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EMF and Blood Brain Barrier

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Here are 47 articles reporting the effects of low level EMFs on the permeability of the blood-brain barrier.

1. Albert EN (1977). Light and electron microscopic observations on the blood-brain barrier after
microwave irradiation. In: Proceedings of Symposium on Biological Effects and Measurement of Radio Frequency/Microwaves. Rockville, MD: Food and Drug Administration FDA 77-8026, ed. D.G. Hazzard (HEW Publications, Washington, DC, 1977) pp. 294-304.

2. Albert EN (1979). Reversibility of microwave induced blood brain barrier permeability. Radio Sci 14:

3. Albert EN, Kerns JM. (1981). Reversible microwave effects on the blood-brain barrier. Brain Res

4. Albert EN, Sherif M (1988). Morphological changes in cerebellum of neonatal rats exposed to 2.45
GHz microwaves, Prog Clin Biol Res 257: 135-151

5. Burchard JF, Nguyen DH, Block E. (1999). Macro- and trace element concentrations in blood plasma
and cerebrospinal fluid of dairy cows exposed to electric and magnetic fields. Bioelectromagnetics. 20(6):358-64.

6. Dasdag S, MZ Akdag, G Kizil et al (2012). Effect of 900 MHz Radio Frequency Radiation on Beta
Amyloid Protein, Protein Carbonyl, and Malondialdehyde in the Brain. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine. 31(1 ): 67-74

7. d'Avella D, Cicciarello R, Albiero F, Mesiti M et. Al. (1992). Quantitative study of blood-brain barrier
permeability changes after experimental whole-brain radiation. Neurosurgery. 30(1):30-4. (note– this refers to ionizing radiation, but may be of interest)

8. Davies DC, Hardy JA (1988). Blood brain barrier in ageing and Alzheimer's disease. Neurobiol Aging.

9. Ding GR, Li KC, Wang XW, Zhou YC, Qiu LB, Tan J, Xu SL, Guo GZ. (2009). Effect of
electromagnetic pulse exposure on brain micro vascular permeability in rats. Biomed Environ Sci. 22(3):265-8.

10. Eberhardt JL, Persson BR, Brun AE, Salford LG, Malmgren LO. (2008). Blood-brain barrier
permeability and nerve cell damage in rat brain 14 and 28 days after exposure to microwaves from GSM mobile phones. Electromagn Biol Med. 27(3):215-29.

11. Frey AH. Coren E. (1978) Blood-brain, blood-vitrous humor, and placental barrier modification due
to microwave exposure [abstract]. Biophysical J 21(3):110a _ob=MiamiImageURL&_cid=277708&_user=10&_pii=S0006349578855295&_check=y&_cove rDate=1978-03-31&view=c&_gw=y&wchp=dGLbVlSzSkzV&md5=1179f0a92b804f0983aa54398572a76a/1-s2.0-S0006349578855295-main.pdf

12. Frey AH. (1980). On microwave effects at the blood-brain barrier. Bioelectromagnetics Society
Newsletter Nov. 1980; 28.

13. Frey, AH (1984). Possible Modification of the Blood-Vitreous Humor Barrier of the Eye with
Electromagnetic Energy. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine 3(1-2): 281-292

14. Goldman H., J.C. Lin, S. Murphy and M.F. Lin (1984). Cerebral permeability of 86 Rb in the rat after
exposure to pulsed microwaves, Bioelectromagnetics 5: 323-330. _________________________________________________________________________________________ -1-

EMF and Blood Brain Barrier
emissions and serum ß-trace protein. Int J Mol Med. 26(2):301-6.

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15. Hardell L, F Söderqvist, M Carlberg, H Zetterberg, KH Mild. (2010). Exposure to wireless phone

16. Kuo YC, Kuo CY. (2008). Electromagnetic interference in the permeability of saquinavir across the
blood-brain barrier using nanoparticulate carriers. Int J Pharm. 3;351(1-2):271-81.

17. Lange DG, Sedmak J. (1991). Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV): potentiation of lethality in mice by
microwave radiation. Bioelectromagnetics 12(6):335-48 term=1750827

18. Larochelle C, Alvarez JI, Prat A. (2011). How do immune cells overcome the blood-brain barrier in
multiple sclerosis? FEBS Lett. 2011 May 4. [Epub ahead of print]

19. Laursen H, Westergaard E. (1981). The permeability of the blood-brain barrier and cell membranes to
horseradish peroxidase in hyperammonaemia. Acta Neuropathol 54(4):293-9.

20. Merritt J.H., A.P. Chamness and S.J. Allen. (1978). Studies on blood-brain barrier permeability after
microwave radiation. Radiat. Environ. Biophys. 15: 367-377.

21. Neilly J.P. and J.C. Lin. (1986). Interaction of microwaves on the blood-brain barrier of rats,
Bioelectromagnetics 7: 405-414.

22. Neubauer C, Phelan AM, Kues H, Lange DG. (1990). Microwave irradiation of rats at 2.45 GHz
activates pinocytotic-like uptake of tracer by capillary endothelial cells of cerebral cortex. Bioelectromagnetics.11(4):261-8.

23. Neubauer C., A.M. Phelan, H. Kues and D.G. Lange (1990). Microwave irradiation of rats at 2.45
GHz activates pinocytic-like uptake of tracer by capillary endothelial cells of cerebral cortex, Bioelectromagnetics 11: 261-268.

24. Nittby H. Grafstrom G, Eberhardt J. et al (2008). Radiofrequency and Extremely Low-Frequency
Electromagnetic Field Effects on the Blood-Brain Barrier. Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine 27: 103–126.

25. Nittby, H., Brun, A., Eberhardt, J., Malmgren, L., Persson, B.R.R., Salford, L.G. (2009). Increased
blood-brain barrier permeability in mammalian brain 7 days after exposure to the radiation from a GSM-900 mobile phone. Pathophysiology.16.103-12.

26. Oscar KJ, TD Hawkins (1977). Microwave alteration of the blood-brain barrier system of rats. Brain
Research 126(2): 281-93.

27. Persson BRR, J. Eberhardt, L. Malmgren , Persson MB, Brun A.and Salford LG (2005). Effects of
microwaves on GSM mobile phones on the blood-brain barrier and neurons in rat brain. Prog,. Electromag, Res. Symp. Hangzhou, China, Aug 22-26.

28. Persson BRR, Salford LG, Brun A. (1997). Blood-brain barrier permeability in rats exposed to
electromagnetic fields used in wireless communication. Wireless Networks. 3:455–461.

29. Persson BRR,LG Salford, A Brun, JL. Eberhardt, L Malmgren (1992). Increased Permeability of the
Blood-Brain Barrier Induced by Magnetic and Electromagnetic Fields. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 649: 356–358. _________________________________________________________________________________________ -2-

EMF and Blood Brain Barrier
antagonism of central cholinomimetic drug effects. Radiat Res 105(3):328-40.

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30. Quock RM, Fujimoto JM, Ishii TK, Lange DG. (1986). Microwave facilitation of methylatropine

31. Salford L, Henrietta N, Arne B, Gustav G, et al. (2008). The mammalian brain in the electromagnetic
fields designed by man with special reference to blood brain barrier function, neuronal damage and possible physical mechanisms. Prog Theor Phys Suppl (Japan);173:283–309.

32. Salford L.G., A. Brun, J. Eberhardt, L. Malmgren and B. Persson (1992). Electromagnetic fieldinduced permeability of the blood-brain barrier shown by immunohistochemical methods, in: Interaction Mechanism of Low-Level Electromagnetic Fields in Living Systems,eds. B. Norden and C. Ramel (Oxford University Press, Oxford) pp. 251-258.

33. Salford LG, B Persson, J Eberhardt, G Grafström, L Malmgren and A Brun (2006). Non-thermal
effects of EMF upon the mammalian brain. Presentation at the international conference “The Precautionary EMF Approach: Rationale, Legislation and Implementation”, convened by the International Commission for Electromagnetic Safety in Benevento, Italy, in February 2006.

34. Salford LG, Brun A, Sturesson K, Eberhardt JL, Persson BR. (1994). Permeability of the blood-brain
barrier induced by 915 MHz electromagnetic radiation, continuous wave and modulated at 8, 16, 50, and 200 Hz. Microsc Res Tech. 27(6):535-42.

35. Salford LG, Brun AE, Eberhardt JL, Malmgren L, Persson BR. (2003). Nerve cell damage in
mammalian brain after exposure to microwaves from GSM mobile phones. Environ Health Perspect. 111(7):881-3; discussion A408.

36. Salford, L. G., et al.(1997). Blood brain barrier permeability in rats exposed to electromagnetic fields
from a GSM wireless communication transmitter. Proceedings of the Second World Congress for Electricity and Magnetism in Biology and Medicine, June 8-12, 1997, Bologna, Italy, F. Bersani, ed.

37. Schirmacher A, Bahr A, Kullnick U, Stoegbauer F (1998). Electromagnetic fields (1.75 GHz)
influence the permeability of the blood-brain barrier in cell culture model. Presented at the Twentieth Annual Meeting of the Bioelectromagnetics Society, St. Pete Beach, FL, June 1998

38. Schirmacher A, Winters S, Fischer S, Goeke J, Galla HJ, Kullnick U, Ringelstein EB, Stögbauer F.
(2000). Electromagnetic fields (1.8 GHz) increase the permeability to sucrose of the blood-brain barrier in vitro. Bioelectromagnetics. 21(5):338-45.

39. Segal AS, RL Magin (1982). Microwaves and the Blood-Brain Barrier: A Review. Electromagnetic
Biology and Medicine 1(3): 351–398.

40. Shivers R.R., M. Kavaliers, G.C. Teskey, F.S. Prato and R.M. Pelletier, (1987). Magnetic resonance
imaging temporarily alters blood-brain barrier in the rat. Neuroscience Letters 76: 25-31.

41. Sirav B, Seyhan N. (2011). Effects of radiofrequency radiation exposure on blood-brain barrier
permeability in male and female rats. Electromagn Biol Med. 30(4):253-60.

42. Söderqvist F, Hardell L, Carlberg M, Mild, K. (2010). Radiofrequency fields, transthyretin, and
Alzheimer's disease. J Alzheimers Dis. 20(2):599-606.

43. Söderqvist F, M Carlberg and L Hardell (2009). Mobile and cordless telephones, serum transthyretin
and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier: a cross-sectional study. Environmental Health 8:19 _________________________________________________________________________________________ -3-

EMF and Blood Brain Barrier

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44. Söderqvist FM, M Carlberg, KH Mild, L Hardell (2009). Exposure to an 890-MHz mobile phone-like
signal and serum levels of S100B and transthyretin in volunteers. Tox Let 189(1); 63-66.

45. Srav B, Seyhan N. (2009). Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption by Continuous-Wave Radio Frequency
Radiation. Electromagnetic Biology & Medicine. 28.2.215

46. Stögbauer F. (2002). Effects of electromagnetic fields on the function of the blood brain barrier.
Forschungsgemeinschaft Funk e. V. . G 14515(15):

47. Zuev VG, Ushakov IB (1993). [Microwaves and blood-brain barrier]. Radiats Biol Radioecol;
33(5):739-47 [Article in Russian] Also see:  

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