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EMF and Blood Brain Barrier

There are other EMF-related bibliographies here: http://www.scribd.com/collections/3440803/Electrosmog-Bibiographies

23 May 2012

Here are 47 articles reporting the effects of low level EMFs on the permeability of the blood-brain barrier.

1. Albert EN (1977). Light and electron microscopic observations on the blood-brain barrier after
microwave irradiation. In: Proceedings of Symposium on Biological Effects and Measurement of Radio Frequency/Microwaves. Rockville, MD: Food and Drug Administration FDA 77-8026, ed. D.G. Hazzard (HEW Publications, Washington, DC, 1977) pp. 294-304.

2. Albert EN (1979). Reversibility of microwave induced blood brain barrier permeability. Radio Sci 14:
327-39. http://www.agu.org/pubs/crossref/1979/RS014i06Sp00323.shtml

3. Albert EN, Kerns JM. (1981). Reversible microwave effects on the blood-brain barrier. Brain Res
230(1-2):153-164. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7317776

4. Albert EN, Sherif M (1988). Morphological changes in cerebellum of neonatal rats exposed to 2.45
GHz microwaves, Prog Clin Biol Res 257: 135-151 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3344268

5. Burchard JF, Nguyen DH, Block E. (1999). Macro- and trace element concentrations in blood plasma
and cerebrospinal fluid of dairy cows exposed to electric and magnetic fields. Bioelectromagnetics. 20(6):358-64. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10453063

6. Dasdag S, MZ Akdag, G Kizil et al (2012). Effect of 900 MHz Radio Frequency Radiation on Beta
Amyloid Protein, Protein Carbonyl, and Malondialdehyde in the Brain. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine. 31(1 ): 67-74 http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/15368378.2011.624654

7. d'Avella D, Cicciarello R, Albiero F, Mesiti M et. Al. (1992). Quantitative study of blood-brain barrier
permeability changes after experimental whole-brain radiation. Neurosurgery. 30(1):30-4. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1738452 (note– this refers to ionizing radiation, but may be of interest)

8. Davies DC, Hardy JA (1988). Blood brain barrier in ageing and Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiol Aging.
9(1):46-8 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3380253

9. Ding GR, Li KC, Wang XW, Zhou YC, Qiu LB, Tan J, Xu SL, Guo GZ. (2009). Effect of
electromagnetic pulse exposure on brain micro vascular permeability in rats. Biomed Environ Sci. 22(3):265-8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19725471

10. Eberhardt JL, Persson BR, Brun AE, Salford LG, Malmgren LO. (2008). Blood-brain barrier
permeability and nerve cell damage in rat brain 14 and 28 days after exposure to microwaves from GSM mobile phones. Electromagn Biol Med. 27(3):215-29. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18821198

11. Frey AH. Coren E. (1978) Blood-brain, blood-vitrous humor, and placental barrier modification due
to microwave exposure [abstract]. Biophysical J 21(3):110a http://pdn.sciencedirect.com/science? _ob=MiamiImageURL&_cid=277708&_user=10&_pii=S0006349578855295&_check=y&_cove rDate=1978-03-31&view=c&_gw=y&wchp=dGLbVlSzSkzV&md5=1179f0a92b804f0983aa54398572a76a/1-s2.0-S0006349578855295-main.pdf

12. Frey AH. (1980). On microwave effects at the blood-brain barrier. Bioelectromagnetics Society
Newsletter Nov. 1980; 28.

13. Frey, AH (1984). Possible Modification of the Blood-Vitreous Humor Barrier of the Eye with
Electromagnetic Energy. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine 3(1-2): 281-292 http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15368378409035971

14. Goldman H., J.C. Lin, S. Murphy and M.F. Lin (1984). Cerebral permeability of 86 Rb in the rat after
exposure to pulsed microwaves, Bioelectromagnetics 5: 323-330. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6487383 _________________________________________________________________________________________ -1-

EMF and Blood Brain Barrier
emissions and serum ß-trace protein. Int J Mol Med. 26(2):301-6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20596612

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15. Hardell L, F Söderqvist, M Carlberg, H Zetterberg, KH Mild. (2010). Exposure to wireless phone

16. Kuo YC, Kuo CY. (2008). Electromagnetic interference in the permeability of saquinavir across the
blood-brain barrier using nanoparticulate carriers. Int J Pharm. 3;351(1-2):271-81. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17976933

17. Lange DG, Sedmak J. (1991). Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV): potentiation of lethality in mice by
microwave radiation. Bioelectromagnetics 12(6):335-48 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed? term=1750827

18. Larochelle C, Alvarez JI, Prat A. (2011). How do immune cells overcome the blood-brain barrier in
multiple sclerosis? FEBS Lett. 2011 May 4. [Epub ahead of print] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21550344

19. Laursen H, Westergaard E. (1981). The permeability of the blood-brain barrier and cell membranes to
horseradish peroxidase in hyperammonaemia. Acta Neuropathol 54(4):293-9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7023171

20. Merritt J.H., A.P. Chamness and S.J. Allen. (1978). Studies on blood-brain barrier permeability after
microwave radiation. Radiat. Environ. Biophys. 15: 367-377. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/756056

21. Neilly J.P. and J.C. Lin. (1986). Interaction of microwaves on the blood-brain barrier of rats,
Bioelectromagnetics 7: 405-414. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3801064

22. Neubauer C, Phelan AM, Kues H, Lange DG. (1990). Microwave irradiation of rats at 2.45 GHz
activates pinocytotic-like uptake of tracer by capillary endothelial cells of cerebral cortex. Bioelectromagnetics.11(4):261-8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2285411

23. Neubauer C., A.M. Phelan, H. Kues and D.G. Lange (1990). Microwave irradiation of rats at 2.45
GHz activates pinocytic-like uptake of tracer by capillary endothelial cells of cerebral cortex, Bioelectromagnetics 11: 261-268. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2285411

24. Nittby H. Grafstrom G, Eberhardt J. et al (2008). Radiofrequency and Extremely Low-Frequency
Electromagnetic Field Effects on the Blood-Brain Barrier. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine 27: 103–126. http://www.scribd.com/doc/3935076/Radiofrequency-and-ExtremelyLowFrequency-Electromagnetic-Field-Effects-on-the-BloodBrain-Barrier

25. Nittby, H., Brun, A., Eberhardt, J., Malmgren, L., Persson, B.R.R., Salford, L.G. (2009). Increased
blood-brain barrier permeability in mammalian brain 7 days after exposure to the radiation from a GSM-900 mobile phone. Pathophysiology.16.103-12. http://download.journals.elsevierhealth.com/pdfs/journals/0928-4680/PIIS0928468009000133.pdf

26. Oscar KJ, TD Hawkins (1977). Microwave alteration of the blood-brain barrier system of rats. Brain
Research 126(2): 281-93. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/861720

27. Persson BRR, J. Eberhardt, L. Malmgren , Persson MB, Brun A.and Salford LG (2005). Effects of
microwaves on GSM mobile phones on the blood-brain barrier and neurons in rat brain. Prog,. Electromag, Res. Symp. Hangzhou, China, Aug 22-26. http://www.piers.org/piersonline/vol1/2k5hz_p638.pdf

28. Persson BRR, Salford LG, Brun A. (1997). Blood-brain barrier permeability in rats exposed to
electromagnetic fields used in wireless communication. Wireless Networks. 3:455–461. http://www.emfacts.com/electricwords/pe356960.html

29. Persson BRR,LG Salford, A Brun, JL. Eberhardt, L Malmgren (1992). Increased Permeability of the
Blood-Brain Barrier Induced by Magnetic and Electromagnetic Fields. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 649: 356–358. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.17496632.1992.tb49629.x/abstract _________________________________________________________________________________________ -2-

EMF and Blood Brain Barrier
antagonism of central cholinomimetic drug effects. Radiat Res 105(3):328-40. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3961098

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30. Quock RM, Fujimoto JM, Ishii TK, Lange DG. (1986). Microwave facilitation of methylatropine

31. Salford L, Henrietta N, Arne B, Gustav G, et al. (2008). The mammalian brain in the electromagnetic
fields designed by man with special reference to blood brain barrier function, neuronal damage and possible physical mechanisms. Prog Theor Phys Suppl (Japan);173:283–309.

32. Salford L.G., A. Brun, J. Eberhardt, L. Malmgren and B. Persson (1992). Electromagnetic fieldinduced permeability of the blood-brain barrier shown by immunohistochemical methods, in: Interaction Mechanism of Low-Level Electromagnetic Fields in Living Systems,eds. B. Norden and C. Ramel (Oxford University Press, Oxford) pp. 251-258.

33. Salford LG, B Persson, J Eberhardt, G Grafström, L Malmgren and A Brun (2006). Non-thermal
effects of EMF upon the mammalian brain. Presentation at the international conference “The Precautionary EMF Approach: Rationale, Legislation and Implementation”, convened by the International Commission for Electromagnetic Safety in Benevento, Italy, in February 2006. http://www.icems.eu/docs/Salford.pdf

34. Salford LG, Brun A, Sturesson K, Eberhardt JL, Persson BR. (1994). Permeability of the blood-brain
barrier induced by 915 MHz electromagnetic radiation, continuous wave and modulated at 8, 16, 50, and 200 Hz. Microsc Res Tech. 27(6):535-42. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8012056

35. Salford LG, Brun AE, Eberhardt JL, Malmgren L, Persson BR. (2003). Nerve cell damage in
mammalian brain after exposure to microwaves from GSM mobile phones. Environ Health Perspect. 111(7):881-3; discussion A408. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12782486

36. Salford, L. G., et al.(1997). Blood brain barrier permeability in rats exposed to electromagnetic fields
from a GSM wireless communication transmitter. Proceedings of the Second World Congress for Electricity and Magnetism in Biology and Medicine, June 8-12, 1997, Bologna, Italy, F. Bersani, ed.

37. Schirmacher A, Bahr A, Kullnick U, Stoegbauer F (1998). Electromagnetic fields (1.75 GHz)
influence the permeability of the blood-brain barrier in cell culture model. Presented at the Twentieth Annual Meeting of the Bioelectromagnetics Society, St. Pete Beach, FL, June 1998 http://www.emfacts.com/electricwords/sc11906.html

38. Schirmacher A, Winters S, Fischer S, Goeke J, Galla HJ, Kullnick U, Ringelstein EB, Stögbauer F.
(2000). Electromagnetic fields (1.8 GHz) increase the permeability to sucrose of the blood-brain barrier in vitro. Bioelectromagnetics. 21(5):338-45. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10899769

39. Segal AS, RL Magin (1982). Microwaves and the Blood-Brain Barrier: A Review. Electromagnetic
Biology and Medicine 1(3): 351–398. http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs/10.3109/15368378209040347

40. Shivers R.R., M. Kavaliers, G.C. Teskey, F.S. Prato and R.M. Pelletier, (1987). Magnetic resonance
imaging temporarily alters blood-brain barrier in the rat. Neuroscience Letters 76: 25-31. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3587744

41. Sirav B, Seyhan N. (2011). Effects of radiofrequency radiation exposure on blood-brain barrier
permeability in male and female rats. Electromagn Biol Med. 30(4):253-60. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22047463

42. Söderqvist F, Hardell L, Carlberg M, Mild, K. (2010). Radiofrequency fields, transthyretin, and
Alzheimer's disease. J Alzheimers Dis. 20(2):599-606. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20164553

43. Söderqvist F, M Carlberg and L Hardell (2009). Mobile and cordless telephones, serum transthyretin
and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier: a cross-sectional study. Environmental Health 8:19 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2679014/?tool=pubmed _________________________________________________________________________________________ -3-

EMF and Blood Brain Barrier

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44. Söderqvist FM, M Carlberg, KH Mild, L Hardell (2009). Exposure to an 890-MHz mobile phone-like
signal and serum levels of S100B and transthyretin in volunteers. Tox Let 189(1); 63-66. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S037842740900246X

45. Srav B, Seyhan N. (2009). Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption by Continuous-Wave Radio Frequency
Radiation. Electromagnetic Biology & Medicine. 28.2.215 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19811403

46. Stögbauer F. (2002). Effects of electromagnetic fields on the function of the blood brain barrier.
Forschungsgemeinschaft Funk e. V. . G 14515(15): http://www.fgf.de/english/publications/edition_wissenschaft/Edition_Wissenschaft_Nr15.pdf

47. Zuev VG, Ushakov IB (1993). [Microwaves and blood-brain barrier]. Radiats Biol Radioecol;
33(5):739-47 [Article in Russian] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=8293099 Also see:   http://www.scribd.com/EMFsafety/shelf

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