'(!Jo~ ~ [1:1h_. _ens is a's sJhor -n lin. c.f a.ti~me d..-c~her is mound .J~ ~ 5-~A:. Iv-e CUr tijng ev[enl'lS before adV':BnCPiJilQ t· e ~cIDII a further llnclr'e!H11Ie'rr. th~shat willi adVifuila= IJne dellerlnnilne I h e iltila~~ 'sJi!'ua:p' of' . w:h ihst the [ph etog l':fI[ph Mg.wBri~ng sllliUing saw' Th i's ape rertion shoul d be perifmJrmlsd en an twIElli~le' teeth before !i--.pn~ ~~.ang u~8 r selt'i n {III $9 CO I"lre iL.~o..ng 8 amd then Q IJen.f '~h I' eut.USIld. O 9 red u aI ~y!he c UJ'~ wlll iB. [of [0 n ell th e se:UlClgJ ha s bee.nd slowl~y med: rn f.a [18.ratch@il [and a f1Lctllic r p. Than advancB the burU'Q. de.~ ~u. not fuiT'geJllO .qlUJence wUI lhe m is .cUftter unlfil~ fne lrequired! depth hillS Ib:een T ba rrkil' or hee]r of th~ [!~u)~19 ~ Iy bUll.!.jII'!S ~ M. C rue.i ~~depend ! I oDvwcn.ab!'e.btai Ae d by ~:rli so a:111I' p ut tha elJl.e.omlple~em 1 h e bu mons wi IrI o'nl\" nav~ g'i~en rene'f ~Ol '[!h[e sides lor CJrcula r . Th e dle p-th o.-m.~iIIIg~Th 9"8 ngu ler 'POS[UO III l8\1!1ed a n. When 'the futting S't.w thecurrerto make one colmp~6'te! revo UUOfl.d. nee fe[r The t~H:!iI is IiIldwfillcedr. of Iile' cross-sl Dd'e ml~crolmle.9.~/ltting S~W.he Ei'ear I lou.Qn .l1ll the tips r is.Ieadflng edge of the too h thlen 'this pa rt of he form rei ir!:i!vin. 1 O'f '~h B' fer th The c~'UBji'is new rea~v tor profmngl~... 0 r the pos i~ion U1 8 c. lIihe. 'body.!'r d i8111 to ~ea d ze fO and li}snrtnU'I:'le "the [~1rl1anson t1Fte.to e. gap .e'again it ils~.. G ri'ndi I1IEJ '~he faces of Un~leeith wi IIIbe a relativeJy simpl[i3Jtask f'el r nwnB'1fS of 8 l I upon the ma fieri a I used bu in th e e ars.aiUo..d nd ..to D[I ti.aprpr:u'elnt at 'once' wlUl'thll1liilf or n. now a C. not.(hlfUi!' by means.:s"e'lt]lrl[!il1 [s best o.mIon so tha. hill f''(h:. U wfrll be nfJc~!i\sary' to temper the CUlt'llU o.nsr 1n the. .fij a sim pi'j ad Vie rsion o.ch -.r'l ne1.t li~tJust touehes the outsid~'d~'fineitle diS1.~ &TW'g. if th~s second 1 pi n thait .1ce i~ lim po rtan~ a In d [must ~e CD:rreGtlv' 510' o1:hervvise tt-e rell h3vl.of ~..h.'ll'eadv for hean:reatm·erDt~ Th e.r[~m[rof.e. hem until 'he celeur .o01 wi II tin IEnrdore ~ e I1le ecle.~ 1~ ~i.'" rnotlon of' hie cU'-.p.il. be dQv. Tha w _ of rh e dUn m'l. ~It. ga in._.lefSlb"'fi9 't~1'm'8:d . adva nci 11i~ ~h 'toe I Ibty :sm 81111 a: in crements (. ill p:alni'l'll"!J1 too fIi en imp oi'1. n III n . hel'st to a ~herry red .on an arboi and 0 n c..i9n~ ~h8 on IV !morveM1! nl n e~ded b aMes n e'~cdl CllIl' ilS a lo."T'i sl m'i:~ar ~o .ti1ltly so that it m.om I l s:panner is no~ used :ill'n! 'whohs 0" the ilealJh to be clilL this second lopergtirJ:ti1 i.' 'Ug hten ing ..n61rffe ctodl.aj and clrefu~ ry ..2. b~ wi·derftu. The' fi8SY It 'WIll be the IWleqll.al~rpro'PriMel to '~he d eut er be~h:l m ada and .B.bym~R5! [Q. tooth The [:1. 'af' Vl'B~: 'is.It The il'luMfli' on Fr-gw 1 ~iOshows the pnilJcilple of the Qperartion in di~ Q11r'[amm'otiGfo.hesa me a rba r 'U sed rl is sscu red ]n ~tne lathe spindll[B.a.r and 'r en rotate 'the Ia~hlem an d~ll.lete~ V rrelie\l'ed and is. ~~iUt11g bei Iii 9 [pori(um ad and n 'thai too]~ing.utter ~un .eatir]. The ~n~tuallcuWng' operati on ea n 'now' be·gl'n.. over tern per.bv ~and. lit'oJEL ~.g Une. Of' ':IN..g!l1lp~both ootsi bel"[9 p rallel .n 91 ren QUTf~ 13W~'" 1i4~1 ~"-~ I..eJch QtWlsl1'. tilng for the seeon J~ll.ruiH.. A aha nlglec[f 't.gins to cl. ea fry en cultin 9 u fl~i~ ~8ngth the ef -.11 tter is now G(ul.

nLo:n Pitch ChTIla d lam Plms.cloid H!e.'acti. .alifl k.1i U fa a fiIlg ~€ erer HI 13155 27 .~~e illS inee iI.odul.re at' deall of Ii.tlc'ia!) 8:ose ain:~.(8 Qt.~tr.~pe Centre. inspmt~d Or e nth u sed 8 -few oonstructo:1:'\S wh Q Ir.'ni! EH'ef.~td WQ'fm~: ng 1>03 78 es .elm'eu r an~ i[lllre~'f~ ng rn ov emrel1!!t Irf.~·t~nH sl iip a~odthe·.he' lii~hie' IlGie.r.U~ e: e u'tti n {I' of a g.gI~le ~].m WOW1m'lwo-. r oOle s own he nds lis th e ba~Ji d rivi n!ill c 'force b eh Urid "the a. 711 !9 ~9 '19 '1.ef 'Gil!'.nJJ"s .al.oone Ba:!Ii8 of rei's h::y.aJd worm 'rype 'Dhdslo-ri p ~~Ie J[)~ C'ila m.e~ ~'own g. Ei Jl COY raged.bo'lLIt glSia nil h as. 10 ~have' .ei~g .olJi:S] V' '!Fleg~rd8d gea r eu lti!1 9 as bEl'i n 91 'outsi'~e ttl e.d Ii:!lj r@ka ferm to D~: F.Pth TI~~Hl~h .cvclo~. dlis.'a Ii' i!i!I m bl I"..a'll~ 'tl11le mti:sf.not m..~ 67 14 :Or]v81fn' . If one cf' ~hlBse m alCIi DneSi "is .rCIJ.27 "5 10 Train Whe~il WOI[.ts. 91 92: 4S1 111B 1'7 M.~~hj].m.[f. .~ce: F. .E!ge m'od. A g.iij ftl.~ce'.er Epi.46 BacJ(.e~lJcai~ ImU Ier: lOU 10e fIIe.bUlt eael'i'ooO'tiIrJ y. Sl~Beds 8i -reeds S'~UII' wbo.Ive' been ra~h~r' hes:itlB nt a.e(rflnvClllute1 e:ave'l." then 'the t8lsl< Q'f wri:~~ng it has be~n w@ ~II w01!1h whH EL t (jjltl$ h in 91 A.'Ie ~lY'PQc.. 611 Filat:lk wnv.l.4 1'91..2. Crown wheal C"IU rved rs~i'lf C:Vel O~rd:el~: urv@ c DedenchJlfn. I p~tch tHv iijjj n9 hI. ~Ullter i!$J rieadV 'iM'F use'.~the rea dei who he t Imlay at 'first h.e' 37 30 Pl]. 62 whee.ch .aJf1~!J.e~ rs aI. .i3~ifillS cilrlC.ea.21 19 IGe~l~ CIiJ.i r:J'DI'lhe GLHUer 50 IC'ircu~'ar p..arfiBt .22 eeJ~'t!Il'.S)S with C8 ~ :s_art~sf~c~ict .81 215 25 165 '~O 29'~155 Lante'rn pi n~Din Lea{~ Mitre wh e...rJiJIF rti n9 ln Y.ailable' ~~hel'ili can:tful ~y dmss the facEl' of be anhh:fve.7 "0 47 10 .' 72..f' I[hel ~ver.illlld now rea~15:es Ula.~7 tl.it'ch eom p!Oundi nQI Conti nuous fra ~li0 iii'S.dtj n9 i111 t"ori"~onta I m UI.re~ning ~Jhi1iI.l1Ji!I.ore" "~hi:s bo~ot ha 5.[]: from pr-o ~llIloing o'n. 21.s~airt 30 66 F'lv~ur1t1Br [F'ree 'hob'bi fII 9 '102~ WOWim Whee11 whee Is .3~ 7'0 2'" Dl'v'il~liIiIlg he>acl ra bdng to ~oclk [j~Nid'illgl h'E!'. g~ifh e red co r.olfl of c.r is we~~ wirthifi!r [he scolle o.prO.(j ~u1e eve 10 ida ~ 34 Ra~sif'lg block Rece~5.tan~e I~~ tiers 4. gea r 'h~mh 1'9 '1100 11 119 Illdlhn ~ nva~ utB ICU fVB' Brown illnd Sh.8:2 19 84.p.26 152' '191~:26 "'9 'TiOQ~h Te oth ee rriJaJcl To !!Ith d'e.DdY..dn dance' .iutih "S n 'oi.lli no in.r.d[h~lndIUlm App.Artl. Th e ~ur~hQ:ii" pes t h.B'i1!Ild di reer dlvlsien rs B9 Rack 30 '9.:nevi.pOm1:lions.

1-.---- ..IS _ [D~8'5IZ42-19' 1-18 .·-11 .

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