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Hip Hop Therapy: Culturally Responsive Therapy for Immigrant and Refugee Youth through Art Integration Comfort Agboola Applied Research Project The Chicago School of Professional Psychology
Hip Hop Therapy 2
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Project Title: Hip Hop Therapy: Culturally Responsive Therapy for Immigrant and Refugee Youth through Art Integration _
Student Name: ______________
By checking this box I confirm that the content of this project was authored by the student listed on this form and approved by the assigned advisor. I also confirm that the content was gathered and processed in an academically honest way, not plagiarized in any fashion, and will be used for the purposes outlined in this project. I understand that by checking this box I am electronically signing this document and initiating the review of its contents by The Chicago School of Professional Psychology as fulfillment of the Applied Research Project requirement.
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Advisor Name: _____________Michele Pesiri_______________________________
Hip Hop Therapy 3
To my parents, Olalekan and Leonia Agboola, and family for their constant support To the teachers that have opened the world to me To the children who inspire and motivate me
Hip Hop Therapy 4 Abstract Currently, most of the United States population has immigrated or been born of immigrant parent(s) making them the new face of American society. Immigrants can be documented immigrants, undocumented immigrants, refugees, unaccompanied refugee minors, and victims of human trafficking. Immigrants, however, are constantly confronted with the lack of access to resources because they wrongly accused of being “undeserving foreigners”. Immigrant and refugee youth experience multiple challenges in their adaption to a new country and culture making them vulnerable. Many studies address the difficulties of marginalized natural born citizens but few addressing how to lessen the strain on the immigrant adolescent. Moreover, there is a lack of program development that addresses acculturation needs, migration stressors, and culturally responsive practices. Hip Hop therapy, specifically for immigrant youth, can unite immigrant youth through shared experiences, educate youth on social activism, and providing a therapeutic outlet for individual development prior to English language acquisition.
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Table of Contents
List of Illustrations, Tables and Figures........................................................................................................ 6 Proposal/Introduction.................................................................................................................................... 7 Literature Review........................................................................................................................................ 10 Methodology ............................................................................................................................................... 29 Discussion ................................................................................................................................................... 34 Peripheral Documents ................................................................................................................................. 37 Flyer ........................................................................................................................................................ 37 Figure 1 ................................................................................................................................................... 37 Budget Proposal ...................................................................................................................................... 38 Participant Survey Form ......................................................................................................................... 39 Confidentiality Statement ....................................................................................................................... 41 Pilot Activities Handout .......................................................................................................................... 43 References ................................................................................................................................................... 46
Hip Hop Therapy 6 List of Illustrations, Tables and Figures
Figure 1: Illustration of Flyer …………………………………………………………………. 36 Figure 2: Table of Budget ……..……………………………………………………………... 37 Figure 3: Table of Program Schedule ………………………………………………………… 43
Hip Hop Therapy 7 Proposal/Introduction
Topic Title: Hip Hop Therapy: Culturally Responsive Therapy for Immigrant and Refugee Youth through Art Integration
Research Questions How can artistic creation support one's cultural identity especially in situations of conflict? How can Hip Hop be used to help immigrant youth reach positive self-image and empowerment? Hip Hop has been related to youth voice, how can Hip Hop elements be used to strengthen the immigrant youth voice? Purpose The adolescent years can be a dynamic period in a person’s development. Young people develop a psychological identity seeking out independence. This can spawn recklessness and risk-taking behaviors. In general, youth need adult assistance, nurturing, supervision and resources, because developmentally they are at a pivotal point for their future successes or failures. However, there is a tool that has been stigmatized but has the ability to bring positive change. Hip Hop, as a culture, has always been a means to insight the youth. Hip Hop is often viewed negatively only focusing on destructive messages; however, Hip Hop originates from low income minority adolescents who created art with their words, bodies and talent in order to fight social injustices. Hip Hop can be used as a therapeutic form to motivate immigrant
Hip Hop Therapy 8 adolescents. The purpose of this program is to foster creative expression, self-actualization, positive social interaction, and emotional identification. Problem Statement Youth in America represent a movement that includes all races, ethnicities, gender, and social-economic statuses. World views are often hard to discern for adults mainly because their unique culture is sometimes ignored and viewed negatively. Youth world view is advertised in their clothing, art, attitude, style, movement, music, social mediums and words. This is part of who they are. One of the most related aspects is Hip Hop culture and how youth identify with it. Many are struggling for their attention from teachers to politicians, but Hip Hop has captivated it for the last 30 years. Tinajero (2009) states that Hip Hop is "the world's favorite youth culture" with "just about every country on the planet seems to have developed its own local rap scene" (Tinajero 2009, p. 6) In general, youth need adult assistance, nurturing, supervision and resources, because developmentally they are at a pivotal point for their future successes or failures. These stakes are even higher for immigrant youths, many of which identify with Hip Hop culture. Focusing on immigrant youth, over the last 30 years, the United States has seen a wave of international racial and ethnic groups making it necessary for there to be a development in communication and therapy. There should be an urgency to understand their ethnic culture and youth culture. The statistics on immigrant youth in America shows a need for a program that is adaptable to a society that is changing. Shields and Behrman (2004) state that “1 of every 5 children in the United States was a child of immigrants” (Sheilds & Behrman 2004, p. 4). This includes children who are immigrants. No matter how people feel about immigration and policy,
Hip Hop Therapy 9 it is a reality that many Americans will be immigrants. Adolescents in the immigration debate still need to become adjusted adults and it is necessary for a program to be formed addressing their unique needs.
Hip Hop Therapy 10 Literature Review Youth in America represent a movement that includes all races, ethnicities, gender, and social-economic statuses. World views are often hard to discern for adults mainly because their unique culture is sometimes ignored and viewed negatively. Youth world view is advertised in their clothing, art, attitude, style, movement, music, social mediums and words. This is part of who they are. One of the most related aspects is Hip Hop culture and how youth identify with it. Many are struggling for their attention from teachers to politicians, but Hip Hop has captivated it for the last 30 years. Tinajero (2009) states that Hip Hop is "the world's favorite youth culture" with "just about every country on the planet seems to have developed its own local rap scene" (Tinajero, 2009, p. 6). Hip Hop is often viewed negatively only focusing on destructive messages; however, Hip Hop originates from low income minority adolescents who created art with their words, bodies and talent in order to fight social injustices. Hip Hop can be best defined as “an urban mainstream culture driven by youth and young adults” (Tillie Allen, 2005, p 30). The last 30 years has propelled Hip Hop music and culture into popular youth culture. Hip Hop displays a facet of emotions, beats, styles and words. Hip Hop was born in the African-American and Latino communities of New York City in the late 1970s. The early development of this culture was underground, obscure and not widely accepted but thriving in minority, low income neighborhoods. The music and style provided empowerment to groups that had been previously unheard: poor, minority youth. The pioneers that established the music also established the 4 elements of Hip Hop. Artists such as Afrika Bambaataa, Sugar Hill Gang, Run DMC and Public Enemy were instrumental in creating the culture of Hip Hop. The four elements are: MCs (emcees), Djs (deejays), Break-dancing, and
Hip Hop Therapy 11 Graffiti Art (Tillie Allen, 2009). Although these four are the root of Hip Hop culture, the culture has expanded to incorporate fashion, film, and poetry. Often it is confused with mainstream rap lyrics that objectify women, promote violence, and display little self-awareness. Rap deals with the ability to deliver lyrics. Hip Hop is an emotion and self- reflective in nature. KRS- One, a Hip Hop artist, is quoted as saying “Rap is something you do. Hip Hop is something you feel” (Tillie Allen, 2009, p 31). Talib Kweli, a Hip Hop artist, states that “art isn't supposed to just acknowledge how things are but show a better vision for the future” (DJ Kosher, 2010). Hip Hop addresses issues of race, self-awareness, world cultures/history, current events, and other topics concerning youth. Individuals, especially in this age range, seek to create an identity, meaning and find a community. Hip Hop operates as a venue for discovery and understanding of other people's ideas but also the individual's ideas. Hip Hop discusses the Civil Rights gains of the 1950s but addresses the losses of the Hip Hop generation. Hip Hop lyrics address crime, poverty, disenfranchisement, and racism. Youth of color have become empowered through lyrics like Nas', song “One Mic”, “All I need is one mic to spread my voice to the whole world.” This representation of power to the powerless and that one does not need to be a socially conscious artist to have message and a voice. Theorist from the social sciences and humanities observed that there is an important connection to youth development and Hip Hop. The idea of identity is developed through narrative and other forms of artistic representation. The key part of Hip Hop is the fact that Hip Hop artists write and perform lyrics from their own personal experiences that youth can relate to. This is true for the United States and the world of Hip Hop artists. World Hip Hop artists, in a
Hip Hop Therapy 12 variety of languages, convey a message, style and culture to its young audiences. Tupac, a famous Hip Hop artist, lyrics have been heard around the world, and he is the most recognizable face of Hip Hop. His story was one that was relatable to many dealing with racial discrimination, government injustice, drugs and living in poverty. (Clay, 2006, p. 106). Micheal Eric Dyson stated that “this type of honesty secured Tupac's place as one of the most respected rappers in Hip Hop” (Clay, 2006, p. 106). Dyson further connects his popularity to the global success of Hip Hop, as Tupac's voice helped shape Hip Hop global culture and “his voice rings through the cultural landscape” (Clay, 2006, p. 106). Tupac, along with other artists, found success in the candidness of their message. Public narration, discourse or display builds a community and focuses the community on a common goal. In Hip Hop, there have been movements for ending gang warfare, fighting against AIDS/HIV, and provided food for the impoverished. These movements began because of a common voice and identifiable message. Hip Hop's ability to unite, especially the young, leads to answering the question “What are we fighting for?” by presenting the world as it is and the world as it could be. This has been done through words, images and movement. Many artists of all mediums hope for equity in their communities and world. Their audiences become more self-aware but also more aware of their world. This is commonly called conscious raising (Clay, 2006). The individual and community are made aware of their existence as being marginalized because it is addressed publicly and honestly. An individual’s understands of themselves and the world they live in leads toward selfactualization. Self-actualization refers to the propensity for people to move towards growth and self-improvement. Self-actualization also includes pro-social attitudes; people are concerned with the well-being of others. Carl Rogers, who is the founder of person-centered therapy and
Hip Hop Therapy 13 ideas about self-actualization, believed that negative views of self and others blocks selfactualization and consequentially self-image. This idea has also been adopted by other therapeutic approaches, including a new form called Hip Hop Therapy. (Tillie Allen, 2005). Hip Hop Therapy was coined by Tyson, a therapist and social worker, who saw that common day approaches to therapy, did not reach inner city youth. This form also erased the stigma associated with receiving mental health care. Tyson determined that “Hip Hop's influence and its social, political, and cultural content, exploring its musical form in therapy can be effective in engaging youth” (Tillie Allen, 2005). He first explored his concept as a form of bibliotherapy and music therapy while examining the sociocultural and political context of the lyrics. Tyson discovered that Hip Hop therapy is diverse in language, message and mediums that any racial or ethnic group is familiar with Hip Hop culture. Tillie Allen (2005) states that this form of therapy was more effective with high risk youth because traditional methods did not address or understand youth backgrounds. Hip Hop therapy is uniquely youth centered but it is also culturally centered. Hip Hop has been used to connect to African and Latino American youth discussing violence, drugs, teen pregnancy, and abuse. All are issues that an individual can relate to or has seen in their community. There is another population that can benefit from this therapy: immigrant youth. Hip Hop can be used as a therapeutic form to motivate immigrant adolescents because of its message that one does not have to be a “conscious rapper” to have a voice or idea. Hip Hop culture works with many different mediums so an individual does not need to be fluent in the language to begin therapy or seek assistance. Hip Hop culture has transcended many social barriers of ethnicity, religion and even geographic boundaries. Other mediums have failed where Hip Hop has prospered (Tinajero, 2009).
Hip Hop Therapy 14 Adolescents are a particular population that can benefit from Hip Hop therapy. Art therapy offers a nonthreatening way for adolescents to express their inner feelings and provides a support system (Riley 2001). In the areas of cognitive and socio-emotional development, Hip Hop therapy can assist in the therapist-client relationship because of its built in cross-cultural aspects. Culture plays a major role in development during adolescents. Cognitive development research from two psychologists: Piaget and Kohlberg. Piaget’s stage theory of cognitive development states that adolescents develop formal operations from concrete operations. In the previous stage, children ages seven to eleven develop ability to reason with concrete events. In the adolescent stage, youth are developing formal operations or the ability to think abstractly. This development continues into adulthood but this formative stage youth are discovering ideas and developing their own from personal experience (Chen & Farruggia, 2002). Culturally, some youth do not develop formal operations at this stage. In unindustrial societies this stage could occur later than Piaget prescribed (Chen & Farruggia, 2002). Along with this point of cultural contention is Kohlberg’s theory on moral reasoning. Morality is often decided by cultural norms but the sequence in which youth develop morality is universal. The major difference is the society in which the child is raised in. Individualistic societies tend to value justice or law and collectivist societies place value in care and concern for others over justice (Chen & Farruggia, 2002). In these two developmental stages, by Piaget and Kohlberg, Hip Hop therapy can address issues in abstract thinking and morality. Hip Hop uses lyrics, colors, and sound to address concrete issues such as discrimination and poverty. Specifically, Hip Hop introduces youth to issues of past and current generations by “thinking outside of the box”. Morally, Hip Hop has been criticized for sexualizing young girls, homophobic references and violence. However, this is
Hip Hop Therapy 15 true of rap but Hip Hop is more conscious. Lyrics and image display struggle and strength. There is not only self-motivation but also concern for community. For immigrant youth, who may not have developed cognitively at the same rate as youth from industrialized societies, Hip Hop can be used to expand ability to think about abstract issues of poverty and discrimination while developing further moral concern. Hip Hop also addresses the area of socio-emotional development. This area focuses on parental involvement and peer acceptance (Chen & Farruggia, 2002). In general, youth need adult assistance, nurturing, supervision and resources, because developmentally they are at a pivotal point for their future successes or failures. Stakes are even higher for immigrant youths, many of which identify with Hip Hop culture. Focusing on immigrant youth, over the last 30 years, the United States has seen a wave of international racial and ethnic groups (SuarezOroszco, Gaytan, Bang, Pakes, O'Connor & Rhodes 2010) making it necessary for there to be a development in communication and therapy. There should be an urgency to understand their ethnic culture and youth culture. The statistics on immigrant youths in America shows a need for a program that is adaptable to a society that is changing. Shields and Behrman (2004) state that “1 of every 5 children in the United States was a child of immigrants” (Shields & Behrman 2004) Most of the country would have immigrated or be born of immigrant parent(s) making them the new face of American society. Immigrants can be legal residents, refugees, and some are undocumented (most immigrants are legal citizens). The children often share the similar hardships of lowincome families, but they do not have the unique understanding of these hardships as other lowincome families. There are many studies addressing the difficulties of marginalized natural born citizens
Hip Hop Therapy 16 but few addressing how to lessen the strain on the immigrant adolescent. Immigrants entering the country at adolescence can be increasingly more complicated because of the major social changes occurring at this stage. Adolescents are already facing the developmental issue of identity versus role confusion. Immigrant parents have strong work ethic and value hard work even for low wages; they expect their children to value hard work and achieve a better life (Sheilds & Behrman 2004). Current social norms value quick money without hard work. These conflicting values, as adolescents are developing identity, can cause strain within in the family and culture. During adolescence there is a conflict between the origin culture and dominant culture (Sheilds & Behrman 2004). Acculturation can play a beneficial role in blending the positives of both cultures. It is not a complete assimilation but borrowing valued traits which may ease the identity formation process for adolescent immigrants. Hip Hop culture uses personal experiences and is self-reflective which bridges the gap between dominant culture and origin culture (Clay, 2006). Immigrants possess a number of strengths that can be surprising to therapist who use traditional modes of treatment. For instance, on average, children born to immigrant mothers are healthier than those born to U.S. mothers. This includes infant mortality rates and fewer health conditions, such as injuries, physical impairments, infectious disease and asthma (Sheilds & Behrman 2004). Children are also more likely to come from intact families (two parents in the home); commonly the father would be employed and the mother is a stay-at-home mother. Immigrant families living in single parent homes is 16% compared to U.S. born families with 26% living in single parent homes (Sheilds & Behrman 2004). In the home environment, there is more stability and a larger extended family, sometimes with non-blood relatives. There are both social and economic benefits to this that immigrant families have unique access to this.
Hip Hop Therapy 17 As previous mentioned immigrant families may have a strong work ethic because many come to the United States with the intention of improving their livelihood. Parents value hard work and expect their children to as well, including in school. Immigrant children are more likely to have working parents even if the wages are lower despite achievement of higher education. Immigrant parents despite their educational background expect their children to achieve high levels of education. In many immigrant communities, educational completion is a major achievement and is celebrated. On average, despite language barriers, 8th grade children of immigrants have higher grades and math scores than their counterparts of the same ethnicity in U.S. born families (Sheilds & Behrman 2004). Another aspect of immigrant success is community cohesion. When immigrants arrive, they try to locate to areas of familiarity. People from similar countries of origin tend to live in the same areas. Fellow immigrants help “facilitate a new family’s adjustment, helping them learn to navigate new systems and institutions (such as schools) and to find jobs” (Sheilds & Behrman 2004, p. 6). These communities also help in a child's adjustment by providing emotional support and reinforcement of tradition and parental authority. All of these strengths help in the newcomers feeling welcomed and supported; however, there are still areas of weakness that can appear insurmountable forcing immigrant families into deeper poverty. Three of the most important concerns for immigrant youth are language barriers, racism and discrimination, and poverty (Sheilds & Behrman 2004). With lack of supports these three barriers make acculturation a difficult process and many do not become fully accepted into society, as born United States citizens would. Sheilds & Behrman (2004) research suggests that children are resilient to one risk factor but multiple risk factors can undermine a child's development. Language barriers are often tackled in academic institutions.
Hip Hop Therapy 18 Early Childhood Educational programs have struggled to make education for immigrant families affordable, available and accessible (Tienda & Haskins, 2011). In the United States, 18% of children speak a language other than English in their home, but among immigrant families, 72% of children speak a language other than English at home (Sheilds & Behrman 2004). Bilingualism is beneficial in society however many immigrant youth have little mastery of the English language because they live in linguistically isolated communities. This drawback in development leads to lower waged jobs and continued poverty. Another concern for immigrants and their families is discrimination and racism. Discrimination is defined as the unequal treatment of different people based on the groups or categories to which they belong (Baumeister & Bushman, 2008). Social standing, racism and segregation marginalize children of color and children of immigrants from the mainstream of America (Sheilds & Behrman 2004). Discrimination has been common place in society, but in both personal and institutional forms. Immigrants face personal discrimination from others who feel that immigrants “steal” jobs from Americans or even how they perpetrate more criminal acts. Neither of these statements exists in the realm of reality, but are very popular prejudices faced by immigrants. Xenophobia causes people to want their culture and theirs alone. The institutional injustices may be far more difficult to overcome. Immigrants are unaware of many government assistance programs available to them. Institutional discrimination is when an institution or dominant group promotes discrimination (Sue & Capodilupo, 2008). Institutional discrimination there are laws created to insure the dominance of majority. Arizona's Immigration laws for example target Latino immigrants and profile them for proof of citizenship. American nativist press for tougher immigration laws and border control mainly the United States-Mexico border. This discrimination pushes for fewer
Hip Hop Therapy 19 resources for immigrant families and their children. Young immigrants are trying to find ways to combat nativism and discover their voice. A Hip Hop group, Rebel Diaz, uses music to help immigrant youth express themselves. Hip Hop has an ability to give marginalized communities a voice against institutional injustices resonates with all races. Community Roots member and Students for Justice in Palestine President Samira Farah, a Somali-American, said “I was born in Somalia, which is war-torn...A lot of people are drawn to Hip Hop because it explains their struggles and reflects what's going on in their communities" (Elbasha, 2010, p. 1). This statement reflects the necessity to use Hip Hop as a form of Art Therapy. A large number of immigrant and refugee families have in experienced organized violence and disparity in their country of origin and they can still be in an unstable environment even after migration (Rousseau, Lacroix, Singh, Gauthier & Benoit, 2005). Dealing with both past and current hardships, many families do not utilize mental health care and mental health care practitioners are not always culturally sensitive enough to reach immigrant clients. For immigrant youth much of their support is found within the school system but conventional therapy does not always reach past the cultural divide. Rousseau, Lacroix, Singh, Gauthier and Benoit (2005) state that “Artistic activities, as a mean of expression, have come to be considered a good way of helping immigrant children elaborate identity issues and construct meaning around the experience (Rousseau, et. al., 2005 p. 77). Hip Hop, as previously discussed, uses artistic mediums of graffiti art, dance, storytelling and music; these four elements are also essential in art therapy. Hip Hop therapy, as a subset of art therapy, can help immigrant youth express their thoughts on migration and social structures of the United States. Furthermore, Hip Hop therapy as a form of art therapy is cross-cultural and
Hip Hop Therapy 20 is universal in the modes of dance, drama, music and poetry (McNiff & Barlow, 2009). The linguistic isolation many immigrants struggle with can hinder therapy. Language based therapy often represents the cultural values of the host country or psychologist, which tends to be predominately Anglo-Saxon. In contrast, art therapy approaches developed in the United States can be easily adapted to other cultures in the United States. Hip Hop therapy allows the performer (client) to express themselves uniquely. Hip Hop therapy can be used for immigrant youth who struggle even more with developing identity by including four elements that are key to successful art therapy: “the construction of a safe space, the acknowledgement and appreciation of diversity, the establishment of continuity, and the transformation of adversity” (Rousseau et. al., 2005, p. 80). Hip Hop therapy stimulates the developmental desire to be expressive without being destructive (Riley 2001). Riley (2001) elaborates on art therapy and Hip Hop by comparing graffiti art and drawings. Various cities have an abundance in graffiti representing youth need to make their mark and be heard. Immigrant youth have made their mark in Hip Hop songs. Immigrant Youth Justice League, a Chicago based immigrant youth empowerment organization, has used Hip Hop to present messages by immigrant youth, many undocumented. Immigrant youth words paint a picture of disparity and transformation from adversity. The chorus of this immigrant youth's song represents a hope from adversity “Everybody’s got a dream; all they need is a chance, Opportunities in need if they wish to advance, Wantin’ better lives set in a wonderland, But they can only get it if we give them helping hands” (Nguyen & Tu, 2011, p. 1). This is a narrative form of therapy were the client expresses feelings of conflict and resolution. Hip Hop therapy uses music and culture to engage immigrant youth by addressing
Hip Hop Therapy 21 issues that concern them. Hip Hop culture combines visual and verbal expression of the youths’ and popular artist. Youth find the connection from known Hip Hop artist to their own message. Hip Hop lyrics and art help unite immigrant youth through shared experiences in home countries and acculturation processes (Elligan, 2004). Hip Hop therapy incorporates immigrant youth backgrounds, experiences and environment (Tillie-Allen, 2005) in order to address concerns for the individual and the group (in this instance immigrant youth). Part of therapy is being able to understand immigrant youth view of their migration; this can be best displayed through Hip Hop cultural representations. Hip Hop serves as a coping mechanism for youth that are lacking support from traditional forms of therapy. It works as a healing art form that immigrant youth can find affirmation, inspiration and clarity in the face of adversity and change (Tyson & Baffour, 2004). Hip Hop therapy can shed light on immigrant youth view of migration. Moving from a different city can be difficult for a child to absorb. Everything is new and they left behind everything that was familiar. This can be increasingly jarring for a child moving from a different country and culture. Everything is new and difficult; without the appropriate services acculturation can be a frustrating process. Understanding how immigrant and refugee youth view migration is an important part of therapy. Hip Hop therapy provides a medium for this to be expressed. Emotions that immigrant youth have expressed are feelings of intolerance, prejudice, lack of support, loneliness, and truly feeling “alien” trying to fit in society and youth culture (Chung, Bemak, and Grabosky, 2010). Immigrants face multiple challenges in their adaption to a new country and culture. Premigration stressors (trauma, family, extreme poverty, etc.) to post-migration issues (culture
Hip Hop Therapy 22 shock, finding employment, language, changing in family dynamics, etc.) can cause acculturation to be difficult (Chung, Bemak, & Grabosky, 2010). Given this it is important that immigrants receive culturally responsive services and for youth this is increasingly important as they are adapting to both society and youth culture. Youth desire a need to feel safe in their new environment which is often met with emotions of a life “on hold” (Brinegar 2010). Immigrant youth view their migration and lives within the United States as “on hold”. Licia, an undocumented immigrant from St. Vincent, initially felt that she did not have rights so she did not have the right to plan for her future or set goals beyond her $4.30 an hour job (Alienated, 2005). Many immigrant youth, like Lucia, echo these same feelings that their life is limited and isolated due to the fact that they are undocumented despite living here most of their lives. They are met with stereotypes, fear, intolerance and xenophobia to the point that their mentality accepts it, decreasing their own self-image (Chung, Bemak, & Grabosky, 2010). Immigrant Youth Justice League provides a means for undocumented immigrant youth to vocalize, connect, and mobilize for change. Children of immigrants and children who are immigrants are the largest sector of growth in the United States of America. Alienated: Undocumented Immigrant Youth (Fauntleroy, 2005) stated that without the immigrant population our economic system would collapse, but many children are unaware of this. They only see themselves as illegal, the perpetual foreigner, or the terrorist, but never actually fitting in with the entire community. This directly creates the situation, defined by Hegel, as “the other”. Although, Hegel was a philosopher, this term is common in social psychology. Social Psychology based in the idea that people's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by the presence of others (in both the implied and actual sense).
Hip Hop Therapy 23 For immigrant youth, the actual sense is the limitation to resources and rights. Immigrant youth express feelings for rejection, desperation, unfulfilled dreams, and having seemingly insurmountable odds (IYJL, 2011). These feelings are influences by the actual presence of others; the others being implied alienating legislation. Hip Hop culture has been used to address the emotions and reality of marginalized populations. Similarly, Hip Hop can be used to address the legislative battles faced by immigrant and refugee youths. The United States government, at both the state and federal levels, has isolated the neediest, immigrants who are the stabilizing force in the economy. The most influential in health and mental health care is the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act (PRWORA) which changed the method and goal of federal assistant to the poor. The bill encouraged employment among the poor by adding a workforce development component. The bill will was spearheaded by Representative Clay Shaw, Jr. as part of the “Republican Contract with America”. Clay Shaw, Jr. believed welfare was partly responsible for The United States large growing immigrant population. The program did change the welfare system as we know it but it also unequally affected immigrant populations. It effectively stated that immigrant children are not created equal under the law and decreased their access to care. Shin (2006) states that PRWORA violates constitutional amendments. First, by making guidelines for states in regards to recent immigrants and making federal funding based on residency guidelines; Congress violated the Fourteenth Amendment’s Equal Protection Clause. Additionally, Congress violated the Fifth Amendment’s Due Process Clause by denying immigrant children a right to health care while granting assistance to citizen children. PRWORA anti-immigrant provisions completely disregarded assessing eligibility for Medicaid and SCHIP programs for immigrant children and pregnant women.
Hip Hop Therapy 24 The difference between immigrant and United States born populations shows alarming statistics. Shin states that “Since 1990, the number of children in immigrant families has grown nearly seven times faster than the number in U.S.-born families and it continues to grow exponentially” (Shin, 2006, p. 485). More that 26 percent of low income children in the United States are from immigrant families. PRWORA is counterproductive when dealing with immigrant populations and it affects this population, immensely. As previously stated, immigrants possess a number of strengths that argue immigrant populations do not adversely increase the amount of federal assistance. PRWORA's popularity comes from the fallacy that immigrants have greater health costs to the nation. However, Okie states “Whether or not they have health insurance, immigrants overall have much lower per capita health care expenditures than native-born Americans” (Okie, 2007, p. 1). In addition to the health legislation, there is also legislation that affects education and family continuity. In the song “Papers Please”. Hip Hop artist, Talib Kweli, accurately depicts the fear for immigrants of Immigration and Naturalization Services (INS) deporting them and separating their families. Deportation is one of the main reasons immigrants do not receive health care or become informed of their rights. This song was in reference to Arizona's immigration law, in which several other states have duplicated. In October 2008 the Obama Administration started Secure Communities (SComm) which is a federal deportation program, under Immigration Customs and Enforcement. The purpose of this program is to for local law enforcement to share information for anyone they take in for any reason to Immigration Customs and Enforcement. Information that can be shared are fingerprints and immigration status. There are three stages prior to being deported: identification,
Hip Hop Therapy 25 release into ICE custody, and removal from the United States. After information is shared, ICE can initiate deportation proceedings against any undocumented immigrant. Since May 2011, more than 260,000 people have been arrested by ICE due to Secure Communities, but over 100,000 have been deported (National Immigration Forum, 2011). Approximately, 25 percent of people caught through Secure Communities were not convicted of a crime and this percentage is higher in various states. In Illinois, 78 percent of the people caught through SComm are non-criminals or had only minor offenses (like minor traffic violations) (National Immigration Forum, 2011). States with higher immigrant populations see larger deportation numbers of non-criminals. This program causes families to be separated and instability for children. Education is another area where there is tenuous debate about whether undocumented adolescents can receive higher education. In 2011, Senator Dick Durbin (D-IL) and 32 bipartisan cosponsors re-introduced the Development, Relief and Education for Alien Minors Act (DREAM Act). This legislation would benefit talented immigrant youth who attend college or serve their country. For many, the United States is the only country they are familiar with. The argument for the DREAM Act is that denial of access to higher education does not force them to leave our country but forces them to remain in the underground workforce. Effectively this limits the increased economic productivity and the tax revenues achieve through educated and competitive workforce. For many immigrants, education means a future and safety from the lives they left in their country of origin. In the Brinegar (2010) study, immigrant and refugee youth express a need to feel safe again. This is a case study examining the quality of mental health resources that immigrant youth
Hip Hop Therapy 26 have available at their schools and how the lack of these resources will complicate their transition. The case study had a population of 14 middle school students. Of the 14 students, 9 were males and 5 were females. In terms of country of origin, 3 were from Somalia, 1 from the Congo, 6 were Bosnian, and 4 were Vietnamese. The length of time they had been in the United States varied, with one year being the shortest amount of time and 10 years the longest. They shared the characteristic of transitioning into a new society and being ELL (English Language Learner) eligible. They possessed multiple complications for acculturation. In this case study, the researchers used traditional art therapy methods although many delve into the realm of Hip Hop therapy, including art work and writing. Throughout the three years of the case study, both students and teachers shared numerous thoughts on the benefits of teaming for immigrant and refugee students. One major result showed that immigrant students need a safe space where they can have a voice and learn to advocate for themselves comfortably (Brinegar 2010). There are many art therapy models that can be utilized in implementing a Hip Hop therapy model. However, since children find many of their resources in the school setting a Hip Hop therapy program for immigrant youth should also occur within a school setting. In fact, countries with large immigrant populations have schools that can support and implement prevention and treatment programs that use Art therapy approaches (Rousseau, Drapeau, Lacroix, Bagilishya, & Heusch, 2005). Implementing a Hip Hop therapy program in a school setting can prevent psychological distress seen in newly arrived immigrant and refugee youth (Rousseau, et. al., 2005). A Hip Hop therapy, or any therapeutic program, for immigrants can present several challenges.
Hip Hop Therapy 27 The first of these challenges is the fact that with immigrant populations it is a very heterogeneous mixture with various cultural and life experiences, both pre-migration and postmigration. Second, the gap between home and school is already daunting but adding a third component of therapy may cause more confusion. There could also be cultural conflict if therapy is viewed adversely by origin culture. Last, very little is known about therapeutic activities that may work best, especially in the area of Hip Hop therapy. Small scale innovative experiments show some areas but nothing comprehensive. Designing a program would begin with pilot activities to build a foundation to combat these challenges. Beginning with pilot activities, Hip Hop elements to describe an immigrant youth’s arrival, origin stories and newcomer experiences. These activities should always combine verbal and nonverbal modes of expression. Following Rousseau, et.al. (2005) workshops, the aims of Hip Hop therapy activities will be to create a meaningful and understandable world around their migration, to show respect for differences within the group and community at large, to promote self-respect, and to bridge the gap between home and school. School-based creative therapy programs promote the mental health of immigrant youth by removing the necessity for great verbal ability. Various modes of expression decrease emotional and behavioral symptoms (Rousseau, et. al., 2005) and Hip Hop is built in with multiple forms of expressions. The Hip Hop song “Hey, Young World” presents an image that at risk youth can achieve anything in spite of obstacles. Immigrant youth populations are a specific population at risk who often do not receive support that is culturally responsive. Due to language barriers, cross-cultural conflicts and societal discrimination, immigrant youth have a difficult time escaping poverty and trauma. There is a potential beneficial role within Hip Hop therapy that can enhance the adjustment process. Still, more applied research needs to be done in this form of
Hip Hop Therapy 28 therapy, but Hip Hop therapy for immigrant youth can promote self-actualization. The United States demographics are changing in a way that is beneficial to support this immigrant “young world”.
Hip Hop Therapy 29 Methodology Currently, most of the United States population would have immigrated or be born of immigrant parent(s) making them the new face of American society. According to 2004 data, 1 of every 5 children in the United States was a child of immigrants (Shields & Behrman, 2004). Immigrants can be legal residents, refugees, and some are undocumented (most immigrants are legal citizens). The children often share the similar hardships of low-income families, but they do not have the unique understanding of these hardships as other low-income families. There are many studies addressing the difficulties of marginalized natural born citizens but few addressing how to lessen the strain on the immigrant adolescent. The adolescent years can be a dynamic period in a person's development. In general, youth need adult assistance, nurturing, supervision and resources, because developmentally they are at a pivotal point for their future successes or failures. Positive influence and support from parents and community may ensure a healthy maturation into adult life and society. The immigrant adolescent faces additional strains in their development which revolves around country of origin conflicting with host country values and identity. Psychology acculturation research is aimed at discovering methods that facilitated bicultural development and healthy adjustments of immigrant adolescents. An area of therapy that may prove to be beneficial is Hip Hop therapy. Hip Hop culture has transcended many social barriers of ethnicity, religion and even geographic boundaries. Other mediums have failed where Hip Hop has prospered (Tinajero, 2009). This form of art therapy offers a nonthreatening way for adolescents to express their inner feelings and provides a support system (Riley 2001). In the areas of cognitive and socio-emotional development, Hip Hop therapy can assist in the therapist-
Hip Hop Therapy 30 client relationship because of its built in cross-cultural aspects. It is cross-cultural and is universal in the modes of dance, drama, music and poetry (McNiff & Barlow, 2009). Traditional therapeutic methods use language based therapy which often represent the cultural values of the host country or psychologist, which tends to be predominately AngloSaxon. In contrast, art therapy approaches developed in the United States can be easily adapted to other cultures in the United States. In essence, Hip Hop therapy can be used prior to language acquisition and as a mode for acculturation. The creation of a Hip Hop therapy program specifically for immigrant youth can unite immigrants youth through shared experiences in home countries and acculturation processes (Elligan, 2004) while providing a therapeutic outlet for individual development. The program’s name is The Collective which stems from a Hip Hop term. Different from a typical Hip Hop group, a collective’s members do not regularly perform together; instead they are like-minded collaborators, believers, dreamers. Participants Immigrant youth are defined as children under age 18 who are either foreign-born or U.S.-born to immigrant parents. This population is now a quarter of the nation's 75 million children. Chicago, a major metropolitan city, has seen immigrant youth population grow over the last decade. Chicago is a city comprised of 77 communities and each community has seen their demographics change over time. In the 2007 census, Chicago was listed as having the fifth largest foreign-born population. Major immigrant groups include Latinos, Africans, Middle Eastern, and Asians. These four ethnic groups are represented predominantly in Chicago Public Schools. Since
Hip Hop Therapy 31 The Collective's focus is immigrant youth the ideal setting would be in a Chicago Public School that has access to ages 12-15. Two neighborhoods where all four ethnics groups are represented in Chicago Public Schools are Albany Park and Uptown, both on Chicago's North Side. Finding a school that is available for after school programs is not difficult, but it would be beneficial if many of the students attended other neighborhood schools. This would allow the program to expand to the community at large and possibly conduct youth led community meetings. The initial participant group will consist of 14 students from the four ethnic groups. The selected children will be chosen from client and guardian qualitative inquiries to determine immigrant youth that will benefit most from the program. These qualitative inquiries are voluntary and participants will be provided with information on The Collective. Children will also be selected from English Language Learner (ELL) status and time of entry; however, immigration status will never be asked. Modeling the Brinegar (2010) study this program will seek to create a safe space where they can have a voice and learn to advocate for themselves comfortably (Brinegar 2010). Safety from deportation is a major factor in immigrant participation. This program requires participant trust, as the program developer needs the client's frank responses. The participants and their guardians will be informed of confidentiality for the program. The confidentiality statement will include privacy in regards to immigration status. Participants will be reminded that information shared is voluntary. Participants will be informed that art work will be displayed but they choose which art form they wish to display. Community discussions will also be part of the program, and their function and purpose will be explained. The community discussion follows “the act of knowing” in Stein and Mankowski (2004) four acts of qualitative research: “knowing can be represented through variety of activities such as
Hip Hop Therapy 32 writing, teaching, speaking, organizing, depending on research and action goals” ( Stein & Mankowski, 2004). Design and Materials The Collective will use the four elements of Hip Hop. The four elements are: MCs (emcees), Djs (deejays), Break-dancing, and Graffiti Art (Tillie Allen, 2009). Although these four are the root of Hip Hop culture, the culture has expanded to incorporate film and poetry. The immigrant youths will have an opportunity to experiment and learn how to use all of these modes of self-expression. Hip Hop therapy, as a subset of art therapy, can help immigrant youth express their thoughts on migration and social structures of the United States. Program products will include art work, writing and community meetings. Advances in self-expression and conscientious understanding of society will display whether the therapy is effective. In addition to art work by the participants, they will also be taught by emcees, deejays, break-dancers, and graffiti artist. The program developer will conduct poetry workshops. Hip Hop culture has been used to address the emotions and reality of marginalized populations. Involving others creates a connection to issues immigrant youths are familiar with. This is increasingly important as they are adapting to both society and youth culture. In order to ensure immigrant youth, in the program, are receiving culturally responsive services the program will create connections with school therapist. In a similar function of an IEP, the program will be adapted to meet the needs of the student explained by the school therapist. The main materials of the program do require a space for art production, art display, and group and community meetings. Break-dancing can be done in a gym or a community organization facility. Although many of the instructors may want to volunteer time compensation
Hip Hop Therapy 33 is still an issue. The program will not be a paid program for participants like some after school programs are in Chicago Public Schools. Procedure Beginning with pilot activities that use Hip Hop elements to describe an immigrant youth’s arrival, origin stories and newcomer experiences. These activities should always combine verbal and nonverbal modes of expression. Following Rousseau, et.al. (2005) workshops, the aims of Hip Hop therapy activities will be to create a meaningful and understandable world around their migration, to show respect for differences within the group and community at large, to promote self-respect, and to bridge the gap between home and school. School-based creative therapy programs promote the mental health of immigrant youth by removing the necessity for great verbal ability. Various modes of expression decrease emotional and behavioral symptoms (Rousseau, et. al., 2005) and Hip Hop is built in with multiple forms of expressions. Participants will meet after school completing Hip Hop art, youth led workshops, community discussions and other forms of “edutainment”. These activities will activate knowledge of self and society while providing therapeutic care with the assistance of a licensed school therapist. The first series of activities will be mostly Hip Hop art and youth led workshops. Once every month there will be a showcase and community forum held. During this clients will display art work, spoken word, dance and music to their school and community. Also, during the community forum information will be provided that is specific to the immigrant community. This information will be compiled by the program developer. At this stage, the information complied will be put into action for the guardians of the clients and community.
Hip Hop Therapy 34 Discussion
International migration is changing the social landscape of not only the United States but also other countries. Culture is central to academic and social development. Culturally responsive methods in teaching and psychology is becoming more and more pivotal as the United States, and world, becomes more diverse due to global migration. Understanding various theories of education and globalization will help teachers, psychologists, and child related services better understand and assist refugee and immigrant students. This social transformation is important to United States interests and growth in a global society. Despite, The United States priding itself on being a nation of immigrants and welcoming newcomers, policy and opinion show a division on immigration. Meanwhile, in 2009, there were 74.5 million children under the age of 17 in the United States, constituting nearly 24% of the population (Hernandez 2004). Nearly 24% of that population (about 16.9 million) had at least one immigrant parent (Hernandez 2004). These 16.9 million children need reform and resources that meet their socialization and acculturation needs. Many immigrants find there are many obstacles set in place and no way to overcome them. By advocating for a very vulnerable population, psychologists can create culturally responsive therapeutic treatments and services to decrease the isolation of migrant communities. Culturally responsiveness begins with developing culturally and linguistically competent programs and services for immigrant populations. This will lead to more coordinated and continuous education and health care programs for immigrants. Many immigrants are unaware or adverse to Western mental health care (Garrett 2006). These stigmas often leave immigrant communities isolated and deficient in transitional services.
Hip Hop Therapy 35 Assisting immigrant and ethnic minority youth allows them to make a successful transition into adulthood. Their success is fostered by their educational attainment, acquisition of employable skills, and physical and mental health. Immigration is not preventable therefore restriction policies are a losing battle and a waste fiscally. Immigration affects our everyday activities- the food we consume, the people who watch our children, the entertainment we watch are all a product of immigration. Therefore, immigration discrimination is socially detrimental to our entire society. Immigrant youth programming can provide social development, educational attainment, access to health services including mental health. As an elementary teacher and someone who frequently works with adolescents, I am aware of the social changes and needs they encounter. Immigration in the context of life span presents a profound transition that requires adaptation and cultural survival. Immigration is accompanied with other stress factors such as loss of family, country, economic difficulties, and social acclimation. This combined with developmental issues can be difficult to combat in the classroom alone. Many immigrant youth do not receive assistance until high school but without prior access to services immigrant youth will constantly have a gap in their achievement. Observing this gap there must be a culturally responsive method to lessen pre - and postimmigration stressors. Implementation of a Hip Hop therapeutic program provides a method that facilitates bicultural development and healthy adjustments of immigrant adolescents. However, this form of therapy is not without its flaws or limitations, as in any form of therapy. Hip Hop therapy heavily dependent on participants’ attraction and exposure to Hip Hop culture. This is why the participant selection survey is crucial. This could limit the population of immigrant youth, however, most immigrant youth identify with Hip Hop lyrics, art, and messages. Therapy is not
Hip Hop Therapy 36 always seen positively in different ethnic communities. Hip Hop therapy provides both a cultural and linguistically nonthreatening medium for therapy. Hip Hop culture has transcended many social barriers of ethnicity, religion and even geographic boundaries. Other mediums have failed where Hip Hop has prospered (Tinajero, 2009). This form of art therapy offers a nonthreatening way for adolescents to express their inner feelings and provides a support system beginning prior to full English language acquisition which is most culturally responsive (Riley 2001). It is still necessary to include a licensed therapist and keep basic therapeutic necessities, but this therapy program would not have any different difficulties than any group counseling settings. But with the addition of art through Hip Hop, many conflictions can be adverted. Psychology should not exist outside of its community and world. Awareness of culturally responsive methods can assist people in law, education and community organizing. Immigrant youth vary in identity, ethnicity/race, social class, gender identity, and religion. These backgrounds do not exist outside of attainment of success. How they exist in the world directly influences who and what they become.
Hip Hop Therapy 37 Peripheral Documents Flyer Figure 1
Hip Hop Therapy 38 Budget Proposal Figure 2: Start Up Budget
Hip Hop teachers (4) School Psychologists
$ $ Total Staff Expenses $
8,640.00 2,943.72 8,640.00
Equipment Mural Creation Supplies Audio Equipment Sketch Books $ $ $ Total Equipment Expenses $ Miscellaneous Expenses $ 800.00 1,400.00 84.00 2,284.00 2,000.00
Total Start Up Costs
* Teachers: $60/week for 36 weeks = $2,160 ** School Psychologists 327.08 per month (9)
Hip Hop Therapy 39 Participant Survey Form This survey is voluntary and confidential. Participants for The Collective, a Hip Hop therapy program, will be chosen based on the answers provided. Child’s Name Parent’s/Guardian’s Name Home Phone Address City Emergency Contact Name Home Phone Address City Emergency Contact Name Home Phone Address City ST Medical Information Allergies/Special Health Considerations: ZIP Code ST ZIP Code ST Alternative Emergency Contacts Work Phone ZIP Code Date of Birth Work Phone
Hip Hop Therapy 40
I give permission for my child to go on field trips. I release and individuals from liability in case of accident during activities related to, as long as normal safety procedures have been taken. Parent’s/Guardian’s Signature School Name School Phone Address City
Program Specific Questions Country of Origin Languages spoken Number of Years Living in the U.S. Are you interested in the elements of Hip Hop?
Please attach one picture (can be from magazine or internet) that is significant to you.
Hip Hop Therapy 41 Confidentiality Statement Overview of The Collective
Collective – (n.) different from a typical Hip Hop group, its members do not regularly perform together, and are instead like-minded collaborators, believers, dreamers.
This program is an arts-based therapy program rooted in the elements of Hip Hop. Participants will be creating art work facilitated by the program developer and receiving therapy through school counselors. The goal of this program is to help with adjustment of immigrant youth and their families. Below is a confidentiality statement outlining the rights of you, the participant and information will be made public (in reference to art work and community building projects).
All minor clients, parents and legal guardians receiving counseling through the program are protected by this Confidentiality Statement.
Your confidentiality, as a student, is important to us! In this program and counseling office, what is said here, stays here, with the following exceptions, as required by law and/or ethical standards:
1. Harm to self or others
Hip Hop Therapy 42 This could include things like a suicide attempt or plan, cutting or other self-injury, eating disorders, addictions, fighting or other physical violence -anything that puts your health or safety, or someone else's health and safety, at risk.
2. Abuse or neglect
If you talk with one of us about abuse (physical, emotional, verbal, sexual, or other abuse), whether to yourself or to another minor, we are required by law to report it to Illinois Department of Children and Family Services, and possibly the police. If you tell us about an abuse case that's already been addressed by DCFS or the police, we still may need to make a call to double check.
3. Court or other legal proceedings
By law, if we are subpoenaed (required by law to attend a hearing or other court proceeding), we cannot guarantee that your information will be kept confidential. We will always do our best to reveal as little as possible in a legal setting, but we must cooperate with the police, DCFS, and the courts. If there is ever a need to reveal information (such as art work or community building projects), we will let you know in advance, and work with you to handle the situation in a way that respects you, you’re feelings, and your needs. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ I have read and I understand the program’s confidentiality guidelines and exceptions. ________________________________________________________ Student Signature ________________________________________________________ Parent/Guardian Signature _______________ Date _______________ Date
Hip Hop Therapy 43 Pilot Activities Handout Overview of The Collective Collective (n.) in Hip Hop is different from a typical Hip Hop group because its members do not regularly perform together instead they are like-minded colleagues or collaborators. The purpose of this program is to unite youths who have recently immigrated to the United States. We foster immigrant youth voices, leadership and community engagement through Hip Hop elements. Throughout the year, we will be active in the creation of safe and supportive space for immigrant youth to share personal and political experience, strategies, and tactics to create positive change. In addition, all of the youths in the program will receive individual counseling with a licensed psychologist to address acculturation difficulties and any other concerns. We will also provide you and your parents with confidentiality statements and a weekly program calendar of events.
RhyME (telling your story) RhyME is the time that each youth has a moment telling their point of view about the selected group discussion topic. These will be personal and everyone’s voice will be respected. This can be done creatively with any Hip Hop elements or just spoken words. The purpose of this time is to engage in active coalition building and solidarity. 4 Elements Stations (experiment with the environment) Time to spend working with the 4 stations with and instructor. This is also time to develop any work or ideas for showcase (at the end of the semester).
Hip Hop Therapy 44 PsychTime (individual) Individual group therapy session with licensed psychologist. Informed of confidentiality during this time. This is free to all participants and also required. Rap up! (group therapy with psychologist and program developer) Rap up! is the conclusion for the session when youth have opportunity to express any emotions and reflect on anything that they felt. This can be done through words or artistic Hip Hop representation. The Collective Showcase At the end of each semester, students will showcase their voice and talents through Hip Hop pieces they have prepared. Either Graffiti art, spoken word, EM CEEing, DJing, or Breakdancing. This is youth led. Youths with audio tracks will be recorded for a CD. This CD will be sold and the profits will go to the program supplies and other needs for the youth. Community Outreach Students will become instructors, mentors and speakers to younger students at area schools and older generations in community settings in order to promote connection and self-empowerment.
Hip Hop Therapy 45 Monday Overview of The Collective RhyME (telling your story) 4 Elements Stations (experiment with the environment) PsychTime (individual) Rap up! (group therapy with psychologist and program developer) Tuesday RhyME (telling your story) 4 Elements Stations (make something, your story) PsychTime (individual) Rap up! (group therapy with psychologist and program developer) Psychologist Program Developer Psychologist Program Developer
Wednesday RhyME (telling your story) 4 Elements Stations (small group: developing a group narrative) PsychTime (individual) Rap up! (group therapy with psychologist and program developer) Thursday Guest Teacher PsychTime (individual) Rap up! (group therapy with psychologist and program developer)
Psychologist Program Developer
Psychologist Program Developer
The first community outreach at area school A narrative Guest teacher skills learned and group performance with teacher
Psychologist Program Developer
Hip Hop Therapy 46 References
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