1. Immigration Trends a. Higher after 1830 b. Mostly from Ireland and Germany c.

Different from before b/e unskilled and extremely poor with little opportunity other that to work for little pay d. Higher in north 2. Urban Growth a. Higher in North b. Less farm labor required, not as effective c. More trade d. Immigration e. Fast in 1840 3. Nativism a. Argued immigrants were biologically or socially inferior, that they represented catholic menace and influence b. Also they stole jobs 4. Know-Nothings a. Several different movements, ultimately refered too as know knothing nativisits who had some success in 1852 election but real impact was to break whig democrat system 5. Turnpike Era a. 1790 to 1820s b. Inadequate for large country like US 6. Erie Canal a. Huge construction project but paid off in 7 years, 1825, huge engineering b. Increased west settlement with trade route, allowed NY to supplant other port cities esp new Orleans c. Unsucessfuly emulated by other cities 7. Importance of New York City a. New York was natural harbor and erie canal and early railroads linked it to west, allowing it to grow very rich 8. Railroad Consolidation - 1853 a. Created long lines linked long distances b. Helped supplant water travel c. Futher weakened ties b/w north and south d. Fueled/fed Chicago e. More extensive in north 9. Telegraph a. More extensive in north b. Rapid communication, helped with railroad scheduling c. Helped journalism become more rapid responding and large companies sell to large regions d. 1861 coast to coast wire

10. Associated Press a. Hoes new method of quickly printing newspapers – 1846 b. Large city presses with larger regional circulation c. Long term unification, short term dissent, esp with feelings of southern subjugation (they read north newspapaer) 11. Merchant Capitalists a. Small partnership or individual ownership of a company b. The traditional method of ownership 12. Corporations a. Developed by 1830s when coroporations could form merely by paying a fee, allowed for quick accumulation of relatively risk free investment 13. Factory System a. Much more efficient, moved workers out of the house and into the factory with assembly lines and interchangeable parts b. Centered in north, by 1860 could compete manufactured with agricultural goods 14. Interchangeable Parts a. Part of standardization and cut costs tremendously, speedier assembly b. Made possible the creation of more advanced products 15. Lowell Mills and workers a. Used young unmarried women from farms, with comparatively good working conditions and good leisure time, but still monotonous, lonely, and boring work b. Emphasis on morality typical of American culture c. Had to be more competitive so cut high standards in 1830s and 40s 16. Factory Girls Association a. 1834 creation and strike for better wages, and 1836 strike for quarters, but 1837 recession destroyed organization 17. Trade Unions a. Combined in 1820s and 30s to defend the way of life of the skilled worker, national unions, 1834 National Trades Union b. Seemed slightly illegal and met with hostility, even after declared legal, only remained successful by acting like a guild and limiting access 18. Commonwealth vs Hunt - 1842 a. Declared unions lawful organisations 19. Cap b/w rich and poor a. Was very large, but social and economic opportunity/mobility, democratic gov’t¸ and geographic mobility with prevented issurections and was release valve 20. The middle class a. Had substantial estates and benefited from tech advances, cast iron stove, for a higher quality of life b. Time and leisure to decorate house c. Good diet 21. Cult of domesticity

22. 23. 24. 25.

a. Division b/w public and private spheres b. Women had always been denied many rights and subordinated, but now switched from income producers to household objects in middle class c. Development of women culture for house and their use of leisure time for reform d. Only for domestic roles Impact of ind.rev on Gender Roles a. Commercial Agriculture High Culture and lowbrow culture McCormick Reaper and John Deere Plow a. Allowed for more efficient agriculture and the transformation of a small farm into a buisisness with investors to get equipment

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