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Certification Study Guide: IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager (ITCM) Version 4.2.2
Helps you become ITCM 4.2.2 certified

Explains the certification path and prerequisites Tips and best practices

Vasfi Gucer Sanver Ceylan

ibm.com/redbooks

International Technical Support Organization Certification Study Guide: IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager (ITCM) Version 4.2.2 March 2005

SG24-6691-00

Note: Before using this information and the product it supports, read the information in Notices on page xvii.

First Edition (March 2005) IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager Version 4.2.2, IBM Tivoli Management Framework Version 4.1.1
Copyright International Business Machines Corporation 2005. All rights reserved. Note to U.S. Government Users Restricted Rights -- Use, duplication or disclosure restricted by GSA ADP Schedule Contract with IBM Corp.

Contents
Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv Notices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvii Trademarks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xviii Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xix The team that wrote this redbook. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xix Become a published author . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xx Comments welcome. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xx Chapter 1. Certification overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.1 IBM Professional Certification Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.1.1 Benefits of certification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.1.2 Tivoli Software Professional Certification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.2 IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager V4.2.2 Implementation Certification . . . 7 1.2.1 Test 870 objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 1.2.2 Discount when taking the Test 870 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 1.3 Recommended resources for study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1.3.1 Courses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 1.3.2 Publication. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Chapter 2. Tivoli Management Framework basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 2.1 Components of the basic Tivoli architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 2.2 Tivoli user interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 2.2.1 Tivoli Desktop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 2.2.2 Command line interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 2.2.3 Navigating the Tivoli Desktop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 2.3 Tivoli resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 2.4 Authorization roles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 2.4.1 Scope of authorization roles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 2.5 Tivoli profiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 2.5.1 Profile managers and profile distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 2.6 Multiplexed distribution services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 2.6.1 MDist and MDist 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 2.6.2 MDist 2 functions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 2.6.3 MDist2 components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 2.6.4 wmdist command . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

Copyright IBM Corp. 2005. All rights reserved.

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2.6.5 Using the Distribution Status console . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 2.7 Connecting multiple TMR regions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 2.7.1 Benefits of connecting TMRs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 2.7.2 Connection types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 2.7.3 Name registry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 2.7.4 Case study: Hub-spoke architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 2.8 Endpoint login sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 2.8.1 Initial login without a select_gateway_policy script . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 2.8.2 Initial login with a select_gateway_policy script . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 2.8.3 Normal login . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 2.8.4 Isolated login . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 2.8.5 Orphan login . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 2.8.6 Implementing policy scripts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 2.9 Firewall Security Toolbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 2.9.1 Tivoli environment with a firewall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 2.9.2 Tivoli environment with demilitarized zones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 2.9.3 Sending events across firewalls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 2.10 Installing Firewall Security Toolbox . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 2.10.1 Installing on UNIX operating systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 2.10.2 Installing on Windows operating systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Chapter 3. Tivoli Configuration Manager fundamentals and installation 63 3.1 IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager fundamentals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 3.1.1 Tivoli Configuration Manager components and services . . . . . . . . . 65 3.2 Creating a deployment plan for Tivoli Configuration Manager . . . . . . . . . 74 3.3 How to deploy Tivoli Configuration Manager components . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 3.3.1 Distributed Configuration Manager components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 3.3.2 TMR server configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 3.3.3 Components for managed nodes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 3.3.4 Components for gateways . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 3.3.5 Components for endpoints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 3.4 Required roles for installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 3.5 RDBMS considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 3.6 RIM considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 3.7 General pre-install checks, hints, and tips. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 3.7.1 UNIX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 3.7.2 Windows Systems on Intel 486 or Pentium systems . . . . . . . . . . 84 3.8 Installation methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 3.9 Overview of Integrated Install . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 3.10 Server Install . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 3.10.1 Typical Server Install . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 3.10.2 Custom Server Install . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 3.10.3 Starting the installation programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88

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3.11 Desktop Install. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 3.11.1 Starting the installation program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 3.12 Web Gateway Install . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 3.12.1 Web Gateway prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 3.12.2 Starting the installation program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 3.12.3 Multiple endpoints installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 3.13 Uninstallation of IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 Chapter 4. Inventory and Software Distribution components. . . . . . . . . . 93 4.1 Inventory component. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 4.1.1 What is gathered by Tivoli Inventory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 4.1.2 Inventory architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 4.1.3 Collection Table of Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 4.1.4 Collection files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 4.1.5 Inventory Collectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 4.1.6 Collection manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 4.1.7 Data Handler . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 4.1.8 Status Collector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 4.1.9 Callback object . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 4.1.10 Managing data collection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 4.1.11 Clearing the Collector . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 4.1.12 Inventory collection scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 4.1.13 Custom scans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 4.1.14 Isolated scans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 4.1.15 Querying inventory data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 4.2 Software Distribution component . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 4.2.1 Components of Tivoli Software Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 4.2.2 Software distribution process overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 4.3 Data Moving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 4.3.1 Using the Data Moving Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 4.4 Enterprise Data Warehouse integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 Chapter 5. Deployment Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 5.1 Activity Planner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 5.1.1 Activity Planner components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 5.1.2 Roles required for the Activity Planner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 5.1.3 Types of activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 5.1.4 Activity Plan Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 5.1.5 Activity Plan Monitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 5.1.6 Activity Planner commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 5.2 Change Manager. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 5.2.1 Change Manager components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 5.2.2 Sample Change Manager scenario. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173

Contents

5.3 Enterprise Directory integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 5.3.1 Exchanging data with a directory server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 5.3.2 Manipulating DirectoryContext objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 5.3.3 Directory query libraries and query directories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179 5.4 Resource Manager and pervasive devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 5.4.1 Choosing where to install the Resource Manager components . . . 185 5.4.2 Web Gateway installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 5.4.3 Web objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 5.4.4 Registering the resource types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186 5.4.5 Associating endpoints with the resource gateway . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186 5.4.6 Enrolling pervasive devices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186 5.4.7 Installing and configuring devices for resource manager . . . . . . . . 187 5.4.8 Installing the device agent for Windows CE devices. . . . . . . . . . . . 187 5.4.9 The user ID of palm devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 5.4.10 Inventory scans on pervasive devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 5.5 Pristine Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 5.5.1 Pristine Manager architecture and new components . . . . . . . . . . . 189 5.5.2 Supported platforms for pristine installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 5.5.3 Key terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 5.5.4 Pristine Manager concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 5.5.5 Prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 5.5.6 Installing pristine machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 5.5.7 Customizing Pristine Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 5.5.8 Adding an Operating System Element to a reference model . . . . . 204 5.5.9 Pristine Manager commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 5.5.10 IBM Tivoli Enterprise Console notification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 Chapter 6. Multicast concepts and implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 6.1 Reliable multicast protocol . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 6.2 Hyper Delivery (RMTP) flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210 6.3 Distributed depot service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213 6.3.1 Configuring repeaters for multicast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215 6.4 Endpoint multicast receivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218 6.4.1 Configuring endpoint to receive multicast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220 6.5 Multicast scenarios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221 6.5.1 Preloading MDist2 depots with multicast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221 6.5.2 Multicast from gateways to Tivoli Management Agents . . . . . . . . . 225 6.6 Multicast limitations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230 6.7 Troubleshooting multicast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232 6.7.1 Repeater multicast log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232 6.7.2 Endpoint receiver log and structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233 6.7.3 Best practices and tips . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234

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Chapter 7. Troubleshooting IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager . . . . . . . 235 7.1 Generic problem determination outline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237 7.2 Troubleshooting Framework 4.1.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238 7.3 Autotrace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239 7.4 Troubleshooting Software Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240 7.4.1 General troubleshooting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240 7.4.2 Check the log . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241 7.4.3 Check the Distribution Status Console . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242 7.4.4 Make sure that Tivoli Framework is functional . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243 7.4.5 Check for MDist2 problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244 7.4.6 Troubleshooting the software package . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245 7.4.7 Software Distribution traces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247 7.4.8 Troubleshooting Data Moving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250 7.4.9 Troubleshooting Mobile Computing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250 7.4.10 Troubleshooting pristine installations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251 7.4.11 Troubleshooting discovering and synchronization . . . . . . . . . . . . 252 7.4.12 Change Management Status summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252 7.5 Troubleshooting Activity Planner. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253 7.5.1 Activity Planner processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253 7.5.2 Activity Planner configuration file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254 7.5.3 Activity Planner logfiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255 7.5.4 Activity Planner trace files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257 7.6 Troubleshooting Change Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258 7.6.1 Change Manager configuration file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258 7.6.2 Change Manager logfiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259 7.6.3 Change Manager trace files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259 7.7 Troubleshooting Web Gateway and Device Management . . . . . . . . . . . 261 7.7.1 Tracing the Web Gateway. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261 7.8 Troubleshooting Web User Interface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262 7.8.1 Common Web User Interface problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262 7.8.2 Tracing the Web User Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265 7.9 Troubleshooting Enterprise Directory Integration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266 7.10 Troubleshooting Inventory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266 7.10.1 Enabling logging and tracing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268 Appendix A. Lab exercises. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274 LAB 1 Using Integrated Install method to install a Tivoli Server. . . . . . . . . . . 275 What this exercise is about . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275 What you should be able to do . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275 Required materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275 Exercise instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275 Install your Tivoli Server with all ITCM modules. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276

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Exercise review/wrap-up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291 LAB 2. Using Integrated Install method to install a Tivoli server . . . . . . . . . . 292 What this exercise is about . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292 What you should be able to do . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292 Required materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292 Exercise instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292 Exercise review/wrap-up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295 LAB 3. Create an Inventory profile and run a hardware scan . . . . . . . . . . . . 296 What this exercise is about . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296 What you should be able to do . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296 Required materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296 Exercise instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296 Create a hardware profile with SMBIOS capabilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 296 7.10.2 Distribute the profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298 LAB 4. Create an Inventory profile and run and cancel the software scan . . 302 What this exercise is about . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302 What you should be able to do . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302 Required materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302 Exercise instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302 Create an Inventory profile for software scan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302 Distribute the profile and cancel the distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303 LAB 5. Create a Custom Query with where clauses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305 What this exercise is about . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305 What you should be able to do . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305 Required materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305 Exercise instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305 Create a query library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305 Create a query . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305 LAB 6. Create and install software packages for Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307 What this exercise is about . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307 What you should be able to do . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307 Required materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307 Exercise instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307 Install the Software Package Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307 Create a simple package . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308 Test the software package . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310 Import the software package . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310 Install the software package . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311 Verify the distribution was successful . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312 Install software package in transactional mode and commit installation . . 313 Undo an installation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316 Repair a damaged distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317

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Add links, registry keys, and text file objects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317 LAB 7. Creating a software package using AutoPack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321 What this exercise is about . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321 What you should be able to do . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321 Required materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321 Exercise instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321 Creating an AutoPack . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321 LAB 8. Verifying the status of a software package . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323 What this exercise is about . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323 What you should be able to do . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323 Required materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323 Exercise instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323 LAB 9. Using the Activity Planner. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324 What this exercise is about . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324 What you should be able to do . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324 Required materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324 Exercise instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324 AP - RIM and RDBMS configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324 Assigning AP roles and verifying the AP Administrator. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 325 Registering the AP plug-ins. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326 Creating a simple Activity Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326 Exercise review/wrap-up . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332 LAB 10. Using Change Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333 What this exercise is about . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333 What you should be able to do . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333 Required materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333 Exercise instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333 Configuring RIM and RDBMS for Change Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333 Assigning CM roles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334 Registering the CM plug-ins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335 Creating a Reference Model using an existing Endpoint . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335 Customizing the Reference Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337 Submitting the Reference Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341 LAB 11. Using Data Moving Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343 What this exercise is about . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343 What you should be able to do . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343 Required materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343 Exercise instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343 Using the Data Moving Service GUI to delete a file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343 Recursively sending a directory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344

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LAB 12. Using Multicast to install a software package. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345 What this exercise is about . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345 What you should be able to do . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345 Required materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345 Exercise instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345 Configuring the repeaters for Multicast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346 Creating the software package . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347 Distributing the software package without using Multicast . . . . . . . . . . . . 347 Distributing the software package using Multicast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347 Appendix B. Additional material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349 Locating the Web material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349 Using the Web material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 349 System requirements for downloading the Web material . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350 How to use the Web material . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 350 Related publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351 IBM Redbooks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351 Other publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351 Online resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352 How to get IBM Redbooks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352 Help from IBM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 352 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 353

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Figures
2-1 2-2 2-3 2-4 2-5 2-6 2-7 2-8 2-9 2-10 2-11 2-12 2-13 2-14 2-15 2-16 2-17 2-18 2-19 2-20 2-21 2-22 2-23 3-1 3-2 3-3 3-4 3-5 3-6 3-7 3-8 4-1 4-2 4-3 4-4 4-5 4-6 4-7 Tivoli Management Region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Tivoli Server, managed node, and TMA communication . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Tivoli Desktop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Navigating the Tivoli Desktop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Different managed resources. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Grouping by Tivoli product . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Grouping by operating system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Grouping by department . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Inventory Profile icon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Inventory profile example . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Management by subscription . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Range of a repeater . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 MDist 2 components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Distribution Status Console . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Status Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Time Spent Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Node Table View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Distribution Topology View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Hub-spoke architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Subscription example in a hub-spoke model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Endpoint login sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 A Tivoli environment with a single firewall . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 A Tivoli environment with DMZ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Activity Plan Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Activity Plan Monitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Change Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Web Interface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Enterprise Directory Query Facility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Pristine Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Databases created by the installation program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 RIM objects created by the installation program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 A typical Inventory collection scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Collector components and CTOC transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Depot directory structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Callback object data flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 Scheduling collection using offlinks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 Inventory profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 Configuring the Inventory profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124

Copyright IBM Corp. 2005. All rights reserved.

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4-8 4-9 4-10 4-11 4-12 4-13 4-14 4-15 4-16 4-17 4-18 4-19 4-20 4-21 4-22 4-23 4-24 4-25 5-1 5-2 5-3 5-4 5-5 5-6 5-7 5-8 5-9 5-10 5-11 5-12 5-13 5-14 5-15 5-16 5-17 5-18 5-19 5-20 5-21 5-22 5-23 5-24 5-25

Profile distribution from the Desktop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 Creating a query . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 Software Package Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 Four phases of software distribution process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 Software package block file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 Software package definition file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 Software package file. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 Converting software packages from one format to another . . . . . . . . . 139 Versioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 Dependencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 Disconnected commands. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 States of a software package profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 Steps of the software distribution delivery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 Software distribution operations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 States of a software package. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 Install for software package block (left) and software package (right) . 149 Data Moving Service dialog box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 Data Moving dialog box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 Activity Planner GUIs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 Sample activity plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 Sort Activity dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 Execution window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 Activity Plan Monitor - Plan submission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 Monitoring the execution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 Launching MDist 2 GUI from the Activity Plan Monitor GUI. . . . . . . . . 166 Reference model structure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 Selecting subscribers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 Differencing mechanism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 Creating reference model from target . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 Exporting a reference model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 Creating a directory query library . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180 Creating a directory query . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180 Integration with the Activity Planner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 Integration with the Change Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 Pervasive Devices Integrated in a Tivoli Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 Architecture overview of Pristine Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 Flow of pristine installations (1 of 2). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 Flow of pristine installations (2 of 2). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 Launching the Pristine Manager GUI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 Define servers on which operating system images are located . . . . . . 196 Set the environment variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 Define the General parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 Define the Network parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200

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5-26 5-27 5-28 5-29 6-1 6-2 6-3 6-4 6-5 6-6 6-7 6-8 6-9 6-10 6-11 6-12 A-1 A-2 A-3 A-4 A-5 A-6 A-7 A-8 A-9 A-10 A-11 A-12 A-13 A-14 A-15 A-16 A-17 A-18 A-19 A-20 A-21 A-22 A-23 A-24 A-25 A-26 A-27

Enter Tivoli information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 Enter Environment information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 Group Manager windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 Configure the Operating System Element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 Multicast and the network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 Hyper Delivery handshake . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 Depot server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213 Endpoint multicast receivers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219 Preloading MDist2 depots with multicast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221 Loading depot using multicast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222 Configuring depot load for multicast . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 Gateway multicast to endpoints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 Gateway to endpoint multicast: Activity Plan Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226 Gateway-to-endpoint multicast: Send properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228 Gateway-to-endpoint multicast: Select targets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229 Gateway-to-endpoint multicast: Activity Plan Monitor submission . . . . 230 Installation welcome screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277 Destination Directory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278 Type of installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 Selecting components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280 Specify the repository configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281 RDBMS and RIM information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282 Specify user ID and password . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283 Review the settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284 Select how to manage product images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285 Components to install . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286 After Tivoli Management Framework installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287 Installation continues after reboot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288 Received error for registering APM plug-ins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289 Review the components installed successfully . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290 Installing the Desktop. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293 Review the installation steps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294 Port settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295 Policy region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297 Profile Manager creation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297 Hardware Scanner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 298 Inventory query . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299 Edit Query . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300 Contents of Query . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301 Scan Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303 General Package properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309 Software Package Import. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311 Distribution Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313

Figures

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A-28 A-29 A-30 A-31 A-32 A-33 A-34 A-35 A-36 A-37 A-38 A-39 A-40 A-41 A-42 A-43 A-44 A-45 A-46 A-47 A-48

Edit Query screen . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314 Run Query . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315 Query results . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316 Directory Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318 Windows Shell Folder Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319 Adding Subscriber . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327 AP Propeties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327 Activitiy Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328 Inventory Scan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329 Selecting software package . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330 Adding Condition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331 Activity Plan Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331 Activity Plan Monitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332 Reference Model Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336 List of subscribers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337 Software Distribution element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338 Adding elements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339 Adding Inventory Scan element . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340 Reference Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341 Selecting Activity Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342 Activity Plan Monitor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342

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Tables
3-1 4-1 7-1 7-2 7-3 7-4 7-5 7-6 7-7 Required roles for installing Tivoli Configuration Manager . . . . . . . . . . 78 CTOC information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Change Management Status summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252 Location of apm.ini, APM configuration file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254 Location of APM logfiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255 Location of CCM configuration file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259 Location of CM logfile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259 Settings for trace_level . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265 Log file information. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267

Copyright IBM Corp. 2005. All rights reserved.

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Notices
This information was developed for products and services offered in the U.S.A. IBM may not offer the products, services, or features discussed in this document in other countries. Consult your local IBM representative for information on the products and services currently available in your area. Any reference to an IBM product, program, or service is not intended to state or imply that only that IBM product, program, or service may be used. Any functionally equivalent product, program, or service that does not infringe any IBM intellectual property right may be used instead. However, it is the user's responsibility to evaluate and verify the operation of any non-IBM product, program, or service. IBM may have patents or pending patent applications covering subject matter described in this document. The furnishing of this document does not give you any license to these patents. You can send license inquiries, in writing, to: IBM Director of Licensing, IBM Corporation, North Castle Drive Armonk, NY 10504-1785 U.S.A. The following paragraph does not apply to the United Kingdom or any other country where such provisions are inconsistent with local law: INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS MACHINES CORPORATION PROVIDES THIS PUBLICATION "AS IS" WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF NON-INFRINGEMENT, MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. Some states do not allow disclaimer of express or implied warranties in certain transactions, therefore, this statement may not apply to you. This information could include technical inaccuracies or typographical errors. Changes are periodically made to the information herein; these changes will be incorporated in new editions of the publication. IBM may make improvements and/or changes in the product(s) and/or the program(s) described in this publication at any time without notice. Any references in this information to non-IBM Web sites are provided for convenience only and do not in any manner serve as an endorsement of those Web sites. The materials at those Web sites are not part of the materials for this IBM product and use of those Web sites is at your own risk. IBM may use or distribute any of the information you supply in any way it believes appropriate without incurring any obligation to you. Information concerning non-IBM products was obtained from the suppliers of those products, their published announcements or other publicly available sources. IBM has not tested those products and cannot confirm the accuracy of performance, compatibility or any other claims related to non-IBM products. Questions on the capabilities of non-IBM products should be addressed to the suppliers of those products. This information contains examples of data and reports used in daily business operations. To illustrate them as completely as possible, the examples include the names of individuals, companies, brands, and products. All of these names are fictitious and any similarity to the names and addresses used by an actual business enterprise is entirely coincidental. COPYRIGHT LICENSE: This information contains sample application programs in source language, which illustrates programming techniques on various operating platforms. You may copy, modify, and distribute these sample programs in any form without payment to IBM, for the purposes of developing, using, marketing or distributing application programs conforming to the application programming interface for the operating platform for which the sample programs are written. These examples have not been thoroughly tested under all conditions. IBM, therefore, cannot guarantee or imply reliability, serviceability, or function of these programs. You may copy, modify, and distribute these sample programs in any form without payment to IBM for the purposes of developing, using, marketing, or distributing application programs conforming to IBM's application programming interfaces.

Copyright IBM Corp. 2005. All rights reserved.

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Trademarks
The following terms are trademarks of the International Business Machines Corporation in the United States, other countries, or both: AIX DB2 Informix IBM ibm.com NetView OS/2 OS/400 PartnerWorld Redbooks (logo) Redbooks S/390 SecureWay Tivoli Enterprise Console Tivoli Enterprise Tivoli Management Environment Tivoli TME Wake on LAN WebSphere

The following terms are trademarks of other companies: Java and all Java-based trademarks and logos are trademarks or registered trademarks of Sun Microsystems, Inc. in the United States, other countries, or both. Microsoft, Windows, Windows NT, and the Windows logo are trademarks of Microsoft Corporation in the United States, other countries, or both. Intel, Intel Inside (logos), MMX, and Pentium are trademarks of Intel Corporation in the United States, other countries, or both. UNIX is a registered trademark of The Open Group in the United States and other countries. Linux is a trademark of Linus Torvalds in the United States, other countries, or both. Other company, product, and service names may be trademarks or service marks of others.

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Preface
This IBM Redbook is a study guide for IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager Version 4.2.2 and is aimed at the people who want to get IBM Certifications in this specific product. The IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager Certification, offered through the Professional Certification Program from IBM, is designed to validate the skills required of technical professionals who work in the implementation of the IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager Version 4.2.2 product. This Redbook provides a combination of theory and practical experience needed for a general understanding of the subject matter. It also provides sample questions that will help in the evaluation of personal progress and provide familiarity with the types of questions that will be encountered in the exam. This publication does not replace practical experience, nor is it designed to be a stand-alone guide for any subject. Instead, it is an effective tool that, when combined with education activities and experience, can be a very useful preparation guide for the exam.

The team that wrote this redbook


This redbook was produced by a team of specialists from around the world working at the International Technical Support Organization, Austin Center. Vasfi Gucer is a Project Leader at the International Technical Support Organization, Austin Center. He worked for IBM Turkey for 10 years and has been with the ITSO since January 1999. He has more than 10 years of experience in the areas of systems management, networking hardware, and software on mainframe and distributed platforms. He has worked on various Tivoli customer projects as a systems architect in Turkey and the U.S. He writes extensively and teaches IBM classes worldwide on Tivoli software. Vasfi is also a IBM Certified Senior IT Specialist. Sanver Ceylan is a Project Leader at the International Technical Support Organization, Austin Center. Sanver worked for IBM Turkey for 11 years and he joined to ITSO in September 2003. His main area of expertise is Tivoli Storage Management Products. Before ITSO, Sanver worked in the Software Organization of IBM Turkey as an Advisory IT Specialist, where he was involved in numerous pre-sales projects for major customers of IBM Turkey.

Copyright IBM Corp. 2005. All rights reserved.

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Thanks to the following people for their contributions to this project: Julie Czubik International Technical Support Organization, Poughkeepsie Center Ben Briggs, Susan Farago, Stefan Muller, Elizabeth Purzer IBM USA Johan Raeymaeckers JorSy Systems Management

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Comments welcome
Your comments are important to us! We want our Redbooks to be as helpful as possible. Send us your comments about this or other Redbooks in one of the following ways: Use the online Contact us review redbook form found at:
ibm.com/redbooks

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Certification Study Guide: IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager (ITCM) Version 4.2.2

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Preface

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Chapter 1.

Certification overview
This chapter provides an overview of the skill requirements needed to obtain an IBM Advanced Technical Expert certification. The following chapters are designed to provide a comprehensive review of specific topics that are essential for obtaining the certification: IBM Professional Certification Program IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager 4.2.2 Certification Recommended study resources

Copyright IBM Corp. 2005. All rights reserved.

1.1 IBM Professional Certification Program


Having the right skills for the job is critical in the growing global marketplace. IBM Professional Certification, designed to validate skill and proficiency in the latest IBM solution and product technology, can help provide that competitive edge. The IBM Professional Certification Program Web site is available at: http://www.ibm.com/certify/index.shtml The Professional Certification Program from IBM offers a business solution for skilled technical professionals seeking to demonstrate their expertise to the world. The program is designed to validate your skills and demonstrate your proficiency in the latest IBM technology and solutions. In addition, professional certification may help you excel at your job by giving you and your employer confidence that your skills have been tested. You may be able to deliver higher levels of service and technical expertise than non-certified employees and move on a faster career track. Professional certification puts your career in your control. This is the way for skilled IT professionals to demonstrate their expertise to the world. It validates your skills and demonstrates your proficiency in the latest IBM technology and solutions. The certification requirements are tough, but it is not rocket science, either. It is a rigorous process that differentiates you from everyone else. The mission of IBM Professional Certification is to: Provide a reliable, valid, and fair method of assessing skills and knowledge. Provide IBM with a method of building and validating the skills of individuals and organizations. Develop a loyal community of highly skilled certified professionals who recommend, sell, service, support, and/or use IBM products and solutions. The Professional Certification Program from IBM has developed certification role names to guide you in your professional development. The certification role names include IBM Certified Specialist, IBM Certified Solutions/Systems Expert, and IBM Certified Advanced Technical Expert for technical professionals who sell, service, and support IBM solutions. For technical professionals in application development, the certification roles include IBM Certified Developer Associate and IBM Certified Developer. An IBM Certified Instructor certifies the professional instructor. The Professional Certification Program from IBM provides you with a structured program leading to an internationally recognized qualification. The program is

Certification Study Guide: IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager (ITCM) Version 4.2.2

designed for flexibility by allowing you to select your role; prepare for and take tests at your own pace; and, in some cases, select from a choice of elective tests best suited to your abilities and needs. Some roles also offer a shortcut by giving credit for a certification obtained in other industry certification programs. You may be a network administrator, systems integrator, network integrator, solution architect, solution developer, value-added reseller, technical coordinator, sales representative, or educational trainer. Regardless of your role, you can start charting your course through the Professional Certification Program from IBM today.

1.1.1 Benefits of certification


Certification is a tool to help objectively measure the performance of a professional on a given job at a defined skill level. Therefore, it is beneficial for individuals who want to validate their own skills and performance levels, their employees, or both. For optimum benefit, the certification tests must reflect the critical tasks required for a job, the skill levels of each task, and the frequency by which a task needs to be performed. IBM prides itself in designing comprehensive, documented processes that ensure that IBM certification tests remain relevant to the work environment of potential certification candidates. In addition to assessing job skills and performance levels, professional certification may also provide such benefits as: For employees: Promotes recognition as an IBM certified professional Helps to create advantages in interviews Assists in salary increases, corporate advancement, or both Increases self-esteem Provides continuing professional benefits Measures the effectiveness of training Reduces course redundancy and unnecessary expenses Provides objective benchmarks for validating skills Makes long-range planning easier Helps to manage professional development Aids as a hiring tool Contributes to competitive advantage Increases productivity Increases morale and loyalty

For employers:

Chapter 1. Certification overview

For Business Partners and consultants: Provides independent validation of technical skills Creates competitive advantage and business opportunities Enhances prestige of the team Contributes to IBM requirements for various IBM Business Partner programs Specific benefits may vary by country (region) and role. In general, after you become certified, you should receive the following benefits: Industry recognition Certification may accelerate your career potential by validating your professional competency and increasing your ability to provide solid, capable technical support. Program credentials As a certified professional, you receive via e-mail your certificate of completion and the certification mark associated with your role for use in advertisements and business literature. You may also request a hardcopy certificate, which includes a wallet-size certificate. The Professional Certification Program from IBM acknowledges the individual as a technical professional. The certification mark is for the exclusive use of the certified individual. Ongoing technical vitality IBM Certified professionals are included in mailings from the Professional Certification Program from IBM.

1.1.2 Tivoli Software Professional Certification


Tivoli's professional certification program offers certification testing that sets the standard for qualified product consultants, administrators, architects, and partners. The program also offers an internationally recognized qualification for technical professionals seeking to apply their expertise in today's complex business environment. The program is designed for those who implement, buy, sell, service, and support Tivoli solutions and wish to deliver higher levels of service and technical expertise. Whether you are a Tivoli customer, partner, or technical professional wishing to put your career on the fast track, you can start on the road to becoming a Tivoli Certified Professional today.

Certification Study Guide: IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager (ITCM) Version 4.2.2

Benefits of being Tivoli certified


Tivoli certification gives the following benefits: Benefits to the individual IBM Certified certificate and use of logos on business cards Note: Certificates are sent via e-mail. However, a paper copy of the certificate along with a laminated wallet card can also be requested by sending an e-mail to certify@us.ibm.com. Recognition of your technical skills by your peers and management Enhanced career opportunities Focus for your professional development Benefits to the business partner Confidence in the skills of your employees Enhanced partnership benefits from the Business Partner Program Billing your employees out at higher rates Strengthens your proposals to customers Demonstrates the depth of technical skills available to prospective customers Benefits to the customer Confidence in the services professionals handling your implementation Ease of hiring competent employees to manage your Tivoli environment Enhanced return on investment (ROI) through more thorough integration with Tivoli and third-party products Ease of selecting a Tivoli Business Partner that meets your specific needs

Certification checklist
Here is the Certification checklist: 1. Select the certification you would like to pursue. 2. Determine which test(s) is required by reading the certification role description. 3. Prepare for the test, using the following resources provided: Test objectives Recommended educational resources Sample/assessment test

Chapter 1. Certification overview

Other reference materials Opportunities for experience Note: These resources are available from each certification description page, as well as from the Test information page. 4. Register to take a test by contacting one of our worldwide testing vendors: Thomson Prometric Pearson VUE (Virtual University Enterprises) Note: When providing your name and address to the testing vendor, be sure to specify your name exactly as you would like it to appear on your certificate. 5. Take the test. Be sure to keep the Examination Score Report provided upon test completion as your record of taking the test. Note: After a test has been taken, your test results and demographic data (including name, address, e-mail, phone number, etc.) are sent from the testing vendor to IBM for processing (please allow 23 days for transmittal and processing). Once all the tests required for a certification are passed and received by IBM, your certificate will be issued. 6. Repeat steps three through five until all required tests are successfully completed for the desired certification role. If additional requirements are needed (such as an "other vendor" certification or exam), please follow the instructions on the certification description page to submit these requirements to IBM. 7. Once you have completed your certification requirements, you will be sent an e-mail asking you to accept the terms of the IBM Certification Agreement before receiving the certificate. 8. Upon acceptance of the terms of the IBM Certification Agreement, an e-mail will be sent containing the following electronic deliverable: A Certification Certificate in .pdf format, which can be printed in either color or black and white A set of graphic files of the IBM Professional Certification mark associated with the certification achieved Guidelines for the use of the IBM Professional Certification mark 9. To avoid unnecessary delay in receiving your certificate, please ensure that we have your current e-mail on file, by keeping your profile up to date. If you

Certification Study Guide: IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager (ITCM) Version 4.2.2

do not have an e-mail address on file, your certificate will be sent via postal mail. Once you receive a certificate by e-mail, you may also contact IBM at certify@us.ibm.com to request that a hardcopy certificate be sent by postal mail. Note: IBM reserves the right to change or delete any portion of the program, including the terms and conditions of the IBM Certification Agreement, at any time without notice. Some certification roles offered through the IBM Professional Certification Program require recertification.

1.2 IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager V4.2.2 Implementation Certification


We can categorize the certification process as follows: Job role description/target audience A Tivoli Certified Consultant Tivoli Configuration Manager V4.2.2 is a technical professional responsible for planning, installation, configuration, operations, administration, and maintenance of an IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager V4.2.2 solution. This individual will be expected to perform these tasks with limited assistance from peers, product documentation, and support resources. To attain the IBM Certified Deployment Professional - Tivoli Configuration Manager V4.2.2 certification, candidates must pass one test. Required prerequisites Working knowledge of shell and PERL programming Working knowledge in SQL programming Basic understanding of Java, JSP, and XML Strong working knowledge of operating systems (Windows variations, AIX, Solaris, and Linux) Basic understanding of OS and network security concepts Basic knowledge of networking concepts Basic install of DB2, LDAP, WebSphere, IBM HTTP Server, and JRE Use of LDAP DMT (Directory Management Tool) Use of DB2 Control Center Working knowledge of TCP/IP

Chapter 1. Certification overview

Basic understanding of third-party software installers (MSI, InstallShield, and PDF) Core requirement In order to be certified you must select the following test: Test 870 - Tivoli Configuration Manager V4.2.2 Test 870 objectives Test 876 sample test Test 870 recommended educational resources Approximate number of questions: 80 Duration in minutes: 120 Format: Multiple choice Required Passing Score: 65 percent pass score or 52 correct out of 80 items correct answers

1.2.1 Test 870 objectives


You can find the most updated objectives of IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager V4.2.2 Implementation Certification test at the following link: http://www-03.ibm.com/certify/tests/obj870.shtml

1.2.2 Discount when taking the Test 870


You can get a 15 percent discount on IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager V4.2.2 Implementation Certification test, if taken at any Thomson Prometric testing center. Important: IBM offers a promotion code below, which is good for a 15 percent discount on the indicated Tivoli certification exams if taken at any Thomson Prometric or Pearson VUE testing centers. Code: 15T870 Percent off: 15 percent Valid for exams: 000-870 Expires: Code is valid as long as exam is available

Certification Study Guide: IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager (ITCM) Version 4.2.2

1.3 Recommended resources for study


Courses and publications are offered to help you prepare for the certification tests. The courses are recommended, but not required, before taking a certification test. If you wish to purchase Web-based training courses or are unable to locate a Web-based course or classroom course at the time and location you desire, please feel free to contact one of our delivery management teams at: Americas - tivamedu@us.ibm.com EMEA - tived@uk.ibm.com AP - tivtrainingap@au1.ibm.com. Note: Course offerings are continuously being added and updated. If you do not see the course(s) below listed in your geography please contact the delivery management team.

1.3.1 Courses
Course names and/or course numbers vary depending on the education delivery arm used in each geography. Please refer to the Tivoli software education Web site to find the appropriate course and education delivery vendor for each geography. General training information can also be found at IBM IT Training at:
http://ibm.com/training

Course title: IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager 4.2


IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager provides an integrated solution for managing complex distributed enterprise environments. Working on top of IBM Tivoli infrastructure, Configuration Manager integrates Software Distribution, Inventory, and additional supporting services. This course is designed to cover the fundamentals of Tivoli Configuration Manager. The information covered in this course will provide you with the opportunity to master several key skills needed to perform day-to-day administrative functions. You will also be introduced to new terminology and concepts associated with administering Tivoli Configuration Manager.

Course duration: Five days. Course number: (TV170 - IBM Technical Education Services) | (TV107 Education Centers for IBM Software). Course numbers vary depending on the education delivery arm used in each geography. Please refer to the Web site

Chapter 1. Certification overview

below to find the appropriate course number according to the education delivery vendor chosen.

Geo education page: Worldwide schedules available at Tivoli software education. IBM PartnerWorld "You Pass We Pay": This course is approved for IBM
PartnerWorld You-Pass, We-Pay. Note: At the time of writing this book, IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager 4.2.2 courses were not available yet on http://ibm.com/training. Check out this link for the most updated information about offered Tivoli workshops.

Course title: IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager 4.2


IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager provides an integrated solution for managing complex distributed enterprise environments. Working on top of IBM Tivoli Management Framework, Configuration Manager integrates Software Distribution, Inventory, and additional supporting services. This Web-based course is designed to cover the fundamentals of Tivoli Configuration Manager. The information covered in this course will provide you with the opportunity to master several key skills needed to perform day-to-day administrative functions. You will also be introduced to new terminology and concepts associated with administering Tivoli Configuration Manager. In a separate module, this course will present the fundamentals of Tivoli Management Framework, which is the foundation of many Tivoli Enterprise products. Learning to use Tivoli Management Framework will provide you with the basic skills needed to work with Tivoli Configuration Manager. Knowledge of Tivoli Management Framework terms, resources, and concepts is an important first step in your preparation for success with Tivoli Enterprise products.

Course duration: Thirty-two hours, self-paced. Course number: (TIV69 - IBM Technical Education Services) | (TV113 Education Centers for IBM Software). Course numbers vary depending on the education delivery arm used in each geography. Please refer to the Web site below to find the appropriate course number according to the education delivery vendor chosen.

Geo education page: Worldwide schedules available at Tivoli software education. IBM PartnerWorld "You Pass We Pay": This course is not approved for IBM
PartnerWorld You-Pass, We-Pay.

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1.3.2 Publication
Before taking test 870 IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager V4.2.2 Implementation, the recommended publications to review are IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager manuals and redbooks. You may want to refer to the following manuals: IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager: Introducing IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager, GC23-4703 Provides an overview of IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager and its components, and uses scenarios to highlight various processes. IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager: Planning and Installation Guide, GC23-4702 Explains how to install, upgrade, and uninstall IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager and its components in a Tivoli environment. IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager: Users Guide for Software Distribution, SC23-4711 Explains the concepts and procedures necessary for you to effectively use the Software Distribution component to distribute software over local area networks (LANs) and wide area networks (WANs). IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager: Reference Manual for Software Distribution, SC23-4712 Explains advanced features and concepts needed to use and tailor the Software Distribution component. IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager: Users Guide for Inventory, SC23-4713 Describes the Inventory component and the management tasks that you can perform. IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager: Database Schema Reference, SC23-4783 Describes the IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager database tables. IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager: Messages and Codes, SC23-4706 Lists all of the messages produced by IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager. IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager: Users Guide for Deployment Services, SC23-4710 Provides information about the different services provided as part of Tivoli Configuration Manager. You may also follow the link below in order to reach the online publications of IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager 4.2.2.

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http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/infocenter/tiv3help/index.jsp?toc=/com .ibm.tivoli.itcm.doc/toc.xml

IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager Redbooks


The following are IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager related Redbooks: All About IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager Version 4.2, SG24-6612 This IBM Redbook covers the complete functionality and features of IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager 4.2 with many real-life scenarios and best practices. Some of the major topics that are covered in the publication are: LDAP integration Web GUI Device Management Data Moving Firewalls and IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager Native packaging Multicast Inventory new features and integration with Software Distribution Troubleshooting

This book will assist Software Distribution specialists with installing, customizing, using, and troubleshooting IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager. Automated Distribution and Self-Healing with IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager V 4.2, SG24-6620 This IBM Redbook covers a solution to implement an automated software distribution and Self-Healing mechanism on top of IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager Version 4.2. The solution described in this book (referred as the Solution throughout he book) guarantees the availability of designated software packages on workstations. The Solution is also backwards compatible with IBM Tivoli Software Distribution Version 4.1 and Inventory Version 4.0. The Solution will extend the benefits of using IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager Version by reducing costs, increasing reliability, and providing fast delivery. The scripts that make up the Solution are shipped with the book (on an AS-IS basis), so you can customize the Solution according to your needs. We believe the Solution described in this book will be very useful for customers who are planning to implement a software distribution infrastructure or are already using IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager Version and want to automate the software enforcement/Self-Healing process. Migration to IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager Version 4.2, SG24-6616

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This redbook explains both the business reasons and the technical implementation details for migrating from Software Distribution and Inventory 3.6.X to IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager Version 4.2. The topics include: Business reasons for migration Functional and architectural differences between IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager and 3.6.X versions of Software Distribution and Inventory Planning and methodology of migration Framework migration Migration scenarios Package migration This book will help you in all aspects of migration from Software Distribution and Inventory 3.6.X to IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager Version 4.2. Implementing Automated Inventory Scanning and Software Distribution After Auto Discovery, SG24-6626 This book describes a solution to provide readers with the ability to automatically install endpoint code and perform inventory scans and required software distributions on new workstations that have been discovered by IBM Tivoli NetView, reducing the time and effort it takes to manually gather and maintain current information in a distributed environment. Using IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager Version 4.2 and NetView Version 7.1.3, this solution will benefit the reader by providing reliability, potential cost reduction, and rapid time-to-value incentives, which free up administrators and allow them to focus on actual IT needs. We provide an overview of the high-level design and architecture, including the different customer environments where this solution can be applied, followed by implementation, scenarios, and extending the solution. This book also covers the IBM Tivoli NetView Integration Module for Configuration Manager (formerly called Tivoli Integration Pack for NetView) implementation and scenarios. This publication will assist customer and business partners support staff and managers, and IBM systems engineers who are involved in Tivoli sales or implementation services.

Chapter 1. Certification overview

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Chapter 2.

Tivoli Management Framework basics


This provides an overview of the Tivoli Management Framework concepts. It is important to understand Tivoli Management Framework, because most of the IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager services depend on the Framework. We discuss the following in this chapter: Components of the basic Tivoli architecture on page 16 Tivoli user interfaces on page 19 Tivoli resources on page 21 Authorization roles on page 25 Tivoli profiles on page 27 Multiplexed distribution services on page 31 Connecting multiple TMR regions on page 41 Endpoint login sequence on page 47 Firewall Security Toolbox on page 56 Installing Firewall Security Toolbox on page 59

Copyright IBM Corp. 2005. All rights reserved.

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2.1 Components of the basic Tivoli architecture


The following are the components of the basic Tivoli architecture:

Tivoli Management Region (TMR) is an entity that contains the Tivoli server and its clients. A Tivoli Management Region contains three tiers of resources: The Tivoli server, managed nodes and gateways, and endpoints, as shown in Figure 2-1.

Figure 2-1 Tivoli Management Region

Tivoli Management Region (TMR) Server includes the libraries, binaries, data
files, and the graphical user interface (GUI) (the Tivoli desktop) needed to install and manage your Tivoli environment. The Tivoli server performs all

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authentication and verification necessary to ensure the security of Tivoli data. The following components comprise a Tivoli server: An object database, which maintains all object data for the entire Tivoli region. An object dispatcher, which coordinates all communication with managed nodes and gateways. The object dispatcher process is the oserv, which is controlled by the oserv command. By default, oserv communicates in the TMR on port 94. This port is configurable. An endpoint manager, which is responsible for managing all of the endpoints in the Tivoli region. Note: The TMR server should be dedicated to the task of managing the TMR. The TMR server must be up and available in order for the rest of the TMR to function. For more information on increasing the fault tolerance of your TMR, see the IBM Redbook, High Availability Scenarios with IBM Tivoli Workload Scheduler and IBM Tivoli Framework, SG24-6632. The machine that serves as the TMR server can also serve as a client (target of management operations) in the TMR.

Managed Node runs the same software that runs on a Tivoli server. Managed nodes maintain their own object databases that can be accessed by the Tivoli server. When managed nodes communicate directly with other managed nodes, they perform the same communication or security operations that are performed by the Tivoli server.
The difference between a Tivoli server and a managed node is that the Tivoli server object database is global to the entire region, including all managed nodes. In contrast, the managed node database is local to the particular managed node. To manage a computer system that hosts the managed node, install an endpoint on that managed node.

Gateway controls communication with and operations on endpoints. Each gateway can support thousands of endpoints. A gateway can launch methods on an endpoint or run methods on behalf of the endpoint.
A gateway is generally created on an existing managed node. This managed node provides access to the endpoint methods and provides the communication with the Tivoli server that the endpoints occasionally require.

Tivoli Management Agent (TMA or endpoint) is a target of management


operations in a TMR. An endpoint provides the primary interface for system management. An endpoint is any system that runs the lcfd service (or daemon), which is configured using the lcfd command.

Chapter 2. Tivoli Management Framework basics

17

Typically, an endpoint is installed on a computer system that is not used for daily management operations. Endpoints run a very small amount of software and do not maintain an object database. The majority of systems in a Tivoli environment should be endpoints. The Tivoli desktop is not installed with the endpoint software. If you choose to run a desktop on an endpoint, you must install Tivoli Desktop for Windows or telnet to a UNIX-managed node. The TMA is implemented differently for different platforms. It is a process on UNIX systems and a service on Windows NT systems. By default, a TMA will contact its gateway on port 9494, the port on which the gateway is listening for TMAs. This port is configurable. By default, a TMA listens for TMR communications on port 9495. Figure 2-2 shows Tivoli server and client components communication.

Figure 2-2 Tivoli Server, managed node, and TMA communication

Sizing considerations for gateways: Sizing the endpoint gateways is an important consideration when designing your Tivoli topology. The following are the main factors to consider when sizing endpoint gateways: Number of endpoints Number of upcalls and downcalls Number of endpoint platform types that must be supported

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2.2 Tivoli user interfaces


Tivoli provides both a graphical user interface (GUI) and a command line interface (CLI). The GUI is often referred to as the Tivoli Desktop. In addition to the desktop and the CLI, there are Web-based views of certain Tivoli management functions. Depending on the operations you are performing, you use either the desktop or the CLI. For example, to view the relationships of policy regions and profile managers, use the desktop to visually display those relationships. The CLI can be more useful to perform repetitive actions, such as encapsulating Tivoli commands in a script.

2.2.1 Tivoli Desktop


The graphical user interface is called the Tivoli Desktop. Figure 2-3 shows the initial view of Tivoli Desktop. It gets populated as you install Tivoli applications.

Figure 2-3 Tivoli Desktop

The Tivoli Desktop provides a graphical user interface (GUI) for administrators to graphically view and control the Tivoli Management Environment with a logical, consistent layout across all Tivoli products. The Tivoli Desktop is automatically installed on every UNIX-managed node. It is invoked on UNIX systems via the tivoli command. You must run the tivoli command from an X-Window session after sourcing the environment variables.

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Tivoli Desktop for Windows is a separate program that must be installed manually before an administrator can access the Tivoli Desktop on a Windows NT-managed node. The Tivoli Desktop for Windows code is on Framework CD2. It can be installed on any Windows-based system, even if it is not in the TMR. It can be used to access the Tivoli Desktop of a UNIX-managed node as well as an NT-managed node. Note: The Tivoli Desktop for Windows requires you to specify a host, which could be another machine.

2.2.2 Command line interface


The Tivoli command line interface (CLI) enables Tivoli system administrators to execute Tivoli management functions via the command line provided by the operating system. You can execute most CLI commands only from the TMR server or managed nodes. On UNIX, CLI commands are executed from the shell prompt or can be included in scripts. On Windows, CLI commands are executed from the Windows NT command prompt or can be included in batch files. Some Tivoli CLI commands are actually shell scripts that must run on NT from the bash shell, which is installed by Tivoli on every NT TMR server and managed node. Most Tivoli CLI commands begin with a w. If you are authorized to run the Tivoli desktop, you can also run CLI commands. If you are not authorized to run the desktop, you cannot run CLI commands. Note: The graphical Desktop is not completely equivalent to the CLI, although, in general, they are two interfaces to achieve the same purpose. Some actions can only be performed from the GUI (creating a collection, for example), and some can only be performed from the CLI (restoring the database, for example).

2.2.3 Navigating the Tivoli Desktop


Various elements in windows and dialogs assist the user, including pull-down and pop-up menus, status lines and messages, buttons, check boxes, and scrolling lists. Figure 2-4 on page 21 shows different options used for navigating the Tivoli Desktop.

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Figure 2-4 Navigating the Tivoli Desktop

2.3 Tivoli resources


Resource is a general term used to define objects, services, tasks,
administrators, managed nodes, and other items in the Tivoli environment. A resource is a system, device, or service in a distributed environment. Examples are workstations, software products, and administrators. A managed resource represents system or network resources that Tivoli manages. Managed resources are found only inside of policy regions. Figure 2-5 on page 22 shows different managed resources in a Tivoli environment.

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Figure 2-5 Different managed resources

To manage a specific type of resource, you must first install a Tivoli application that is designed to manage that resource. Tivoli applications manage resources from a single logical view. Upon installation of Framework on the TMR server, the default Tivoli desktop (Figure 2-3 on page 10) displays five icons, each of which represents a type of Tivoli resource: The administrators, notices, a default policy region, the endpoint manager, and the scheduler.

Administrator
A Tivoli administrator is a system administrator who has been authorized to perform systems management tasks and manage policy regions. The Administrator Collection is a container for all the Tivoli administrators. Tivoli software products use administrators to delegate the use of the system root account without giving those administrators the system password or complete control. Most system administrators have a Tivoli administrator that maps to their system account. However, users on multiple systems can use the same Tivoli administrator. A Tivoli administrator is the person or group of people each with a user account to access a computer system where Tivoli software products are installed.

Notices
Notices are a resource that contains notes posted by Tivoli applications. These notes inform the administrators of management functions performed in the Tivoli environment.

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Policy region
A policy region is a container for managed resources that conform to the same set of policies or rules. Upon installation of the TMR server, there will be one default policy region, and initially the managed node on the TMR server will be the only resource contained within it. A policy region can be used to reflect the management and organization of a distributed computing environment. It has two primary objectives: To enforce company rules and policies To enforce a security model or delegation of authority It represents logical relationships tied to an organizational structure such as divisions, departments, geographical locations, types of workstations, or business functions. Policy regions can be nested to provide hierarchical relationships; if a policy region is contained in another policy region it is called a policy subregion. Policy region hierarchy can be designed in different ways. Figure 2-6 shows grouping by Tivoli products, Figure 2-7 on page 24 shows grouping by Tivoli operating systems, and Figure 2-8 on page 24 shows grouping by departments.

Figure 2-6 Grouping by Tivoli product

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Figure 2-7 Grouping by operating system

Figure 2-8 Grouping by department

Endpoint manager
The endpoint manager runs on the TMR server and maintains TMA and gateway information. The endpoint manager maintains an endpoint list that keeps track of every TMA in a TMR and tracks the gateway associated with each TMA.

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From the endpoint manager, you can view the gateways and their associated endpoints. You can also create new gateways.

Scheduler
Scheduler is a resource that allows access to the scheduling queue to manipulate scheduled jobs. The scheduler executes previously defined jobs at predefined times, such as scheduling jobs to occur at specific times or within a specified time frame, to repeat a specified number of times, at specified intervals, or indefinitely.

2.4 Authorization roles


When root administrators create other administrators, they specify the resources and authorization roles for the new administrator. The authorization roles assigned to an administrator determine the management operations that the administrator can perform. Authorization roles provide a set of privileges to Tivoli resources. Authorization roles are mutually exclusive. Each role provides its own set of privilegesone role does not provide privileges of any other role. The possible authorization roles for administrators are as follows: super Allows an administrator to connect and disconnect regions; perform maintenance operations on the region; install managed nodes, products, and patches; and so on. The super role is normally required for high-security operations and is not typically assigned to many administrators. senior Allows an administrator to create and define all Tivoli resources. The senior role is required for configuration and policy operations, such as creating an administrator, setting policy, or expiring notices. admin Allows an administrator to perform day-to-day tasks and system configurations. The admin role is required for general system management operations, such as adding an item to a profile, distributing a profile, or changing the message of the day. user Allows an administrator to view information and resources with read-only capability. The user role is required to bring up a Tivoli desktop and allows limited operations that do not affect configuration information, such as displaying configuration information.

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backup Allows an administrator to create backups of Tivoli object databases. An administrator must have the backup role in the region that contains the object databases for the Tivoli server and managed nodes to be backed up. restore Allows an administrator to restore Tivoli object databases from backup. The administrator must have the restore role in the region that contains the object databases for the Tivoli server and managed nodes to be restored. install-product Allows an administrator to install new applications and products in the local Tivoli region. install-client Allows an administrator to install managed nodes within policy regions that allow the managed node resource type. policy Allows an administrator with both the policy and senior roles to create policy regions. In addition, the administrator can add resource types to policy regions and set up the policies that govern the policy region. Dist_control Allows an administrator to control multiplexed distribution 2 (MDist 2) distributions. Note: Depending on the Tivoli products installed, other authorization roles might be available.

2.4.1 Scope of authorization roles


For example, some operation requires the admin role. If an administrator has only the super role, this administrator cannot perform these operations unless this administrator also is granted the admin role. Note: To ensure that senior system administrators can perform operations at their authorization level and below, assign these administrators all authorization roles below their current level. For example, to ensure that an administrator with the senior role can perform all operations at the senior level and below, assign this administrator the senior, admin, and user roles.

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Roles should be assigned based on the management operations specific to an administrator. You should carefully plan how you are going to delegate system management tasks. Tivoli Management Framework provides control and flexibility in assigning management authority to various personnel. Carefully consider and review the areas of responsibility for each Tivoli administrator when assigning roles for various resources and in various Tivoli regions. For example, Juan is to manage Documentation policy region. He should be assigned the senior, admin, and user roles for this policy region. If Juan has administrative needs for other policy regions or resources outside of his policy region, these can be granted later. Authorization roles can be granted at the resource level or region level.

Resource authorization roles


Granting roles at the resource level provides an administrator with authority to resources across policy regions, the Scheduler, or the Administrators collection. Administrators can have different roles for different resources. Resource authorization roles can be assigned for many types of resources that appear as icons on a Tivoli desktop. If an administrator has a resource role, that role applies for all objects contained in that resource. For example, if John has the senior role in the Marketing policy region, he also has the senior role for all resources in that policy region.

Region authorization roles


Granting roles at the region level provides an administrator with authority over all resources in the Tivoli region. If an administrator has an authorization role in a Tivoli region, that same role applies for all resources in that region. For example, if Isabella has the role admin in the region, she also has the admin role for all resources in that region. An administrator with the super or senior role in the Administrator collection can create other administrators and assign them authorization roles. For security reasons, use extreme care when assigning the super role in a Tivoli region.

2.5 Tivoli profiles


In large distributed networks, computer systems are frequently grouped according to the type of work for which they are used. For example, computer systems in an engineering group might be used to produce CAD drawings, while those in an accounting group might be used to produce tax documents. With Tivoli Management Framework, you can place common configuration information for computer systems used for similar purposes in a centralized area. Doing so

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makes it easier to access, manage, and duplicate resources. Profiles and profile managers enable you to do this. A profile is a container for a Tivoli application. Each application has its own type of profile. The profile template is configured by a system administrator to manage resources as desired. As an example, Figure 2-9 shows the Inventory Profile icon.

Figure 2-9 Inventory Profile icon

Profiles are sent to target systems.You can apply a profile to a set of managed resources in the TMR. This causes the management task to be sent to the target resource, which is usually a computer system such as a managed node or TMA. The Framework provides profile managers to associate profiles with their target systems. One profile can define configurations for multiple platforms. A profile can contain only information related to the profile type (for instance, IBM Tivoli Monitoring), but within each profile type, configuration information for multiple platform types can be stored. For example, the User Administration profile can store a particular user's account information for their UNIX and Windows accounts both in the same profile record. Figure 2-10 on page 29 is an example of a profile for the Inventory component of the IBM Configuration Manager product. This allows you to scan machines for hardware and software assets.

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Figure 2-10 Inventory profile example

2.5.1 Profile managers and profile distribution


A profile manager is a container for individual profiles. It provides a place to create and organize groups of profiles and to link subscribers, or recipients, to them. A profile manager can contain multiple profiles of the same type, or it can contain profiles of more than one type. Profile managers control the distribution of profiles to subscribers. Profile managers are created within a policy region. Subscribers to a profile manager can be in the same policy region as their profile manager or in other policy regions. A profile manager can be viewed logically as having two sections. One section contains profiles and the other section contains subscribers. The set of profiles contained in a profile manager might be of different types. Framework delivers all profiles to subscribers. All applications use the same method to propagate the profile data to the target systems. The mechanism is provided by Framework, and it is called profile distribution. The target resources are called subscribers.

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As a result of profile distribution, profile data is copied to target systems and sent to the appropriate application that will understand the configuration information and apply it accordingly. When a TMA receives a profile and does not have the corresponding application loaded in its method cache, the application code will be downloaded from the TMA's Management Gateway.

Figure 2-11 Management by subscription

Types of profile managers


Profile managers can operate in two modes: Database or dataless. Database mode Enables a profile manager to distribute to any profile manager (dataless or database), managed nodes, and NIS domains, but not to endpoints. Dataless mode Enables a profile manager to distribute to managed nodes, endpoints, and NIS domains, but not to other profile managers. You select the mode for a profile manager when you create it. You can also change the mode after it is created. Note: If you want to subscribe profile managers to a certain profile manager, the profile manager that is being subscribed to must be in database mode. A policy region can belong to only one TMR. However, subscribers to a particular profile manager might actually reside in another, interconnected, TMR. This

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ability to subscribe resources across TMR boundaries means that a profile can be distributed easily to hundreds or thousands of machines.

2.6 Multiplexed distribution services


The multiplexed distribution facility (MDist) is a Framework service to enable distributions of large amounts of data to multiple targets in an enterprise. These services are used by a number of Tivoli profile-based applications to maximize data throughput across large, complex networks. MDist is most important for the Software Distribution component of IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager because of the large file transfers. MDist is configurable to control network load. MDist improves data throughput using such techniques as the following: Parallel distribution to machines Automatic load distribution Use of repeater sites that accept data over slow links and redistribute it to other machines on the local connection For additional information refer to Chapter 11, Distribution Management, of the Tivoli Management Framework User's Guide; and Chapter 6, Multiplexed Distribution Services, of the Tivoli Management Framework Planning for Deployment Guide. MDist repeater sites are intermediate systems that receive a single copy of Tivoli data and send it to other repeater sites or to target systems. This improves speed by increasing parallelism. Management gateways use repeater software to distribute to TMA clients. MDist repeaters must be managed nodes. You need to consider the following facts concerning a repeater's range: A repeater's range is defined as the set of target systems that receive data from the repeater. A target system should be assigned to only one repeater's range. One repeater can be in the range of another repeater.

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Figure 2-12 Range of a repeater

The TMR server is a repeater by default. Understanding MDist behavior is important because, under some circumstances, the default MDist behavior can strain the resources of the TMR server or your network bandwidth.

Single TMR environments: In a single TMR, MDist distributes for the TMR server to all target machines in parallel, up to a default maximum of 100 machines at a time. The number of machines can be configured differently. Multiple TMR environments: When distributing data to machines in more than
one TMR, MDist distributes data in parallel to local machines and once to other TMR server(s). A TMR server in another region is called a wan repeater. The other TMR servers' MDist repeaters then redistribute the data to the target machines. TMR servers and managed nodes configured as management gateways are automatically designated as repeaters. You may define additional repeater sites. Configuration of repeaters is done by the single command called wrpt. Note: Any system in the TMR that does not explicitly belong to the range of a repeater will belong to the range of the default repeater (which defaults to the TMR server).

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2.6.1 MDist and MDist 2


Tivoli provides two multiplexed distribution services: MDist and MDist 2.

MDist: MDist performs a synchronous transfer of data through a configured


hierarchy of repeaters. The data is not stored in an intermediate location, so the size of the data transfer can be quite large. Because the data are not stored at the repeater, if a distribution fails, it must be restarted from the beginning.

MDist 2: MDist 2 is an extension of MDist to handle large-scale distributions.


MDist II transfers data asynchronously. It uses repeater depots to store the data to ensure successful delivery. If the distribution is unsuccessful, it can resume without starting from the beginning. Beginning with Framework 4.1, MDist 2 has additional capabilities, including multicast support to improve performance. You should use the wmdist command to enable multicast and control profile distributions.

2.6.2 MDist 2 functions


The following are the functions of MDist 2:

Distribution monitoring and control: In addition to checking the status of the


distribution, you can take action on it (pause, resume, or cancel) using the GUI.

Mobile computing support: This graphical interface allows users to download and install distributions at their convenience. Disconnected endpoint support: Enables users to download and save distributions in a local storage directory for installation at a later date. Roaming endpoint support: Enables endpoints to receive a distribution when an endpoint migrates to a different gateway during distribution. Installation from CD or file server: Enables administrators to specify a CD or
file server to use rather than a repeater.

Wake on LAN (WOL) support: Enables administrators to send distributions to powered off computers. If WOL is enabled, the machine will wake up to receive the distribution. Multicast support: Enables system administrators to improve performance by using parallel distribution.

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2.6.3 MDist2 components


Figure 2-13 on page 35 illustrates the primary MDist2 components, which are: Repeater manager The Tivoli object that maintains configuration data for all repeaters in the TMR. It also determines the distribution path. There is one repeater manager per TMR. The intermediate client that receives a single copy of data and sends it to another repeater site or target clients. The storage site for MDist2 distributions. Every repeater has a depot. Thus, data can be stored on any repeater in the Tivoli environment. This storage mechanism helps reduce network traffic for frequently distributed data sets. The queuing mechanism for MDist2 distributions. Every repeater has a queue. The distribution is queued and its persistent information is kept as a local file. This queuing mechanism includes a retry function that enhances support for unreachable targets. The Tivoli object that updates status in the database. There is one distribution manager per TMR. Thus, each TMR keeps track of all distributions it launches. The Java interface used to view status and control distributions. Stands for the RDBMS Interface Module. It is a common interface Tivoli applications can use to store and retrieve information from a relational database, and is used to store MDist2 distribution data.

Repeater site

Repeater depot

Repeater queue

Distribution manager

GUI RIM

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Figure 2-13 MDist 2 components

2.6.4 wmdist command


Configures repeaters and manages MDist 2 distributions. Here you can find some important options of the wmdist command.
wmdist I repeater_name wmdist j depot_directory...

I enables you to view detailed information about the distributions that the repeater is currently processing, and obtains the ID for the distribution.
wmdist k depot_directory...

k removes one or more alternative depot directories.


wmdist l [a] [idist_id] [v]

This lists distribution status. The options are as follows: a returns active distributions only. i dist_id specifies the distribution ID. When no distribution ID is specified, the command returns the status for all distributions. v returns all information about the status. If you do not specify the v option, the command returns only the keyword value information.
wmdist m dist_id [t ep_label] [n node_type] [state...]

This lists the messages for a distribution.

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wmdist q dist_id

This displays the nodes associated with a given distribution in an indented format that indicates the route. Each node displayed is suffixed with its state. You can also determine the distribution path for an active distribution.
wmdist [f] r dist_id | endpoint_id [endpoint_id...]

This resumes a paused distribution specified by dist_id, or resumes one or more paused distributions by target specified by endpoint_id.
wmdist R [rim_object]

This allows the user to change the RIM object used by the distribution manager to store status. The default value is mdist2. Issuing this command without a value prints the current value.
wmdist s repeater_name [C noprompt| nostart| nostop] [keyword=value.]

This configures a repeater (specified by repeater_name) using one or more of the following keywords and values. If a value is not specified, the existing options for the specified repeater are displayed. When no keyword value pairs are listed, the command returns the configurations currently in use.
wmdist T [database_purge_interval]

This sets the interval (in seconds) when completed distributions are deleted by the distribution manager from the RIM database. Setting this interval allows the distribution manager to delete completed or irrelevant distributions from the database after a distribution request is submitted. Although a purge interval is defined, the completed distributions are not deleted unless the defined interval has elapsed and a distribution request was submitted. Issuing this command without a purge interval prints the current setting. Setting the purge interval to -1 disables database purges. The default value is -1. For the complete wmdist command function please refer to the Tivoli Management Framework Reference Guide.

2.6.5 Using the Distribution Status console


The Distribution Status console, shown in Figure 2-14 on page 37, provides administrators with real-time reporting and control of profile distributions. Administrators can track the progress of a distribution, intervene (if necessary), and analyze the details of a distribution. The console provides color-coded charts and graphs to enable administrators to identify patterns and relationships in the data. These views are helpful when identifying items of interest to be focused on, such as unavailable targets, which prevent a distribution from completing successfully.

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Figure 2-14 Distribution Status Console

Viewing distribution status


You can submit a distribution and later check to see whether the distribution completed on its targets. The database associated with MDist 2 enables you to view the status of a distribution. When you select a tab, the Distribution Details area of the console displays a view. The sections that follow describe the following Distribution Details views: Status Chart The Status Chart view displays a color-coded pie chart representing the states of targets for a selected distribution. You can identify the overall status of the distribution or move the cursor over a section of the chart to view the total number of targets in that particular state. Distribution statistics are also displayed, such as the date the distribution was started and the administrator who started it.

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Figure 2-15 Status Chart

Time Spent Chart The Time Spent Chart view displays a bar chart, which indicates the amount of time spent in each stage of the completed distribution. This view displays the minimum, average, and maximum amount of time (in seconds) a distribution was in a given state.

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Figure 2-16 Time Spent Chart

Node Table The Node Table view works the same way as the Distributions table. However, instead of querying distribution status, it queries the states of repeaters or endpoints associated with a specific distribution.

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Figure 2-17 Node Table View

Distribution Topology The Distribution Topology view displays a tree view showing the data structured as nodes and links. It allows you to see the path the profile will follow. Nodes refer to repeaters and endpoints in the currently selected distribution. Links show the relationship between the nodes in the distribution hierarchy. These objects are color-coded so that you can quickly identify the state of a node. The lines that link nodes in the hierarchy are also colored to display relationships between connecting nodes. You can use this view to gain an understanding of the distribution route and to show relationships that help identify items to focus on. For example, you can identify bottlenecks that prevent a distribution from completing and you can also determine the distribution path for active distributions.

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Figure 2-18 Distribution Topology View

2.7 Connecting multiple TMR regions


To meet the needs and demands of managing thousands of resources that are geographically dispersed across networks, Tivoli Management Framework enables you to logically partition your managed resources into a series of connected Tivoli regions. Each region has its own server for managing local clients and a set of distributed replicated services for performing management operations. Regions can be connected to coordinate activities across the network, enabling large-scale systems management and offering the ability for remote site management. During the connection process, each region is supplied with the following information about the region to which it is being connected: Server name Region number Encryption level and password in use in the other region This information is used when the remote region is registered in the local region. When the regions are connected, an exchange of resource information can be

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performed to make known the types and values of resources in the remote region. After the initial information exchange, the information should be updated on a regular basis. Important: To connect two regions, each region must have a name that is unique among all regions. If you attempt to connect a region that has the same name as another region, the connection fails. Any Tivoli product installed in two connected regions should be installed in compatible versions in each region. Incompatible versions of a product do not cause a connection to fail, but can cause operation problems at a later time. However, you can connect two regions that do not have the same products installed.

2.7.1 Benefits of connecting TMRs


Certain situations in a Tivoli environment can make the connection of two or more TMRs necessary or desirable. These situations include the following:

Decrease server load: The load on a single TMR server caused by network activity, memory demands, or the number of clients can be lessened by multiple TMRs. Localized system administration: Multiple TMRs enable local control with more independence at different operational sites. Enhance security: An additional TMR can be used to restrict local
administrators access to certain machines within the enterprise. Also, an additional TMR enables differing encryption levels within a Tivoli environment. With the super authorization role and the TMR password (if it exists), a Tivoli administrator can connect or disconnect two or more TMRs.

2.7.2 Connection types


There are two types of connection types.

One-way region connections


In a one-way connection, only one region has knowledge of the other, so information is passed from the managing system only. One-way connections are useful where a central site is responsible for administering several remote sites, but none of the remote sites need to manage resources at the central site or at other remote sites. Each remote site could also have its own local operator who might be responsible for managing day-to-day operations on local resources,

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while the connection from the central site is used for more global updates across the company, such as a new version of an application. Although one-way connections are feasible, two-way connections are recommended.

Two-way region connections


Each Tivoli region involved in a two-way connection is aware of the existence of the other. Information exchanges about system resources occur in both directions. Two-way connections are useful in a variety of situations, such as a very large local area network that is logically partitioned. By using two-way connections, the management load is spread across multiple Tivoli servers. In addition, two-way connections are needed to access and manage resources in other regions.

2.7.3 Name registry


Each region contains a name registry, which serves as a region-wide name service. It essentially maps resource names to resource identifiers and the corresponding information. The Tivoli name registry contains resource types, which contain instances of that resource type. For example, ProfileManager is a resource type, and the Admin profile manager is an instance of that resource type. When a lookup for a resource occurs, it looks for a resource instance by name and resource type (for example, it looks up the moria instance of the managed node resource type). Note: Information from remote TMRs must be updated regularly to maintain accurate data.

2.7.4 Case study: Hub-spoke architecture


The Tivoli physical topology is primarily determined by the underlying network topology and management system performance goals. In large network environments, we recommend deploying your Tivoli environment using a hub-spoke architecture. In a hub-spoke architecture, the Tivoli environment is segmented into several TMRs. Each TMR can be responsible for directly managing a different physical segment of the enterprise, serve a specific business unit, or be organized by security access levels. The central TMR that manages the other TMRs is called the hub, and the TMRs it manages are called spokes. Whether using a one-way or two-way connection between the hub and spoke TMRs, the hub TMR server forms the central administration point from which all

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managed functions are performed within a Tivoli environment. It is dedicated primarily to high-level management functions, such as creating administrator desktops and TEC consoles; creating, configuring, and distributing sentry profiles to spoke servers; and other hub-wide management activities. Spoke TMRs provide the direct control function for all endpoints in the Tivoli environment. Spoke regions can be used to group managed nodes by physical location in the network and to localize functions in order to improve network and system performance. Generally, spoke TMRs are not used as entry points for administrators. Tivoli Administrators can use either the hub TMR or any managed node strategically placed in the design as an entry point into the Tivoli Management Environment. Figure 2-19 illustrates the hub-spoke architecture.

HUB TMR

TEC TMR

SPOKE TMR + Gateway

SPOKE TMR + Gateway

Figure 2-19 Hub-spoke architecture

The TEC server can be configured either as a managed node contained within the hub TMR server or on a stand-alone TMR at the same management level as the hub TMR server.

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All managed systems (managed nodes, gateways, and endpoints) are spread out into the Tivoli environment beneath spoke TMRs, as determined by function, server load, or physical network location. Managed nodes are still required in this environment. For example, managed nodes can be used to support remote Tivoli Administrators desktops or to serve for profile staging. Endpoint gateways are installed throughout the Tivoli environment to host endpoints. In this TME hierarchy, all endpoint gateways are assigned to spoke TMRs only.

Considerations when deciding on the design of the hub-spoke


Now we review considerations when deciding on the design of the hub-spoke for TMR architecture.

TMR architecture
One of the most important factors for designing the hub-spoke TMR architecture is the scalability limitations of the Tivoli environment: Number of endpoints The number of endpoints managed by a single region has been increased to tens of thousands. It has been shown in production environments that 20,000 endpoints can be managed by a single region. For organizations requiring more than 20,000 endpoints to be managed, multiple regions are required. The limit of 20,000 endpoints represents a threshold beyond which special performance and tuning requirements might be needed. Therefore, use multiple connected regions. Number of managed nodes Generally, a single Tivoli server can support a maximum of 200 managed nodes. However, use endpoints instead of managed nodes in most cases. Endpoints are the preferred mechanism for managing your environment. The introduction of endpoints greatly reduces the number of managed nodes in a single region. A gateway installed on a managed node can perform all communication and operations with thousands of endpoints. Endpoints therefore have no direct communication with a Tivoli server. In addition, the ability to perform maintenance functions such as database checks are greatly inhibited by large numbers of managed nodes. If the network contains more than 200 managed nodes, create multiple regions and connect them.

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Note: For performance reasons, in a multi-TMR environment it is important to make sure that endpoints get connected to the designated TMR. The best was to ensure that is to configure the endpoints to log in to specific gateways and disable broadcasting.

Recommendations on creating policy regions in a hub-spoke


Now we review recommendations on creating policy regions in a hub-spoke for TMR architecture.

TMR architecture
It is a good practice to create policy regions based on a Tivoli application (IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager, IBM Tivoli Monitoring, and so on) only on the hub TMR server. The subscriber policy regions then reside on the spoke TMR servers. The subscribed policy regions contain the profile managers used for distributing to endpoints. Organizing your policy regions in this manner enables the hub server to be the central point of operations for each application and associated functions. This also avoids subscribing endpoints across TMR boundaries. If an endpoint is subscribed across TMR boundaries, a new object is created in the object database and the wchkdb command must track the object directly, causing unnecessary transactions across TMR boundaries and server load. Instead, if endpoints stay subscribed to their local TMR, the hub and spoke TMRs only need to exchange resources, causing only an entry in the Tivoli Name Registry (TNR) on the hub TMR. See Figure 2-20 on page 47 for more details.

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.
Hub TMR

DM_Appl.HUB.PR

Spoke TMR
WinNT_DM_Appl.HUB_PR Win98_DM_Appl.HUB_PR Subscribers_Spoke.PR

Subscribers_WinNT_Spoke.PR

Subscribers_Win98_Spoke.PR

Subscribers_WinNT_Spoke_PM

Figure 2-20 Subscription example in a hub-spoke model

2.8 Endpoint login sequence


An endpoint performs four types of logins: Initial, normal, isolated, and orphan. First the initial login is performed, and then the normal login is performed. For a normal login sequence, the endpoint logs into its assigned gateway and the gateway acknowledges it. The initial login process is more complex. This process establishes the endpoint as an active member of its Tivoli region by assigning it to a gateway. An endpoint is isolated when it cannot contact its assigned gateway. When that occurs, it initiates an isolated login. In certain cases, an endpoint can become orphaned when the endpoint manager no longer has an entry in its database for the endpoint. If the endpoint is unable to contact its assigned gateway, additional gateways are provided through a list of login interfaces or gateway addresses. This list is

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compiled by the endpoint manager, defined in the select_gateway_policy script, or configured with lcfd command options. Note: Depending on how your environment supports network address translation (NAT), you might need to define the host names for gateways in the select_gateway_policy script. The gateways defined through select_gateway_policy or the lcfd command can be host names instead of object identifiers (OIDs). To facilitate the login process and endpoint communication, configure login parameters during endpoint creation or with the lcfd command after installation. For more information about the lcfd command and the select_gateway_policy script, refer to Tivoli Management Framework Reference Manual, Version 4.1.1, SC32-0806.

Figure 2-21 Endpoint login sequence

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2.8.1 Initial login without a select_gateway_policy script


The following are the phases of the initial login process of an endpoint: The endpoint establishes communication with a Tivoli region. The endpoint manager selects a gateway to which the endpoint is assigned. The endpoint receives its gateway assignment and performs a normal login to the assigned gateway. The first step in the initial login process for an endpoint is finding a gateway in the Tivoli region. The endpoint cannot be managed until it becomes associated with a gateway. The endpoint starts by sending an initial login packet to a gateway, which acts as an intercepting gateway. An intercepting gateway handles communication and login for the endpoint until it has an identity and is assigned to a gateway. If no configuration options are set, either during installation or during the startup of the lcfd service, the endpoint broadcasts for a gateway. Because of network load, do not use broadcast as a means for endpoint login. Instead, use lcfd D bcast_disable=1 to disable broadcast and use lcfd D lcs.login_interfaces=address to specify a gateway. Note: If your environment supports NAT devices that share IP address assignments through dynamic timeslicing, ensure that the IP address assignment time-out value is greater than the login_timeout and udp_interval settings on the endpoint. To summarize the initial login, the following are general parameters and default time outs: 1. The endpoint uses a set of gateway addresses configured during installation to establish a gateway to receive the endpoint login request. These gateway addresses are specified by the lcs.login_interfaces option. By default, the endpoint attempts to contact each of the gateways three times with 5 minutes between each attempt. The attempts are specified by the login_attempts option. The time between each attempt is specified by the login_timeout option. If the endpoint is successful in contacting one of the alternate gateways, endpoint policy scripts run. 2. If login fails to all the addresses in the lcs.login_interfaces list, the endpoint broadcasts a request to log in (if broadcast is enabled). 3. If no gateways in the lcs.login_interfaces list respond or the broadcast login request fails, the endpoint waits 30 minutes (the login_interval default of the lcfd command) before beginning the login process again with step 1.

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4. If the login is successful, the endpoint receives its identity in the Tivoli region from the intercepting gateway along with the name of its assigned gateway. 5. When logged in, the endpoint performs a normal login to its assigned gateway.

2.8.2 Initial login with a select_gateway_policy script


Defining the select_gateway_policy script provides the endpoint manager with an ordered list of gateways. The endpoint manager attempts to contact each listed gateway until it makes a valid connection. The first gateway to respond receives the endpoint assignment. The endpoint manager assigns a gateway and adds the endpoint information and gateway assignment to its endpoint list. The endpoint manager establishes a unique identity for the endpoint. The endpoint information is sent back to the intercepting gateway. The intercepting gateway relays the assignment information to the endpoint. The endpoint performs a normal login to its assigned gateway. 1. The endpoint login request is intercepted by a gateway. 2. The gateway forwards the login request to the endpoint manager. 3. The endpoint manager refers to the select_gateway_policy script and attempts to contact to gateways, for example, first gateway A and then gateway B. If connection with gateway A fails and contact with gateway B is successful, then gateway B becomes the assigned gateway for the endpoint. Gateway A and gateway B are added to the lcs.login_interfaces list. 4. The endpoint manager returns the login assignment information to the intercepting gateway. The intercepting gateway then relays the information to the endpoint. 5. The endpoint logs into its assigned gateway. An interconnected Tivoli region was created to redirect endpoint initial logins to their endpoint manager on the Tivoli server in the local Tivoli region. This scenario can be common in large, multi-site enterprises where thousands of endpoints are logging in to multiple regions. A Tivoli region dedicated to redirecting endpoint logins can ensure that endpoints log into gateways in their local region. Tivoli server A is the redirecting Tivoli region and has the select_gateway_policy script defined. Gateway A is local to Tivoli server B and is listed in the select_gateway_policy script. Note: Endpoints must be managed in their local Tivoli region.

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2.8.3 Normal login


After an endpoint is established as a member of its Tivoli region through the initial login process, subsequent or normal logins occur. During a normal login, communication takes place between the endpoint and gateway only. The endpoint sends a login packet directly to its assigned gateway stored in the lcf.dat file. Because the gateway has the endpoint in its endpoint list, communication is established immediately without contacting the Tivoli server or the endpoint manager. The endpoint then performs the following operations: Writes current configuration information to the last.cfg file. This file is overwritten each time the configuration changes. Stores connection information in the encrypted lcf.dat file. Listens for method calls. The endpoint is now fully managed by Tivoli Management Framework. The steps are: 1. The endpoint logs into the assigned gateway. The endpoint is immediately established as a communicating member of the Tivoli network. 2. The endpoint manager is not contacted. To summarize the normal login, the following are the general parameters and default time outs: 1. Using the gateway list, which is given to the gateway by the endpoint manager, the endpoint attempts to contact its assigned gateway. If this fails, the endpoint attempts to contact any aliases of the assigned gateway. The attempts are specified by the login_attempts option. The time between each attempt is specified by the login_timeout option. 2. When the endpoint cannot contact its assigned gateway or aliases, the endpoint enters isolation mode and uses a set of gateway addresses (configured during installation) to contact a gateway to receive the endpoint login request: These gateway addresses are specified by the lcs.login_interfaces option. By default, the endpoint attempts to contact each of the gateways three times, with 5 minutes between each attempt. The attempts are specified by the login_attempts option. The time between each attempt is specified by the login_timeout option. If the endpoint is successful in contacting one of the alternate gateways, endpoint policy scripts run.

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3. If login fails for all the addresses in the lcs.login_interfaces list, the endpoint broadcasts a request to log in (if broadcast is enabled). 4. If no gateways in the lcs.login_interfaces list respond or the broadcast login request fails, the endpoint waits 30 minutes (the login_interval default of the lcfd command) before beginning the login process again with step 1.

2.8.4 Isolated login


When an endpoint cannot contact its assigned gateway, the endpoint is considered isolated. The following are some examples of how an endpoint can become isolated: The gateway is down. There are problems with network connectivity to the gateway. For the endpoint to be assigned quickly to a new gateway, each endpoint receives a list of alternate gateways when it receives its initial gateway assignment information. The list of alternate gateways can be defined in and provided by the select_gateway_policy script. If the select_gateway_policy script is not defined, the endpoint manager sends a list of up to five gateway addresses to try. If the endpoint loses contact with its assigned gateway, the endpoint goes through a list of alternate gateways (and associated aliases) in its attempts to log in. If the endpoint fails to log into any of the alternate gateways, the endpoint sends another isolated login packet. The login process is similar to the initial login process described in 2.8.1, Initial login without a select_gateway_policy script on page 49, in that the gateway selection process is triggered. Also, the lcs.login_interfaces list is replaced with a new list of gateways, instead of appended with new gateways (as in the initial login). To summarize the isolated login, the following are the general parameters and default time outs: 1. When the endpoint cannot reach its assigned gateway, the endpoint uses a set of gateway addresses configured during installation to contact a gateway to receive the endpoint login request. These gateway addresses are specified by the lcs.login_interfaces option. By default, the endpoint attempts to contact each of the gateways three times, with 5 minutes between each attempt. The attempts are specified by the login_attempts option. The time between each attempt is specified by the login_timeout option. If the endpoint is successful in contacting one of the alternate gateways, endpoint policy scripts run.

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2. If login fails for all the addresses in the lcs.login_interfaces list, the endpoint broadcasts a request to log in (if broadcast is enabled). 3. If no gateways in the lcs.login_interfaces list respond or the broadcast login request fails, the endpoint waits 30 minutes (the login_interval default of the lcfd command) before attempting to contact its assigned gateway again.

2.8.5 Orphan login


An endpoint is an orphan when the endpoint considers itself a member of a Tivoli region; however, the endpoint manager and Tivoli name registry do not recognize that the endpoint ever logged in. Thus, you will not be able to perform any actions on those endpoints, such as software distributions or inventory scans, until it rejoins the Tivoli region. Endpoints can become orphaned in the following cases: When restoring the endpoint manager database where endpoints have joined the region since the last backup was made By unintentionally deleting an endpoint from the endpoint manager database using the wdelep command The first case occurs when you have to restore the Tivoli server from a backup. In most cases, backups are done on a regularly scheduled basis. After one of these backups, it is likely that new endpoints will log into the region for the first time. These new endpoints, therefore, are recorded in the endpoint manager, but do not appear in the backup until the next scheduled backup occurs. When the database is restored from the backup, the new endpoints are no longer represented in the endpoint manager. The endpoints, however, still have the endpoint service running. The second case occurs when the wdelep command is run inadvertently, and the endpoint service is not stopped and removed from the endpoint. Because the endpoint service runs independently from the endpoint manager, the endpoint does not know that the endpoint manager no longer knows about the endpoint. Thus, the endpoint still considers itself part of the region. Until the endpoint attempts an action that affects the endpoint manager, such as an upcall, the endpoint will not know it is an orphan. If the endpoint attempts to log into its assigned gateway, it fails and enters isolation mode. You can also use allow_install_policy and select_gateway_policy scripts to control how orphan endpoints are added back to the endpoint manager database. For security of individual regions, the endpoint cannot be redirected to another Tivoli region from its original one during the orphan login. Also, the lcs.login_interfaces list is replaced with a new list of gateways (as in the isolated login), instead of appended with new gateways (as in the initial login). To

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summarize the orphan login, the following are the general parameters and default time outs: 1. When the endpoint cannot reach its assigned gateway, the endpoint uses a set of gateway addresses configured during installation to contact a gateway to receive the endpoint login request: These gateway addresses are specified by the lcs.login_interfaces option. By default, the endpoint attempts to contact each of the gateways three times, with 5 minutes between each attempt. The attempts are specified by the login_attempts option. The time between each attempt is specified by the login_timeout option. If the endpoint is successful in contacting one of the alternate gateways, endpoint policy scripts run including any orphan endpoint parameters you have specified. 2. If login fails for all the addresses in the lcs.login_interfaces list, the endpoint broadcasts a request to log in (if broadcast is enabled). 3. If no gateways in the lcs.login_interfaces list respond or the broadcast login request fails, the endpoint waits 30 minutes (the login_interval default of the lcfd command) before attempting to contact its assigned gateway again.

2.8.6 Implementing policy scripts


The endpoint manager and gateway include the ability to use policy scripts to perform certain actions at various stages of the endpoint login process. Endpoint policy differs from default and validation policy in that policy objects are not associated with the endpoint scripts. The run time of these policy scripts affects the number and efficiency of logins that the gateway and the endpoint manager can process at one time. For an environment with a large number of endpoints, limit the number of commands that are placed in the policy scripts, because commands might require long periods of time and large amounts of processing resources to run. In certain cases, the endpoint can become isolated after waiting too long for the gateway to respond, which can impact endpoint manager performance. For example, you have 1,000 endpoints logging into a gateway at approximately 9:00 a.m. Because the run time of the policy scripts takes longer to complete for each login, additional logins have to wait for the preceding logins to complete. When the preceding logins complete, the gateway and the endpoint manager are available to process additional login requests. If you need to run Tivoli commands in this context, use endpoint policy scripts to trigger tasks after login.

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allow_install_policy policy script


This policy script controls which endpoints are allowed to log into the Tivoli region. For example, you might not want endpoints from subnet 26 on this Tivoli region. The default behavior of this policy allows endpoints to log in unconditionally. You can also use this policy to perform any pre-login actions you might need. For example, this policy can help filter duplicate logins to the endpoint manager when the endpoint manager is overloaded with activity or policy scripts are taking a long time to run. The allow_install_policy script is run by the endpoint manager as soon as it receives an endpoint initial login packet from an intercepting gateway. If the policy script exits with a nonzero value, the login process is terminated immediately. If the policy exits with a zero value, the login process continues.

select_gateway_policy policy script


This policy script, run by the endpoint manager, provides an ordered list of gateways that should be assigned to an endpoint. The select_gateway_policy script is run each time an endpoint login packet is forwarded to the endpoint manager. The select_gateway_policy script overrides the default selection process and should be used for a Tivoli environment with multiple gateways. If an endpoint is isolated, the endpoint uses the list of alternate gateways, which were provided by this policy script. This list is sent to the endpoint with the initial login assignment information and after a migration or normal login. The endpoint manager tries to contact each gateway in the order listed in the policy script until it successfully contacts a gateway. The first gateway contacted is the gateway to which the endpoint is assigned. The intercepting gateway is also added to the end of the list in the policy script to ensure that the endpoint has at least one definite contact. If the gateways listed in the script cannot be contacted, the endpoint manager assigns the intercepting gateway to the endpoint.

after_install_policy policy script


This policy script is run by the endpoint manager after the endpoint has successfully been created. Because the script runs before the first normal login of an endpoint, you cannot use it to run downcalls. The policy is run after the initial login only; it is not run on subsequent logins of an endpoint.

login_policy policy script


This policy script is run by the gateway and performs any action you need each time an endpoint logs in. For example, this script can be configured to automatically upgrade the endpoint software. The script is also useful for

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checking changes to IP addresses and port numbers. When the gateway detects changes, it notifies the endpoint manager. When the policy script exits with a nonzero value, the endpoint login will not fail. Note: The same login_policy policy script is run on all the gateways in a Tivoli region.

2.9 Firewall Security Toolbox


Tivoli Enterprise Firewall Security Toolbox provides a solution for managing the Tivoli network across firewalls without compromising security. You will find some information about how to install and configure this feature of Tivoli Management Framework.

2.9.1 Tivoli environment with a firewall


A simple Tivoli environment consists of the Tivoli server, a gateway, and endpoints. The endpoints communicate with the Tivoli server through the gateway and the gateway communicates with the Tivoli server. On one side of the firewall, Firewall Security Toolbox provides an endpoint proxy that connects to the gateway as if it were the endpoints. On the other side of the firewall, the endpoints are connected to a gateway proxy, as if it were the gateway. The gateway proxy and endpoint proxy communicate with each other through the firewall. Figure 2-22 on page 57 shows a simple configuration with one gateway proxy and one endpoint proxy.

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Figure 2-22 A Tivoli environment with a single firewall

Just as multiple endpoints can connect to a single gateway and multiple gateways to a single Tivoli server, multiple endpoints can connect to a single gateway proxy and multiple gateway proxies can connect to a single endpoint proxy. The endpoint proxy emulates all the endpoints to the gateway that manages them. The communications between these Tivoli components is based on a Tivoli proprietary protocol over TCP/IP.

2.9.2 Tivoli environment with demilitarized zones


When a network includes several firewalls that separate demilitarized zones (DMZs) of progressively lower security as they approach the Internet, the configuration becomes more complex. Although the gateway proxy and endpoint proxy continue to communicate with the endpoint and the gateway, respectively, they no longer communicate directly across the multiple firewalls, because this would defeat the purpose of having multiple firewalls in place.

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Instead, Firewall Security Toolbox provides relays, which are installed between the firewalls in DMZs. These relays pass on information to each other from one DMZ to another and, finally, to or from the endpoint proxy and gateway proxy. Figure 2-23 shows an example of this configuration.

Figure 2-23 A Tivoli environment with DMZ

2.9.3 Sending events across firewalls


TME adapters use endpoints to send events to the Tivoli Enterprise Console server through Tivoli connections. When a firewall separates the endpoint from the Tivoli Enterprise Console server, the machines connect through the gateway and endpoint proxies. Machines that are not part of the Tivoli environment use non-TME adapters to send events to the Tivoli Enterprise Console server through non-Tivoli connections. When a firewall separates the non-TME adapter machine from the Tivoli Enterprise Console server, Firewall Security Toolbox provides the event sink, which sends the events to the Tivoli Enterprise Console gateway. The event sink, which is installed on an endpoint outside the firewall, collects events sent from non-TME adapters as if it were a Tivoli Enterprise Console server and sends them to the Tivoli Enterprise Console server as though they were TME events. The event sink can collect events from multiple non-TME adapters.

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2.10 Installing Firewall Security Toolbox


You need to do the following to get started: Ensure that the components of Firewall Security Toolbox that will communicate with each other directly have IP visibility of each other. Depending on your configuration, these components can be the endpoint proxy and gateway proxy, a proxy and a relay, or two relays. You can use DNS if you have DNS configured. However, there is no requirement to use DNS host names. The TCP/IP address works as well. TCP/IP connectivity is required. If you use the DNS name of the machine, ensure that the DNS name of the destination machine is resolved into its IP address. Before installing the software, ensure that you have the following information: The port number of the gateway that the endpoint proxy will use to communicate. The host name or IP address of all the components that you are installing. Decide on some additional ports that the components will use to communicate with each other: The endpoint proxy requires a range of ports used to emulate the endpoints logged in through Firewall Security Toolbox. Gateway proxies require one port to receive traffic from the endpoint proxy or relay and another port to listen for traffic from the endpoints. Relays require ports to receive traffic from the components with which they connect, one for the parent and one for the children. Use the following criteria to choose the port number: The port must not be used by other applications. The user account that you specify must have the privileges to use the port.

2.10.1 Installing on UNIX operating systems


The following sections describe the steps for installing the components on UNIX operating systems. These operations need to be run as root user.

Installing a UNIX endpoint proxy


To install the endpoint proxy, follow these steps: 1. From the \EndpointProxy directory, go to the directory for the platform on which the proxy will run. 2. Run the ./install.sh script.

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3. Gateway port [default=9494]: Specify the TCP/IP port number of the gateway on which it will listen for communication from the endpoint proxy as if it were the endpoint. This is normally port 9494. Do not change this value unless the gateway is known to be using a different listening port with the endpoint. 4. Endpoint proxy port: Specify the port number of the endpoint proxy machine from which it listens for connections with the relay or gateway proxy.

Installing a UNIX gateway proxy


To install the gateway proxy, follow these steps: 1. From the \GatewayProxy directory, go to the directory for the platform on which the proxy will run. 2. Run the ./install.sh script. 3. Port to listen on for TMA traffic [default=9494]: Enter the port number on the gateway proxy that represents the gateway to the endpoints. The default is 9494. 4. Gateway proxy port: Specify the port number that the gateway proxy uses to listen for connections from the relay or endpoint proxy.

Installing a UNIX relay


To install the relay, follow these steps: 1. From the \Relay directory, go to the directory for the platform on which the relay will run. 2. Run the ./install.sh script.

Installing a UNIX event sink


To install the event sink, follow these steps: 1. From the \EventSink directory, go to the directory for the platform on which the proxy will run. 2. Run the ./install.sh script. 3. Listening Port [default=9444]: Enter the port number on the endpoint where the event sink will receive events.

2.10.2 Installing on Windows operating systems


Firewall Security Toolbox provides a self-extracting EXE file to install each component on Windows operating systems.

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Installing a Windows endpoint proxy


To install the endpoint proxy, do the following: 1. From the directory that contains the Tivoli Endpoint Proxy\w32-ix86\ subdirectory, double-click the Tivoli Endpoint Proxy.exe file. The Tivoli Endpoint Proxy InstallShield Wizard starts. 2. Gateway port: Enter the TCP/IP port number of the gateway on which it will listen for communication from the endpoint proxy as if it were the endpoint. The default is 9494 and should not be changed unless the gateway is known to be using a different listening port with the endpoint.

Installing a Windows gateway proxy


The gateway proxy needs to be installed on a host that is in the DMZ where the endpoints will be located. To install the gateway proxy, do the following: 1. From the directory that contains the gateway Proxy\w32-ix86\ subdirectory, double-click the Tivoli Gateway Proxy.exe file. The Tivoli Gateway Proxy InstallShield Wizard starts. 2. Gateway port: Enter the port number on the gateway proxy that represents the gateway to the endpoints. The default is 9494.

Installing a Windows relay


You can install multiple instances of a relay on a single machine. To install the first relay, do the following: From the directory that contains the Tivoli Relay installation images, double-click the Tivoli Relay.exe file. The Tivoli Relay InstallShield Wizard starts

Installing a Windows event sink


You must install the event sink on a endpoint. To install the event sink, do the following: 1. From the directory that contains the Event Sink\w32-ix86\ subdirectory, double-click the Tivoli EventSink.exe file. The Tivoli Event Sink InstallShield Wizard starts. 2. Enter the port number on the endpoint where the event sink will receive events. The default is 9444.

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Chapter 3.

Tivoli Configuration Manager fundamentals and installation


This chapter provides an overview of IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager 4.2.2 and the installation steps. Although it is still possible to install most of the IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager components with classical Desktop Installation methods or Software Installation Services (SIS), IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager is shipped with a new installation mechanism called Integrated Install, which simplifies the installation of IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager components a lot. The following topics will be covered: IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager fundamentals on page 65 Creating a deployment plan for Tivoli Configuration Manager on page 74 How to deploy Tivoli Configuration Manager components on page 75l Required roles for installation on page 78l RDBMS considerations on page 78 RIM considerations on page 81 General pre-install checks, hints, and tips on page 83 Installation methods on page 85 Overview of Integrated Install on page 85

Copyright IBM Corp. 2005. All rights reserved.

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Server Install on page 86 Desktop Install on page 89 Web Gateway Install on page 90 Uninstallation of IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager on page 92

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3.1 IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager fundamentals


IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager controls software distribution and asset management inventory in a multi-platform environment. It is designed for configuration, distribution, change, version, and asset management in a distributed computing environment. Working on top of Tivoli Management Framework, Tivoli Configuration Manager provides an integrated solution for managing complex distributed enterprise environments. Using Tivoli Configuration Manager, you can: Scan hardware and software to determine which enterprise assets are part of your inventory. Reduce the time and effort in installing and configuring your network population by centralizing and automating the distribution of software across your enterprise. Automate and schedule network operations. Monitor system and configuration changes. Manage the desired state of all elements of your network. Manage your enterprise environment across firewalls. Extend the scope of your managed network to include pervasive devices, such as personal digital assistants (PDAs).

3.1.1 Tivoli Configuration Manager components and services


Tivoli Configuration Manager is an integrated software distribution and asset management suite that comprises two main components, Software Distribution and Inventory, and various services.

Software Distribution
Using the Software Distribution component, you can install, configure, and update software remotely within your network, eliminating the need to update software manually on numerous systems. You can: Distribute client/server applications, applications for desktops, laptops, and pervasive devices across multi-platform networks. Update existing software with newer versions. Synchronize software on distributed systems. The Software Distribution component is discussed in detail in 4.2, Software Distribution component on page 130.

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Inventory
Using the Inventory component, you can gather and maintain up-to-date inventory information in a distributed environment quickly, accurately, and easily. This helps system administrators and accounting personnel manage complex, distributed enterprises. Administrators and accounting personnel can perform the following tasks: Manage all enterprise systems centrally. Determine the installed software base. Confirm a software distribution. Supplement and replace physical inventory function. Assist in procurement planning. Check software requirements. Control assets. For example, you can combine inventory and software distribution operations to determine if any critical files are missing, then re-establish the proper configuration. After creating and deploying management-ready applications, you can continually maintain the desired state of your systems by synchronizing applications and system configurations on an enterprise scale. The Inventory component is discussed in detail in 4.1, Inventory component on page 94.

Activity Planner
Activity Planner is a deployment service that enables you to: Define a group of activities to be submitted as an activity plan. Submit or schedule the plan for running. Monitor the plan while it runs. Activities are tasks that can be scheduled to be performed on a set of targets at specified times. Operations can include software distribution, inventory operations, and Tivoli tasks. Activities contained in a plan can have dependencies associated with them that define circumstances under which the activity should be run. The running of the operation defined in the activity is performed by the application to which the operation belongs. The group of activities forms the activity plan. Activity Planner is made up of two components, the Activity Plan Editor and the Activity Plan Monitor.

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Activity Plan Editor


You can use the Activity Plan Editor to: Manage a group of activities, originating from different applications, as a single activity from a single machine in the network. Schedule the activity plan to run on a specific day and time, to repeat at specific time intervals, or repeat indefinitely. Schedule activities to run at specific time intervals during the week. Set conditions on activities so that the execution of one activity is dependent on the completion result of other activities. Save activity plans in a database to resubmit them at any future time. Figure 3-1 shows the Activity Plan Editor.

Figure 3-1 Activity Plan Editor

Activity Plan Monitor


You can use the Activity Plan Monitor to: Submit activity plans to be run.

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View all submitted activity plans along with their status, start time, and completion time. View the list of activities contained in the plan. View a graphical representation of the plan in the Activity Plan Editor window. For each activity, view the targets (gateways, depots) assigned to it. Perform operations such as pause, cancel, and resume. Restart an activity on an endpoint where the operation was unsuccessful. Delete the status information of a plan from the activity plan database. Launch the Distribution Status Console to monitor and control software distributions submitted using the Activity Planner. Figure 3-2 shows the Activity Plan Monitor.

Figure 3-2 Activity Plan Monitor

The Activity Planner component is discussed in detail in 5.1, Activity Planner on page 156.

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Change Manager
Change Manager (previously called Change Configuration Manager) is a deployment service that, together with Activity Planner, supports software distribution, inventory, and change management in a large network. Activity Planner is a prerequisite of Change Manager. Change Manager works with the Activity Plan Monitor to manage specified groups of users, workstations, or devices as single subscribers. Subscribers can be users, groups of users, endpoints, a profile manager, the results of a query, or pervasive devices. Change Manager uses reference models, which contain an association of configuration elements and subscribers, to simplify the management of your network environment. Figure 3-3 shows the Change Manager.

Figure 3-3 Change Manager

The Change Manager component is discussed in detail in 5.2, Change Manager on page 168.

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Web Gateway
The Web Gateway component supports the Resource Manager deployment service and the Web Interface (Web UI) deployment service. The Resource Manager deployment service extends the traditional three-tier Tivoli environment to a forth tier, thus providing software distribution, inventory, and management of pervasive devices such as the Palm Pilot, Pocket PC, and Nokia Communicator. (See Resource Manager on page 70.) The Web Interface (Web UI) enables software distribution and inventory to be initiated by users. By using the Web Interface, users can access a Web site and install software on their own machine, or generate an inventory scan by themselves. (See Web Interface on page 71). The Web Gateway component is comprised of two elements: Web Gateway Database Web Gateway Server code These elements are installed on an endpoint machine in the Tivoli environment. The Web Gateway utilizes WebSphere technology, and provides improved security by leveraging Access Manager for authentication and the HTTPS protocol for secure communications.

Resource Manager
A Tivoli management region is a three-tier architecture, including servers, gateways, and endpoints, that is created using Tivoli Management Framework. By using the Resource Manager deployment service, you can extend the Tivoli region to a fourth tier, pervasive devices, such as PDAs. Resource Manager is made up of two sub-components: The Resource Manager, which is installed on a Tivoli server; and the Resource Manager Gateway, which is installed on a gateway that connects to an endpoint on which the Web Gateway component has been installed. You can use Resource Manager, together with the Software Distribution, Inventory, and Web Gateway components, to perform the following operations: Add or remove pervasive devices. Provide access to devices for software distribution. Provide access to devices for inventory operations. Customize devices.

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Web Interface
The Web Interface deployment service is a browser-based tool that enables remote management operations to be initiated by users on machines that do not have the Tivoli Management Agent installed. The Web Interface is shown in Figure 3-4.

Figure 3-4 Web Interface

Enterprise Directory Query Facility


The Enterprise Directory Query Facility is a deployment service that allows an administrator to use information stored in enterprise directories inside a Tivoli environment. The administrator can select a specific directory object, or container of directory objects, as subscribers for a reference model or an activity plan. The subscribers can then be targets for software distribution or inventory scans. The Enterprise Directory Query Facility enables you to access the information contained in an enterprise directory server. The Enterprise Directory Query Facility consists of directory query libraries and directory queries. Directory query libraries reside in policy regions and are created to contain directory queries. Directory queries enable you to find

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information about the users or the workstations defined in the enterprise directory server. The following LDAP products are supported by the Enterprise Directory Query Facility: IBM SecureWay Directory Server Active Directory for Windows 2000 Novell Directory Server for NetWare The Enterprise Directory Query Facility is shown in Figure 3-5.

New type of subscriber: Directory User

Active Directory
Figure 3-5 Enterprise Directory Query Facility

LDAP

The Enterprise Directory Query Facility is discussed in detail in 5.3, Enterprise Directory integration on page 176.

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Data Moving
Data Moving is a Tivoli Configuration Manager component used to send/retrieve/delete data from endpoint to endpoint or managed node without creating a software package. Data Moving is discussed in detail in 4.3, Data Moving on page 151.

Pristine Manager
Pristine Manager is a component of Tivoli Configuration Manager, available with Version 4.2.1. Pristine Manager enables Tivoli Configuration Manager to manage machines that have no operating systems installed (bare-metal machines). It does not perform the real pristine setup; it leverages third-party products. Figure 3-6 on page 74 shows the relationship between the server, gateway, endpoint, and pristine machines. The sequence of operations is: 1. From the AMP/CCM console, define the server and machine databases and create the operating system elements. 2. Create and synchronize the reference model to create the activity plan. The reference model and activity plan are created with information stored on the RDBMS server. The plan that is generated must be run from the Activity Plan Monitor. The activity plan contains the pristine activity. 3. The Tivoli server distributes the pristine activity to the RIS/ADS server on the endpoint for each Pristine machine. 4. When a Pristine machine boots, the RIS/ADS server installs the operating system and a Tivoli management agent on that machine. 5. When the operating system and the Tivoli management agent have been installed on the Pristine machine, the Pristine machine logs on to the Tivoli gateway to notify the Tivoli server that the Pristine Manager has completed the configuration of the Pristine machine.

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Figure 3-6 Pristine Manager

Pristine Manager is discussed in detail in 5.5, Pristine Manager on page 188.

3.2 Creating a deployment plan for Tivoli Configuration Manager


Creating a deployment plan is essential to creating and installing a configuration management environment. The basic considerations for creating a deployment plan for a Tivoli environment are provided in Tivoli Management Framework Planning for Deployment. At a minimum, you need to gather the following information before installing any software: Base hardware and software requirements for Tivoli Management Framework and IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager. This information is provided in Tivoli Management Framework Release Notes, GI11-0890, and IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager Release Notes, GI11-0926. Whether the computer systems in your distributed network can support this new software, whether these systems can be upgraded to meet your business needs, or whether new systems need to be obtained.

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Which IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager components to install on which computer systems in your distributed network to support your business needs and whether they have additional third-party software requirements. This information is provided in IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager Release Notes, GI11-0926, and Introducing IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager, GC23-4703. For each system where you plan to install components of IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager, you should also provide the following information: Host name Operating system Available memory and available disk space Which components of IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager to install

3.3 How to deploy Tivoli Configuration Manager components


There are many software components that are included in Configuration Manager. When you plan your deployment, you will decide which components you will need, and where each component will be used in your Tivoli environment.

3.3.1 Distributed Configuration Manager components


Certain Configuration Manager components will be installed on either the Tivoli server or managed node; some will be installed on both. Specific components will be installed on gateway systems, while other components will require installation on endpoints. Of course, since the same system can be a Tivoli server, managed node, gateway, and endpoint, all of the components may be installed on the Tivoli server, with other selected components being installed on various managed nodes and endpoints throughout your Tivoli environment.

3.3.2 TMR server configuration


In fact, some components must be installed on the TMR server, even if you are not planning on using these components on this system. The IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager Planning and Installation guide enumerates the components that must be installed on the TMR server before any other Configuration Manager components can be installed on other systems in the Tivoli environment.

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Here are the Configuration Manager components that must be installed on the TMR server before deploying other components in your Tivoli environment. (Of course, if you are not going to use the component in your Tivoli environment, you do not need to install it on your TMR server.) Scalable Collection Service * (patch) Inventory Software Distribution Activity Planner Change Manager Pristine Manager Enterprise Directory Query Facility Resource Manager Web Infrastructure Note: You must install the Scalable Collection Service patch before you install the Inventory component. This patch is not required for the other components.

3.3.3 Components for managed nodes


Here are the Configuration Manager components that can be installed on managed nodes. Install these components on managed nodes if you plan on running an administrative interface and/or CLI commands from the managed node (and in the case of Software Distribution, on managed nodes that will be acting as source hosts): Scalable Collection Service *(patch) Inventory Software Distribution Activity Planner Change Manager Note: You must install the Scalable Collection Service patch before you install the Inventory component. This patch is not required for the other components

3.3.4 Components for gateways


There are additional Configuration Manager components that must be installed on Tivoli gateways if they are to participate in inventory scans or software distributions. Install the Scalable Collection Service patch on each gateway that: Connects to endpoints to be scanned by the Inventory component

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Is a repeater that will act as a collector Is a gateway that connects to the Web Gateway components Install the Inventory Gateway component on each gateway that will: Distribute Inventory profiles to endpoints. Recognize Inventory methods and download these methods to endpoints. Run methods to perform requested Inventory actions. Install the Software Distribution Gateway on each gateway that will: Recognize Software Distribution methods and download these methods to endpoints. Run methods to perform the requested Software Distribution operation. Install the Pristine Manager Gateway component on each gateway that: Pristine machine will attach to The Remote Installation Service or Automatic Deployment Services endpoints are attached to

3.3.5 Components for endpoints


These Configuration Manager components must be installed on endpoints: Tivoli Desktop for Windows This includes interfaces for Activity Planner, Change Manager, Inventory, and Software Distribution. Note: You must install the Tivoli Desktop for Windows from the Configuration Manager media (not the Framework media) in order to install the additional software for the Configuration Manager component interfaces. Or, if you have already installed Desktop for Windows from the Framework CD, you can add the Configuration Manager components by running the Desktop for Windows setup program from the Configuration Manager CD, and choosing a customized installation. Software Package Editor Software Distribution Pristine Tool (Windows and OS/2 only) Web Gateway (Despite its name, this will not be installed on a Tivoli gateway) Web Interface (including Inventory and Software Distribution plug-ins)

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3.4 Required roles for installation


The following table lists the required roles for installing Tivoli Configuration Manager.
Table 3-1 Required roles for installing Tivoli Configuration Manager Name of the operation Install the installation images directly from the CD images, using the InstallShield wizard. Install from the Tivoli desktop or command line. Install using Tivoli Software Installation Service. Required role For UNIX and Linux: Root access For Windows: A member of the Administrators group install_product or super Tivoli Framework roles in a Tivoli region User role plus one of the following Tivoli administrator roles in a Tivoli region: super, senior, or install_product

3.5 RDBMS considerations


Tivoli Configuration Manager stores data in an external Relational Database Management System (RDBMS). The RDBMS server can be part of your Tivoli environment, but that is not necessary as long as: There is TCP/IP connectivity between the RDBMS server and at least one managed node system in the Tivoli environment. The system or systems in the Tivoli environment that will communicate with the RDBMS system have client software for the RDBMS system installed and configured to connect to the RDBMS system. During the installation of Tivoli Configuration Manager, you can choose to create five separate databases, or you can decide to create one database cm_db, which will contain tables for each of the Configuration Manager components (Figure 3-7 on page 79).

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Component
Activity Planner Change Manager Distribution Status Inventory Pristine Manager Resource Manager

Database planner (or cm_db) ccm_db (or cm_db) mdist2 (or cm_db) Invtiv (or cm_db) pristine (or cm_db) Invtiv (or cm_db)

Figure 3-7 Databases created by the installation program

These databases, known as repositories, are created in the RDBMS by running SQL admin scripts. Tivoli provides sample SQL scripts in the FRESH/SQL/admin directory of the Configuration Manager installation CD. These scripts will create the various databases required by Configuration Manager. The scripts may not fit your production environment as-is; make sure to review these scripts, and edit them to meet your database requirements. The values used in the SQL admin scripts are default values. The values can be changed by editing the SQL admin script files. If you are using the integrated server installation program, you can choose to have the installation program create the configuration repository; in this case, you do not need to explicitly run these SQL scripts. Depending upon the RDBMS product, you may need to do some additional setup outside of these scripts, such as create/catalog the database, or create operating system accounts that the RDBMS will use. This is true whether you run the admin scripts manually, or create the configuration repository using the integrated server installation program. Check the contents of the SQL admin scripts to determine what steps must be done before creating the repository. The following example shows the cm_db2_admin.sql script, which is used if you opt for one database creation (cm_db). Note the PRECONDITION statements. Also note that table spaces are created by the script.
Example 3-1 db2 admin script -- cm_db2_admin.sql --

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-- PRECONDITION: The default 'cm_db' database is created with the statement -'create database cm_db', then catalogued on the client with the statement -'catalog database cm_db at node <server_node_name>'. -The users invtiv, planner, tivoli and mdstatus are already created -using the operating system user manager utility. -This script is then run as the database administrator. --- for single server, cm_db is the primary database with tablespace cm_ts CREATE REGULAR TABLESPACE cm_ts MANAGED BY DATABASE USING (FILE 'cm_ts.dat' 1408M) EXTENTSIZE 16; CREATE TEMPORARY TABLESPACE cm_temp_ts MANAGED BY DATABASE USING (FILE 'cm_temp_ts.dat' 2500) EXTENTSIZE 16; -- logfile size UPDATE DATABASE UPDATE DATABASE UPDATE DATABASE in in 4k pages. Total log space is 176MB CONFIGURATION FOR cm_db USING LOGFILSIZ CONFIGURATION FOR cm_db USING LOGPRIMARY CONFIGURATION FOR cm_db USING LOGSECOND

4096; 5; 5;

GRANT CREATETAB, CONNECT ON DATABASE TO USER invtiv; GRANT USE OF TABLESPACE cm_ts TO USER invtiv; GRANT CREATETAB, CONNECT ON DATABASE TO USER planner; GRANT USE OF TABLESPACE cm_ts TO USER planner; GRANT CREATETAB, CONNECT ON DATABASE TO USER tivoli; GRANT USE OF TABLESPACE cm_ts TO USER tivoli; GRANT CREATETAB, CONNECT ON DATABASE TO USER mdstatus; GRANT USE OF TABLESPACE cm_ts TO USER mdstatus;

Note: You should consider tuning your database. This is not a simple task. You need to know what you are doing and why you are doing it before changing any database parameters. Each environment is different and needs special consideration. The first thing you need to do is understand where the bottleneck is. You will need to get help from your database administrator when you try to tune your Inventory database (or any other Tivoli database) for best performance. Hints about tuning can be found in the IBM Redbook All About IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager 4.2, SG24-6612.

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3.6 RIM considerations


A RIM host is a managed node where the RIM object is created. RIM objects are created during installation. When deciding which managed nodes are to be RIM hosts, consider the following requirements: The managed node must be local to the Tivoli region. The managed node must be preconfigured with the RDBMS client or server software. Notes: Do not install the RDBMS server software on the RIM host unless this machine is designated solely for RDBMS usage and no other Tivoli operations. When you add the number of transactions performed on the RDBMS server to those performed on the RIM host, the number of overall transactions might impact the optimal performance of your Tivoli environment by exceeding network throughput. RIM is installed as a Framework component. There is no separate installation for RIM. Figure 3-8 shows the RIM objects created for Configuration Manager by the installation program, along with their corresponding database and the software components that use it.

Component
Activity Planner Change Manager Distribution Status Inventory

Database planner (or cm_db) ccm_db (or cm_db) mdist2 (or cm_db) Invtiv (or cm_db) pristine (or cm_db) Invtiv (or cm_db)

RIM object planner ccm mdist2 invdh_1 inv_query pristine trm (only if inv_query is not in local Tivoli management region)

Pristine Manager Resource Manager

Figure 3-8 RIM objects created by the installation program

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Although RIM objects are created during installation, you can create additional RIM objects using the wcrtrim command, or by moving a RIM object from one managed node to another using the wmvrim command. You can also change the database information for a given RIM object using the wsetrim command. The syntax for the wsetrim command is given below:
wsetrim [n name] [d database] [u user] [H db_home] [s server_id] [I instance_home] [t instance_name] [a application_label] [m max_connections] rim_name

Where: a application_label changes the application label for the RIM object. d database changes the name of the database or data source to which the RIM object connects. H db_home changes the path to the database home directory. I instance_home (for DB2 only) changes the path to the DB2 instance for the specified RIM object. m max_connections changes the maximum number of connections between the RIM object and the RDBMS. n name changes the name of the RIM object to name. s server_id changes the server ID for the database t instance_name (for DB2 only) changes the name of the DB2 instance for the specified RIM object. u user changes the name of the database user that the RIM object uses. To change the vendor for a RIM object, you must delete the object using the wdel command and re-create it using the wcrtrim command. Note: Vendor specification specifies the vendor of the RDBMS you are using when creating the RIM object (one entry for each RDBMS system that is supported by the Tivoli RIM component). Valid entries are as follows: DB2 Oracle Sybase Informix MS_SQL Note that Microsoft SQL is supported on Windows systems only.

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To change the managed node for a RIM object, you can either move the RIM object using the wmvrim command or delete and re-create the RIM object. To change the label for a RIM object, you can either use the wsetrim n command or delete and re-create the RIM object. Also, you cannot set the database password for an (RIM) object using the wsetrim command. You can use the wsetrimpw command for this purpose. The following example changes the database ID to inventory, the database user to tivoli, the database home directory to /ORACLE, and the database server ID to invdb2 for the inventory RIM object:
wsetrim -d inventory -u tivoli -H /ORACLE \ -s invdb2 inventory

3.7 General pre-install checks, hints, and tips


Once the deployment plan is done there are a number of things one needs to do before installing IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager 4.2.2: Read the Tivoli Management Framework Release Notes, GI11-0890, and IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager Release Notes, GI11-0926. Back up your Tivoli database (as well as perform any normal systems backup). You need to have super or install_product roles for installing Tivoli Configuration Manager V4.2.2 from the Tivoli Desktop or the command line. Do not use the C shell for installing on UNIX systems. Do not try to install across TMR boundaries. Always install applications in the local TMR. If you have not created the Tivoli install directories prior to starting the installation, remember to select that directories should be created. When the dialog appears, the check box is not selected by default. This does not apply to Integrated Server Install. On Linux systems, remote access is often disabled by default. Make sure that you enable it before the install.

3.7.1 UNIX
The install process performs some space checking once the install gets going, but you will save a lot of time if you check for adequate Tivoli code and database file system space in advance. To make your system easier to manage, you may want to define some new file systems for Tivoli. You have to ensure that your file systems are large enough to contain all the Tivoli files (refer to the product

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release notes and user manuals to determine file space requirements). Tivoli, by default, will install most of its files into /var and /usr. There are a number of reasons why you may want to set up specific Tivoli file systems: You avoid problems where other applications may fill up space in /var and /usr file systems. You can back up and restore individual file systems defined on your system, although this may still be a little complex for Tivoli products. You can control the overall disk structure and layout. Default directories created are: /etc/Tivoli /var/spool/Tivoli /usr/local/Tivoli This directory is small at install time and can be left as part of the /etc file system. Make a new file system for this and specify that it should be mounted at system restart. This is the largest of the directory trees created by Tivoli. Create the file system and specify that it should be mounted at system restart.

Tivoli will also write install and other logfiles to /tmp or the temporary directory selected during Integrated Install.

3.7.2 Windows Systems on Intel 486 or Pentium systems


IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager 4.2.2 supports Windows NT 4.0 with Service Pack 5 or later, Windows XP Professional, or the Windows 2000/2003 family. The drive where you want to install Tivoli must be formatted with NTFS. You can check this from the My Computer window. Right-click the desired drive icon and select Properties. The general page includes the file system type. You can also check this from a command prompt with CHKDSK d: (where d: is the drive where you will install Tivoli). You can convert a FAT file system to NTFS using the convert utility. See the Windows online help for more information. Tivoli files for Windows are, by default, stored under the \Tivoli directory on the root of the selected drive. Tivoli will also write install and other logfiles to %DBDIR%\tmp. You should verify through the Control Panel system applet that you have sufficient swap space defined. Tivoli Framework 3.7.1 Planning for Deployment Guide, GC32-0393, discusses this requirement.

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3.8 Installation methods


You can install and upgrade the components of IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager using any of the following different installation mechanisms: Using the Integrated Installation, which creates a new Tivoli management region server (Tivoli server) and installs the appropriate IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager components or upgrades the entire Tivoli management region (Tivoli region) using activity plans. Using Tivoli Software Installation Service, where you select which products to install on which machines. Using the Tivoli Desktop, where you select which product and patches to install on which machine. Using the winstall and wpatch commands provided by Tivoli Management Framework, where you specify which products and patches to install on which machine. Using the Software Package Blocks. Before installing images from Software Package Blocks, the Tivoli environment must be created and Tivoli Configuration Manager must be fully deployed. We will focus on the Integrated Installation.

3.9 Overview of Integrated Install


InstallShield Multi-Platform (ISMP) is part of Tivolis Install Imperative and IBMs install strategy, to achieve two major goals: Consistent install Simplified maintenance The first principle helps achieve Tivolis goals by providing the customer with a similar installation experience for each Tivoli product. The second principle allows customers to apply maintenance (upgrades) to Tivoli products in a consistent and simplified way. For IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager 4.2.2, ISMP is being used in the following scenarios: Server Install Upgrade Plan Generator Desktop Install Web Gateway Install

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3.10 Server Install


The Server Install scenario starts from CD5 and should be used if: Tivoli Management Framework is not installed. Tivoli Management Framework exists at the 4.1 level but has a subset of Configuration Manager 4.2.2 applications. If current installation is not in one of these conditions, the installation is stopped by the installation program. Note: Because the Server Install program assumes no previous Tivoli environment, your RIM Host must be the TMR server (since there are no other systems in the region yet). You should move the RIM object from the Tivoli server to another more suitable managed node once you have your Tivoli environment established. There are two installation types with the Server Install: Typical Custom

3.10.1 Typical Server Install


The advantage of Typical Server Install is you not have to specify as many details during the installation when we choose this installation option. When using this installation, the following components are installed, configured, or created: Tivoli Management Framework. To support a single Server Installation, a Tivoli gateway, called hostname-gw (for example, lab16036-gw) is also created on this machine. This gateway is automatically configured as a repeater. The installation of Tivoli Management Framework created the Tivoli Server. Resource Manager and Resource Manager Gateway. Enterprise Directory Query Facility with the default directory context as

directory.
Scalable Collection Service. Scalable Collection Service is considered part of Tivoli Management Framework, and is used to collect inventory scan results. Distribution Status Console. The Distribution Status Console tracks Software Distributions and other profile distributions. The installation of the Distribution

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Status Console requires the following Java components (which are provided by Tivoli Management Framework): Java 1.3 for Tivoli Java RDBMS Interface Module Java Client Framework for Tivoli These Java components are used by several of the other IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager components. The installation of the Distribution Status Console creates the mdist2 RIM object. Activity Planner. This installation creates the Planner RIM object. This RIM object can be on the Tivoli Server. Change Manager. This installation creates the ccm RIM object. Inventory and Inventory Gateway. The installation of the Inventory component creates the inv_query and invdh_1 RIM objects. Software Distribution and Software Distribution Gateway. Software Package Editor. This installation program can be used on all platforms supported as a Tivoli Server. For details about which platforms are supported as a Tivoli Server, see the Tivoli Management Framework Release Notes Version 4.1, GI11-0890 (comes with the product).

3.10.2 Custom Server Install


In the Custom Install, you have more options (but the installation is more complex). Use the Custom Server Install if you would like to: Select components to install. Install additional languages. Choose the type of configuration for creating the RIM objects: None (creates the RIM object, but does not perform any database configuration) Schema scripts only; tablespaces already created Default tablespaces and run schema scripts Configure the parameters for each RIM object (typical install uses cm_db database name and default user accounts for all RIM objects). Configure Enterprise Directory Query Facility during the installation.

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Note: With the typical installation, the Enterprise Directory Query Facility is also installed, but you are not prompted for configuration values, and so must configure this component later. When you choose the custom option, you will be prompted for Enterprise Directory Query Facility parameters.

3.10.3 Starting the installation programs


Before starting the installation program, read the information about the installation you are planning to perform. The general procedures for starting the installation programs are as follows.

UNIX
From the /FRESH subdirectory of the IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager Installation CD5, enter one of the following commands. If you do not have a Java Virtual Machine Version 1.3.1 on the system and you want to download this software to the /tmp directory, enter:
./file .bin

Where file is the name of the file that starts the installation program. For each UNIX operating system, there is a different installation program. For example, for IBM AIX the installation program file will be setup_aix.bin. If you want to download the Java Virtual Machine to a directory other than the /tmp directory, enter:
./file .bin -is:tempdir directory

Where directory is the directory to where you download the Java Virtual Machine. Note: You need at least 50 MB of free space in your tempdir directory. If you have a Java Virtual Machine on the system and do not want to use the Java provided by Tivoli, then enter:
java -D is.external.home=path -jar setup.jar

Where path is the path to the setup.jar file that is located on the installation CD under /FRESH subdirectory.

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Note: If the correct version of Java is not installed, the following message appears at the beginning of the install:
#java -Dis.external.home=/img/cd5/FRESH -jar setup.jar -jar : illegal

argument
Usage: java [-options] class

Windows
From the /FRESH subdirectory of the IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager Installation CD5, run the Setup.exe file.

3.11 Desktop Install


With IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager 4.2.2 you can make a Tivoli endpoint a fully operational Tivoli Console on the following Windows systems: Windows 2000 Windows XP Windows Server 2003 The following components are installed on a Windows PC via Desktop Install: Tivoli Desktop for Windows Tivoli Java components Distribution Status Console Activity Planner GUI Change Manager GUI Inventory GUI Software Package Editor During the Desktop Install, ISMP synchronously runs the following activities behind the scenes: Install Desktop for Windows. Temporary unpack Software Distribution disconnected commands (SPB). Install a prerequisite SPB for environment setup. Install all Java mandatory prerequisites. Install selected applications. Clean up the environment.

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3.11.1 Starting the installation program


In order to start the Desktop Install, do the following on a Windows system: 1. Insert the IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager Desktop CD in the CD-ROM drive. 2. Start the installation by running the setup.exe file. Note: You need 120 MB of free disk space for Desktop Install.

3.12 Web Gateway Install


The Web Gateway Installation program uses SPBs to install Web Gateway components (database and server). Other than SPBs, there is no other method to install Web Gateway components. With the Typical Installation the following components are installed: Tivoli endpoint Web Gateway database Web Gateway Server Web Infrastructure Inventory plug-ins for Web Infrastructure Software Distribution plug-ins for Web Infrastructure The Custom Installation provides flexibility, as you can install any combination of the listed components.

3.12.1 Web Gateway prerequisites


While you can install most prerequisite software on any system that is accessible to the Web Gateway server, there are three components that must be installed on the system that will become the Web Gateway server. The prerequisite components that must be installed on the Web Gateway system are: IBM DB2 IBM HTTP Server The IBM WebSphere server Optionally: Access Manager and WebSeal must be installed and configured in the environment to protect Web resources. If Access Manager is installed, configure the Java Runtime Environment provided by Access Manager (PDJRTE).

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Refer to individual product manuals or the All About IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager Version 4.2, SG24-6612, redbook for more information on installing these prerequisites. Notes: Prior to installing WebSphere Application Server, make sure that no active existing services are using ports 900 and 9080 on the server on which you install WebSphere. In order to install Access Manager Base, you can use the ezinstall_ldap_server program.

3.12.2 Starting the installation program


To start the Web Gateway installation program, do the following: From the IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager CD 4 for Web Gateway run: On UNIX ./file.bin for UNIX, where file is the name of the file that starts the installation program. For each UNIX operating system, there is a different installation program. For example, for IBM AIX the installation program file will be setup_aix.bin. On Windows Run the Setup.exe file.

3.12.3 Multiple endpoints installation


Tivoli Management Framework 4.1 now allows multiple endpoints installed on the single system. This may come in handy in a test or sand box environment, as well as environments with clustering for fault tolerance and high availability requirements. Here are some requirements and tips for installing multiple endpoints on the same system: Each endpoint must be installed to a different directory. For example, the defaults are: For Intel: c:\Program Files\Tivoli\lcf For UNIX: /opt/Tivoli/lcf We recommend following your companys naming conventions to ensure that proper access and security is allowed and given to the proper users. For example, this may be a naming convention at your company: Intel: c:\Program Files\Tivoli\lcfHO - First installation

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Intel: c:\Program Files\Tivoli\lcfHORecovery - Second installation UNIX: /opt/Tivoli/lcfHO UNIX: /opt/Tivoli/lcfHORecovery The port number must be unique for communication purposes, and not overlap. If your endpoint policy utilizes the ep_ipadd (5$), you must modify it accordingly.

3.13 Uninstallation of IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager


For uninstallation of IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager you need to use the wuninst command. The wuninst command is not specific to IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager. It is used for all Tivoli Enterprise products. It is a wrapper script that invokes product-specific uninstall scripts. This command removes the component for the specified machines in your Tivoli environment or from the entire local Tivoli region. To uninstall the component using the wuninst command, you need to specify the component tag for that component. The syntax for this command is as follows:
wuninst tag hostname... [-rmfiles]

Where: tag specifies the registered product tag for the Tivoli Enterprise product to remove. Tip: The list of these tags can be found in the IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager Planning and Installation Guide, GC23-4702. You can also list the registered product tags by running wuninst -list. hostname specifies the name of the managed node from which to remove the product. If you specify the Tivoli server, the product is removed from all managed nodes in the Tivoli region. rmfiles indicates that all product files are to be removed from specified managed nodes. When you do not specify this option, the command removes the database entries only. When you issue this command from the Tivoli server and specify this option, all entries for each managed node in the Tivoli region are removed.

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Chapter 4.

Inventory and Software Distribution components


In this chapter we discuss the details of Inventory and Software Distribution components. This chapter contains the following sections: Inventory component on page 94 Software Distribution component on page 130 Data Moving on page 151 Enterprise Data Warehouse integration on page 153

Copyright IBM Corp. 2005. All rights reserved.

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4.1 Inventory component


One of the challenges in a network computing environment is keeping track of the enterprise resources, such as hardware and software installed on each machine. The Tivoli Configuration Manager Inventory component addresses this problem by providing the means to gather hardware and software information related to each system and then store that information in a relational database (RDBMS). The Inventory component of IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager gathers data about hardware and software to help manage complex distributed client/server enterprises. Inventory uses Framework service MDist and Scalable Collection Service (SCS) for efficient, asynchronous distribution of profiles and the collection of data across complex networks.

4.1.1 What is gathered by Tivoli Inventory


Here is some of the data Inventory can gather: Operating system Name Type Major/minor version Hardware Memory (physical, virtual/paging, free, etc.) Network card (manufacturer, model, address, etc.) Processor (manufacturer, model, speed, etc.) Disks (model, type, size, cylinders, etc.)

Software Files (name, size, path, permissions, group, etc.) Software (description, version, name, size, etc.)

4.1.2 Inventory architecture


The following are the basic components that are involved in understanding the Inventory architecture:

TMR server : Tivoli Inventory is installed on the TMR server and is managed from the database object repository on the TMR server. The TMR server provides Inventory access to services and resources: Profile managers, profiles, profile distribution, resource authentication and authorization, event notification, tasks, jobs, and queries.

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Tivoli Management Console: Tivoli Inventory is also installed on any managed nodes that will run the Tivoli Desktop (X-Windows version) or the Tivoli Desktop for Windows. To manage Tivoli Inventory using the graphical interface or the command line interface (CLI), you must install Tivoli Inventory on these Tivoli Management Consoles. These are normally desktop machines (UNIX or NT/2000) installed as managed nodes and do not provide services within the TMR (such as Management Gateways, RIM Hosts, etc.). Inventory Data Handler: This server is a managed node in the TMR with an additional object/service installed (installed during Tivoli Inventory installation). This service is responsible for and controls the following:
Receives the scanned data information from the collectors (service on the Inventory Gateways). This collector hierarchy follows the MDist 2 repeater hierarchy used in distribution of large amounts of data (such as in Software Distribution)just in reverse. The data is collected and sent up to the server, not distributed down to the targets. Sends the scanned data information to the Configuration Repository (via the RIM host). The Data Handler manages the connection to the RIM Host/RDBMS and efficiently loads the data into the Configuration Repository. This offloads the TMR server from having to handle receiving this scan data and forwarding it to the RIM Host.

Inventory Configuration Repository: The database that contains the tables


and fields where the inventory information is stored. The configuration repository resides within a Relational Database on the RDBMS server. Tivoli Inventory supports many of the RDBMS vendors. Tivoli Inventory supports all RDBMS vendors supported by Framework (see the Tivoli Management Framework Release Notes for the latest versions supported). Notes: The RDBMS server does not need to be on a managed node, but it should be in the same network as the TMR server. There must be a TCP/IP connection between the RIM host and the RDBMS server.

Inventory Gateway/Collector: To enable inventory scanning of TMAs, the


Tivoli Inventory Gateway software must be installed on all management gateways. The Tivoli Inventory Gateway controls inventory-related processes between the TMA and its management gateway. This includes: Sending the scan profile to the TMA (as well as any needed executables, which are automatically downloaded to the TMA). Collecting the scan data and sending it to the Inventory Data Handler (to be inserted into the RDBMS Configuration Repository via RIM).

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Inventory scanners: Software components that run on the target to gather, process, and return inventory data. Inventory profile: Contains the parameters that define how the scanner
should behave, such as whether to do a hardware, software, or custom scan, or all of them.

Callback object: Serves as a backup for SCS. It is used when an endpoint


cannot forward data to its collector.

Collection Table of Contents: Contains a set of header information that describes the data and its destination, and the actual data itself.
To understand the Tivoli Inventory architecture better, let us examine step by step a typical inventory scan scenario. Steps 12 are the distribution of the Inventory profile through the MDist2 hierarchy. It is important to understand that this is an asynchronous profile distribution to activate the scanner at the endpoints, which means it does not wait for the return of data. This allows scans to proceed in parallel across all targets of the profile distribution. In this way, MDist 2 distributions (in this case, Inventory profile distribution) can be monitored through the Distribution Status Console or by using the wmdist command. This also applies to Inventory profile distribution. In steps 34 the endpoint receives the profile, scans the endpoint, and the MIF files are created and parsed. After the MDist 2 distribution is successful, the Scalable Collection Service takes over and sends the data to RDBMS. The endpoint informs the collector on the gateway that the data is ready and requests collection by sending its Collection Table of Contents (CTOC). CTOC includes the data file name and size and the source and destination of the collection. Depending on the configuration of your network, the data may then travel through a hierarchy of collectors before arriving at the Inventory Data Handler.The data remains in the collectors depot until it receives confirmation that the upstream collector has received the entire data bundle. In steps 57 the Collector sends collections to the Data Handler. The Data Handler decompresses and decodes the collection before it writes data into the repository through one or multiple RIM interfaces. In summary, once an inventory profile has been distributed to an endpoint, the collection path for inventory data is endpoint gateway collector Inventory Data Handler RIM host Configuration Repository.

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TMR A
1 6 7

RD

Data Handler

RIM host

RDBMS

Gateway 1 Collector

Gateway 2 Collector
4

Gateway 3 Collector

CTOC Collection (*.dat file)


3

Figure 4-1 A typical Inventory collection scenario

Now let us see these components in more detail.

4.1.3 Collection Table of Contents


The data that the Scalable Collection Service transfers is called a collection. Collections are divided into two parts: A set of header information called a Collection Table of Contents (CTOC) that describes the data and its destination, and the actual data itself. When a scan completes, the endpoint Inventory

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method assembles the collection. It then uses an upcall to pass the CTOC to the Collector process on the endpoint gateway. Once the Collector has registered the CTOC for the collection it will execute a downcall back to the endpoint and retrieve the data. The data contained in a CTOC is described in Table 4-1.
Table 4-1 CTOC information CTOC value CTOC ID Priority SOURCE_NAME SOURCE_OID Description A unique number identifying the collection. Not used. The name of the object label of the machine that started the distribution. OID of the source object. This is the OID of a object that requested the collection. Initially this is the endpoint. OID of the originating object ID. This value is usually the endpoint OID that the scan data belongs to. The method that requested the collection. In the case of Inventory, it should always be mc_get_data. The method (mc_get_data) that requested the collection. This field is no longer used in Inventory 4.2.2. DEST_ID is used instead. This field is used to determine the OID of the destination Data Handler object. The field contains the region ID and Data Handler object label. This information is used to determine the OID of the Data Handler. The method (mc_request_collection) that will receive the data. The full path of the DON file. The DON file is created on the endpoint when the data has been successfully collected by the Collector. Data pack number. Inventory scan ID.

ORIGINATOR_OID

SOURCE_METHOD

SOURCE_METHOD DEST_OID DEST_ID

DEST_METHOD WRITE_COMPLETION_FILE

DATAPACK inventory_scan_id

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CTOC value inventory_num_results inventory_opts inventory_ctoc_version Collection Status Retries

Description Number of results. Used for unsolicited scans. Represents the application version. The status of the CTOC file. Indicates the count of the number of failed attempts. This value is reset to 0 if Collector/Data Handler is restarted. If this value reaches the max retry, the Collection Status field on the CTOC is set to false and the CTOC is eventually discarded.

CTOC information is stored in a binary format. Therefore it cannot be viewed using a text editor. The wcstat command can be used for viewing the CTOC information. The command syntax is as follows:
wcstat -v CTOC ID collector

CTOC information and status are depicted in Example 4-1. You must, however, know which Collector currently has the collection before you can check its status. You can view CTOC information using the wcstat command and checking the Collectors queues.
Example 4-1 Output from the wcstat -v command wcstat -q o @managed node:win-rptr01a CTOC ID: c13707486641226774 CTOC Properties: PRIORITY: 1 SOURCE_NAME: WIN-NTK-A SOURCE_OID: 1370748664.4.21 ORIGINATOR_OID: 1370748664.12.522+#TMF_endpoint::endpoint# SOURCE_METHOD: mc_get_data DEST_OID: 1370748664.2.35#InvDataHandler# DEST_ID: 1370748664#inv_data_handler#InvDataHandler DEST_METHOD: mc_request_collection WRITE_COMPLETION_FILE: C:\Tivoli\lcf\inv\SCAN\mcollect\INV00093.DON DATAPACK: 613 Client Properties: inventory_scan_id: 93 inventory_num_results: 1 inventory_opts: 0 inventory_ctoc_version: 16896 Collection Status: QUEUED_OUTPUT

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#Retries: 0

4.1.4 Collection files


Collection data files are compressed binary data files assembled by the Inventory method on the endpoint once the scan completes. The collection files contain the scan data that will ultimately be inserted into the Inventory repository. These files exist in the $LCFDIR\inv\scan directory on the endpoint and are named INVxxxxx.dat. Once the Collector has the CTOC for a collection, it will execute a downcall to the endpoint and retrieve the data file using an IOM channel. When the Collector has received the collection data it creates a INVxxxxx.don. This file indicates that the collection was successful. The Collector creates a subdirectory (with the same name as the collection ID) in the depot directory and stores the data file in that directory. It is not possible to view the content of the data file once it has been assembled.

4.1.5 Inventory Collectors


A Collector is a multi-threaded process installed on a managed node or gateway. Collectors store and forward collections to other Collectors or a Data Handler (final Collector). Figure 4-2 on page 101 illustrates the three parts of a Collector: Queues, depots, and the scheduler. You can also see how data is moved into the input queue. Note: You must have Scalable Collection Service installed on a managed node in order to use it as a Collector.

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Figure 4-2 Collector components and CTOC transfer

Collector components
There are three types of resources that are used to control flow of CTOCs and Dat files between two Collectors or the Data Handler: Queues Used as temporary storage areas for CTOCs, and also control the flow of CTOCs between Collectors or the Data Handler. A subdirectory created in the Collectors run-time directory used to store collection data. Processes that control the timing and the flow of data.

Depots Scheduler

Queues
Queues are areas in memory that the Collector uses to hold CTOCs for the collections it is currently transporting. Each Collector has four queues: Input queue Output queue

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Error queue Deferred queue Each queue has a checkpoint file used to back up a copy of the queues contents to the file system. These files are stored in the SCS run-time directory. Checkpoint files are binary files and are named checkpointGL_[queue]qfile.dat. The checkpoint files are not the queues themselves, but are used by the Collector process to restore the queue if it is stopped or killed. The Collector will append a CTOC to the checkpoint file when it places it in the corresponding queue. When a CTOC is removed from a queue, the Collector also removes it from the corresponding file. Similar to the checkpoint files, a Collector maintains a log file of all completed collections. This log file is named CTOC_log.dat, and it is stored in the same directory as the checkpoint files. CTOC_log.dat also uses the same binary format as the checkpoint files, and its contents can be viewed with the wcstat command. You can check the status of a Collectors queues using wcstat. The syntax is:
wcstat -q queue collector

This gives essentially the same output as the wcstat -v command (described in Example 4-2) for each CTOC in the queue. Example 4-2 shows sample output from this command. You can also use wcstat to read from the completed CTOC log file by using c for the queue option.
Example 4-2 Output from wcstat -q command wcstat -q o @managed node:win-rptr01a CTOC ID: c1370748664612628 CTOC Properties: PRIORITY: 1 SOURCE_NAME: WIN-ARCH01A SOURCE_OID: 1370748664.4.21 ORIGINATOR_OID: 1370748664.6.522+#TMF_endpoint::endpoint# SOURCE_METHOD: mc_get_data DEST_OID: 1370748664.2.35#InvDataHandler# DEST_ID: 1370748664#inv_data_handler#InvDataHandler DEST_METHOD: mc_request_collection WRITE_COMPLETION_FILE: C:\Program Files\Tivoli\lcf\inv\SCAN\mcollect\INV00100.DON DATAPACK: 484 Client Properties: inventory_scan_id: 100 inventory_num_results: 1 inventory_opts: 0 inventory_ctoc_version: 16896

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Collection Status: QUEUED_OUTPUT #Retries: 0

When an endpoint finishes assembling a collection, it makes an upcall to pass the CTOC to the Collector process on its gateway. The Collector places the CTOC in its input queue and appends it to the checkpointGL_iqfile.dat checkpoint file. The Collector then executes a downcall to the endpoint to retrieve the scan data file. Once the Collector has placed the data file in the depot directory it moves the CTOC from the input queue to the output queue and adjusts the checkpoint files accordingly. If the Collector is unable to retrieve the data file from the endpoint, it will move the CTOC to the error queue and also append it to the checkpointGL_eqfile.dat file. If a CTOC is added to the error queue, the Collector will retry the attempt as per the max_input_retries parameter. This parameter can be configured using the wcollect command. If all max_input_retries have been exhausted and the data still cannot be collected, the Collector will continue to transfer the CTOC to upstream Collectors. Error CTOCs will eventually reach the Data Handler, which notifies the Status Collector and then discards them. Once a CTOC is added to the output queue, the Collector will pass it to an upstream Collector or Data Handler. The process then starts again with the upstream Collector placing it in its input queue and executing a downcall for the data file. CTOCs are copied into the checkpoint files, which are stored in the run-time location directory. The run-time location file system should have enough space to store multiple CTOCs in the input, output, and error queues. The run-time location can be set using the wcollect -l command. If you change the run-time location you must stop the Collector using wcollect -h. If you have a collection in the old run-time directory you must move the contents of the run-time and depot directories to the new location. The unprivileged user account (user nobody on UNIX or tmersrvd on Windows NT) must have read/write permission to the run-time and depot directories. To change the run-time directory run the commands shown in Example 4-3 on page 104.

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Example 4-3 Changing run-time directory wcollect -l c:/tivoli/mcollect @Gateway:win-rptr01a-gw wcollect -h graceful @Gateway:win-rptr01a-gw Performed 'graceful' halt of collector: @Gateway:win-rptr01a-gw. wcollect -s @Gateway:win-rptr01a-gw Started collector: @Gateway:win-rptr01a-gw.

Tips: Where possible, use a standard directory as a run-time directory on all similar Collectors. Using a standard directory facilitates easy troubleshooting and scripting. If you reconfigure your repeater hierarchy, you need to remove the old Collector information with the wcollect -r command.

Depots
Each Collector has a depot directory used to store scan data. This directory has several subdirectories, one for each CTOC currently in the output queue. The Collector depot also contains an index file called Index.dpo that contains a reference to each collections data files. The structure of a depot is shown in Figure 4-3 on page 105. If the depot is empty, the index file contains the maximum size for the depot. The depots maximum size can be set using the wcollect -z command. The syntax is:
wcollect -z depot size in MB collector.

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Figure 4-3 Depot directory structure

The use of depots enables the store and forward mechanism of SCS. After a CTOC is placed in the input queue of the upstream Collector, it will make a downcall to the downstream Collector and retrieve the data file from its depot. Depots should be located on a file system with plenty of free space and sizes should be set to a large number. If an upstream Collector tries to retrieve a data file and does not have enough room to store it in the depot, it will cause an error and move the CTOC into the error queue. The depot directory is always a subdirectory of the run-time location. In order to set the depot directory, you must use the wcollect -l command to move the run-time location, as described in Queues on page 101.

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Scheduler
The Collector scheduler daemon is a multi-threaded process that sends and receives CTOCs. Collector is responsible for moving data upstream to the Data Handler. SCS allows you to set several Collector parameters controlling the bandwidth and schedule that scheduler uses to transmit data. The Collector process spawns input and output threads that move CTOCs from one queue to the next and retrieve data files from downstream endpoints and Collectors. SCS enables you to control the number of threads allocated to input and output. Input threads process the CTOC in the Collectors input or error queue by retrieving the corresponding datapacks from a lower-level Collector or endpoint. Output threads process the CTOC in the output queue of a Collector by making a mc_request_collection upcall to transfer the CTOC to the input queue of the next level Collector or Data Handler. You can change the number of threads allocated to each of these queues. The same as changing the run-time location, you need to restart the Collector for changes to take effect. Example 4-4 shows how to increase input threads to 20 using the wcollect -i command. You can use the -o option to change the output threads.
Example 4-4 Changing input threads wcollect -i 20 @managed node:win-inv01a wcollect -h graceful @managed node:win-inv01a Performed 'graceful' halt of collector: @managed node:win-inv01a. wcollect -s @managed node:win-inv01a Started collector: @managed node:win-inv01a.

Depot chunk size is used to control the size of each data stream that a Collector sends during transmission of collections. The threads values, combined with the depot chunk size, are used to throttle the maximum amount of data being transmitted at any time. If a Collector has 20 output threads and its depot chunk size is set to 5 K, then it will transmit up to 20 simultaneous 5 K chunks of data using, a total of 100 K of bandwidth. The Collector will continue transmitting at this rate as long as there is data in its depot. If a slow wide area network (WAN) link exists between Collectors, the output threads and depot chunk size should be set accordingly. The wcollect -c command is used to set the depot chunk size, as illustrated in Example 4-5.
Example 4-5 Changing depot chunk size wcollect -c 512 @Gateway:win-rptr01a-gw wcollect -h graceful @Gateway:win-rptr01a-gw Performed 'graceful' halt of collector: @Gateway:win-rptr01a-gw. wcollect -s @Gateway:win-rptr01a-gw Started collector: @Gateway:win-rptr01a-gw.

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To view a Collectors configuration run the command illustrated in Example 4-6.


Example 4-6 Viewing Collectors configuration wcollect @Gateway:win-rptr01a-gw Collector: @Gateway:win-rptr01a-gw debug_level = FATAL (error messages only) debug_log_size = 1 MB runtime_location = depot_size = 40 MB depot_chunk = 512 KB thread_idle_down_time = 60 seconds thread_sleep_time = 5 seconds max_input_threads = 5 max_input_retries = 10 max_output_threads = 5 retry_delay_time = 1 seconds offlinks = log_completed_ctoc = true

Important: Most Collector parameters require that you stop and start the Collector in order for the changes to take effect.

4.1.6 Collection manager


Like endpoint manager, collection manager manages the routes used to move data through the collection hierarchy. Collection manager runs on the TMR server and holds a map of the collection hierarchy in memory. This map is really just a copy of the repeater hierarchy, and is updated when collection manager starts. The collection manager is queried for routing and formatting when a CTOC in the output queue is processed by the output thread (assuming that the route is not found in the Collectors router cache). Once the OID of the next hop has been determined, the mc_request_collection method is called on that Collector.

Collection manager components


The route map is stored in memory and reloaded each time oserv restarts and the collection manager loads. Collection manager route information for a specific node can be reset using the wcollect -r command. If the repeater hierarchy changes, wcollect -r should be issued against any node that changed ranges. An example follows:
wcollect -r @ManagedNode:wininv01a

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This will reset collection managers route information for a managed node named wininv01a.

4.1.7 Data Handler


The Inventory Data Handler can be considered the final Collector in a Tivoli Inventory collection system. Like Collectors, the Inventory Data Handler has a depot and queues. However, the Inventory Data Handler unpacks and decodes the data and sends it to the RIM rather than requesting collection from an upstream Collector. Data Handler is also able to use multiple RIMs to insert data into the Inventory repository.

Data Handler components


The Data Handler process inherits its attributes from the Collector process, so its operation is very similar. One notable difference between the two processes is the location of the run-time directory. Another is the restriction that you can only have one Data Handler per TMR. The Data Handler is created automatically when you install Inventory. Since the Data Handler process inherits from the Collector process, the wcollect command can be used to start and stop the Data Handler or change some settings. Instead of specifying a managed node, you must specify the Data Handler object as the target of the command. The following example illustrates how to stop the Data Handler process using the wcollect command:
wcollect -h graceful @InvDataHandler:inv_data_handler

Creating the Data Handler


To create a Data Handler use the wcrtinvdh command. See Example 4-7.
Example 4-7 Creating the Data Handler wcrtinvdh -d $DBDIR/inventory/stat_dir -n 15 -r 3 -s YES -t 30 -u YES win-inv01a

Where: -d Specifies the location of the status directory. The default location is $DBDIR/inventory/stat_dir on the managed node where the Inventory Data Handler resides.

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-n

Specifies the interval at which scan completion notifications are sent. This option works in conjunction with the n option of the wsetinvglobal command (option BUNDLE). The alternative notification option is -q, which bundles according to the number of targets. Specifies the number of times the Inventory Data Handler tries to write data to a RIM object. After the maximum number of retries is reached, a failure notification is sent. The default value is 5. Specifies whether the Inventory Data Handler stores status information that can be restored in case of a system failure. Specifies a value in seconds from which to calculate the time-out period in seconds between retries of writes to a RIM object. This time-out period works according to the algorithm timeout*retry_count. For example, on the first retry, with a time-out value of 30 seconds, the algorithm sets the timer to 30 * 1 or 30 seconds. On the second retry, the timer sets to 30 *2 or 1 minute. The default value is 30 seconds. Specifies whether the Data Handler sends a notice to the Inventory notice group when an unsolicited update of scan data occurs. An unsolicited update is an update that is not initiated by distributing a scan to an endpoint remotely from another system. The label of the ManageNode where the Data Handler object will be created. Notice that, unlike other SCS commands, this command leaves out the managed node specifier and just uses the name of the managed node that Data Handler should be created on.

-r

-s

-t

-u

win-inv01a

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Tip: Data Handler does a great deal of processing during the Data Collection process. Based on this fact we recommend that in large environments you select a dedicated managed node as a Data Handler. This managed node should have enough memory, CPU, and disk space to support the function of a Data Handler. It is possible to move the Data Handler from one managed node to the next by running the wmvinvdh command. The command syntax is as follows:
wmvinvdh -t timeout_value managed_node

Where: -t specifies the number of seconds after which the command will wait before it times out. If you do not specify this option the default of 120 seconds is used. managed_node specifies the managed node to which you want to move the Inventory Data Handler. You must have Scalable Collection Service installed on the managed node in order to use it as a Data Handler. The Data Handler process has input and output threads, just like the Collector process does. These threads can be manipulated using the wcollect -o or wcollect -i commands. Data Handler input threads function essentially the same way as Collector input threads. They receive CTOCs and data files. Output threads function differently. They are used to unpack data and send it to RIM. As described in Scheduling collection using output threads on page 118, you can change Data Handler output threads to schedule data flow to the RIMs the same way that you can change Collector threads to schedule data flow to upstream Collectors. Data Handler also contains queues and checkpoint files just like the Collector process. It also has input, output, and error queues. For an explanation of queues, queue operations, and checkpoint files please refer to Collector components on page 101. The only operational difference between the Data Handler queues and the Collector queues is the final destinations of the CTOCs. When an error CTOC reaches the Data Handler error queue, it is sent to the Status Collector. When a normal CTOC reaches the output queue, it is forwarded on to RIM. The Data Handler uses the output error queue to store CTOCs that require RIM retries. The Data Handler process has a depot that is identical to the Collector process depot. The Data Handler depot is located under the run-time location directory, has an identical index file, and operates the same way. For more information on Collector depots, refer to Collector components on page 101.

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4.1.8 Status Collector


The SCS Status Collector is responsible for tracking the status of any Inventory distributions that are ongoing in the TMR. The Status Collector runs as a separate process, but is actually part of the Data Handler. The Status Collector process runs on the same managed node as Data Handler and maintains information for each node as to whether the inventory scan is successful, pending, or failed. Status is reported to the Status Collector from the Data Handler (remember that they are actually two parts of the same object). The Data Handler process passes a list of targets to the Status Collector process, and Status Collector assigns the distribution a scan ID. Note: The profile distribution ID in MDist2 is separate from the one in SCS. MDist2 reports the results of Inventory profile distribution and scan completion status. SCS Status Collector reports the results of the data collection process. Use the Status Collector result to verify whether data has been successfully inserted into the Inventory repository. From this point on, Status Collector lists all nodes as pending. As CTOCs from the scans make their way to the Data Handler and are inserted into the database. This information is passed from the Data Handler to the Status Collector. The Status Collector process updates the endpoints status as either successful or failed. In the event that a downstream Collector encounters a problem with either the CTOC or the data file, it will add an error code to the CTOC and move it into the error queue. The error CTOCs are also passed up to the Data Handler, which, in turn, notifies the Status Collector. The Status Collector then updates the endpoints status to failed. The only exception to the above scenario is when an endpoint fails to send data to the Collector process. In this instance, the endpoint will use repeater hierarchy in reverse order to send the data to the Inventory Callback object. The Callback object will then forward the data to the Inventory Data Handler for insertion into the Inventory repository.

Status Collector components


Status Collector is a process that runs on the Data Handler managed node. It is responsible for maintaining the directory called status_dir. status_dir is a subdirectory of Data Handlers run-time location directory. The status_dir directory contains status information for all active inventory scans that are being

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handled by the Data Handler process. There are two types of binary files inside the status_dir directory. The first type is the scan ID file. This is a single file named inv_scan_id.cfg. This file contains the last scan ID given out by the Status Collector process. The scan ID number is incremented by one each time a collect data enabled scan is distributed. The second type of file is the scan information file. This file is named inv_scan_XX.cfg, where XX is the scan ID of a running inventory scan. The Status Collector maintains one scan information file for each running status-enabled inventory scan. The Status Collector uses the scan information files to record the current status (pending, successful, or failed) for each node involved in the scan. These files are deleted once the Data Handler process reports that the scan is complete. You can view status information for an active scan by running the wgetscanstat command. This command contacts the Status Collector process and retrieves a list of status-enabled inventory scans that are currently running. This is really a formatted list of all of the scans that have scan information files in the status_dir directory. The wgetinvstat command can be used with the -a switch to view all information on currently running scans. Using the -p -f -s switches will show which endpoints are pending, have failed, or were successful. This is illustrated in Example 4-8.
Example 4-8 Output from wgetscanstat command wgetscanstat -a -s -f -p The following scans using the Inventory Scan ID: 93 Profile Scan ID: 100 Profile Scan ID: 101 Profile Scan ID: 102 Profile Scan ID: 103 Profile Scan ID: 104 Profile Scan ID: 105 Profile status collector are in progress: name: replace.SW.scan.NT.pf name: Custom.SIG.SW.scan.pf name: Initial.HW.scan.pf name: Initial.HW.scan.pf name: Initial.HW.scan.pf name: Initial.HW.scan.pf name: palm_scan.1.0

Tips: It is important to note that the status information returned by wgetscanstat is only as good as what the Status Collector process has in its status files. Since the Status Collector is only notified when a scan begins and when the data is inserted into the database, everything in between will show up as pending. The target is only successful once data has been inserted into the repository.

4.1.9 Callback object


In the event that an endpoint cannot send scan data using the Collector hierarchy, the endpoint will send data to the Callback object using the repeater hierarchy. The Callback object will then forward the data directly to the Data

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Handler. The Data Handler unpacks and decodes the data before writing it into the repository using one or multiple RIM objects. The Callback object collection method serves as a backup. Figure 4-4 shows data flow in the case of Collector failure.

Figure 4-4 Callback object data flow

Note: Callback object is only used when a failure is detected by the endpoint and first level Collector, and not between Collectors.

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Tip: In large environments we recommend moving the Callback object to a different managed node than the TMR server, because in the event of a Collector failure all scan data will be sent to the TMR server. This could easily overwhelm the TMR server. The Callback object can be moved once created by using the wmvinvcb command. The command syntax is as follows:
wmvinvcb -t timeout_value managed_node

Where: -t specifies the number of seconds after which the command will wait before it times out. If you do not specify this option the default of 120 seconds is used. managed_node specifies the managed node to which you want to move the Inventory Callback object. You must have Scalable Collection Service installed on the managed node in order to use it as a Callback object.

Using multiple RIM objects


Starting with Inventory 4.0, Data Handler is now able to use multiple RIM objects to place Inventory information in the Inventory database. RIM objects could be on different managed nodes, which could increase performance. Architecturally, each RIM object represents the termination point of a complete data path from the Tivoli endpoint to the database. Setting the number of RIM objects that you need depends on how many endpoints you plan to scan simultaneously, and how much data you are collecting from each endpoint. You should consider creating a new RIM object for the following reasons: To increase the number of connections to the RDBMS. The maximum number of connections per RIM object is 16. To distribute the work performed by RIM objects across multiple systems. For example, you can create RIM objects on separate managed nodes so that the processing required by the RIM objects is divided between the two systems. For RIM objects that the Inventory Data Handler uses, you must set the application label and maximum number of RDBMS connections. You can set these values using the wsetrim command. The following is the command syntax:
wsetrim [-a application_label] [-m max_connections]

Where application_label should be invdh for Data Handler.

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Important: The number of Data Handler output treads should match the total number of RDBMS connections set for all RIM objects used by the Data Handler. For example, if you have two RIM objects with five RDBMS connections each, the recommended number of output threads for the Inventory Data Handler is 10. (Default or out-of-the-box configuration is 5 output treads and one RIM object.) All Data Handler RIM objects are used for inserting data into the repository. We recommend that you use a separate RIM object for queries. The inv_query RIM object is created by default for this function (in addition to invdh_1, which is created for the Data Handler). Using separate RIM objects will prevent queries from contesting with Data Handler for database access when you are conducting inventory scans. The possibility still exists when running queries, however, that Data Handler will have a table or row locked for inserting data when your query tries to access it. In this case your query may return no results, or incomplete results. For this reason you should try to schedule database updates during off hours. You might wonder what is the optimal number of RIM connections for a TMR. Every RIM object consumes a certain amount of memory overhead, so it is best to run with the fewest possible number of RIM objects per machine. Separating RIM objects on separate RIM hosts divides the processing load, and increases availability in case one of the RIM hosts go down. For example, if you have 10 connections to the database, the optimum setting with two machines configured is such that each one runs a single RIM object. Note: When forecasting how many endpoints can be scanned and the data updated in the RIM database in a fixed period of time, the guideline for the amount of time required (per endpoint) to collect scan data on a local area network is two minutes on average for a full scan.

4.1.10 Managing data collection


In this section we give you guidelines for managing your data collection.

Planning considerations
Planning your Collector configuration carefully before you begin configuring your Collectors is very a important step for creating an efficient collection data flow. The following factors need to be taken into account when deciding on configuration: WAN links peak hours.

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Repeater hierarchy. Anticipated scan data per gateway/Collector. Current system load for repeaters intended to be used as Collectors. Disk space Memory CPU Data retention period per Collector. Influences the amount of disk space required for storage of collection data. Data collection time slots. You should calculate the amount of time that is available for data collection tasks. The following factors should be considered: Network off-peak period. Tivoli infrastructure availability. DB availability. To minimize errors ensure that the Inventory database is available during the data insertion phase of the collection process. Note: Ensure that database maintenance tasks that may hold locks on the database do not conflict with the time that the Data Handler inserts data into the repository.

Scheduling collection transmissions


The Collector process can store data for transmission at a later time. This allows the Collector to schedule when data is transmitted over the network. This ability can be useful in situations where endpoints need to be scanned during business hours while machines are active, but data should not be transmitted until after business hours. There are two methods of accomplishing this: Offlinks Output threads Using the wcollect command to tell a Collector to defer collections from certain downstream Collectors Simulating an offlink by setting the output threads on the downstream Collector to 0 so that it cannot send any data

Scheduling collection using offlinks method


In order to schedule collection transmissions, SCS gives you the ability to disable the link to downstream Collectors. The wcollect command is used to manipulate a Collectors offlink list. When an upstream Collector receives a CTOC from a downstream Collector, the upstream Collector will check its list of offlinks to determine whether it should retrieve the data immediately or defer collection of the data until later. If the downstream Collector is on the offlinks list, the upstream Collector will move the CTOC from the input queue to the deferred queue. The upstream Collector will not attempt to retrieve the data file from the

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depot of the downstream Collector. The next time the upstream Collector process starts, it will check the deferred queue against the offlinks list again to see if it can retrieve data files for any of the CTOCs. The wcollect command with the -x option sets the offlinks list. You can list the object dispatcher IDs of the downstream Collectors to defer, separated by commas. Always list the dispatcher numbers in numerical order. This is illustrated in Figure 4-5.

Figure 4-5 Scheduling collection using offlinks

You can also disable a range of object IDs by using a dash. This should also be done in numerical order. The same command is illustrated as follows:
wcollect -x 3-4 @managed node:win-inv01a

The -x option switches between the enabled and disabled connection. You may have to first check the status of each connection before using this option. And like most other Collector settings, you must stop and start the Collector for changes to take effect. Example 4-9 shows commands used to set offlinks.

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Example 4-9 Setting offlinks example wcollect -x 3,4 @managed node:win-inv01a wcollect -h graceful @managed node:win-inv01a Performed 'graceful' halt of collector: @managed node:win-inv01a. wcollect -s @managed node:win-inv01a Started collector: @managed node:win-inv01a.

To reset the offlinks list, specify wcollect -x with null string as the dispatcher number. This would look as shown in Example 4-10.
Example 4-10 Resetting offlinks example wcollect -x "" @managed node:win-inv01a wcollect -h graceful @managed node:win-inv01a Performed 'graceful' halt of collector: @managed node:win-inv01a. wcollect -s @managed node:win-inv01a Started collector: @managed node:win-inv01a.

To schedule collections simply place these commands in a script and create a task and a job that runs the script. Schedule the job using the Tivoli Framework Scheduler. Offlinks can only be set between Collectors. Note: Offlinks cannot be used in the following situations: Between the endpoint and first Collector Between Data Handler and the RIM object You can check the mcollect.log file to verify that offlinks are working. Use the wcollect command to set the debug level to three on the Collector or Data Handler with the offlinks list. At debug level three, the daemon process will write a message in the mcollect.log logfile every time a CTOC is moved to the deferred queue. The message is scheduler_offlink_test and contains the CTOC ID that was deferred.

Scheduling collection using output threads


The second method mentioned above involves using output threads to stop collection data from leaving the Collector. If the number of output threads is changed to zero on the downstream Collector, it will have an effect similar to setting an offlink on the upstream Collector. There are a few subtle differences with this approach, however. If the number of output threads is set to zero on the downstream Collector, it will not send CTOCs. This will cut off all collection flow between Collectors until the number of output threads is increased. Also, changing the number of input or output threads can be done at the Data Handler as well as the Collector. This enables SCS to move data through the collection

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hierarchy all the way to the Data Handler and hold it there. The Data Handler will not attempt to place data in the database until you set its output threads to a number. Using this technique, the Data Handler is prevented from attempting to insert data into the database if the database is down for maintenance or being heavily queried. wcollect -o changes the number of output threads. As with setting the offlinks list, the Collector must be restarted for this to take affect. This is illustrated in Example 4-11.
Example 4-11 Setting output threads to zero: Collector wcollect -o 0 @managed node:win-inv01a wcollect -h graceful @managed node:win-inv01a Performed 'graceful' halt of collector: @managed node:win-inv01a. wcollect -s @managed node:win-inv01a Started collector: @managed node:win-inv01a.

To stop data from leaving the Data Handler run the commands illustrated in Example 4-12.
Example 4-12 Setting output threads to zero: Data Handler wcollect -o 0 @InvDataHandler:inv_data_handler wcollect -h graceful @InvDataHandler:inv_data_handler Performed 'graceful' halt of collector: @InvDataHandler:inv_data_handler. wcollect -s @InvDataHandler:inv_data_handler Started collector: @InvDataHandler:inv_data_handler.

To re-enable collection transmissions these commands are simply reissued using a value higher than 0 for the wcollect -o command. As with offlinks, to schedule collections using this method, these commands must be placed in a script, and the execution of that script must be scheduled using the Tivoli Framework Scheduler. Note: Remember that if this technique is being used to simulate an offlink, the commands must be executed against the downstream Collector. If your Collector output threads are not consistent across all Collectors you may need to set different values when re-enabling collection.

4.1.11 Clearing the Collector


The IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager Inventory component provides an option to cancel an inventory scan at different stages in the process. For various

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reasons you may need to clear the collection before they reach the Inventory repository. For example: If Collectors data has become redundant Failure during profile distribution The wcancelscan command cancels an active inventory scan. This command can cancel a scan at the following points: During the profile distribution, before the profile reaches the endpoint For scans of pervasive devices at the Web Gateway component before the job is processed As the data travels through the Collector hierarchy to the Inventory Data Handler through SCS At the Inventory Data Handler If scan data has been passed from the Inventory Data Handler to a RIM object, that scan data cannot be cancelled. During a scan of multiple targets, the scan data for each target reaches the Inventory Data Handler at different times. Therefore, it is possible that the wcancelscan command could cancel the scan of one target but not another. Example 4-13 demonstrates how to use this command.
Example 4-13 wcancelscan command example wgetscanstat The following scans using the Inventory status collector are in progress: Scan ID: 2 Profile name: Initial.HW.scan.pf wcancelscan -i 2 Starting to cancel Inventory The cancel operation sent to The cancel operation sent to The cancel operation sent to The cancel operation sent to

profile Initial.HW.scan.pf with scan ID 2. Inventory status collector is complete. MDistII manager is complete. Scalable Collection Service is complete. Inventory data handler is complete.

In Example 4-13 we used two commands. The first command, wgetscanstat, gives us the list of all active scans. And wcancelscan with the -i option tells the scan ID to cancel the scan. To cancel all active scans use the -a option. Note: Using the wcancelscan command does not stop the endpoint from completing the scan and data from flowing back to the Data Handler. The scan data is discarded when it reaches the Data Handler.

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4.1.12 Inventory collection scenarios


It is important to be able to identify exactly what information a Tivoli inventory scan collects. Consider the following points about a Tivoli inventory scan: It is built to gather a specific set of inventory information. By default the inventory scan can collect data from a list of parameters. If additional installed inventory needs to be verified, a custom scan can be configured using scripts to create the MIF file. An inventory scan can be modified to gather more or less information. A customer should review what can be gathered and select the pertinent parameters. It should scan only for information that is pertinent to the customers situation. For example, if the customer does not care about the type of keyboard or mouse on the systems, do not waste processing time and network bandwidth gathering that information. Note: Selecting only pertinent parameters will speed up scans, and save processing and network bandwidth when retrieving data (thereby not retrieving unwanted data). Now, let us walk through a typical Tivoli Inventory profile distribution scenario using the Tivoli Desktop. First you need to create a inventory profile (InventoryConfig). You create an inventory profile in a profile manager. Use profile managers to organize your profiles into logical groups. You can either create an inventory profile in an existing profile manager or create a new profile manager. For example, if you want to use profile managers to organize Tivoli profiles according to function, create a new profile manager named Inventory Profiles for all the inventory profiles in a policy region. On the other hand, if you have profile managers that organize targets according to operating system, you could create an inventory profile in each profile manager. Each profile could include a script or executable and scan instructions that are specific to the operating system of the systems in the profile manager. 1. From the profile manager select Create Profile (Figure 4-6). Note that you must have set InventoryConfig as a managed resource type for the policy region in which the profile manager resides.

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Figure 4-6 Inventory profile

2. Next, you need to configure the profile (Figure 4-7 on page 124). The Global Properties window is used to set the distribution and data options for the entire Inventory Profile. These options apply globally to all scans that this profile distributes (that is, PC hardware, software, and custom scans, as well as UNIX hardware, software, and custom scans). In this window you can enter:

Profile Name: Name of the current Inventory Profile. Distribution Options: What actions occur when you distribute a profile.
Distribute configuration file and run scan: (Default) Distributes the configuration file to the target endpoint, and then runs the scan on the endpoint. Choose this option when you want to scan the endpoint immediately. Distribute configuration file: Distributes the profile configuration file only, does not run the scan on the endpoint.

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Data Options: These options specify how the inventory data gathered by this
profile is stored in the configuration repository: Update with differences: (Default) Compares MIF files created during the current distribution with those from the previous distribution and saves the differences. Only data that has been added or changed since the last scan is transmitted and stored in the configuration repository. Data from previous scans that is not present in the current scan is deleted from the configuration repository. No record of changes is kept unless history tables are used. Select this option to reduce the amount of information that is sent to the configuration repository. Replace with current results: Replaces existing data in the configuration repository with the data gathered by this scan. In the Global Properties Signatures window you specify the software signatures stored in the configuration repository. Note: Software signature is the set of unique information that identifies a software application, such as the name, version, and file size of an application. Inventory uses software signatures to determine which software packages are installed on the machines you scan. When you run a software signature scan on an endpoint, Tivoli Inventory distributes the software signatures to the endpoint, and then compares each file on the endpoint to the list of software signatures. When a file matches, the software signature data for that file is sent to the configuration repository. Because only data for matching files is sent, this scan returns less data to the configuration repository than scans for basic file information or header information. Similarly, a signature package is a logical grouping of two or more signatures. During the Tivoli Inventory installation, over 19-K signatures are loaded into the database. From this window, you can edit or display software signatures. Finally the Global Properties Custom Filter window is used to view/edit the list of entries in the custom filter stored in the configuration repository.

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Figure 4-7 Configuring the Inventory profile

The next step is to customize what to scan. You can gather three sets of information with Tivoli Inventory: Hardware scan: Collect data from a list of parameters. Software scan: Collect data from a list of parameters. Custom scan: Additional script to find other hardware/software. There are different customization windows for PCs and UNIX and OS/400. You can also scan pervasive devices. For both UNIC and PC software scans you have the Scan for File Information. Here you can specify which directories and files will be included in the scan. You also specify whether to use signature matching for installed products, use the header information (for PCs only), or scan files for basic information. For PCs, an alternative way to scan for file information is to use Scan Registry for Product Information option. This initiates a scanner on the target endpoint. This registry scanner will scan the registry of the MS Windows platforms for information on installed products.

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On UNIX, there is no registry scan option, but you can use Scan Operating System for Product Information, which uses UNIX OS-specific commands to gather product and patch information. Note: Unlike hardware scans, software scans generally cannot be conducted on both PC and UNIX computers with one profile. There are too many differences between OS types in terms of directory structure, file naming conventions, case sensitivity, and executable file distinction methods. Separate profiles should therefore be created for them and housed in separate Profile Managers whose targets are PC or UNIX, as appropriate. All of your selections are reflected in the Summary of Profile Configuration Settings window. In the Distribution Options you can select the priority of the distribution and then after selecting the targets, you distribute the profile (Figure 4-8 on page 126). You need to have admin, senior, super, or the inventory_scan role to be able to distribute Inventory profiles. Note: The Tivoli Inventory profile utilizes the services of the Tivoli Framework and specifically the MDist2 functionality for distributions. The main feature that can be seen of MDist2 is the priority level selection presented to the user. These priority levels will allow higher priority distributions to be transferred to the targets first, and lower priority distributions (such as a full software package install) would be delayed slightly as the higher priority distribution is allowed access to the target.

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Select the Priority

Select the targets


Figure 4-8 Profile distribution from the Desktop

Note: If you want to distribute an inventory profile to a number of endpoints, but you want the distribution to fail for endpoints that have not received the profile before a certain time, you can use the Advanced Options Timeout Settings from the upper-right part of the menu on the distribution dialog. If you are using the command line (wdistinv command), you can use the deadline parameter of this command. You can configure Inventory to send information about events and errors that result from an inventory profile distribution to which the following locations: Log file Inventory notice group Tivoli Enterprise Console

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4.1.13 Custom scans


If none of the Tivoli-provided hardware scan methods gather the correct information, an additional option is available. The custom hardware scan will scan systems using a script written by the Tivoli Administrator to create a MIF file. It will run after other scans complete before MIF files are read. This script is OS specific for each target type. Use the following formats for each operating system: Shell - UNIX targets BAT file - Windows targets CMD - OS/2 targets Scripts are not supported on NetWare When distributing the profile to the target, the corresponding script will be run depending on the target type (UNIX or PC). Note again that the script will need to be written in a manner to run on each particular OS within these groups. For example, the UNIX script must be written to run on Solaris, AIX, HP-UX, etc., for each target's supported platform to which the profile is distributed. Therefore the script must check interpreter type and perform commands specific for that interpreter type (use a case/switch statement). Another example for the PC platform: The scripts must written for each target OS (Windows 9x, NT, OS/2, etc.). To maintain simplicity, multiple profiles (performing the same function) may be used to cover each of the target platforms (custom scan script for each OS interpreter). This can reduce the complexity of the scripts, and troubleshooting problems when they occur. Once you create the scan program to collect and write data to a custom MIF file, you should do the following before you can use inventory to collect this data: 1. Set an inventory profile to read the custom MIF file during a profile distribution. 2. Create tables in the configuration repository database to store the custom information collected. Tip: If you have added some custom tables to hold data from custom MIF files and want data from these tables to be deleted whenever the data from the relevant endpoints are deleted from the standard tables, add the custom tables to the INVENTORY_TABLES table.

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4.1.14 Isolated scans


An isolated scan is a scan of a system that is not in your Tivoli region. You can use the wepscan, winviso, and wloadiso commands to run isolated scans. You can also use an isolated scan method to scan unreachable and disconnected endpoints. The system could even be disconnected from the network. You can run isolated scans on supported Windows and UNIX systems except Linux for S/390. Using the winviso command, you can copy to an endpoint all of the files necessary to scan a disconnected system (libraries, executables, signatures, and so on). You can then copy files from the endpoint to the disconnected system and run an isolated scan on the disconnected system using the wepscan command. This creates a .DAT file that contains the scan data. This .DAT file is created in the $LCFROOT/inv/ISOLATED/depot directory. You must manually move the .DAT file from the disconnected system to the endpoint. You can then run the wloadiso command on the endpoint to send the scan data to the configuration repository.

4.1.15 Querying inventory data


The Tivoli Management Framework query facility enables you to create SQL statements to retrieve information gathered from inventory profile distributions. The query feature consists of query libraries and queries. Query libraries reside in policy regions and are created to contain queries. Each query is designed to retrieve a specific set of information from a specific view or table in the configuration repository. There are several pre-defined queries provided with Configuration Manager. You can also create your own queries. Inventory provides three sets of queries that access scan results in the configuration repository: The inventory queries retrieve different sets of hardware and software information from the configuration repository. For example, the INVENTORY_HWARE query returns basic hardware information about all machines. The pervasive queries retrieve different sets of hardware and software information about pervasive devices from the configuration repository. For example, PALM_CFG_QUERY returns configuration information for all Palm OS devices. The subscription queries that are provided with Inventory return lists of machines that meet the specifications of the query. For example, the AIX_SUBSCRIPTION query returns a list of machines that have an AIX operating system.

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The query libraries and queries that are provided with Inventory are created during the installation process.

Creating a query
When you create a query, you must specify the following on the Create Query dialog (Figure 4-9 on page 130):

Query Name: Name that is unique in the TMR Repository: Determines which tables and views you can use for the query Table/View Name: Table or view that you select determines which columns you can use for the query Chosen Columns: Within the table or view that are to be retrieved
You can also specify one or more clauses for the query in the following ways:

Where Clause section: To construct a SQL search clause that specifies which
information the query will return

Additional Clauses section: To enter complete SQL clauses


In order to create a query you need to have admin, senior, or super authority in the policy region in which the query is created. Similarly, to run a query you need to have senior, super, Query_execute, or Query_edit authority.

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Name must be unique in TMR Select view or table name Select columns to be returned Selection criteria Used to limit results If no limit, will return all data for given view/table and columns

Figure 4-9 Creating a query

It is also possible to use the command line. Use the following commands: wcrtqlib to create a query library wcrtquery to create a query wsetquery to change a query

4.2 Software Distribution component


The number of network-based Microsoft Windows workstations has increased tremendously over the past 10 years. With new client/server technologies, operating systems and application programs have become larger and much more complex. The process of installing and maintaining these new types of systems has become tedious and time-consuming. End users cannot be expected to be involved in this process, yet it is not cost-effective for an enterprise to have skilled system management personnel to carry out all installations. Another trend that is significantly changing software distribution is

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mobile users. These users are no longer permanently connected to a network and therefore pose some challenges for distribution of software. Todays software distribution issues are: High number of machines with different configurations and operating systems Systems located remotely Mobile users Limited resources (for example, bandwidth) Complex applications Tivoli Software Distribution provides a centralized software management system with which administrators can install and configure new applications, update existing software with newer versions, and synchronize software on distributed systems. The ultimate goal is to eliminate all human intervention at the target workstation.

4.2.1 Components of Tivoli Software Distribution


The Software Distribution component comprises the following main elements: Software package Source host Software Package Editor Pristine Tool Web Interface plug-in In the following sections you will find more details about these components.

Software package
A software package is defined as a file that contains a collection of objects and actions to be performed on a target machine. This file is prepared prior to distribution time. Actions in a software package fall into three separate categories:

Adding and removing objects: This category involves actions that add or remove something from the target system. Examples include adding and removing:
Files Services Registry keys Device objects

System actions: Several system actions are currently available for inclusion in software packages. These include:
Checking for disk space

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Restarting the target system Setting OS400 system values Inventory signature

Program actions: This category includes the execution of a variety of types of


programs. A user-defined program may be executed on a target as well as certain platform-specific executables such as: InstallShield programs Microsoft setup programs IBM configuration, installation, and distribution (CID) Solaris: Install Solaris package (Pkgadd and Patchadd) Install AIX package (installp) Install LINUX package (RPM)

Source host
This is the system on which software package definitions are stored. Any machine in a Tivoli environment can be a source host, provided Tivoli Management Framework and the Software Distribution component are installed. Important: Any managed node that is not an OS/2 or NetWare managed node can be used as a source host.

Software Package Editor


This is a Java-based graphical interface for creating and customizing software packages. You can use the Software Package Editor to: Create a new software package. Modify an existing software package to create a new one. Generate a software package automatically using differencing technologies (Autopack). Create a software package containing one of the following third-party native installation packages: Microsoft Systems Management Server package definition file Microsoft Software Installer file AIX package Solaris Operating Environment package Linux package InstallShield Configuration, installation, and distribution programs

You also use the Software Package Editor to arrange actions contained in the software package in the order in which they are to be performed on the target system.

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There are two versions of the Software Package Editor: Tivoli Software Distribution Endpoint Package Editor This version is installed on endpoints on which software packages will be created and tested. All functionality is available with this version. A software package file can be saved into any of the three formats using this editor. This is also called the Java Endpoint Package Editor. Note: For OS/400 Java Endpoint Package Editor is supported as a preparation site only. Tivoli Software Distribution Package Editor This version is installed on managed nodes and is primarily used for editing existing software packages. Software package blocks cannot be created or edited with this version. In addition, some functionality is not available with the Software Package Editor installed on managed nodes. Certain tools to automate the creation of software packages (AutoPack) and to make using third-party software easier are not available with this editor. Figure 4-10 shows the Tivoli Software Distribution Endpoint Package Editor.

Figure 4-10 Software Package Editor

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Pristine Tool
This is a tool for creating a repository and storing diskette images for installing an operating system remotely on a clean machine. The advantages of using the Pristine Tool are: Preparation and installation can be performed at different times. Installation can be performed almost completely unattended. Synchronizing reference models can be performed automatically.

Web Interface plug-in


This is software that enables software distribution, change management, and inventory operations to be performed across firewalls using the Web Interface service.

4.2.2 Software distribution process overview


The four phases of the software distribution process are the following (Figure 4-11): Preparation and testing Planning and administration Delivery of necessary files Software distribution operations are performed on the targets

Planning & Administration

Tivoli Server SD Server

TMA SD PrepSite

Delivery Execution of Software Distribution Operations

Gateway Repeater

Managed Node SD Source Host

TMA

TMA

TMA

Preparation & Testing

Figure 4-11 Four phases of software distribution process

We will cover these phases in detail in the following sections.

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Preparation and testing


Prior to distribution, a software package should be created and tested on a system similar to the eventual target machines. The Software Package Editor is Software Distribution's software packaging facility for creating and customizing software packages. The Software Package Editor window displays a graphical tree view of the software package and its contents. The method of launching the Software Package Editor differs, depending on whether it is launch from an endpoint or a managed node. For more detail, see the Users Guide for Tivoli Software Distribution, SC23-4711. Notes: See the following notes: Before launching the Software Package Editor on a UNIX system, enable host access to the X server by entering the xhost + command. Performance of the Software Package Editor can be degraded if remote drives that were not accessible when the Software Package Editor was launched have been mapped to the machine. In order to be able to create software packages, the absolute minimum roles are user role in the TMR and super role in the policy region that the packages are created. In order to create, clone, or delete the software package profiles, the required role that a Tivoli administrator must have is admin, senior, or super.

Different software package file types


There are three types of software package files: Software package block file (extension .spb) Zipped file with all source files necessary for distribution included. Contains files and commands. Any zip software can be used to view its contents (for example, Winzip). No need to collect files from the source host.

See Figure 4-12 on page 136.

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SPB file
SP file File_1 File_2

File_n

Figure 4-12 Software package block file

Note: Tivoli Software Distribution 3.6 and earlier versions used a file package instead of the software package format. To migrate a file package to a software package object, you must use the wfptosp command. Similarly, a Tivoli Software Distribution V3.6 file package object can be converted with the wfptosp command to a software package definition file. Migration of file package blocks and Autopack are the same as the file package definition file with the exception that no source files are required since these formats contain source files. File package block to a software package block migration must be done on the same platform on which it was created. For example, if a file package was created on a Windows NT platform, it must be migrated on a Windows NT TMR. Software package definition file (extension .spd) A text file that describes a software package. Contains a list of actions to be executed on the target. Can be updated with a text editor in place of using the Software Package Editor. Can be manipulated with scripts. Files are collected from the source host at distribution time.

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See Figure 4-13.


IBM Software Group | Tivoli software

The SPD File (cont.)


"TIVOLI Software Package v4.2.1 - SPDF" package name = "othello" title = "Othello application" version = "1.0" web_view_mode = "hidden"

Signature of SPD

add win_registry_key Add object parent_key = "HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SOFTWARE" key = "OTHELLO" add = y override_permissions = n Attribute value pair end end

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Soft Bundle Technical Sales Training

2004 IBM Corporation

Figure 4-13 Software package definition file

Software package file (extension: .sp) Internal binary version of the software package. Files are collected from the source host at distribution. See Figure 4-14 on page 138.

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SP file
Source Host

File_1 File_2
...

File_n

Figure 4-14 Software package file

The three different software package formats can be easily converted from one format to another, as shown in Figure 4-15 on page 139. The wconvspo command enables you to convert SPBs to SPs and vice versa. The wimspo and wexpspo commands enable the conversion from SP to SPD and vice versa, and from SPD to SPB and vice versa. Creating a software package in built format ensures that the data in the software package remain static between distributions at different times.

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wexpspo/wimpspo

SPD

Build SPB from SPD Export SPB to SPD

SPB

Cr ea te SP fro Ex m po SP rt D SP to SP D wexpspo/wimpspo

SP

SP to PB PB dS uil rt S B po Ex wconvspo

m fro

SP

Figure 4-15 Converting software packages from one format to another

Versioning
You can define a software package as versionable and specify whether it is a refresh package or a patch. Refreshes are not installed if a later version of the package is already installed. Patches are not installed unless the version to which the patch applies is already installed. The default policy of Tivoli Software Distribution allows the following naming format for software packages: sp_name^version, for example: office^1.0.0 notes^1.2a sp_name.version, for example: office.1.0.0 notes.1.2a Software package name and version numbers are separated by a karat (^) symbol or a dot (.). Version numbers, on the other hand, should be separated by dots (Figure 4-16 on page 140).

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Figure 4-16 Versioning

Dependencies
With software and hardware dependencies, you ensure that the package is installed only if the necessary prerequisites are satisfied. You can define an expression that makes the installation or removal of a software package dependent on meeting hardware and software prerequisites. Figure 4-17 on page 141 shows how you define the dependencies.

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Figure 4-17 Dependencies

Variables
Variables can be used to express any attribute value of type string contained in the software package, making a software package more generic for use on different target systems. For example, it is not necessary to create several software packages for different platforms. You can substitute the platform-specific information with variables and use the same software package for distribution to multi-platform networks.

Conditions
You set conditions on the actions contained in a software package or on the entire software package. Using conditions, you define the circumstances under which an action is executed. For example, you can specify which actions are to be executed on Windows NT with Service Pack 5 target systems and which are to be executed only on Windows NT with Service Pack 6 targets. Valid operators are: Comparison operators: >, >=, <, <=, ==, != Boolean operators: NOT, OR, AND

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Others: LIKE, CONTAINS

Disconnected command line


Before a software package is distributed, it should be tested. On preparation machines on which the Tivoli Software Distribution Java Endpoint Package Editor is installed, an administrator can use special disconnected commands to test any operation Tivoli Software Distribution would perform on an endpoint. The testing phase can also include testing in a practice TMR. The Software Package Editor provides a set of disconnected commands (Figure 4-18) that can be used to test the software package on the preparation machine.

w d crtsp w d u bld sp w d lssp w d instsp w d rm vsp w d cm m tsp w d u ndosp w d acptsp w d ve rsp w d instsp w d se tsps

C reate a n S P B file from an S P D file E xp ort an S P B file into S P D file List conte n ts of the local catalog In stall an S P B R em ove an S P C om m it an S P U nd o an S P In stall/R em ove A ccept a n u nd oab le Insta ll/R e m o ve V erify th e state of an S P R un A uto P ack snap sho ts/diffe rences R ecord ap plica tions not in stalled w ith SD

Figure 4-18 Disconnected commands

Autopack
Many actions can happen during the installation of an application. Registry keys may be added to a Windows system or a symbolic link might be added to a UNIX system. Determining what actions take place when an application is installed can be a difficult process. The autopack tool can automatically create a software package for any application installed on a Windows 98, Windows NT, OS/2 3.x, or UNIX platform. Below is a summary of Autopack functions: A tool to automate the creation of software packages. Detects file and system changes made by the installation of an application

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Can be accessed from the Software Package Editor on an endpoint or command line Is not accessible from the Software Package Editor on a managed node

Planning and administration


Prior to delivery, some planning and administration tasks must be completed. Profile managers, subscribers, and software distribution profiles must be created and organized. The software package created in the preparation and testing phase must be imported into the Tivoli Management environment. Plan and administer software distribution activities by: 1. Adding the software package profile to the managed resources of the policy region 2. Creating software package profiles in the context of a profile manager 3. Importing a software package into a software package profile 4. Managing subscribers 5. Distributing the software package (change management operations)

Software package profile


The software package profile is created within a profile manager. Profile managers act as containers for profiles and link the profiles to a set of resources called subscribers. Tivoli supports software packages only in the context of profile managers. Therefore, all tasks must be performed that involve setting up profiles in a profile manager. This step is not necessary if the software package was originally created or edited in the context of a Tivoli software package profile using the Software Package Editor on a managed node.

States of a software package profile


As shown in Figure 4-19 on page 144, there are three states of a software package profile: Empty, built, and not-built. The figure also shows the corresponding icons that you will see in the Tivoli Desktop for each profile state type.

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Empty
A software package object just created

Built
A software package object built during the import

Not Built
A software package object not built during the import Will be built at the time of distribution

The task of associating an SPD, SP, or SPB file with a software package profile is called Import (wimpspo).

Figure 4-19 States of a software package profile

Note: When importing a software package file or software package definition file into a software package object, the administrator can choose to build the software package immediately or leave it not built. The advantages of creating a software package in the not-built format are: You can revise the software package until the moment of distribution. It occupies a smaller amount of disk space. If you use the non-built format, you need to take into consideration that data may change on the source host, so subscribers may receive different data at a different time. Software packages should always be imported into the built state if you want to use the deporting functionality.

Delivery
After the planning and administration tasks have been completed, the delivery of the necessary files begins. The delivery step is performed by MDist 2. The steps of the software distribution delivery phase are illustrated in Figure 4-20 on page 145.

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1. Software distribution request submitted

Tivoli Server

2. Route the request

to the source host 4. Return a distribution ID

Tivoli Desktop

5. Return a distribution ID

Standalone Repeater

Source Host
3. Source host initiates the

distribution

Gateway/Repeater

6. Files distributed to endpoints

Gateway/Repeater

MDist 2

Endpoints

Endpoints

Figure 4-20 Steps of the software distribution delivery

The Software Distribution process uses the Frameworks MDist 2 service to deliver the files to the endpoint target: 1. An administrator submits a request to the Tivoli management region server from the Tivoli Desktop. 2. The Tivoli management region server routes the request to the appropriate source host. 3. The source host begins the distribution process. 4. The source host returns a distribution identification number to the Tivoli management region server. 5. The Tivoli management region forwards the distribution identification number back to the administrators Tivoli desktop. 6. Files are distributed down to the endpoints. The components in the figure are:

Source host: A system that holds all the files referenced by software packages
in the not-built state. Software packages already in the built state (software package blocks) will also reside on this system.

Repeater: Receives a single copy of data and fans out the distribution to the
next tier of clients. In Tivoli Software Distribution, endpoint gateways are automatically repeaters.

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Standalone repeater: A repeater that is not also a gateway.

Perform software distribution operations


The final phase of the software distribution process is the software distribution operations performed on the endpoints (Figure 4-21). Tivoli Software Distribution change management operations that you can perform on software package objects are shown in Figure 4-21.

Figure 4-21 Software distribution operations

These operations fully automate distributing, installing, and maintaining software, and are as follows:

Install: The install operation performs the actions contained in the software package. The actions executed by the install operation depend on the nature of the action. For example, while the install operation of the Add file action copies a file to the target file system, the install operation of the remove

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registry key action removes a registry key from the target system Windows registry.

Remove: The remove operation reverses object-related actions that add something. If a software package adds a file or registry key, the remove operation will remove that file or registry key. Conversely, if the software package has an action that removes a file, nothing will happen to replace that file during the remove operation. Actions to be performed during a remove action can be specified for program actions within the software package. Undo: Performing a remove operation does not necessarily return the system
to its previous state. For this reason, an undo operation is recommended where system files are involved in distributions. Executing an install operation in undoable mode creates a backup of everything necessary to return the system back to its previous state. An undo operation cannot be executed for an installed software package if it was not installed in undoable mode in the first place. An administrator can determine if an installation was performed in undoable mode by checking the state of the software package on the target. Note: The machine must have adequate space to create the backup; otherwise the installation will not occur.

Accept: The accept operation discards the resources needed to undo the
previous operation (backup copy). The accept operation, which frees up system resources, should be performed only when you are certain that you will not need to undo the previous operation. After running an accept operation, the previous operation is no longer undoable.

Commit: An install or remove operation can be submitted in transactional mode. In this case the operation is performed in two phases: The preparation phase and the commit phase. During the preparation phase, each action in the package prepares the conditions for the successful execution of the requested operation, which reduces the risk of failure during the commit phase. The commit operation causes all the updates established in the preparation phase to take effect. Verify: The verify operation verifies the consistency of the software package and the object on the target system. If the verify operation fails, the software package is placed in an error state. Load: The load operation loads the software packages on a repeater depot for subsequent distribution. This operation is valid for only built software packages.

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Note: A depot is a directory on the repeater that enables you to temporarily or permanently store data segments associated with distributions on the repeater. Every distribution flowing through a repeater is stored at least temporarily in the depot. The location of the depot parent directory is set by the rpt_dir repeater parameter. Use wmdist to view and set the parent directory of the depot. As mentioned, the load operation loads the software packages on a repeater depot for subsequent distribution. You can also use the command line for this purpose. The command to use is wldsp.

Unload: The unload operation removes software packages from a repeater


depot. This operation is valid for only built software packages. The software package state that results after an operation may vary based on the history of the package, that is, depending on what operations, such as install, have been previously performed on it. The state is represented by a five-character string. The overall state of a software package is represented by five letters (Figure 4-22 on page 149): *---- indicates the last operation that was performed on the software package, either I (install) or R (remove). -*--- indicates the state of the software package, either P (prepared) or C (committed). --*-- The undo state. The undo state can be one of three letters: P (prepared), U (undoable), or R (restored). ---*- A B indicates a reboot was requested. A dash (-) indicates a reboot was not requested. A D indicates that the software package was discovered using the wdsetsps. An H means the software package is hidden because a newer version of the software is installed in undoable mode. ----* An E indicates the software package is in error and might not work properly. A C indicates that the state of the software package is changing.

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States of a Software Package


Operation State Install Prepared Undo state Reboot/Disc/Hidden Prepared ReBoot requested D package was discovered using wdsetsps H Hidden, following an undoable install of a newer version Flag Changing

Remove

Committed Undoable Restored -

In Error -

IC--ICU-IP-BC RCU-IC--E IC-D-

An install has been committed. An install has been committed and can be undone. An install has been prepared and it will be committed during the next reboot. A remove has been committed, but it can be undone. An install has been committed, but the software package is in error. The software package was discovered by Inventory.

Figure 4-22 States of a software package

Install options
There are a number of install options when installing a software package and software package blocks (see Figure 4-23).

Figure 4-23 Install for software package block (left) and software package (right)

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Figure 4-23 on page 149 shows the installation window (when installing from the Tivoli Desktop) for a software package block (left) and a software package (right). Some of the important installation options are below:

Delta Install: Creates a software package that contains only the delta between the base software package and the software package to be installed. By creating and distributing a delta software package, network traffic is reduced. Label: Label of the distribution (can be seen from the wmdist -l command or
MDist GUI).

Source: Distributes only source host files that have been modified since last distribution time. This applies only to not-built software packages and to target machines where the software package has already been installed and committed. Repair: A distribution at some point may become damaged on the endpoint.
The distribution may have never successfully completed. Or the distribution was originally successful but files were modified, deleted, or corrupted since the distribution. A repair distribution is a distribution that includes only the files necessary to repair the endpoint. The software package is built specifically for the distribution. Since this is the case, only not-built software package objects can be used to repair a damaged distribution.

From Fileserver/CD: Rather than installing from the source host or from a depot, a software package can be installed from a file server or from a CD. The file server must not be a managed node.
First, a distribution image must be created using the wdepot command, which can then be transferred to a file server or onto a CD. Note: Installing from file server or CD options is useful if the endpoints are at the end of a slow link. Using these options, you can separate the data from the distribution itself and load the data on a dedicated file server or CD located in the same location as the target endpoints.

From Depot: Sends the software package from the depot. Disposable: Removes the software package block from the repeater depots after the distribution is complete. This saves disk space on the repeaters and reduces the need for you to manage the depot contents. Advanced Options: Sets the timeout setting or the notification settings of a
software package. Installing from a file server.

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4.3 Data Moving


The Data Moving Service is a service that was introduced in Software Distribution V4.1. The Data Moving Service enables the sending, retrieving, and deleting of files from target systems. Note: The Data Moving Service is supported on endpoints and users, but is not supported on devices. All data moving operations use the same software package object, DataMovingRequests.1. This object contains certain standard information to be used by all data moving operations, including logging options. If this object is not available, no data moving operation can be performed from the CLI or the Activity Planner. This object is normally created automatically, in the DataMovingProfile profile manager within the default policy region, when you install Software Distribution. However, you can create the object later by running the data moving command, wspmvdata. This command has two options: -A: This creates the DataMovingRequests.1 object in a profile manager that belongs to a region having SoftwarePackage as the managed resource. -p <profile manager>: This creates a DataMovingRequests.1 object in the specified profile manager. The Data Moving Service supports the following scenarios: Sending a file held in a central location to multiple destinations Retrieving a specific file from a series of locations and consolidating the retrieved files in a single, central location Deleting a specific file from a series of locations Moving a set of files from one endpoint to a number of endpoints So in essence, the following change management operations are available when you use the data moving functions of software distribution: Send, delete, and retrieve.

4.3.1 Using the Data Moving Service


To perform a Data Moving operation from the GUI, perform the following steps: 1. Open the DataMovingProfile in your policy region. 2. Right-click the DataMovingRequests.1 object to display a pop-up menu (Figure 4-25 on page 152).

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Figure 4-24 Data Moving Service dialog box

3. Let us assume we want to perform a send operation. Select the Send menu item. The Data Moving Service Send Operation dialog is displayed (Figure 4-24).

Figure 4-25 Data Moving dialog box

4. Fill in the dialog as appropriate and click Send to finish the operation.

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Note: These options are also available if you want to use the command line, instead of the GUI. The command to use is wspmvdata.

4.4 Enterprise Data Warehouse integration


The Tivoli Enterprise Data Warehouse is included with IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager V4.2.2. With Tivoli Data Warehouse, you can analyze historical trends from various Tivoli and customer applications. The Tivoli Data Warehouse infrastructure enables a set of extract, transform, and load (ETL) utilities to extract and move data from Tivoli application data stores to a central repository. Tivoli Configuration Manager loads a subset of its software distribution and inventory data into the Tivoli Enterprise Data Warehouse. The following reports will be provided with Tivoli Configuration Manager: Failed software distribution operations by package Success rate for distribution operations by package Software packages in a failure to verify status Failed distribution operation by workstation Distribution failures related to package size Failed operations history by distribution ID Software distribution operation results by subscriber Software distribution operation results by network address. The Tivoli Data Warehouse V 1.2 comes supplied with Crystal Enterprise Professional Version 9 for Tivoli (limited use version) to analyze and deliver out-of-the-box reports from the Tivoli Data Warehouse into the hands of decision-makers using a Web browser. Tivoli Data Warehouse provides the following report interfaces: Summary Health Check Extreme Case In order to integrate IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager V4.2.2 with the Tivoli Enterprise Data Warehouse you need to install the IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager Warehouse Pack using the Warehouse Install program. The recommended way for this is to select Application Installation Only in the Setup Type window during the installation of the Tivoli Enterprise Data Warehouse.

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Chapter 5.

Deployment Services
This chapter provides an overview of IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager 4.2.2 Deployment Services. The following topics will be covered in this chapter: Activity Planner on page 156 Change Manager on page 168 Enterprise Directory integration on page 176 Resource Manager and pervasive devices on page 183

Copyright IBM Corp. 2005. All rights reserved.

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5.1 Activity Planner


The Activity Planner is an IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager feature that enables you to define a group of activities in an activity plan, submit the plan to be executed, and monitor the execution of the plan. Activities are single operations that are performed on a set of targets at specified times. These can include Software Distribution operations, inventory scans, and Framework Task Library tasks. Activities contained in a plan can have dependencies associated with them that define the circumstances under which the activity should be executed. The execution of the operation defined in the activity is performed by the application to which the operation belongs. The group of activities forms the activity plan. Activity Planner, together with its components, is fully integrated into Tivoli Management Framework. A dedicated RIM interface, called planner (by default), is used to store and retrieve operation status and configuration information for plans and embedded activities on an RDBMS database. You can use the Activity Planner to perform the following tasks: Manage a group of activities, originating from different applications, as a single activity from a single machine in the network. Schedule the activity plan to run on a specific day and time, or to be repeated at specific time intervals, days of the week, or days of the month. Schedule the plan to repeat indefinitely. Schedule activities to run at specific time intervals during the week. Set conditions on activities so that the execution of one activity is dependent on the completion result of other activities. Save activity plans in a database to resubmit them at any future time. View a list of all submitted activity plans and retrieve information such as completion status of a specific activity plan, activity, or an activity for a specified target. Perform operations on activities and activity plans, such as cancel, pause, resume, and restart.

5.1.1 Activity Planner components


The Activity Planner components are: Activity Planner server: Installed on the Tivoli server.

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The Activity Planner User Interface which consists of the following: Activity Plan Editor (APE) Activity Plan Monitor (APM) The Activity Plan Editor is used to create activity plans, and the Activity Plan Monitor is used to monitor these plans. RDBMS: RIM object planner. Used to store: The definitions of the activity plans The status of the submitted activity plans Activity Plan Monitor administrator: It is used internally by the Activity Plan Monitor engine and added during the installation of the Activity Planner, swd_admin_regionname, login tivapm.

5.1.2 Roles required for the Activity Planner


The tasks you can perform using the Activity Plan Editor, Activity Plan Monitor, and CLI are restricted by the Tivoli management region roles assigned to you. Depending on the operations you are required to perform, you can have one or more of the following roles: APM_Admin APM_Edit APM_Manage APM_View Note: At least the Tivoli Framework role user is required to use the Activity Planner.

5.1.3 Types of activities


An activity plan is a group of operations or tasks performed on a set of targets at a scheduled time. A single operation or task in an activity plan is called an activity. Activities can perform: Software Distribution operations Inventory scans Management Framework Task Library tasks Activities can also be dependent upon the result of other activities.

5.1.4 Activity Plan Editor


You launch both the Activity Plan Editor and the Activity Plan Monitor GUIs from the Tivoli desktop (Figure 5-1 on page 158).

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Figure 5-1 Activity Planner GUIs

Double-click the Activity Plan Editor icon to open up the Activity Plan Editor. To define an activity using the Activity Plan Editor, specify the following: The name of the activity A brief description of the activity The type of operation the activity will perform on a set of targets Properties related to the type of operation Targets of the activity (if not specified at the activity plan level) Activities that perform Tivoli Software Distribution operations are represented in the Activity Plan Editor main window by an icon that displays a box with an inserted CD-ROM. Activities that perform Tivoli Management Framework tasks are represented in the Activity Plan Editor main window by an icon that displays a timer, a schedule, and a pencil. Activities that perform Tivoli inventory scan tasks are represented in the Activity Plan Editor main window by an icon that displays a magnifying glass.

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Figure 5-2 shows a sample activity plan.

Figure 5-2 Sample activity plan

You can save activity plans that you prepared using the Activity Plan Editor as any of the following: Drafts, if they are not yet complete Templates, if they are complete XML files Note: You can also use this format when creating an activity plan with a text editor. It is also possible to start creating your activity plan from the GUI, save it as XML file, and than perform additional changes on the XML file. Draft plans and templates are stored in their respective repositories in the activity plan database, but only templates are made available for submission.

Assigning targets to an activity plan


In addition to endpoints, users and devices could be the targets of an activity plan.

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You can assign targets at the activity level or at the activity plan level. However, if you assign targets for each individual activity, you cannot specify targets at the activity plan level. If you assign targets at the activity plan level, the targets apply to all of the contained activities, and no other targets can be specified at the activity level. You can assign targets in one of the following ways: A list of target names A file name containing a list of target names An inventory subscriber A query library subscriber A profile subscriber A directory query library subscriber A pristine target subscriber Tivoli Configuration Manager provides a dynamic target resolution capability. If this feature is enabled, the targets for an activity will be resolved when the activity is started and not when the activity plan is submitted. For example, when a query directory is used to select the targets of an activity, the query directory will be executed when the activity is submitted.

Conditioning the execution of activities


The execution of an activity can be dependent upon the result of the execution of one or more activities in the same activity plan. Assume that an activity plan consists of two activities, Activity A and Activity B. A condition can be set on Activity B, the conditioned activity, related to the outcome of the execution of Activity A, the conditioning activity, that dictates when Activity B is executed on its targets. You can condition the result of the execution of Activity A on all its targets using one of the following classifications:

Completion: The execution of Activity B is performed when the operation


defined in Activity A completes, regardless of whether it completes successfully or with an error.

Success: The execution of Activity B is performed only if the operation defined


in Activity A completes successfully with no error.

Failure: The execution of Activity B is performed if the operation defined in Activity A fails with an error.
The execution of Activity B depends on the completion of Activity A on all of the targets defined in Activity A. The operation specified in Activity B is executed when Activity A has completed execution on all its targets.

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A completion percentage of targets can be specified. For example, you can specify to execute Activity B when Activity A has completed executing on 50 percent of its targets. Note: If you want an activity plan to stop if there is a software distribution error, the stop on error setting should be warning for the activity plan. In addition to conditioning the execution of Activity B based on the result of Activity A, you can specify the targets on which the specified result must occur. You can specify one of the following:

All: The execution of Activity B depends on the execution of Activity A on all


of the targets defined in Activity A. The operation specified in Activity B is executed when Activity A has completed execution on all its targets. A completion percentage of targets can be specified.

Target: The execution of Activity B on target X depends on the execution of


Activity A on target X. The operation specified in Activity B is executed on target X when Activity A has completed execution on target X, without waiting for the remaining targets to complete. Note: Conditioning by target is not supported for users and devices.

Depot: The execution of Activity B on a set of targets sharing the same depot depends on the execution of Activity A on the specified depot. The operation specified in Activity B is executed on target X when Activity A has completed execution on the specified depot.
Note: Conditioning by depot is available only if the conditioning activity is a Load, Unload, or Task Library activity, and if the conditioned activity is addressed to endpoints sharing the specified depot. You can define a final activity in the plan that is executed when all other activities in the plan have either completed or have been canceled.

Sorting activities in order of execution


You can also sort activities in the order in which they start. To do this select Edit Sort Activity from the Activity Plan Editor window. Only activities without conditions can be sorted. Conditioned activities have a predefined order of execution and cannot be modified using the Activity Sort dialog, which is shown in Figure 5-3 on page 162.

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Figure 5-3 Sort Activity dialog

Scheduling when to execute an activity


You can schedule activities to run on specific days of the week and within a specified time frame such as only during the day, during the night, on weekdays, or weekends. To do this right-click an activity in the Activity Plan Editor window and select Execution Windows. The execution window (Figure 5-4 on page 163) enables you to specify a time frame, at the activity level, within which the activity is to be executed. You can specify more than one execution window for each activity. Note: The time refers to the time on the managed node where the plan is created.

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Figure 5-4 Execution window

5.1.5 Activity Plan Monitor


An activity plan saved as a template can be accessed using the Activity Plan Monitor GUI and submitted for execution. The plan is then stored in a submitted state in the activity plan database. Only plans stored as templates or plans in the submitted state can be accessed. Activity Plan Monitor collects information about: A list of submitted plans The activities for each plan Target information Plan or activity detailed status Activity status for a specific target Start date/time of the plan Complete date/time of the plan For each plan or activity, the possible statuses are: Successful/started/waiting/held by condition Paused/pause pending/resume pending Cancel pending/canceled/failed

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Activity Plan Monitor is launched from the Tivoli Desktop. Figure 5-5 shows the steps to submit a plan. Select Plans Submit from the menu of the Activity Plan Monitor window to submit a plan. The Select plan for submission dialog box is displayed.

Figure 5-5 Activity Plan Monitor - Plan submission

The General page is displayed by default. Before submitting the plan for execution you can edit the attributes that were defined at the time the plan was created. The modifications are applied only to the current submission instance and have no effect on the template If you click the Execution Time tag, you can specify an execution time at the plan level as opposed to activity level, which was discussed in Scheduling when to execute an activity on page 162. An activity plan can be scheduled to run more than once. Select the Frequency tab for this purpose. You can specify to repeat the execution of a plan in days, months, at a specific date interval, or a time interval. When you specify to execute an activity plan recursively, each time the plan is executed, an instance of the plan is submitted for execution. The reference point from which the recursion begins is the start not before time specified on the Execution Time page.

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Finally in the Plan Submission Parameters notebook you can define new variables, change values previously assigned to variables, and specify the targets for the plan to be submitted. From the Plan Properties notebook, select the Variables tab for specifying a variable.

Monitoring the execution


You can use the Activity Plan Monitor to pause, resume, cancel, and restart activity plans, activities, and targets for plug-ins that support this option, by performing the following steps: 1. From the Activity Plan Monitor window (Figure 5-6), select an activity plan, a target, or an activity. 2. Select either the Pause, Resume, Restart or Cancel option from the Selected menu.

Figure 5-6 Monitoring the execution

The Activity Plan Monitor GUI will provide an overview of the status of each activity of a submitted plan. This GUI will not provide any details about the MDist 2 distribution, such as a time spent chart or a distribution topology graph. However, a button on the Activity Plan Monitor GUI will automatically launch the MDist 2 GUI, showing the details for the activity that was selected in the Activity Plan Monitor GUI below.

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Figure 5-7 Launching MDist 2 GUI from the Activity Plan Monitor GUI

Updating the status of an activity plan


You can set the Activity Plan Monitor to automatically update and display the current status of all plans and activities, or have the Activity Plan Monitor update upon request. The data displayed in the window is reloaded with the current data in the activity plan database.

Deleting submitted activity plans


Using the Activity Plan Monitor, you can delete the status of a submitted plan, or a specific instance of a recursive plan that has completed, from the list of activity plans displayed in the main window of the Activity Plan Monitor.

Cleaning up the database


To eliminate plans from the activity plan database that have been submitted and completed, you can use the Activity Plan Monitor to schedule a cleanup operation. You can use the force option to eliminate plans in states other than completed states. Cleanup operations can be scheduled to occur at any of the following times: Immediately One time only on a specific day and at a specific time Particular days of the week Particular days of the month A date interval A time interval

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To define the plans you want to remove, you can specify any of the following options: Plans with a particular status (canceled, failed, successful) Days elapsed since plans completed Days elapsed since plans started Plans with a specific age When all the cleanup parameters have been set, the Activity Plan Monitor relies on the Tivoli Management Framework Scheduler to perform the cleanup.

5.1.6 Activity Planner commands


The CLI interface is a textual interface that you use to manage an activity plan in the activity plan definition file format and manage the activities defined in the activity plan. An activity plan definition file is a file in Extensible Markup Language (XML) format. The XML file is made up of components called elements. Tags are used to describe elements. A start tag marks the beginning of an element, and an end tag marks the end of the element. Elements can contain other elements. The element that contains all of the other elements is known as the root element. The elements that are contained in the root element are called subelements and they also may contain other subelements. The activity plan definition file makes use of this structure to define activity plans. The root element in this file begins with the <activity_plan> tag and ends with the </activity_plan> tag. The information nested between these tags defines what type of element it is. This information is called the element-type name. The elements and subelements specified in the activity plan definition file define information such as: Activities to be performed Time of execution of the plan Plan recursion information Target systems of a plan or activities The commands used by the Activity Planner are categorized below. The following commands are used to name the activity plans: wcntpln controls the execution of a specified activity plan or the activities contained within it. wsubpln submits an activity plan to the Activity Planner engine for execution. wupdpln updates an activity plan that has been submitted, but has not yet started. wgenpln, after a failure, generates a new plan containing only the failed activities for all failed nodes

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The following commands are used to monitor activity plans: wdelstat removes the status of a submitted plan. wmonpln displays the status for all activities in an activity plan. wsfdpln sets filters to automatically remove completed activity plans from the activity plan database. The following commands manage the Activity Planner database: wapmfltr specifies one or more filters to be applied to plans, targets, or activities. wdelpln removes an activity plan from the activity plan database. wexppln exports an activity plan stored in the activity plan database in the activity plan definition file XML format. wimppln imports a specified activity plan in XML file format into the activity plan database. wlstpln returns a list of the activity plans maintained in the activity plan database. wunlockpln displays a list of locked plans and unlocks plans currently locked.

5.2 Change Manager


The Change Manager component of Tivoli Configuration Manager V4.2.2, together with Activity Planner, supports software distribution management and change management in a large network environment. Change Manager works with Activity Planner to manage specified groups of users, workstations, or devices as single subscriber entities. The core concept of Change Manager is the reference model. A reference model associates configuration elements with subscribers. Configuration elements define hardware and software requirements. Subscribers can be users, groups of users, or the workstations or devices they use. After defining a reference model, an activity plan can be generated, including all the tasks needed to ensure that the subscribers of the reference model will meet all the requirements of the configuration elements.

Reference model structure


The Change Manager reference model structure, as shown in Figure 5-8 on page 169, represents the relationships between the software and hardware requirements of different categories of users in your organization. The reference model is made up of component models organized in a hierarchical structure.

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The root level defines requirements that are common to all users, and the child models define additional specific requirements that apply only to a particular group of users.

All Employees

Support Staff

Software Developers

Managers
Endpoints

C++ Developers
Endpoints

Java Developers
Endpoints

Figure 5-8 Reference model structure

Configuration elements
Configuration elements are associated with each reference model and use the concept of desired state to define the hardware and software requirements of subscribers to the reference model. For each registered plug-in, a configuration element is uniquely and completely identified by the name/desired state pair. The configuration elements available depend on the set of plug-ins you have registered. When you want to add a configuration element to a reference model, you must specify the elements name and the desired state. The only exception to this is when you want to add an InventoryData element. InventoryData elements do not require you to specify a desired state because this element only checks for information and has no desired state to reach. Configuration elements defined for models at the top of the hierarchy are inherited by those lower in the hierarchy. The types of configuration elements are:

Software Distribution elements: A Software Distribution (SWD) element


represents the Software Distribution element as defined in the Tivoli Software Distribution environment. Change Manager retrieves the software package current status from the Tivoli configuration database and produces the actions necessary to reach the desired state.

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Inventory data elements: An Inventory data element verifies the reference model against the Inventory database, for example, for hardware requirements or sets of requirements. To create an Inventory element, you define an expression that includes, for example, one or more hardware characteristics, such as physical memory size, and software characteristics, such as installed software. Inventory scan elements: An inventory scan element enables you to perform software and hardware scans of subscriber machines. To create an inventory scan element, you define a profile that includes one or more scan characteristics. Operating System elements: An Operating System element enables you to
perform operating system and TMA installations on pristine or bare metal machines. A SWD element can be made conditional on a software dependency. A software dependency is defined as one of the following: Prerequisite, where the changes required by the element are only made if the dependency condition is true Exrequisite, where the changes required by the element are not made if the dependency condition is true Corequisite, where the changes required by the element can only be made as part of a sequence that includes the requirement defined in the dependency condition

Selecting subscribers
Configuration Manager provides multiple ways to select subscribers: Specifying a CSV (Comma Separated Value) file Specifying a Profile Manager Specifying individual targets Defining an SQL query on the Tivoli Inventory configuration database Enterprise Directory Query Facility: Selecting reference model subscribers using a directory query The subscribers to a reference model are the workstations, OS elements, devices, and users that you want to be configured to match the hardware and software requirements defined for the model. Figure 5-9 on page 171 shows how to select subscribers.

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Figure 5-9 Selecting subscribers

Differencing mechanism
Change Manager creates required actions by using a differencing mechanism (Figure 5-10 on page 172) that compares the current state of each element on the specified subscribers with the desired states defined in the reference model. The Change Manager differencing mechanism produces the actions necessary to arrive at the desired state for each element on each target assigned to it, in the form of an activity plan. The activity plan contains a list of actions necessary to attain the desired state and is submitted to the Activity Planner or imported to the Activity Planner database for scheduling.

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Reference Model

Differencing

Activity Planner
Figure 5-10 Differencing mechanism

Change Manager includes two functions that use a differencing mechanism to produce a list of the actions required to bring subscribers to the desired state defined in a reference model. These functions are Preview Activity Plan and Submit Activity Plan. When you preview or submit an activity plan, the differencing mechanism creates an activity plan listing all the actions requested to move the configuration elements to their desired state. The Preview function simply displays the activity plan in a window so you can preview the changes that are going to take place. The Submit function allows you to set other Activity Plan Manager (APM) specific parameters before it submits the plan to APM for processing. By default Change Manager synchronizes a reference model to create the associated activity plan by considering all the configuration elements specified in the model and creating the actions related to those elements. However, the full synchronization feature allows you to perform a further step in the synchronization process. In general, Change Manager synchronization creates the requested actions related to the listed elements as in the default behavior. When it does this, it also creates a new set of actions related to all the elements already present on the selected subscribers though not listed in the current reference model, in order to revert the state of such elements. In the case of Software Distribution elements, reverting means to uninstall, or to remove the software element, or package, from the target machine. This does not necessarily mean that such actions will all involve actual remove actions. The required action will depend on the actual state of the package on the target machine. Thus, for a Software Distribution element, when you select the full synchronization option, Change Manager creates a set of actions to remove from the subscribers all the software packages not listed in the reference model being synchronized.

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5.2.1 Change Manager components


When you have completed the installation and configuration of Change Manager, the following Change Manager components are present: Change Manager Java GUI on the managed nodes where the Java GUI component has been installed. The stable.xml file, when you have registered the Software Distribution plug-in. This file is used by the differencing mechanism to determine the actions required to bring a software distribution element to the desired state. For more information see the stable.xml file. The invtable.xml file, when you have registered the InventoryScan plug-in. This file is used by Change Manager when the differencing mechanism is applied to Inventory configuration elements. For more information see the invtable.xml file. The ostable.xml file when you have registered the Pristine Manager plug-in. The ostable.xml file is the basis on which Change Manager can determine the actions to be taken to bring a subscriber to the Installed state defined in the operating system element. For more information see the ostable.xml file. The first time Change Manager is run, the confccm.xml file is created. This file defines the configurable components of Change Manager, for example: Persistence information (the RIM name) Trace information Log information Plug-in information

5.2.2 Sample Change Manager scenario


One very useful feature of Change Manager is to be able to create a reference model from a target. Let us walk through this scenario: 1. Launch the Change Manager GUI from the Tivoli Desktop. You can also use wccmgui command to start the Change Manager graphical user interface from the CLI. 2. From the Edit menu, select Create reference model from target. 3. The Properties dialog box is displayed (Figure 5-11 on page 174). On the Properties dialog box, the availability of the Hardware and Software check boxes and their associated configuration elements depends on the plug-ins you have registered. 4. In the Name text box, enter the name you want to give the new reference model. Optionally, you can also enter version and description information in the Version and Description text boxes.

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5. If the new model is to be a new root model, select the Create new root check box. 6. In the Target name field, enter the name of the target from which you are creating the new reference model. 7. Use the radio buttons below the Target name field to specify the appropriate target type. If you selected the endpoint subscriber type, you can browse the endpoints. If you selected the device type, the navigator is disabled since it is not possible to navigate the individual device instances. If you selected the user type, the navigator displays the association between a user and the related endpoint. 8. Select the Hardware check box if you want the new model to perform checks on the selected hardware configuration elements from the target. If you select this check box, you must also select the specific hardware elements you want included. 9. Select the Software check box if you want the new model to include all the target's software configuration elements. 10.Click OK. Change Manager creates the new reference model with the name you specified in the Name field.

Figure 5-11 Creating reference model from target

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11.When you have finished building the reference model, you can export it to an XML file format. In this format, you can read the file and edit it in any standard text or XML editor and reimport the file to Change Manager. To export a reference model to xml format, perform the following steps: 1. Go to the main Change Manager window, and from the File menu select Export. The Export settings dialog box appears, as shown below.

Figure 5-12 Exporting a reference model

2. In the Reference model definition file (XML) field, enter the name you want to give the XML file. 3. Select the Include inherited elements check box if you want to export elements the model inherited from the parent model. Select the Export single reference model check box if you want to export only the selected reference model itself and no child models. These check boxes are optional, so you can select one, both, or neither. If you select neither check box, the model is exported with its child models, and without elements inherited from the parent model. 4. Click OK. The reference model is exported in XML format to the specified file. Next you need to select the subscribers for your reference model.

Modifying reference models


After you have created and saved a reference model, you can make changes to it to reflect new requirements. For example, once a reference model has been used to generate the actions required to bring subscribers to a required state, you can change the requirements by adding or modifying configuration elements.

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Note: When using the Change Manager, if you remove the parent reference model, children reference models are automatically removed.

5.3 Enterprise Directory integration


Enterprise Directory Services enable a Tivoli administrator to access information stored in an directory server, for example, a Windows 2000 Active Directory server. The information in the directory server can be used to select specific targets for Activity Plan Monitor activities or subscribers for Change Manager reference models. The information in the directory server is retrieved using the Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP). The LDAP protocol uses TCP/IP and is optimized for read performance. Currently, Directory Query Services support the following three directory servers: Windows 2000 Active Directory Novell Directory Server for NetWare Version 6 IBM SecureWay Directory Server Version 4.1 The Tivoli Resource Manager component is used to retrieve information about the users and the associated endpoints from the LDAP server. After the installation of the Tivoli Resource Manager, the directory schema scripts are available on the TMR server to be copied and executed on the LDAP server. Once these scripts are run on the LDAP server, the Enterprise Directory schema is changed to accept Tivoli attributes, such as: tmeObjectId tmeObjectLabel tmeTrmId Also, After a successful installation of the Tivoli Enterprise Directory Query on the TMR server, three new resources are created. They are: QueryUserInfo QueryDirectory QueryDirectoryLibrary Users are associated with endpoints in a one-to-one relationship and the mapping is stored in the LDAP server. Resource Manager enables you to view the association between a user and an endpoint. Tivoli Resource Manager enables you to distribute software packages, using Software Distribution, to the endpoints that are associated with users by

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distributing the profile to a Resource Group of users. Similarly, you can distribute an Inventory profile to a Resource Group of users to scan the endpoints associated with the users. After the Directory Query Services product has been installed on the Tivoli management region server, the directory server schema has to be modified. This has to be done manually on the directory server. Note: The directory server requires no specific Tivoli software; it does not have to be a managed node or Tivoli endpoint. The directory schema has to be modified using the ldifde command (which is available on the directory server) and an LDAP Data Interchange Format (LDIF) file. The LDIF template file is provided on the Tivoli management region server in $BINDIR/TAS/QueryDir/SCRIPTS. The template file has to be edited, and the correct directory context has to be provided. After running the ldifde command on the directory server, the Enterprise Directory schema is changed to accept three new attributes: tmeObjectId, tmeObjectLabel, and tmeTrmId. These attributes will be used to link directory users to Tivoli endpoints (tmeObjectId and tmeObjectLabel) or Tivoli Resource Manager devices (tmeTrmId).

5.3.1 Exchanging data with a directory server


In order to exchange data with a directory server, a DirectoryContext object should be used. A DirectoryContext object is comparable to a RIM object. The DirectoryContext object contains the settings needed to access the directory server, just like a RIM object contains the settings to connect to an RDBMS. Connections to the directory server are always initiated from the directory server (RIM can use different RIM hosts). The installation of the Directory Query Facility creates one default DirectoryContext object named directory. Other DirectoryContext objects can be created later; these can be used to access different directory servers. Note that the Tivoli Resource Manager uses the directory DirectoryContext object hardcoded (this setting cannot be changed).

5.3.2 Manipulating DirectoryContext objects


DirectoryContext objects are managed using the command line interface; no GUI is available to create, configure, or remove DirectoryContext objects.

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The wcrtdirctx command is used to create a directory query context. The syntax is:
wcrtdirctx [-i] -s server -u user -c naming_context [-f provider] [-p port] [-P ssl_port] [-S y|n] [-k keystore_path] directory_context_name

Where: i input Specifies that the password must be read from standard input. s server Specifies the server. u user Specifies the directory server administrator or a user with equivalent authority. c naming_context Specifies the naming context to use for the search. f provider Specifies the java class name that identifies the directory access protocol. The default is "com.sun.jndi.ldap.LdapCtxFactory". p port Specifies a server port for a non-secure connection. If not specified, the default value 389 is used. P ssl_port Specifies a server port for a secure (SSL) connection. If not specified, the default value 636 is used. S y|n Enables the Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) between the directory server and the Tivoli region. Y specifies enable, n specifies do not enable. If not specified, SSL is disabled. k keystore_path Specifies the path of the keystore containing the certificates used during an SSL connection. If you specify this option you must also specify the keystore_path password. dirquery_context_name Specifies the name of the new directory query context.

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For example, to create a directory query context named firea3ctx for a connection to a Novell server directory:
wcrtdirctx -s armando.enterprise.com -u cn=admin,o=context1 -c o=context1 -p 389 novellctx

In this example port 389 is the TCP port for LDAP service. cn= and dc= is standard syntax for LDAP queries. o=context1 is the Novell directory context for users of the Novell Directory domain. After the DirectoryContext object has been correctly configured, the wmanagedir command can be used to update the information of the Enterprise Directory. This command is used to link Tivoli endpoints to directory users. An endpoint can only be linked to one user, and a user can only be linked to one endpoint (one-to-one relationship). The purpose of linking endpoints to users is to be able to retrieve Tivoli endpoints from the Enterprise Directory, based on information contained in the Enterprise Directory. This is done using directory queries, for example, a directory query that selects all endpoints of users in the marketing department. For more information on wmanagedir and other Enterprise Directory integration commands refer to IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager: User's Guide for Deployment Services, SC23-4710.

5.3.3 Directory query libraries and query directories


Directory query libraries and query directories are similar to Inventory query libraries and queries. A directory query library is a collection of directory queries. A query directory enables you to find information about users or endpoints defined in the Enterprise Directory. Query directories can be used to retrieve any available data from the Enterprise Directory or they can be used to select subscribers. The subscribers queries can be used to specify the targets for an Activity Plan Monitor activity or to select the subscribers for a Change Manager reference model. Before you can create a query directory, you must create a directory query library. A directory query library is used to group similar query directories. Directory query libraries can be created from the GUI or by using the wcrtdirquerylib command as shown in Figure 5-16 on page 183. Directory query libraries are created within a policy region, and the administrator creating the library requires the super or the senior authorization role on the policy region.

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CLI: wcrtdirquerylib
Figure 5-13 Creating a directory query library

After creating the directory query library, a Directory Query can be created from the GUI or by using the wcrtdirquery command (authorization role admin, senior, or super). See Figure 5-14.

Figure 5-14 Creating a directory query

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Note: The scope scrolling list in Figure 5-14 on page 180 specifies the point in the directory tree hierarchy at which you begin the search. Possible values are: object The search if performed only on the specified object one level The search if performed on one level of the tree subtree The search if performed on the specified tree and on all the descendent directories Unlike Inventory queries, query directories cannot be used to set the subscribers of a profile manager or to select the targets for a Tivoli profile distribution (software package profile, Inventory profile, Monitoring profile, and so on). Query directories can only be used to select the targets of an Activity Plan Monitor activity or to select the subscribers of a Change Manager reference model. If you want to create a subscriber Directory Query, you should at least specify the tmeObjectId and the tmeObjectLabel.

Integration with the Activity Planner


Figure 5-15 on page 182 shows an example of using a query directory to select the targets of an Activity Planner activity.

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Query is executed when plan is submitted or when activity is submitted.


Figure 5-15 Integration with the Activity Planner

When selecting the query directory, the user can specify when the query should be executed: When the plan is submitted When the activity is started For testing purposes, the query can be executed using the Get result button. It is important to note that you should always select the tmeObjectLabel in the attributes section. The attribute you select is the actual data that will be passed to the activity for determining the targets.

Integration with the Change Manager


Figure 5-16 on page 183 shows the usage of a directory query to select the subscribers of a Change Manager reference model. With Change Manager, you have the possibility to include or exclude the targets selected by the query directory. This option is not available with Activity Planner.

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Directory query is executed when the reference model is synchronized.

Figure 5-16 Integration with the Change Manager

5.4 Resource Manager and pervasive devices


Resource Manager, a service that runs on the Tivoli server, extends the Tivoli Management Framework to manage various types of resources. Resource Manager adds a fourth tier of resources to the three-tier Tivoli architecture of Tivoli server, gateway, and endpoint. Resources can be pervasive devices or users.

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Figure 5-17 Pervasive Devices Integrated in a Tivoli Environment

Resource Manager enables you to manage resources in your Tivoli environment. Resources can be users and pervasive devices, such as Palm devices, Nokia 9200 Communicator series devices, and Windows CE devices. You can keep track of devices in your environment and customize their settings from a central location. You can also distribute software to and scan inventory of pervasive devices and the endpoints associated with users. Resource Manager, which is installed on the Tivoli server, maintains a master database of the pervasive devices that are managed by the resource gateways. Resource gateways are endpoints that have applications that extend the Tivoli endpoint to manage pervasive devices. In Tivoli Configuration Manager 4.2.2, the only supported resource gateway is Web Gateway. Gateways that have the Resource Manager gateway component installed connect the Tivoli server with the resource gateways. Each resource gateway maintains an independent Web Gateway database. Resource Manager notifies the Web Gateway databases of any changes to the master database and vice versa.

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For example, when you create or delete a device in the Resource Manager database, Resource Manager notifies the Web Gateway database on the endpoint managing the device to update its database. When a new device connects, it is automatically enrolled and Web Gateway notifies Resource Manager to update its database. Note: As a resource type, the Pervasive_Device resource type is used for pervasive devices.

5.4.1 Choosing where to install the Resource Manager components


On the Tivoli management region server install the Resource Manager component. On managed nodes, install the Resource Manager Gateway component. Install the Resource Manager Gateway component on any gateway that communicates with endpoints where the Web Gateway component is installed. This component relies on a RIM object and relies on configured tablespace in the trm repository. The Resource Manager component is also used to manage the users defined in an LDAP server.

5.4.2 Web Gateway installation


This installation program installs: The Web Gateway components (database and server) to perform device management The Web Interface components (the interface and component plug-ins) to perform configuration management operations from a Web browser Did you create the dmsadmin and dmsuser system accounts on this computer system? Yes No If you selected No, you must create these system accounts in order to properly install Web Gateway.

5.4.3 Web objects


The Configuration Manager Web Interface allows Web users to perform operations using Web objects. Web objects can be: Software packages Inventory profiles Reference models

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Before a Web object can be used, it has to be published. This process grants access rights to those users who want to access the object, and copies it to a server from where it can be accessed by means of the Web. To publish and unpublish Web objects use the wweb command (there is no GUI equivalent, so this must be from a CLI). This command allows you to give access to a specified Web object to one user, several users, a list of users, or to grant unrestricted access to all users. The Tivoli Web Gateway component maintains a list of enrolled devices. Scalable Collection Service is used to return notification of resource management operations.

5.4.4 Registering the resource types


To register the resource types with which you will work, run a script to start each type. These scripts are installed in the directory $BINDIR\TRM, when you install Resource Manager. RegisterUser.sh To start the User resource type. You must have Enterprise Directory Query Facility installed before you run this script. RegisterPervasive.sh To start the Pervasive resource type.

5.4.5 Associating endpoints with the resource gateway


You need to associate only endpoints that are resource gateways and that have devices connected to them. To associate endpoints with the resource gateway, use the wresgw add command. For example, to associate a resource gateway of the type Web Gateway with the endpoint rvargas, enter the following:
wresgw add rvargas -C TWG

To manage resource gateways from any managed node in interconnected regions, you must run the wresgw add command from each region.

5.4.6 Enrolling pervasive devices


When you connect a device to a PC, it is registered in the Web Gateway database. With automatic enrollment, these resources are automatically registered in the Resource Manager database. Devices must be registered in the Resource Manager database (enrolled or created) to enable them to be managed in the Tivoli environment.

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5.4.7 Installing and configuring devices for resource manager


You will find instructions for installing and configuring devices to work with Web Gateway and Resource Manager.

Installing the device agent for Nokia 9200 Communicator


The Nokia 9200 Communicator series devices include the Nokia 9210 Communicator, the Nokia 9210i Communicator, and the Nokia 9290 Communicator. Web Gateway supplies a device agent and plug-in for the Nokia 9200 Communicator series devices. The plug-in resides on the Web Gateway server. The device agent resides on a host PC. For management tasks, a Nokia 9200 Communicator series device is connected to a host PC through a serial or infrared connection. For a Nokia 9200 Communicator series device, Nokia supplies a management application called PC Suite. This application is installed on the host PC. Some synchronization tasks you can do with the PC Suite application are the following: Share data between the host PC and the device. Back up files from the device to the host PC. Copy and move files between the host PC and the device Nokia also supplies as an add-on application to PC Suite called Administrator Suite. Administrator Suite provides the following: A programming interface used by the device agent. A graphical user interface to set values for configuration parameters for a Nokia 9200 Communicator series device. The values are saved in XML format in a configuration file on the host PC. The configuration file can be sent to Nokia 9200 Communicator series devices as a software distribution job with Web Gateway or sent directly from PC Suite.

5.4.8 Installing the device agent for Windows CE devices


Windows CE devices are those devices that use the Microsoft Windows CE for the Handheld PC Professional Edition, Version 3 operating system. These include handheld PC, pocket-type, or sub-notebook devices for sales and service personnel, mobile business professionals, and other field personnel who need access to their network or the Internet Such devices require the plug-in for Windows CE and device agent for Windows CE. The plug-in and device agent perform system management tasks and communicate with each other by using HTTP.

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Communicating with the host PC


To establish communications between your Windows CE device and the host PC, you must install Windows CE Services with ActiveSync on the host PC. Once Windows CE Services is installed on the host PC, you are prompted to create a partnership with your Windows CE device using a serial cable connection.

5.4.9 The user ID of palm devices


The ROM serial number of Palm devices is used as the user ID for the device. However, if the ROM does not have a serial number, then the user name of the device is used as the user ID. If you change the user ID on devices without a serial number, the device appears to be a new device and requires enrollment.

5.4.10 Inventory scans on pervasive devices


When you want to do an inventory scan on pervasive devices, the global properties options do not apply to scans of pervasive devices, and also scan differences cannot be obtained for pervasive devices. On the other hand, hardware, software, and configuration information may be obtained.

5.5 Pristine Manager


Pristine Manager is a component of Tivoli Configuration Manager, available with Version 4.2.1. Pristine Manager enables Tivoli Configuration Manager to manage machines that have no operating systems installed (bare-metal machines). It does not perform the real pristine setup; it leverages third-party products. Pristine Manager is a more advanced solution than the Tivoli Pristine Installation solution (also called Pristine Tool), which was provided by Tivoli Configuration Manager versions prior to V4.2.1. The Tivoli Pristine Installation soluion was not a completely unattended solution. A person had to be present when the pristine systems were located for: Starting the system Removing the diskette when necessary Pressing Enter when requested during logon (Windows 98 only) Restarting the system if required Pristine Manager, on the other hand, is a completely unattended solution.

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Another big advantage of Pristine Manager is that the pristine machines can now be defined in the reference models and activity plans before the machines are part of the Tivoli environment; in other words, before the Tivoli Management Agent is installed on the machines. Pristine Manager integrates capabilities of the Microsoft Automated Deployment Services (ADS) or Microsoft Remote Installation Services (RIS) servers with Tivoli functions. Pristine Manager uses the images that are on your RIS and ADS servers to install them on the target machines. At the same time, Pristine Manager includes the machines in the Tivoli environment as endpoints: It takes the label that you define and makes it the endpoint label of the new machine. This enables Change Manager and Activity Plan Monitor to work with the machines as if they are Tivoli endpoints after the pristine installation. In Pristine Manager, you define the servers that have the images and the pristine machines on which they will be installed. You specify the operating system element and the targets. This creates a connection among the operating system to be installed, the target pristine machines, and the servers. Then this information is used to create an activity plan that is used by Activity Planner to do the pristine installation.

5.5.1 Pristine Manager architecture and new components


Figure 5-18 on page 190 shows the architecture overview and new components of Pristine Manager. As shown in the figure, there are three new plug-is with Pristine Manager: APM Plug-in CCM Plug-in Pristine Plug-in APM Plugin can be broken down to two functions: Pristine Execution Engine and Pristine Activity Completion Daemon. We will go into details of these functions later in this chapter. CCM Plugin essentially provides a new configuration element for the reference models, called the OS Configuration Element. There are two different Pristine Plugins: ADS and RIS. These plugins are downloaded to the machines before the pristine installation time. Finally the Pristine Manager GUI is integrated to APM and CCM GUI, not the Tivoli Desktop. You will not see any icon related to the Pristine Manager on the Tivoli Desktop.

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Tivoli Console

CCM Plugin: configuration element

TMR Server
CCM APM APM Plugin: pristine execution logic
Element and subscriber navigator (GUI)

TMA

TMA

TMA

ADS

ADS

...

RIS

Figure 5-18 Architecture overview of Pristine Manager

5.5.2 Supported platforms for pristine installation


The following are the platforms supported by Pristine Manager with the ADS or RIS plug-ins: Windows 2000 Server (Microsoft ADS plug-in) Windows 2000 Advanced Server (Microsoft ADS plug-in) Windows 2003 Standard Edition (Microsoft ADS plug-in) Windows 2003 Enterprise Edition (Microsoft ADS plug-in) Windows 2000 Professional (Microsoft RIS plug-in) Windows XP Professional (Microsoft RIS plug-in)

5.5.3 Key terms


The following are key terms for the understanding of Pristine Manager: Remote Installation Service Remote Installation Service (RIS) is a feature included in Microsoft Windows 2000 Server that enables network administrators to install the Windows 2000

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Professional and its upgrades to any number of client computers at one time from a centralized location. Microsoft positions RIS for client workstation installs. Automatic Deployment Services Windows 2003 introduced another pristine deployment feature called Automatic Deployment Services (ADS) in Windows 2003. Microsoft positions ADS for server installs. You cannot install Windows XP with ADS. Both ADS and RIS are shipped with Windows 2003. ADS has more advanced features than RIS, such as multicast capability and image-based installation, whereas RIS is script based. Preboot Execution Environment Both ADS and RISC use Preboot Execution Environment (PXE), which is a standard created by Intel and allows a network adapter to act before a server loads an operating system from a load hard disk.

5.5.4 Pristine Manager concepts


The following are important Pristine Manager concepts. We will go into more details on these concepts in 5.5.7, Customizing Pristine Manager on page 195. Machine Manager: Lists the machines on which the operating system is installed. It contains the server that has the images for each machine. You can group the machines and specify details for the Tivoli endpoint that is also installed on the target machine. Pristine Server: An ADS or RIS server that contains the operating system images. It is also a Tivoli endpoint. Server Manager: Lists pristine servers. Operating System Element: Contains images that are on the pristine servers. It can contain only one image per server. Group Manager: Lists groups of machines. Operating System Element Manager: Lists operating system elements

5.5.5 Prerequisites
In order to use Pristine Manager successfully, ensure that you have the following prerequisites: Your RIS or ADS server is already installed, configured, and working. There is a Tivoli endpoint on the machines where the RIS or ADS server is installed.

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You have already created the images on your RIS or ADS server. Refer to the appropriate documentation for instructions. On the ADS or RIS server, you have created a directory with the binary files to install the Tivoli endpoint. The directory must be shared and have full-control permissions.

5.5.6 Installing pristine machines


You can use Pristine Manager either from Change Manager or the Activity Planner. However, the plan that is generated must be run from the Activity Planner GUI or CLI. Therefore, ensure that you have these services installed and configured correctly if you plan to use them to work with Pristine Manager. The following sections outline the main tasks required to do a pristine installation using either service. Before you start, ensure that you have performed the following steps: Registered the plugin for Pristine Manager and that you have created the tables that contain the objects that you will create during the setup tasks. Been assigned the correct authorization role in the Tivoli Management Framework. Otherwise, you cannot access the Pristine Manager objects at all. The following list shows the roles: Pristine_Write To create the Pristine Manager objects (servers, machines, operating systems, groups, and so on). Pristine_Execute To launch the plan to install on pristine machines. Pristine_Read To browse the Pristine Manager objects in read-only mode, open the object as if you wanted to update it by clicking Change. The flow of pristine installations is shown in Figure 5-19 on page 193 and Figure 5-20 on page 194.

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CCM

1. CCM submits activity plan to APM

APM

2. APM invokes CM4OS plugin for execution CM for OS APM Plugin 4. Execution engine 4. Execution engine populates the activity populates the database activity database 3. Activity ID is generated, control is given to the execution engine CM for OS Execution Engine CM for OS Activity completion daemon

DB

TMA
CM for OS Remote plugin ADS Server

TMA
CM for OS Remote plugin RIS Server

5. Execution engine sends commands to the pristine servers with downcalls that are executed by the remote plugins

Figure 5-19 Flow of pristine installations (1 of 2)

Figure 5-19 shows that the pristine installation is kicked off by CCM via a reference model, but the flow is the same when it is initiated manually by APM (in that case it would start from step 2, rather than step 1). In step 3 an activity ID is generated, and in step 4 the activity ID is populated in the activity database step 4. At this point the pristine activity can be monitored from the APM Console. The installation begins by the commands sent by the APM execution engine to the pristine servers.

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CCM

5. When activity plan terminates, APM notifies CCM

APM

DB

Endpoint Manager

CM for OS APM Plugin

4. CM for OS notifies APM of the targets status

Gateway

2. CM for OS polls the EP Manager to see if new TMAs logged in (only for pending machines)

CM for OS Execution engine

CM for OS Activity completion daemon

1. TMA from the new pristined machines login to the gateway TMA TMA

3. CM for OS verifies the identity of the pristined machine with a sort of scan operation

TMA ADS Server

RIS Server

Figure 5-20 Flow of pristine installations (2 of 2)

In addition to the operating system, the TMA is laid down on the machine. When the pristine installation is finished (step 1), TMA logs into the gateway. APM understands the completion of the installation by polling the EP for new TMAs logged in. This is done by polling by the Activity completion daemon (step 2). Note that this is the only method that Activity Planner can understand the status of the pristine operation. If something goes wrong during the pristine installation no information is passed to the Activity Planner (since there is no TMA on the machine yet). For this reason it is very important to define a proper time out for the pristine operation (by default, this is 2 hours). You can change this value by using wpristine set timeout value command. This command sets the maximum time, in hours, for an operating system installation to be completed before it times out and is considered unsuccessful. Operating system installation completion means the pristine machine has logged in to the gateway. After finding out that the new TMA has logged in, the Activity completion daemon sends an event to that endpoint to verify the identity of the machine by a scan operation on the endpoint (step 3). Once this is verified, the status of the target is passed to the APM (steps 4 and 5). At that point, Activity Planner can proceed with the other activities on the activity plan.

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5.5.7 Customizing Pristine Manager


As noted before, Pristine Manager GUI does not interface with TME desktop. It is integrated with APM and CCM. New GUI controls are under Tools in CCM and APM, as shown in Figure 5-21.

Figure 5-21 Launching the Pristine Manager GUI

Before starting the pristine installation, you need to set up some parameters thorough this GUI. Now let us walk through some of the important settings: 1. The first thing you need to define is the servers on which the operating system images are located, as shown in Figure 5-22 on page 196. These distribution servers are already part of the Tivoli environment, because they have a TMA on them. From the Server Manager menu, click the General tab. In the General parameters window, you need to define the type of the distribution server (ADS or RIS) and also enter the Endpoint label (remember that there has to be a TMA installed on distribution servers).

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Figure 5-22 Define servers on which operating system images are located

2. Click the Environment tab and you will see the Environment window for the server settings. Here you can set environment variables, which can be inherited as default settings by the machines associated with the server. Unless these variables are changed on a per-machine basis in the Machine Manager menu, they will be used for all machines that use the server. The following is the list of environment variables provided by Pristine Manager, but you can define your own variables as well. _CM4OS_SMBIOS_GUID _CM4OS_MAC_ADDRESS _CM4OS_SCREENWIDTH _CM4OS_SCREENHEIGHT _CM4OS_COLORDEPTH _CM4OS_COMPUTERNAME _CM4OS_HOSTNAME _CM4OS_DOMAINNAME _CM4OS_IPADDRESS _CM4OS_DNSSERVER_ADDRESS _CM4OS_GATEWAY_ADDRESS _CM4OS_SUBNETMASK

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_CM4OS_ENDPOINT_LABEL _CM4OS_ENDPOINT_PORT _CM4OS_ENDPOINT_GWPORT _CM4OS_ENDPOINT_OPTIONS _CM4OS_TMA_SETUP_PATH

Figure 5-23 Set the environment variables

3. After defining your distribution servers, you can define your pristine machines. Note that these machines are not part of the Tivoli environment yet. They do not have a TMA on them. We will use the Machine Manager menu for this purpose. The first panel is the General parameters window, as shown in Figure 5-24 on page 199. Here you can define the General parameters for this installation. First you need to specify the distribution server this machine will be served from. Do not forget here that you need to enter the name (not the endpoint label) of the server machine in the Server field. In the Endpoint label field, you enter what you want the endpoint label of the TMA on the machine to be, once the TMA is installed.

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You need to put in SMBIOS GUI D for those machines. This is similar to a MAC address for a network interface card. Every PC that complies with the PC98 standard has a unique SMBIOS GUI D. This is a 32-character hexadecimal value, required for installation from a RIS server. For ADS servers, it is recommended that you specify this setting, because it is used to verify the success of installation on the pristine machine. Pristine mode is a very important parameter. If you make a machine a part of a reference model, and the first step of this reference model is pristine installation, this machine can be re-installed every time this reference model is synchronized. So by default, the Pristine mode setting is Ignore, which means that it will not attempt the pristine installation. The possible settings are: Force: Install the new OS with no regard of current status. Ignore: Do not install the OS. If different: Install the OS only if the new OS is different from the current one. If newer: Install the OS only if the new OS is a new version of the current one.

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Figure 5-24 Define the General parameters

4. Click the Network tab and define the Network parameters. Here you see the parameters that are inherited from Server settings. You can overwrite these settings on a machine basis. For example, here we have changed the domain name.

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Figure 5-25 Define the Network parameters

5. Click the Tivoli tab and enter information that will be used to include the machine in the Tivoli environment, as shown in Figure 5-26 on page 201. Again, you will see settings that are inherited from the server. But if necessary, you can change these settings. The most important setting here is the PRISTINE_TMA_SETUP_PATH setting. This is where the pristine installation will get the TMA code from. In most of the cases this will be a shared directory on the server and will be inherited from the server, but you can also define it here for a specific machine.

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Figure 5-26 Enter Tivoli information

6. Click the Environment tab and you will see the inherited environment list that displays the settings that the machine inherits from the server by default, as shown in Figure 5-27 on page 202. You can override these settings for that specific machine or add additional settings. Here, for example, we have defined additional settings.

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Figure 5-27 Enter Environment information

7. Optionally, you can group target machines based on the needs of the user group and install software that is tailored for that group. The group concept is similar to a profile managers. In Tivoli, profile managers are used to distribute profiles to a bunch of machines at the same time. But since profile managers do not understand the pristine operation flags such as ignore, force, etc., you cannot group pristine machines in profile managers. So, you need to have a different kind of grouping mechanism for pristine machines, and this is called a group. Management of groups is done through the Group Manager menu. Similar to a profile manager, you define a group and define the machines that belong to a group from the Group Manager windows, as shown in Figure 5-28 on page 203. Later when you create a target for a pristine action, you can target a group, rather than a specific machine.

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Figure 5-28 Group Manager windows

8. Finally, you need to configure the Operating System Element (Figure 5-29 on page 204) via the Operating System Element Manager menu. Here you create an Operating System Element and then you define which images on pristine servers correspond to the operating system that you want to lay down for this Operating System Element. For example, if you have more than one RIS or ADS servers, and each has a Windows 2000 image, you need to let Pristine Manager know which images on which servers are associated with your Operating System Element for Windows 2000. Note: The images might have different names on different servers, depending on the server the machine is connected to. It should be able to pull the right image using the Operating System Element definition. You will use the Operating System Element later in the reference models and activity plans. In the Images window, Operating System Name is important if you plan to use If new or If different pristine mode setting options. The Architecture field is reserved for future use.

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Figure 5-29 Configure the Operating System Element

After these settings are done, your machines should be ready to be installed when they are referenced in a reference model (or manually added to an activity plan).

5.5.8 Adding an Operating System Element to a reference model


Adding an Operating System Element is no different than adding an Inventory or Software Distribution element. Perform the following steps to add an Operating System Element to a reference model: 1. In the upper pane of the Change Manager window, select the reference model. 2. In the lower pane, select the Elements tab. 3. Right-click in the Elements pane to display the pop-up menu. 4. Click Add and then select Operating System Element. The Operating System Element dialog is displayed. 5. Complete the following fields: Name

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Enter the name of the operating system element and click OK. Desired state The state that the pristine machine should reach. It is installed by default and read-only, because the action that the element performs is a pristine installation. You cannot choose an undo or uninstall state. 6. Click OK. The new operating system element is added to the reference model.

5.5.9 Pristine Manager commands


Pristine Manager has also a command interface. Here are the basic Pristine Manager commands: wpristinesrv Creates, modifies, lists, and deletes servers in the server database. wpristinemachine Creates, modifies, lists, and deletes target machines in the machine database. Imports/exports target machines to/from the database using CSV format. wpristinegroup Creates, modifies, lists, and deletes groups. woselement Creates, modifies, lists, and deletes operating system elements. wpristineexport Exports machines from database of pristine server in CSV format. wpristine Starts, stops, restarts, and shows status of the Pristine Daemon. Configures trace settings, time-out, and TEC notification. For more information on these commands, refer to IIBM Tivoli Configuration Manager: Users Guide for Deployment Services, Version 4.2.2, SC23-4710.

5.5.10 IBM Tivoli Enterprise Console notification


If you enable the notification, Pristine Manager can send the following events to the IBM Tivoli Enterprise Console: Installation_Started Installation_Submitted

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Installation_Failed Installation_Successful To enable the IBM Tivoli Enterprise Console notification use the wpristine enable tec command. Similarly, to disable the notification you can use wpristine disable tec.

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Chapter 6.

Multicast concepts and implementation


This chapter discusses various concepts and implementation methodology for the new multicast feature with Tivoli Management Framework 4.1. In early IP networks, a packet could be sent to either a single device (unicast) or to all devices (broadcast). A single transmission destined for a group of devices was not possible. However, during the past few years a new set of applications has emerged. These applications use multicast transmissions to enable efficient communication between groups of devices. Data is transmitted to a single multicast IP address and received by any device that needs to obtain the transmission. This chapter describes how multicast functionality will be incorporated into MDist2, the Tivoli Management Frameworks bulk data distribution service, and in what network environments it will be useful. The performance potential of using multicast for bulk data transfer is extremely appealing. Today, using one-to-one TCP connections, MDist2 must resend a distributions data to every target. This means that distribution times scale linearly with the number of targets. Distributing to a hundred endpoints will take one hundred times longer than distributing to a single endpoint. By using UDP broadcast packets, multicast allows multiple targets to read the same data stream. A multicast server only sends the data once, regardless of the number of receivers. For example, MDist2 distributing a large application of 100

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Mbytes to 100 endpoints would take about 5.6 hours (assuming the default bandwidth of 500 Kbytes/sec). Using multicast, this same distribution could be done in less than 3.5 minutes. Not only is the distribution time decreased, but network traffic is also decreased by the same ratio. This is useful for customers sending data to multiple targets over satellite, on slow network links, or wanting to conserve bandwidth. This chapter discusses the following topics related to multicast: Reliable multicast protocol Hyper Delivery (RMTP) flow Distributed depot service Endpoint multicast receivers Multicast scenarios Multicast limitations Troubleshooting multicast

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6.1 Reliable multicast protocol


Raw multicast uses UDP packets, which can be lost if the network or a receiver is busy. If multicast is being used for audio or video streaming, an occasional dropped packet is normally acceptable. However, for file transfer, the data must arrive undisturbed to every target. To make multicast reliable, the server must rebroadcast every packet not received by a client. The Tivoli multicast solution uses the Hyper Delivery, which adopts Reliable Multicast Transport Protocol (RMTP) Version 2 as the base for its reliable multicast protocol.The IBM Tokyo Research Laboratory and Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation (NTT) developed RMTP through joint research. RMTP clients keep track of which packets they have received. When all of the bulk data has been received, each client sends the server its list of dropped packets. The server receives this list from every target, takes the union of dropped packets, and sends them again.

Figure 6-1 Multicast and the network

The overhead incurred for reliability causes distribution times to depend on the number of receivers. However, if the number of dropped packets is small, the overhead is only a fractional increase of the distribution time per receiver.

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Multicast packets are targeted at a multicast group, which is a combination of an IP address and port number. Multicast uses the class D IP addresses in the range of 224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255. To receive multicast data, a receiver must join the multicast group. During the join process the receivers router or switch is contacted and told to forward multicast traffic for that group. Users wishing to use multicast must have their network hardware (routers and switches) multicast enabled. Tivoli Management Framework uses the registered multicast address 224.0.1.18 (tivoli-systems.mcast.net) to listen for the multicast advertisements. The headers of UDP datagrams carrying multicast traffic contain a time to live (TTL) setting. The TTL setting is the number of routers that will forward the packet before it is discarded. In other words, TTL is a mechanism for determining the scope of a transmission. Unlike a unicast address, a multicast address can extend through the entire network. The value contained in this field is decremented at each hop.

6.2 Hyper Delivery (RMTP) flow


Here is a brief synopsis of how the communication takes place between the multicast sender and multicast receiver. In our case the sender is the managed node repeater or the gateway repeater, and the receiver could be the TMA or any type of repeater. Figure 6-2 on page 211 shows the Hyper Delivery communication flow between the sender and receiver. On the left is the multicast sender and on the right is the multicast receiver. We have also listed some of the multicast parameters along with the flow. Complete multicast parameters are discussed later in Configuring repeaters for multicast on page 215. 1. Receiver: RMTPOpenReceiver() is the first API called in the receiver programs. This is run when the receiver is started. Subsequent API calls will use the connection identifier, which is assigned by this API. 2. Receiver: RMTPConnectReceiver() waits for a connection request (CONN packet) from a sender. 3. Sender: RMTPOpenSender() is the first API called in the sender programs. Subsequent API calls will use the connection identifier, which is assigned by this API. This is run when a distribution is sent. Note: The above function names, like RMTPOpenReceiver and rest of the API calls, are not Tivoli methods and they do not show up in odstat. These are just programming calls, and are shown here for simplicity of data flow description.

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Figure 6-2 Hyper Delivery handshake

4. Sender: RMTPConnectSender() requests a connection to the receivers by sending a CONN packet. Depending on the value of the repeat parameter, the sender will send multiple copies of each control message. The default is 2. The sender will resend the CONN request to retry the receivers depending on two parameters, connrtry and connwtout, but each resend is driven by multiple sends decided by a repeat value. Connrty specifies the number of times that a multicast sender will rebroadcast the connection message to the receivers. The default is set to 5. Connwtout specifies how long the sender waits before retry. The default is 2 seconds (2000 milliseconds).

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So, a sender will resend CONN requests every connwtout ms. It will do this connrty times or until it hears from all the receivers. The sender repeats this same pattern for CONN (connrtry/connwtout), POLL (pollrtry/dtwtout), and RELEASE (relrtry/relwtout). 5. Receiver: On receiving a connection request, it calls RMTPAcceptConnection (). RMTPAcceptConnection () sends a CACK using the source address parameter (specified by returnIP on the sending gateway) to support an alternate reply path to the sender. For example, the sender's IP address of the terrestrial uplink may be different from the one of the downlink for a one-way satellite network. 6. Sender: On receiving the CACK, sender will now start sending data. The data to be transmitted is divided into messages that are messagesize bytes long, except in the case of the last message, which may be smaller than this. Each message is divided into blocks, which are defined by blocksize. Confirmation of receipt (sender POLL, receiver ACK/NACK) and retransmission (if necessary) is done after sending each message. The default message size is 90 Mbytes. 7. Sender: After sending all blocks in a message, the sender polls receivers and waits for a response from each receiver. The response is either ACK (received all blocks) or NACK (requesting missing blocks). 8. If the sender has not received ACK/NACK from all receivers before the timeout specified by dtwtout (default is 3000 milliseconds), it again polls receivers from which no response was received, if any. The polling is repeated for up to pollrtry (default is 5) times. Receivers that still have not responded will be ignored thereafter. 9. Sender: If the sender has received NACK(s), another transmission of data blocks occurs in the same way as the initial data transfer, but only missing blocks are transmitted again. The number of transmissions is up to dtrtry (default is 10), including the initial one. 10.Sender: After the sender has successfully sent all of the messages, or has reached dtrtry, the sender requests connection release to receivers that responded with ACK. The timeout value to wait for a response (RACK) is relwtout (default 2000 milliseconds) and the number of retries is up to relrtry (default is 5) including the initial one. 11.If there are multiple messages, the transmission sequence above is repeated for each message.

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6.3 Distributed depot service


On managed nodes, the depot server, a new TMF service, will send and receive multicast. The depot server is capable of reading and writing to the existing MDist2 depot. Figure 6-3 shows the depot server.

Receive Multicast

Gateway / Repeater
MDist 2 Depot

Depot Server
Send Multicast

Managed Node
Figure 6-3 Depot server

The depot server is divided into various components: Multicast Sender: We are using the Hyper Delivery reliable multicast transport protocol (RMTP) developed by IBM Japan for sending bulk data. The sender can broadcast to other depot servers or directly to endpoints. Multicast Receiver: Allows the depot server to receive broadcasts from other depot servers. MDIST2 Depot: Local storage of bulk data. It can read and write from an MDist2 repeater depot. Location is decided by the rpt_dir value on the repeater. The depot server is enabled on the managed node, which is a repeater, using:
wmdist -s repeater_name repeater_multicast=TRUE

This configures a managed node repeater to send multicast data. This command also works for gateway repeaters, which you will need if you want to use multicast to load a gateways depot.

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The gateway repeater is multicast enabled running (explained in more detail in 6.4, Endpoint multicast receivers on page 218):
wmdist -s repeater_name endpoint_multicast=TRUE

This is for the gateway to send multicast to endpoints. If you want it to receive multicast, then you need to do the previous repeater_multicast configuration. Note: In order to use multicast, you must install Java 1.3 for Tivoli and Tivoli Java Client Framework 4.1 on the managed node/gateway. Once enabled, the depot server will be started at boot time and remain running. There are two more options with wmdist regarding multicast, which are explained in Configuring repeaters for multicast on page 215. In a typical business scenario there may be many branch offices distributed around the country, or the world. If the IT department in the companys headquarters needs to distribute software to each branch office, multicast can be employed to keep the distribution time to a minimum. If each branch office has a managed node in it, the source host (the Tivoli Server in the headquarters building that initiates the distribution) can multicast the distribution by way of a high-speed link (for example, a satellite link) to MDist2 depots on managed nodes at each branch office. As with unicast, managed nodes that multicast to endpoints must be configured as gateways. The depot services running on the gateway in each branch office listen for multicast broadcasts. When a multicast broadcast is received by a depot service, the service writes the distribution to an existing MDist2 depot on the gateway. Once the data is in the MDist2 depot, it can be multicast or unicast to all of its endpoints over the LAN in the branch office. The depot service sends a multicast message, a UDP broadcast, to advertise the distribution. The advertisement contains a description of the data being sent and the endpoints that should receive it. Multicast receivers listen for these advertisements to determine which distributions they should receive. Each distribution requires a separate distribution process; you cannot load MDist2 depots and deliver to endpoints in a single step. The first distribution sends the package from the source host to the gateways (or repeaters). The second distribution sends the package from the gateway to one or more endpoints (or in the case of a repeater, to another gateway). If an MDist2 depot is not functioning when the distribution is sent to it, there is currently no provision to retry the multicast distribution. Instead, retries can be manually performed using a unicast distribution to the endpoints that did not receive the original multicast distribution.

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6.3.1 Configuring repeaters for multicast


Configuring a repeater for multicast involves the wmcast and wmdist commands. Use the wmdist command to enable the repeater for multicast distribution. Use the wmcast command to set the configuration parameters for multicast distributions. For complete details on the commands and keywords used throughout this section, refer to the Tivoli Management Framework Reference Manual. To enable a repeater for multicast, use the wmdist -s command with the following keywords: repeater_multicast Whether the repeater sends distributions to other repeaters using multicast. The default is FALSE.

endpoint_multicast Whether the repeater sends distributions to endpoints using multicast. The default is FALSE. default_multicast Back-level applications that use MDist2 but do not have the multicast distribution option built in can take advantage of multicast if this parameter is set to TRUE. This will cause that application to send all distributions from the specified repeater using multicast first. If the distribution fails then it will attempt to do unicast depending on the fail_unavailable settings. When set to TRUE, repeater will not attempt a unicast retry for endpoints that failed to receive multicast. The default is False. This option is hidden and does not show up. This parameter is also for back-level applications and only relevant to gateway repeaters.

fail_unavailable

The wmcast command sets repeater properties for MDist2 multicast distributions. The defaults provided are designed for use in most LAN environments. However, if a repeater sends multicast over both fast and slow links, configure multicast repeater settings for the slowest link.
wmcast s repeater_name [keyword=value...]

The settings are: backofftm=time_in_milliseconds Specifies the back-off time in milliseconds. When receivers acknowledge receipt of a multicast advertisement, the receiver waits for a random time interval between 0 ms and the number of ms specified by this keyword before responding to the sender. This reduces congestion. As you add more receivers, this number might need to be increased to improve performance. The default is 100.

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blocksize=size_in_bytes Specifies the size of the block, in bytes, that the sender uses when writing data to the network. The size specified must be less than 65535 bytes. The default is 1460 bytes, which is the Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) for Ethernet transmissions. connrtry=retry_count Specifies the number of times that a multicast sender will rebroadcast the connection message to the receivers. The default is 5. connwtout=milliseconds Specifies the time, in milliseconds, that a multicast sender waits for receivers to accept a connection. The default is 2000. dtrtry=retry_count Specifies the number of times that a multicast sender will resend dropped packets to receivers. The default is 10. dtwtout=time_in_milliseconds Specifies the time, in milliseconds, that a receiver will wait before timing out if the data transmission is interrupted. The default is 3000. ifrcvaddr=address... Specifies a list of IP addresses that the receivers use when listening for multicast packets. Separate multiple addresses with semicolons (;) and enclosed in double quotation marks (...). The default is 0.0.0.0. ifsrcaddr=address Specifies the IP address of the source host interface that is used to send multicast packets. The default is 0.0.0.0. mcadvert=address Specifies the address for multicast messages. If you set mcadvert to something other than the default, the endpoints must log out and relog in or disable and enable to listen to the other address for multicast advertisements. The default is 224.0.1.118, which is the IANA-registered address for Tivoli multicast. mchigh=highest_address Specifies the highest address to be used to send multicast data. When the server is ready to send multicast data, the server selects an address between mclow and mchigh to find an address that is available for multicast data traffic. If the first address checked is being used for sending multicast data, the address is incremented and the next address is monitored for activity. This continues until an available address or mchigh is reached. The default is 224.2.255.255.

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mclow=lowest_address Specifies the lowest address to be used to send multicast data. When the server is ready to send multicast data, the server selects an address between mclow and mchigh to find an address that is available for multicast data traffic. If the first address checked is being used for sending multicast data, the address is incremented and the next address is monitored for activity. This continues until an available address or mchigh is reached. The default is 224.2.128.0. mc_netload=bytes_per_second Specifies the speed, in bytes per second, that the repeater will send multicast distributions. The default is 500000. mc_debug_level=trace_level Specifies the trace level. 0: Records no trace information 1: Records exceptions only 2: Records general trace information 3: Records all implemented tracing

Trace levels are incremental. The trace logs are written locally on each repeater to $DBDIR \mcast.log. The default is 1. pollrtry=retry_count Specifies the maximum number of times that a multicast receiver will poll receivers to determine their final status. The default is 5. port=port_number Specifies the port number to use for multicast advertisements and multicast data. The default is 9499. rcvbufsz=size_in_bytes Specifies the size, in bytes, of the receive buffer of the UDP socket. The default is 250,000. relrty=retry_count Specifies the number of times that a multicast receiver will broadcast the connection-release message to receivers. The default is 5. relwtout=time_in_milliseconds Specifies the time, in milliseconds, that the sender will wait for the receiver to release the connection after all data is transmitted. The default is 2000. repeat=count Specifies the number of times that the server sends the same control packets. This can be increased if packet drop affects performance. The default is 2.

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returnIP=address Specifies the IP address of the server that the receivers communicate with. In satellite configurations, for example, the server-to-receiver traffic is a satellite link, and the receiver-to-server traffic is generally a telephone line; the return IP address will be different from the IP address of the source. The default is 0.0.0.0. sndbufsz=size_in_bytes Specifies the size, in bytes, of the send buffer of the UDP socket. The default is 250,000. ttl=count Specifies the time-to-live integer. The integer indicates the number of times a packet can be forwarded by routers. When a packet is passed through a router, this integer is decremented; when it reaches zero, the packet is dropped. Specify a number larger than the number of routers between the multicast sender and receiver. The default is 5.

6.4 Endpoint multicast receivers


Enabling multicast on a gateway will cause a new multicast client to run on every endpoint that belongs to the gateway. The multicast client will be started as an endpoint boot method when the LCFD logs into the gateway. The multicast client will run continually, listening for multicast distributions. If a gateway login fails (for example, the machine is disconnected from the network), the client will not be started. When a gateway is first configured for multicast, you will be given the option to start the endpoints for multicast. If the endpoints are not enabled for multicast they will not start until the next time the endpoints log into the gateway. To enable multicast receivers on the endpoints one must issue the following command, which will enable the gateway repeater for multicast and also the endpoints.
wmdist -s repeater_name endpoint_multicast=TRUE

When this command is run the first time, it will ask you whether you would like to start the multicast receivers on all the endpoints connected to this gateway. When a multicast distribution occurs, the depot server sends a multicast message advertising the distribution. The advertisement will contain a description of the data being sent and the endpoints that should receive it. Clients listen for these advertisements to determine which distributions they should receive.

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LCFD
Spawn

Multicast Client

Receive Multicast

Software Distribution

File Cache

TMA
Figure 6-4 Endpoint multicast receivers

The multicast client stores the entire distribution in a local file on the endpoint. This means that the endpoint should have enough free disk space to store the distribution twiceonce for the data cached in the local file and once for the data as it is being installed. The transfer of bulk data occurs before any downcalls are performed. Eliminating downcalls before the transfer of data will improve performance. For this release, the data transfer is also done without the participation of the application. This means that neither the application nor the user has the ability to refuse the transfer of data. Later, when the application is run, it still has the option of not installing the data. The only negative impact is that disk space may be consumed temporarily. Checkpoint restart does not occur for multicast distributions. The depot server always sends the entire distribution. Endpoints marked as mobile will not receive multicast distributions unless the distribution is hidden or the mandatory date has passed. Mobile users will continue to use the mobile GUI and receive distributions through unicast connections. After the bulk data has been moved to endpoints through multicast, the repeater will invoke the application's endpoint method. Instead of receiving data from the

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gateway, the MDist2 endpoint library will read data from the local file. The local file will be deleted when all of the data has been read. Results will be returned as in a normal MDist2 distribution. The download of application method binaries will still occur through unicast connections. Retries for endpoints that fail to receive a multicast distribution will use the normal MDist2 unicast retry mechanisms of retrying every X minutes for Y minutes (default is every 15 minutes for an hour) or when the agent logs into the gateway.

6.4.1 Configuring endpoint to receive multicast


By default, all endpoints can receive multicast distributions. The settings that an endpoint uses for receiving multicast distributions are stored in the last.cfg file of an endpoint. These settings can be modified using the wep set_config command with the following keywords: depot_dir This is a new parameter for multicast depot; the directory where multicast distributions are stored until they are installed. The default is $LCF_DATDIR/depot. For example, to set the multicast temporary depot location to /tmp on a UNIX endpoint called test, run the following command: wep test set_config depot_dir=/tmp The level of detail written to trace files for the endpoint. The default is 1. Multicast log is integrated into the lcfd log; by changing the log_threshold we also change the logging level for mcast.

log_threshold

For details about the wep command, refer to the Tivoli Management Framework Reference Manual Version 4.1, SC32-0806. Note: Note that the endpoint version level must be 41000 or higher to support multicast.

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6.5 Multicast scenarios


With this release of Tivoli Management Framework, multicast may be used between managed nodes to load MDist2 depots or between a gateway and its agents. We will discuss three possible scenarios for multicast: 1. Preloading MDist2 depots with multicast 2. Multicast from gateways to Tivoli Management Agents 3. Use of multicast when the receiver and sender addresses are different on the repeaters using multiple network interface cards (NICs) The scenarios described below will not go into detail about creating a package, but will focus on how multicast can be used to do Software Distribution.

6.5.1 Preloading MDist2 depots with multicast


Send a large distribution to endpoints connected to many different gateways. The gateways may be connected through a satellite link or slow connections. In this scenario, a significant performance improvement and bandwidth reduction can be obtained by preloading the distribution's data into the gateways' MDist2 depots using multicast.

Source Host
Gateway or Managed Node Repeater Multicast

MDist 2 Repeater
Gateway or Managed Node

MDist 2 Repeater
Gateway or Managed Node

MDist 2 Repeater
Gateway or Managed Node

MDist 2 Depot

MDist 2 Depot

MDist 2 Depot

Figure 6-5 Preloading MDist2 depots with multicast

The user's network must support multicast traffic from the source host to all of the gateways. The source host must be a managed node running either a

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managed node repeater or a gateway. Both the sending and the receiving repeater must have repeater_multicast=TRUE. The final step of moving the data to endpoints is accomplished by a second distribution that uses the pre-stored data in the gateway depots. The second distribution may use multicast or unicast to send data to the gateway's agents. In this example we have a Windows 2000 Advance Server TMR server (win-tmr01a), which is also the source host. We will load software package Tivoli_JRIM^4.1 to three Microsoft Windows NT/2000 gateways using multicast. We do not want the distribution to attempt any unicast if multicast fails.

Figure 6-6 Loading depot using multicast

We have selected the database profile manager (pkgs.swd.apps.pm.a) to be able to distribute to the specified managed nodes. The network is multicast ready.

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We have also enabled all the gateways to be multicast ready. 6.3, Distributed depot service on page 213, explains how to enable repeaters for multicast. Perform the following steps to the load the MDist2 depots using multicast: 1. From your Tivoli Desktop right-click the profile, as shown in Figure 6-6 on page 222. 2. Click Load, which should bring up the Load software package window. 3. After configuring the distribution and selecting subscribers, click Advance Options and select Distribution Settings, as shown in Figure 6-7 on page 224. 4. This brings up the Distribution Settings widow. By default under the Multicast Management, Enable Multicast is unchecked. To enable multicast you will have to check the box, which will also check Retry Unicast. Because in our example we do not want to retry unicast, you should uncheck Retry Unicast, which will cause the distribution to fail if multicast fails.

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Figure 6-7 Configuring depot load for multicast

5. After making the selections, click Set and Close, followed by Load and Close. This will cause the software package to be loaded to the respective depots using multicast. Note: If a multicast distribution is attempted to a single endpoint, then unicast will be used irrespective of the distribution mode. You can still multicast to a single repeater.

Command line
Loading of depot using multicast can also be achieved via command line by using wldsp with -l is_multicast [ t | f ] set to t. Setting the enable_multicast token to t enables the retry_unicast token. To disable and unicast attempt you have to set the retry_unicast to f. This option can be used only if the enable_multicast option is set to t. For more detailed information

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regarding wldsp please refer to IT Configuration Manager Reference Manual for Software Distribution 4.2.2, SC23-4712.

6.5.2 Multicast from gateways to Tivoli Management Agents


Multicast can be used to send data from the Tivoli Management Gateway to its TMAs. As seen in Figure 6-8, we have a simple gateway-to-endpoints multicast. For endpoints to receive multicast distributions, the steps mentioned in Endpoint multicast receivers on page 218 should be followed to enable multicast on receivers and endpoints.

Gateway Repeater
Multicast

TMA

TMA

TMA

TMA

TMA

TMA

Figure 6-8 Gateway multicast to endpoints

To explain the scenario of multicast between gateway and endpoints we will use the Data Moving service to show how a large file of 135 MB is sent to multiple endpoints from a source host that is a gateway. The gateway is an AIX 5.1 box serving multiple endpoints. The target boxes that will receive the distributions are Windows 2000 Professional desktops. Each desktop has a single endpoint running. We will use only five endpoints for our target distribution. The gateway has a zipped file, data4.zip, which is located in a user-defined directory, /usr/local/Tivoli/file_source. The file size is approximately 135 MB, and has to be placed in the C:/TEMP directory on the target. The network has been multicast enabled, and we verified that all the target endpoints are multicast enabled and listening by doing a simple multicast ping using the wmcast -p option. The Data Moving service provides the capability to perform data distribution, with send, retrieve, and delete capabilities, between managed nodes and endpoints. However, for this example we focus on the send option.

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Data Moving operations can be managed in an activity plan, using the Activity Plan Editor. We will store our plan as a draft template. All Data Moving operations are referenced with a single, logical software package object reference known as DataMovingRequest.1. This consistent object helps prevent database cleanups and maintenance issues after distributions. Step-by-step information on how Data Moving was used to distribute a file through the multicast follow: 1. From the Tivoli Desktop click Activity Plan Editor. This will bring up the Activity Plan Editor using the same user login that was used to open the desktop. 2. As shown in Figure 6-9, click the Software Distribution icon under Activities to create a Data Move activity. 3. This brings up the Activity Properties window, as shown in the same figure. Give it a name of your choice. We call it Data_Moving_Multicast_Send. Give it a description of your choice. 4. Select the operation to be performed, which is Send.

Figure 6-9 Gateway to endpoint multicast: Activity Plan Editor

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5. Click Properties and this will bring up the Send Properties window, as seen in Figure 6-10 on page 228. 6. The Send Properties window is divided into multiple folders. Under Applications Options, key in the: a. Data Origin Source Host: Select the source host that is our gateway, aix-tmr1b. b. File Name: data4.zip. c. Data Moving Objects: File Path at origin: /usr/local/Tivoli/file_source. File path at destination: C:/TEMP. d. Under Distribution Options, right at the bottom you should see Multicast Management. Click Enable Multicast and leave Retry unicast checked. e. Click OK to save the send properties and the next OK for the Activity properties.

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Figure 6-10 Gateway-to-endpoint multicast: Send properties

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7. Now that we have tuned our distribution parameters, we should see our distribution icon in the planer. The next step is to select our Windows 2000 desktop endpoints as targets for the distribution. 8. Right-click the icon, which now has the label of Data_Moving_Multicast_Send. 9. Select Targets, which brings up the Select Target window, as seen in Figure 6-11. 10.As we want the endpoints to be our targets, we will leave the default value of Endpoints for Target Types for Browsing. 11.Under the Target Selection list, click Insert and this should bring up the Select target window as shown in Figure 6-11. By clicking Target List you can bring up the endpoint list to select your endpoints. 12.Save the targets by clicking OK in all the target windows.

Figure 6-11 Gateway-to-endpoint multicast: Select targets

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13.Once done, the activity plan is complete and we need to save the plan name. Select the icon and click View from the top menu and select Plan Properties. Give it a plan name. We gave it the name Data_Move_Plan. This is the name you select to submit the plan. 14.Now to submit the plan we need to click the Activity Plan Monitor from the desktop. This brings up the Tivoli Software Distribution - Activity Plan Monitor as seen in Figure 6-12. 15.Click Plans Submit and select the plan. 16.The zip file data4.zip will now be multicast to all our target endpoints.

Figure 6-12 Gateway-to-endpoint multicast: Activity Plan Monitor submission

6.6 Multicast limitations


In this chapter we have shown the new multicast option now available and how it can benefit you in your environment by speeding distributions and avoiding

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network congestions. But, with all the benefits come a few limitations and concerns one must consider before using multicast. 1. While data is being sent through multicast, a pause or cancel action will have no effect. The command will not take effect until after multicasting has finished. 2. While data is being sent through multicast, the wmdist -I command will not show the progress of the transfer. Instead you will see an arbitrary number identifying that this distribution is multicast. Example 6-1 shows an example. 3. Software Distribution will be used to preload depots similarly to the way it is done today, but with multicast enabled. Multicasting to agents will be done in Software Distribution by enabling the distribution's multicast flag. When using multicast, bulk data is moved to the endpoint before invoking the application. For Software Distribution, this means that its prerequisite checking (for example, checking available disk space or if the application has already been installed) happens after the bulk data has been stored on the endpoint. If Software Distribution later decides it should not install the application, the bulk data was transferred needlessly. However, the only adverse side effect of this is the temporary consumption of disk space.
Example 6-1 Multicast distribution status and ID # wmdist -I aix-tmr1b Repeater: aix-tmr1b Jobs in SEND queue: 2 Jobs in RECEIVE queue: 0 === Session Information === Low: available = 40 Medium: available = 9 High: available = 5 used = 0 used = 1 used = 0

=== Distribution Information === External Id: Internal Id: Label: Priority: Application: Target: Target: Target: Target: 1375372617.152 1375372617.152 jcf.1 (install) 3 Software Distribution State: State: State: State: WAITING WAITING WAITING WAITING 0% 0% 0% 0% (0/0) (0/0) (0/0) (0/0)

WIN-MUR-01 win-bkp03b winarch01b WIN-MUR-02

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Target: WIN-MUR-03 State: WAITING 0% (0/0) Target: WIN-MUR-04 State: WAITING 0% (0/0) Target: WIN-MUR-05 State: WAITING 0% (0/0) === Distribution Information === External Id: Internal Id: Label: Priority: Application: 1375372617.152 1375372617.1.578#1028222779 jcf.1 (install) 3 Software Distribution State: RECEIVING 0% (0/0)

Target: aix-tmr1b

4. By nature, as mentioned earlier, multicast is a UDP-based protocol, and networks need to be configured to allow multicast to flow. This definitely is a concern in a firewall environment. If you wish to use multicast through firewalls then you will have to configure the firewall to pass multicast packets in both directions (from sender to receiver for bulk data, from receiver to sender for acknowledgements). Multicast uses at least two multicast groups (IP address + port): Multicast advertisements, which in our case use 224.0.1.18 + 9499. Actual distribution, which will be decided by the mclow and mchigh values configured under wmcast. By default this range is from 224.2.128.0 to 224.2.255.255. 5. The data sent through multicast is not encrypted and should be used under secure networks. 6. Because multicast is cached on the endpoint prior to processing, the endpoint must have twice the distribution size in free space.

6.7 Troubleshooting multicast


This section covers a few tips on how to troubleshoot issues related to distributions through multicast. It tells where the logs are placed and how to increase and decrease the debug levels of multicast logs.

6.7.1 Repeater multicast log


The Distributed Depot service, as mentioned earlier, is capable of reading and writing to the MDist2 depot. This causes the initial logging of any distribution to be registered to the MDist2 logs, but once the handle is passed to multicast it then spawns the logging to its own multicast log. To get the best logging for MDist2 calls we need to change the repeaters logging level.

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If the managed node is a repeater then the MDist2 log is written to the rpt2log in the database directory. The logging level can be set using the following command:
wmdist -s repeater_name debug_level=number

Where 0 is the least information and 9 is most information. The default is set to 3. If the repeater is a gateway, then the gateways gatelog provides the necessary MDist2 logs. Setting the gateway to debug level 9 would give the most information regarding MDist2. The gateways debug level can be set using the following command:
wgateway gateway_name set_debug_level number

It is recommended to set the gateway to debug level 9 when dealing with Mdist2 issues. The new logfile for the multicast depot server is placed in the $DBDIR/mcast.log. This log provides detailed information regarding multicast depot communication. The logging level for multicast can be set using:
wmcast -s repeater_name mc_debug_level=number

Where the number ranges from 0 to 3. The default is set to 1. 0: No logging 1: Exception logging 2: Most logs including exceptions 3: Most logs plus the entry, exit, and exceptions

6.7.2 Endpoint receiver log and structure


Once the endpoint logs into the gateway that has endpoint_multicast=TRUE in its wmdist parameters, the endpoint is now multicast enabled. To know if the endpoint is running multicast, a process called mcast_receiver is running on the endpoint. The endpoint also created two new directories under the $LCF_DATDIR: mcast depot The depot directory is the location for the multicast receiver depot. This can be changed using the depot_dir parameter in the last.cfg. The multicast logs are included into the lcfd.log for convenience. The logging level for the multicast log is also tied to the lcfd.log, as mentioned in Configuring endpoint to receive multicast on page 220. $LCF_DATDIR/last.cfg should have log_threshold=3.

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To check if endpoints are listening for multicast, the following command can be used to do a multicast ping:
wmcast -p repeater name

This will send a multicast advertisement to the endpoints and check if they are received.

6.7.3 Best practices and tips


Here are some best practices and tips for multicast: Hyper Delivery (RMTP) flow on page 210 will help when looking at the multicast logs to match the communication between the sender and receivers. For software package profiles that target mobile endpoints, to receive multicast distributions the distribution must be marked as hidden. Multicast is not supported on Tivoli Firewall Security Toolbox or multiple endpoints on a workstation. Router configuration must be discussed with a customer before deciding on using multicast in a customer environment. You need to make sure that routers are configured to allow multicast. When the repeater is sending data you will see the Send MC_DT method in the mcast.log. Usually during large distributions this is a good indicator of data being sent if the mcast.log is tailed. You could also use the netstat command to check if UDP packets are flowing across the system by running the following command.
netstat -s -p UDP

If the advertisement address is changed on the repeater, then it needs to be changed on all the receivers endpoints too. We recommend leaving the Tivoli default advertisement address as 224.0.1.18, as it is registered with the IANA. The time-to-live integer for multicast is set to 5 by default. If you have multiple routers between your receiver and target, then you may have to change this value. You can use Trace Route to determine how many hops are between the sender and receiver.

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Chapter 7.

Troubleshooting IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager


IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager 4.2.2 aims to make distributed systems and application management relatively easy. It achieves this through a consistent interface and the use of models, such as management by subscription. While the systems administrator can perform many tasks with relative ease, the code Tivoli provides to achieve those tasks is extraordinarily complex. With the solid foundation of the Tivoli Management Framework, this complexity can remain largely masked from the administrator. However, with such a sophisticated set of products, there will be occasions when those designing, testing, and implementing Tivoli solutions will encounter situations that are not resolved by reference to product manuals alone. In problem-solving situations, you need to understand what is going on between the product components, what messages and trace output means, and what extra actions you can take to try to resolve a problem. The following troubleshooting topics are discussed in this chapter: Generic problem determination outline Trouble shooing Framework 4.1 Autotrace Troubleshooting Software Distribution Troubleshooting MDist2

Copyright IBM Corp. 2005. All rights reserved.

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Troubleshooting Activity Planner Troubleshooting Change Manager Troubleshooting Web Gateway and Device Management Troubleshooting Web User Interface Troubleshooting Enterprise Directory Integration Troubleshooting Inventory

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7.1 Generic problem determination outline


If you start to receive errors and you have questions about the cause, this generic outline for problem determination may help. If you have a scenario that you can recreate, the following is a generic list of steps to perform to gather documentation. To obtain an overall picture of what is being passed by oserv: 1. Do odadmin odlist to determine the number of managed nodes and interconnected TMRs. 2. Do odadmin alone to get information, such as the port range restrictions (if any), or other oserv parameters like Single Port BDT in place. 3. Do odadmin environ get to determine the environment the oserv is using. 4. To gather data from each suspected machine: a. Log on as root and as a Tivoli root administrator. This helps ensure you are not experiencing authority problems. b. Run the following commands:
odadmin trace objcalls odadmin trace services

c. Recreate the problem on every involved machine, including the TMR server. d. Do odstat -v > odstat.txt. e. Do wtrace -jHk $DBDIR >wtrace.txt (or %DBDIR% for Windows). f. Collect the above files plus oserv.log and any useful system logs. 5. Once tracing has been done or the problem determined, you could turn tracing back to the default of tracing only errors.
odadmin trace off odadmin trace errors

The trace should help you determine the failing objcall. Note: Leaving tracing on for objcalls and services could cause performance impact on the oserv. For troubleshooting you could leave it on until a problem is determined and then turn tracing back to the default.

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7.2 Troubleshooting Framework 4.1.1


IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager 4.2.2 is comprised of various products and there are various logs available within the product. In this section we focus on Tivoli Management Framework logs related to Inventory and Software Distribution. When you are troubleshooting problems with Tivoli Management Framework, there are a number of important commands that will help you. The three most commonly used when tracing oserv are: odadmin Lists the managed nodes in a TMR and configures different aspects of how the Tivoli object dispatcher (oserv) communicates, such as defining IP addresses and interconnected regions. If you run odadmin without any options, the default is the odadmin odinfo command, which gives information about oserv options. Lists currently running methods and method histories. Lists the current status of transactions and locks. Formats the odtrace.log, which is created when tracing objcalls, services, or errors (tracing is invoked with odadmin trace options).

odstat tmstat wtrace

Additional logs can be found in the database directory, which is locatable through the following variable names: $DBDIR on UNIX %DBDIR% on Windows NT/2000/2003 or OS/2 The database directory contains other files that can be used as debugging tools: epmgrlog gatelog odb.log gwdb.log oservlog odtrace.log Endpoint manager log Gateway log Tivoli database transaction log Tivoli Gateway database transaction log Error log of the Object Dispatcher (oserv) The file that the wtrace command reads and translates

On a TMA endpoint, there is also a logfile in the /lcf/dat/xx path. lcfd.log Endpoint log

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In some cases, you may need to get into the more complex area of direct manipulation of the Tivoli object database. You can hand-run methods, identify method source files, and so on. For more information on these Framework commands and logs refer to Tivoli Framework V 4.1.1, Maintenance and Troubleshooting Guide, GC32-0807.

7.3 Autotrace
In Tivoli Management Framework 4.1 the Autotrace feature has been incorporated for various components. Autotrace is a "flight recorder" type trace tool, which means it is designed to run all the time in a product's production environment with minimal performance impact. Autotrace is a third-party tool incorporated by Tivoli for troubleshooting. The software is originally developed by The Kernel Group Inc. (TKG). The data collected by Autotrace represents the execution of the program itself and can be used to determine control flow. Function entry and exit are recorded with the parameters passed and the return codes given. Autotrace has a minimal impact on the performance of a process. Because of this, we can deploy code with Autotrace built in. This removes the need for debug code to be shipped for many cases of problem determination. Each trace hook can be set to be active or not. It captures all traces in memory for maximum performance. Trace buffers are in shared memory, which allows trace to be captured to a file even when the Tivoli product abends suddenly. Autotrace has a concept of a trace ID. Autotrace associates each unique function signature with a number called the trace ID. The number and types of parameters, the return type, and the file the function is found in make up the function signature. IBM keeps a database of these trace IDs. The trace IDs are remembered across releases so that we can accurately report the data from snap files across different versions of the executables. It also allows for dynamic control over the parts of a program that are being traced at any given time. Trace data collection is as simple as running a command to save a trace buffer snapshot, which can then be analyzed later, either locally or remotely, with the interactive tools provided. The Autotrace Trace Profiler analyzes one or more snap files and produces a summary output detailing which program functions were called, how often they were called, and provides overall statistics. The Trace Profiler can be used to determine what the First Failure Data Capture set of functions needs to be.

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Note: Reading the data collected from Autotrace requires access to the Tivoli source code and database. One should do the required tracing only if requested by a Tivoli representative.

7.4 Troubleshooting Software Distribution


In this section we share troubleshooting techniques for the Software Distribution component. We provide a general approach for diagnosing distribution problems. The internals, architecture, and diagnostic techniques for all major components of Software Distribution will also be reviewed because understanding the process flow of each component is very useful when troubleshooting a problem.

7.4.1 General troubleshooting


The problem determination steps should be based on the process flow of the components of the products so that the point of failure could be determined and rectified. For Software Distribution, there are three main components in the process flow. These are the Framework infrastructure, the endpoint, and the software package profile. The Framework infrastructure needs to be reviewed first since distribution of any profiles will not work without it. Then the endpoint needs to be checked that it is in working order. The last thing to check is the Software Distribution profile and its associated spd or spb. The Framework environment is the infrastructure used by Software Distribution, so the first thing to check is that the Framework environment is functioning correctly. You must check that all required Software Distribution components and prerequisites have been correctly installed and configured on the Tivoli Server and gateways. You need to check that functions of the Tivoli Server, all gateways, and managed nodes are all functioning correctly. A wping of the managed node may indicate that the managed nodes are up and running but does not necessarily mean that it is functioning correctly. You can test this by pushing out other types of profiles, like Inventory profile, to endpoints other than the suspect endpoints. A failure here would indicate a problem with the Framework environment. The gatelog of the gateway, the oservlog, and the mdist log would need to be reviewed at a increased trace level. Refer to the 7.2, Troubleshooting Framework 4.1.1 on page 238, to further determine the cause of the problem. With the checking of the condition of the endpoint, besides checking that it is running, you should push out other types of profiles, like Inventory or even other software package profiles, to check that it is functioning correctly. If this is failing, the problem could be with the endpoint. If more than one endpoint is

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encountering the problem, check for any set pattern. For examples, all the problematic endpoints serviced by the same gateway or the same profile are failing on all these endpoints. The problem then could be with the gateway or the profile. For problems with the gateway and endpoint, refer to 7.2, Troubleshooting Framework 4.1.1 on page 238, to further determine the cause of the problem. With the Framework infrastructure and the endpoint in working order, the problem could be with the software package profile or the software package. Test the software package profile by distributing to a known working endpoint. A failure here could indicate that the problem could be with the profile or the software package. The best source of information of the distribution is in the software package logfile and the Software Distribution trace files. Review these logs to determine the cause of the problem. The settings of the software package profiles should be checked, and how those settings or options can affect the operations on the endpoints. One of the things to watch out for is with nested software packages. A Software Distribution to a group of endpoints failing with an error like failed cm_status check could be due to one of the nested packages being already installed on one of the targeted endpoints. Using the force or ignore options should allow the distribution to complete. Refer to the IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager Users Guide for Software Distribution, SC23-4711, for the requirements and implications of using these options. There can be times where the installation of the software package is successful but the status in the log does is not correctly indicate this. This can occur with user_program defined as the final action, which has an indefinite time out or a manual reboot of the target required. This is due to the records of the states of the software packages in the Inventory database being out of sync with the endpoints catalogs, which hold the states of the software package. You will need to run wsyncsp to reconcile the information. The other sections in this chapter detail how to enable tracing and which logfiles need to be reviewed for the different components.

7.4.2 Check the log


In general, the first step in troubleshooting is to consult the logfile, which contains more information than a Software Distribution notice group entry or an e-mail sent about the software package operation. Log files provide a detailed list of successful or failed attempts to distribute software packages for each endpoint. The append_log keyword keyword is set in the software package definition file. Check this file to verify that the append_log keyword is set. If it is, the logfile will contain information about software package operations.

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The default location of the logfile is on the TMR server under directory structure $BINDIR/. ./swdis/work. However, it is possible to generate a logfile on a specific managed node with the log_host_name attribute in the SPD file that specifies the label of the managed node, typically the host name, where the logfile is generated. The default name for the log is package-name^package-version.log. You can specify the logfiles location on any managed node or target in the Package Properties dialog from the Software Package Editor. To change the location of the logfile using a software package definition file, update the log_file_path attribute. We recommend that you generate a detailed log on the endpoint that records each action in the software package and the results of change management operations on the package. The target logfile is set with the log_object_list stanza in the SPD file, and the location keyword that identifies the path name or subdirectory. If the directory does not already exist, it will be created. The logfile will also be SPname.SPversion.log or SPname^SPversion.log, the same as for the logfile name on the TMR or designated managed node. IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager, by default, will overwrite the logfile with each new distribution of the software package.

7.4.3 Check the Distribution Status Console


To check the Distribution Status Console you will need to: Determine which targets are failing. Determine if repeaters are failing. Determine the status of different distributions: Waiting Interrupted Receiving Consulting the Distribution Status Console is a good way to get a graphical representation of what the status is of all the systems involved in a distribution. By using the Distribution Status Console, you can determine which targets or repeaters did not receive the distribution. A PAUSED status for the distribution could be for endpoints operating in mobile mode. Check the login_mode of the endpoint by running wep endpoint_label. If the target endpoint is not running in mobile mode and you did not pause the distribution, continue further troubleshooting by checking the software package logfile, mdist log, gatelog, and the lcfd.log to determine the point of failure.

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7.4.4 Make sure that Tivoli Framework is functional


To make sure that Tivoli Framework is functional: Suspect this problem if the endpoint was previously able to receive distributions, and suddenly is unsuccessful. Make sure the oserv is running on gateways. Verify the setup of endpoints. Of course a distribution will fail if gateways are not receiving the distribution or if endpoints are not connected to gateways. If a particular endpoint suddenly can no longer receive distributions, then Framework is a good place to check for problems. Run the Framework command odadmin odlist to confirm that all systems are connected. Use the wping command to confirm that the oserv is running on a particular gateway. Note: Do not forget that you have to have both name and reverse name resolution for Tivoli Managed Nodes to communicate. If you are having reverse mapping problems, add the IP address-to-host name maps to DNS. Also recommended is to add data to the /etc/hosts file and use /etc/hosts as a DNS fallback. Do the following to verify the setup of endpoints: Verify the endpoint connection. Verify endpoint configuration settings. Verify the gateway log. The wep command can provide a list of all endpoints in a TMR and their assigned gateways, retrieve and set endpoint information, migrate an endpoint from one gateway to another, and update any endpoint data changes within a TMR. This command also can list information in the endpoint list that is maintained by the endpoint manager. The wadminep command set with the view_config_info option lists the configuration settings for a particular endpoint. After configuring a gateway, you can set the set_debug_level option with the wgateway command to track information about the gateway. The wgateway command lists gateway object identification numbers, names, and status within a TMR. The wgateway debug_level debug_level command sets the level of message information that is logged by the gateway. The default is 0, which provides

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information on Error messages. 8 (maximum level) provides the most verbose information on upcall and downcall activity. Tips: One particular case is when you have reinstalled an endpoint, but the endpoint does not seem to be able to log into the Tivoli environment. To correct this problem you need to delete the previous endpoint using the wdelep command. If your endpoints have problems contacting their gateway first check whether your endpoints can see their gateway by using the ping command.

7.4.5 Check for MDist2 problems


Software Distribution uses MDist2 for distributions and the distribution information can be found in the MDist2 Distribution Managers log distmgr.log, which is located in $DBDIR. You can set the trace level to the maximum level by running wmdist -D 9. Review this log for any possible causes and rectify it. Review the MDist2 settings to ensure that they are within range and the time-out settings have not been exceeded. Many distribution problems are caused by problems transmitting the package along the chain of repeaters to the endpoints that are the targets of a distribution. Failures occur, for example, because a connection is lost between an endpoint and its gateway, a distribution times out because of performance problems, or a user program fails or does not complete.

Common MDist2 problems


The following list provides some examples of distribution failures that are symptoms of problems with the distribution network of repeaters, gateways, and endpoints: You can successfully distribute a software package to one endpoint but a distribution to multiple endpoints fails. Ensure that the repeaters are optimized and configured correctly. You have network storms. Use the wmdist command to examine the MDist2 parameters and to change them if necessary. In particular, check the value of the max_sessions_high, max_sessions_medium, and max_sessions_low parameters, which set the number of allowable connections: High-priority (default: 5), medium-priority (default: 10), and low-priority (default: 40) connections, respectively.

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You can no longer distribute to an endpoint to which you previously were able to send distributions. Ensure that the endpoint is connected to its gateway and is active. Distribution times out. If the distribution times out, check the values for send and execute timeout set using the wmdist command. Note: All distributions have an absolute maximum time limit, after which they will be reported as expired. The default time limit is 72 hours. Distribution takes longer than expected. You can use the wmdist -I gateway/repeater name command to monitor the progress of loading the software package at each repeater (it gives the number of bytes transferred and the percentage complete). If you decide that performance is bad, you may decide to change the way in which your network is configured (netload). The alternative wdepot command checks on the existence of a package at a depot, and thus may be useful if the level of completion is of no interest to you. You may also consider configuring a machine that is continually used as a source host as a repeater. By configuring the source host as a repeater, you can tune the communication parameters of the machine so that the software package is routed directly from the source host to its gateway. This saves time and network load. Note: Use the wmdist -s rptname debug_level command to change the information level from the repeater log or gateway log. The value ranges from 09. The log name is $DBDIR/rpt2log. If the system is a repeater, the default is 3. If the system is a gateway, the default is 0. For example, the wmdist -s test debug_level 9 command changes the information level on the test system to 9. The log is written in the $DBDIR/rpt2log file.

7.4.6 Troubleshooting the software package


Check the software package definition file (SPD): Use if you suspect the software package itself is the problem, such as if other SP distributions succeed.

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The SPD file provides details of the software package in one look. Use the wgetspat command to get the attributes of the software package. Note: The minimum authorization role required to retrieve the attributes for a specified software package object is user. The SPD file allows for setting all possible properties and options in a readable text format, including those only available using an import or export. The SPD file can be considered the instructions or control file defining actions and how they are performed. There are three ways to obtain the software package definition file, which is given a suffix of .spd, for example, SPname.SPversion.spd, by convention: Java Endpoint Software Package Editor -> File -> Save as and save the package, selecting .spd as the suffix (or extension). The wexpspo command, which allows for exporting content of a software package to either a file or standard out. Tivoli Desktop -> SP profile, right-click Export. The wgetspat command extracts the attributes of the SP object, which may be quite useful in debugging a problem. Some of the relevant attributes to review for diagnosing a problem are the settings for: stop_on_error Specifies whether to stop (fail) a distribution to an endpoint when any error (fatal or non-fatal) occurs. backup_fmt Specifies whether and where to back up any files being overwritten by the files distributed in the software package. list_path Specifies where to write a list of files distributed to an endpoint. prog_env Sets the environment for the configuration programs on an endpoint. (This keyword applies to UNIX and Windows NT/2000 platforms only.) log_file Specifies the file to which log information is written. log_host Specifies the machine on which the logfile resides.

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7.4.7 Software Distribution traces


Traces provide more detailed information about packaging or distributions enabled for the specific component related to the failure or failed Software Distribution operation. Therefore, traces may be taken on the server, source host, endpoint, preparation site, or disconnected CLI. On endpoints the trace level is set in the Software Distribution base configuration file, swdis.ini, located in the system directory on the target system for the respective OS platform: Windows: \winnt\ or \winnt40\ OS/2: \os2\ NetWare: sys:\System UNIX:
/etc/Tivoli/ (global for root user) $HOME/.swdis/ (local / private for non-root user)

Important: Setting the trace level using swdist.ini works only for endpoints. You can use the command, wswdcfg, to set trace information on the Software Distribution servers and managed nodes. The syntax follows:
wswdcfg s trace_level= 0, 1, .....6 wswdcfg h hostname

This command is not applicable for endpoints, where swdist.ini should be used. There is also another troubleshooting command: wmsgbrowse. It is used for investigating the Notification Manager queue (browse the message queue, filter it, find undelivered messages, etc.) in order to understand the problem. For details on both of these troubleshooting commands please refer to the IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager Reference Manual for Software Distribution Version 4.2.2, SC23-4712. The trace level by default is zero (as seen in Example 7-1) or none, which really indicates no tracing or that tracing is, in effect, disabled. The new trace level takes effect on the next distribution or execution.
Example 7-1 swdis.ini [#SERVER] product_dir=/usr/local/Tivoli/bin/swdis working_dir=/usr/local/Tivoli/bin/swdis/work backup_dir=/usr/local/Tivoli/bin/swdis/backup trace_level=0 trace_size=1000000

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report_threads_limit=10 inventory_rim_name=inv_query autopack_dir=/usr/local/Tivoli/bin/swdis/autopack staging_dir=usr/local/Tivoli/bin/swdis/service user_file_variables=/usr/local/Tivoli/bin/swdis/swdis.var import_libraries=spd,libscimp [aix-tmr01b] product_dir=/opt/Tivoli/swdis/1 working_dir=/opt/Tivoli/swdis/1/work backup_dir=/opt/Tivoli/swdis/1/backup trace_level=0 trace_size=1000000 send_timeout=300 autopack_dir=/opt/Tivoli/swdis/1/autopack staging_dir=opt/Tivoli/swdis/1/service user_file_variables=/opt/Tivoli/swdis/1/swdis.var import_libraries=spd,libecimp inventory_scan_file=/opt/Tivoli/lcf/inv/SCANNER/sd_scan.nfo

There is no maximum size of each trace file; the default size per type is 1,000,000 bytes. When the trace_size specified is reached, the first trace file is overwritten. For example, the trace files can be written from spo1.trc up to spo9.trc (sp01.trc, sp02.trc, etc.), and if the specified maximum size is reached and sp09 gets full, sp01.trc is overwritten (unless the trace_style keyword is activated). The trace file depends on the machine role for the installed component. The trace files themselves are created initially, with trace_level = 0, zero byte, until the trace_level is increased. Example 7-2 shows the swdist.ini file with the trace level set to 5.
Example 7-2 Listing in swdis.ini on endpoint C:\WINNT>type swdis.ini |more [3B-053] speditor_dir=C:\Tivoli\swdis\1\speditor product_dir=C:\Tivoli\swdis\1 working_dir=C:\Tivoli\swdis\1\work backup_dir=C:\Tivoli\swdis\1\backup profile_dir=C:\Tivoli\swdis\1\work\profiles trace_level=5 trace_size=1000000 send_timeout=300 autopack_dir=C:\Tivoli\swdis\1\autopack staging_dir=Tivoli\swdis\1\service user_file_variables=C:\Tivoli\swdis\1\swdis.var inventory_scan_file=C:\Tivoli\lcf\inv\SCANNER\sd_scan.nfo [#MOBILE]

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speditor_dir=C:\Tivoli\swdis\1\speditor product_dir=C:\Tivoli\swdis\1 working_dir=C:\Tivoli\swdis\1\work backup_dir=C:\Tivoli\swdis\1\backup profile_dir=C:\Tivoli\swdis\1\work\profiles trace_level=5 trace_size=1000000 send_timeout=300 autopack_dir=C:\Tivoli\swdis\1\autopack staging_dir=Tivoli\swdis\1\service user_file_variables=C:\Tivoli\swdis\1\swdis.var inventory_scan_file=C:\Tivoli\lcf\inv\SCANNER\sd_scan.nfo

It may be worthwhile to erase any existing trace files to ensure a good capture for recreation or diagnosis. Software Distribution trace levels 0: None (default) 1: Fatal 2; Error 3: Warning 4: Information 5: Verbose 6: On L3/Development request only [F]: Fatal Failure [E]: Error [W]: Warning [I]: Information

Software Distribution trace flags

Here is a summary of the logfiles at the different locations. Server (spo_core.exe) tmesdis*.trc CLI spo*.trc Import/export Requests to source host

Source Host (spd_eng.exe) spde*.trc Import/export Build

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mdist*.trc MDist2 interfaces Endpoint/PrepSite (spd_eng.exe) tmesdis*.trc CLI spde*.trc Build (prep.site) Execution

autopck*.trc autopack (prepsite)

7.4.8 Troubleshooting Data Moving


Below you will find the Data Moving log and trace files.

Data Moving logfile


The log and trace settings for Data Moving are the same as for Software Distribution software packages.

The DataMovingRequestxxx.log
The DataMovingRequestsXXX.log is located under the working_dir designation in the swdis.ini file on the TMR server; for example, on an AIX TMR server under the path /usr/local/Tivoli/bin/swdis/work/. The logfile records information regarding Data Movement operations and distributions.

Data Moving trace files


tmesdisxx.trc, swdmgrxx.trc, and spoxx.trc are located on the TMR server. They report all the traces associated with the wspmvdata command. These files are unique in the case of interconnected TMRs when the Tivoli Software Distribution Server component is installed after the interconnection. spde*.trc resides on the source host and endpoint. It records diagnostic information about the import, export, build, and execution processes.

7.4.9 Troubleshooting Mobile Computing


We will cover the Mobile Computing process flow and log and trace files for Mobile Computing to help you in diagnosing problems associated with the Software Distribution to mobile workstations.

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Mobile Computing configuration, log, and trace files


For troubleshooting the server side, you set the trace level of the MDist2 Distribution Manager with wmdist -D 7 (0-9). If you are using a UNIX TMR server, you can watch the trace in real time with tail -f $DBDIR/distmgr.log. To watch what is happening on the gateways, set the trace level of the gateway with wgateway $gateway set_debug_level 7 (0-9). You can watch the trace in real time with tail -f $DBDIR/gatelog on the UNIX gateway concerned. For tracing the Mobile Computing environment on the endpoint, you have two options. Setting logLevel=4 (0-4) in Mobile.cfg generates trace information for the Mobile Agent. Setting guiLogLevel=4 (0-4) generates trace information for the Mobile Console. In both cases the trace information is written to Mobile.log located in $LCF_DATDIR/Mobile/Mobile.log. Also, setting the trace level of the endpoint can be informative. Add log_threshold=5 to $LCF_DATDIR/last.cfg and restart the endpoint. The trace information is written into $LCF_DATDIR/lcfd.log.

7.4.10 Troubleshooting pristine installations


Here are the information about pristine log and trace files:

Pristine Manager logfiles


The following three default logs contain information related to Pristine Manager operations: $DBDIR/pdaemon.log $DBDIR/pmanager.log c:\Program Files\IBM\Tivoli\common\CBI\logs\msg_cmosep.log

Pristine Manager trace files


The trace file pdaemon.log is located in the $DBDIR directory of the Tivoli region where the Pristine Manager daemon is running. It provides information about installations anytime from when you submit the plan to when the pristine machine logs in as a Tivoli endpoint. To specify the maximum size of the pdaemon.log file, use the wpristine set trace_size command. To specify the level of detail, use the wpristine set trace_level command. Also in $DBDIR, you can find the pmanager.log trace file where all the Pristine Manager actions are logged. The trace level of the log file cannot be customized.

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Trace information about the pristine installation when it is part of a reference model or an activity plan is included in the trace files associated with the Change Manager and Activity Planner.

7.4.11 Troubleshooting discovering and synchronization


Log information for the discovering and synchronization features can be collected through the following processes: Discovering The logfile associated with the software package Synchronization The wsyncsp.logfile created in the working directory, reported in the swdis.ini file

7.4.12 Change Management Status summary


Change Management (CM) Status is a handy way to understand the current status of the package. Table 7-1 is a summary of the Change Management Status information.
Table 7-1 Change Management Status summary Operation State Undo state Reboot state ReBoot requested Flag

Install Remove

Prepared Committed

Prepared Undoable Restored -

Changing
In Error

Discovered Hidden -

The statuses are: Pos 1 - Operation Pos 2 - State Pos 3 - Undo state Indicates the last operation that was performed on the software package, either I (install) or R (remove). Indicates the state of the software package, either P (prepared) or C (committed). If the SP is in an undo state, there will be a letter in the third position of the five-character sequence, which can be P (prepared), U (undoable), or R (restored), or otherwise a dash (-) if undo state does not apply.

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Pos 4 - Reboot Pos 5 - Flag ICU-IP-BC RCU-IC--E IC-DIC-H-

A B indicates a reboot was requested. A dash (-) indicates a reboot was not requested. An E indicates the software package is in error and may not work properly. Install has been committed and can be undone. Install has been prepared and will be committed during the next reboot. Remove has been committed but can be undone. Install has been committed, but the SP is in error (the application may not work properly). The software package has been added with use of the wdsetsps command. The software package has been superseded by a versionable package installed in undoable mode.

In summary, the overall state of a software package is represented by a sequence of five letters.

7.5 Troubleshooting Activity Planner


Below you will find detailed information about Activity Planner processes, and log and trace files.

7.5.1 Activity Planner processes


You may find below the internals of APM processes: APM_core Executer APMHandler All the APM threads are generated by a single process called APM_core. The operations submitted through the Task Library and SWD plug-ins are managed by the executer thread. The APMHandler thread manages all the APM work, together with the executer. The APMHandler also determines if an activity in an activity plan is eligible to start. The APMain thread initializes APM, starts the executer and APMHandler, and then waits for new requests. Requests are then queued to the APMHandler.

APMain

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7.5.2 Activity Planner configuration file


The APM configuration file, apm.ini, sets the AP logfile and trace files size, location, and debug level. AP log and trace files are generated at the TMR server. All the logfiles and traces are created on the server side, and on the managed node only for the GUI component. The apm.ini file is created at installation time. The table below shows the location of the AP configuration file, apm.ini, for the operating system.
Table 7-2 Location of apm.ini, APM configuration file File name apm.ini apm.ini OpSys UNIX NT/W2000 Path /etc/Tivoli $SystemDrive\WINNT

A sample apm.ini file is shown in Example 7-3.


Example 7-3 Sample apm.ini ;APM configuration file [DEFAULT] trace_level=0 working_dir=C:\Tivoli\bin\w32-ix86\..\w32-ix86\..\apm trace_size=1000000 log_max_file=100000 log_level=5 plugin_download=enabled log_file=apmlog TME_Host=morbidelli TME_User=tivapm [MAIN] trace_level=0 working_dir=C:\Tivoli\bin\w32-ix86\..\w32-ix86\..\apm trace_size=1000000 [HANDLER] trace_level=0 working_dir=C:\Tivoli\bin\w32-ix86\..\w32-ix86\..\apm trace_size=1000000 [EXECUTER] trace_level=0 working_dir=C:\Tivoli\bin\w32-ix86\..\w32-ix86\..\apm trace_size=1000000 [APMCLI] trace_level=0 working_dir=C:\Tivoli\bin\w32-ix86\..\w32-ix86\..\apm trace_size=1000000

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[APMEDITOR] trace_level=0 working_dir=C:\Tivoli\bin\w32-ix86\..\w32-ix86\..\apm trace_size=1000000 plugin_download=enabled [MONITOR] enable_auto_update=true auto_update_interval=180 trace_level=0 working_dir=C:\Tivoli\bin\w32-ix86\..\w32-ix86\..\apm trace_size=1000000 plugin_download=enabled

Tip: A new command, wtrcapm, can be used to change or view the current log and trace settings for the activity plan engine components. For example, the following changes the value of trace_level key in the [HANDLER] session in apm.ini file to 3.
wtrcapm H s trace_level=3

7.5.3 Activity Planner logfiles


Table 7-3 summarizes the logfiles for AP.
Table 7-3 Location of APM logfiles Log type AP Monitor AP Monitor AP Editor AP Editor APM General APM General APM Internal APM Internal File name apmon.log apmon.log apmed.log apmed.log apmlog* apmlog* apm.log apm.log OpSys UNIX NT/W2000 UNIX NT/W2000 UNIX NT/W2000 UNIX NT/W2000 Path /tmp/ $SystemDrive\WIN NT\ /tmp/ $SystemDrive\WIN NT\ working_dir in apm.ini working_dir in apm.in

/tmp/
$SystemDrive\

Example 7-4 on page 256 shows the APM logfiles on our UNIX TMR server.

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Example 7-4 APM logfiles eastham> pwd /tmp eastham> ls -al ap*.* -rw------1 root -rw-r--r-1 root -rw-r--r-1 root -rw-r--r-1 root -rw-r--r-1 root eastham>

system nobody system nobody system

735094 204 22334 37 22839

Mar Mar Mar Mar Mar

07 01 06 01 06

06:10 15:43 18:51 15:37 17:05

apm.log apm_uninst.log apmed.log apmmn_uninst.log apmon.log

The logs are: APM general log: apmlog Records operational level messages for APM, including plan submission and completion. It is created by default. AP Monitor log: apmon.log Specific for the Activity Planner GUI. AP Editor log: apmed.log Contains log information specific to the AP Editor. APM internal log: apm.log Contains all information related to the APM_core functionality. It records all APM calls made to its IDL interface. It also records all the JVM initialization and completion messages. It is not generated by default. To generate and record to the APM internal log, apm.log, an APM environment variable, __APM_DEBUG__, must be enabled through the use of the Framework command odadmin environ set, or by setting a system environment variable. An example on usage of the odadmin environ get / odadmin environ set command follows (Example 7-5) to enable the APM environment variable, __APM_DEBUG__.
Example 7-5 odadmin environ example eastham> eastham> eastham> eastham> 15382 26368 28916 odadmin environ get >/tmp/environ echo __APM_DEBUG__=1>>/tmp/environ odadmin environ set </tmp/environ ps -e | grep -i APM - 0:09 APM_core - 0:00 apmmonl - 0:00 apmmonl

30234

- 0:00 apmeditl

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32258 - 0:00 apmeditl eastham> kill 15382

7.5.4 Activity Planner trace files


All APM trace files are located in the /apm/ subdirectory under product_dir designation in the swdis.ini on the TMR server. Example 7-6 shows the APM trace files on our UNIX TMR server.
Example 7-6 APM trace files eastham> pwd /usr/local/Tivoli/bin/swdis/apm eastham> ls -al total 10880 drwxr-xr-x 2 root system drwxr-xr-x 5 root system -rw-r--r-1 root system -rw-r--r-1 root system -rw-r--r-1 root system -rw-r--r-1 root system -rw-r--r-1 root system -rw-r--r-1 root system -rw-r--r-1 root system -rw-r--r-1 root system -rw-r--r-1 root system -rw-r--r-1 root system -rw-r--r-1 root system -rw-r--r-1 root system -rw-r--r-1 root system -rw-r--r-1 root system

512 512 1000042 259 1000004 1000083 2635 1000021 5187 1000071 34647 292027 100024 416 84063 170

Mar Feb Feb Mar Feb Mar Mar Mar Mar Feb Mar Mar Feb Mar Feb Mar

07 05 27 07 27 04 07 05 07 05 07 07 10 07 01 06

06:00 14:57 16:35 06:05 16:33 15:03 06:00 16:43 06:00 13:16 06:00 06:00 19:00 06:00 12:25 21:01

. .. APDefault0.trc APDefault1.trc APDefault2.trc APExecuter0.tr APExecuter1.tr APMCli0.trc APMCli1.trc APMHandler0.tr APMHandler1.tr APMMain0.trc apmlog0 apmlog1 logs.tar.Z repqueue.dat

The files are: APDefault0.trc Contains all trace messages related to threads not tracked in the other files. It is considered a general trace file. Reports all traces associated with the executer thread that manage the operations submitted at the Task Library and SWD plug-ins. Contains all the traces associated with the APMHandler thread. Records the main thread traces, which involves initialization of APM, starting of the executer, and the APMHandler.

APExecuter.trc

APHandler.trc APMain.trc

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APMCli.trc APMonitor.trc APEditor.trc

Contains the traces related to the CLI execution. This trace file records traces associated with the use of the Activity Plan Monitor. This trace file records traces associated with the use of the Activity Plan Editor.

Setting the GUI trace level


To set the trace level for the Activity Planner GUI press the F2 button to display the Update trace level dialog and type the new value in the Insert new trace level text box. Possible values are numbers between 0 and 5; the default level is 0. Note: If you do not have write access to the folder where the GUI traces are written, the trace information is written to the users home directory. Valid values for trace and log levels are: 0 (none) 1 (fatal) 2 (error) 3 (warning) 4 (information) 5 (verbose) The default value for trace_level is 0; no trace is generated unless the trace level is modified. The default value for log_level is 5; all messages are logged unless the log_level is modified.

7.6 Troubleshooting Change Manager


In this section we will cover Change Manager, or Configuration Change Manager log and trace files, and how to customize them.

7.6.1 Change Manager configuration file


The location of the CM configuration file, confccm.xml, for each operating system is listed in Table 7-4 on page 259.

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Table 7-4 Location of CCM configuration file File name confccm.xml confccm.xml Operating system UNIX NT/W2000 Path /etc/Tivoli/ $SystemDrive\WINNT\

The CM configuration file is organized in stanzas that define CM implements such as elements, dependencies, and security. The CM configuration file can be customized to add new Java classes to change the current implementation, in such a case where the user decides to add new elements different from those currently supported. The confccm.xml configuration file can be customized to set the debug level for the CM traces. All log and trace files are created on the TMR server.

7.6.2 Change Manager logfiles


The CM logfile records the same information as is contained in the ccm_apm*.trc file, except only those entries generated by the C code of CCM_core are executable. It is not generated by default. When enabling CM, the environment variable, __CCM_DEBUG__, with use of the Framework command odadmin environ set, or set as a system variable, the appropriately named logfile, ccm.log, is created. However, it may be necessary to kill or recycle CM for the environment variable setting to actually take effect. The location of CM logfile, ccm.log, is shown in Table 7-5.
Table 7-5 Location of CM logfile File name ccm.log ccm.log OpSys UNIX NT/W2000 Path /tmp/ $TMPDIR

7.6.3 Change Manager trace files


CM trace files are located under the directory specified in the working_dir parameter of the swdis.ini file on the TMR server. ccm*.trc The ccm*.trc trace file contains all of the actions performed using the CM GUI. For example:

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Creation of a reference model Import of a reference model Export of a reference model Preview operation

It is located on the TMR server and those managed nodes where the CM GUI is installed. It is located under $(working_dir). ccm_apm*.trc The ccm_apm*.trc trace file contains all the actions performed by CCM_core when other applications, such as APM, SD WEB UI, and Pristine, interact with CM. All of the traces tracked by the Java code executed by the APM Java Virtual Machine are reported in this file. Examples of what is recorded include: Submit operations for APM CM answer to a WEB UI request CM synchronization operation for pristine machines The ccm_apm*.trc trace file is located only on the TMR server. ccm_webxxx.trc Contains the history of all operations performed by the Change Manager engine when interacting with the new WEB UI 4.2.2 on the Application Server. ccm_clixxx.trc Contains the history of all the operations performed using the CM command line as well as the operations performed when Change Manager interacts with the Activity Planner to download the plug-in information. You can set the trace level to determine the level of detail recorded for each operation. The trace file is only created if the trace_level keyword is set to greater than zero (default is zero). Trace values are as follows: 0 (none) 1 (fatal) 2 (error) 3 (warning) 4 (information) 5 (verbose)

You can set the trace level using the wtrcccm command. Alternatively, you can use the Change Manager GUI and press the F2 key. When you press the F2 key, the Update trace dialog box displays, and you can enter a new value in the New trace level text box. Also, trace_size determines the maximum number of records that can be written to the file (default is 1000000).

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7.7 Troubleshooting Web Gateway and Device Management


Here are some typical problems when using the Web Gateway and Device Management.

Resource Manager problems


A general failure when trying to register the resource type could be due to a communication failure with the Web Gateway or the Web Gateway is not functioning. These errors should show up in the TRMRDBMS.log and TRMResourceManager.log in the $DBDIR directory. There are also other TRM*.logs for the various components of Resource Manager on the TMR server under the $DBDIR directory. Review the appropriate log relating to the problem you are encountering to further determine the cause of the problem. The logs for the various components of Resource Manager are: TRMDGMAppMgr.log TRMDGMAppMgrUI.log TRMDGMDowncalls.log TRMDGMRegistry.log TRMGroup.log TRMGroupUI.log TRMRDBMS.log TRMResourceManager.log TRMResourceManagerUI.log TRMUserDB.log TRMUserUI.log Log information can be changed by setting the variable in the Tivoli environment (odadmin environ get/set):
TRM_DEBUG_LEVEL = (LEVEL_DBG_MIN/LEVEL_DBG_MID/LEVEL_DBG_MAX) TRM_MAX_LOG_SIZE = log files max size TRM_LOG_PATH = path to store log files

7.7.1 Tracing the Web Gateway


On the Web Gateway, locate the traceConfig.properties file in the directory app_server_dir/installedApps/dmsserver_hostname_DMS_WebApp.ear/dmserv er.war/WEB-INF/classes. To turn on tracing, change EnableTrace=false to EnableTrace=true. The other components that need to be turned on (true) are traceEnable.dmserver and traceEnabled.twgapi.

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Depending on the situation, your support representative may request turning on tracing for the other components. If the servlets are not running, start them to put the new trace settings into effect. If the servlets are running, do one of the following to put the new trace setting into effect without restarting the servlets: On any Tivoli Web Gateway (TWG) machine, perform the following:
server -app dmserver -trace set -host dmserver_hostname

On any TWG UNIX machine, perform the following command:


./server.sh -app dmserver -trace set -host dmserver_hostname

From any machine with a browser, go to the following URL:


http://dmserver_hostname/dmserver/TraceServlet?trace=set

The output files of the tracing are DMS_stdout.log, DMS_stderr.log, and DMSMsg1.log, which are located in the app_server_dir/log directory. The default for the Windows installation is C:\WebSphere\AppServer\log. You should also provide the ApiServlet.log in the /tmp directory to your support representative.

7.8 Troubleshooting Web User Interface


In this section we cover troubleshooting the Web User Interface. First let us see some common problems associated with the Web User Interface.

7.8.1 Common Web User Interface problems


Some common Web User Interface problems are detailed below. Web Interface login problems An unsuccessful login when doing a login to the WEB UI could be due to the security level of the browser being set too high. Reduce to a lower security level and test again. The login was successful but encountered a Java or ActiveX error message and the Operations Console does not show. The supported Java plug-in for the browser may not have been installed. The login is successful but no pop-up window is shown to download the two sets of files for the Web Interface. The Java plug-in for the browser has not been installed.

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Unable to publish Web objects. Before publishing any Web objects, you must make sure the following are up and running: Gateways servicing the endpoints, which have Web Gateway components installed Endpoints on the Web Gateway Servers Primary and secondary Web Gateway Servers DB2 server DB2 client Web Server WebSphere Application Server Access Manager WebSEAL server Check the logfile DMS_stdout.log and make sure that the log has the following entry, which indicates that the Web Gateway Server has started successfully: WSVR0023I: Server DMS_AppServer open for e-business. An insufficient authorization error when using the wweb command normally indicates that the Tivoli Administrator does not have the WebUI_Admin role. A Profile not found error when running wweb under Windows could be due to an extra caret (^) missing when specifying the profile name. For example, the profile mysoftware^1.0 needs to be specified as @mysoftware^^1.0 when running wweb under Windows. A general oserv error could indicate a problem with the gateway that services the endpoint that has the Web Gateway component installed. Restart the gateway with the wgateway command and test again. The wweb command completed with a distribution ID when publishing a software package but does not show up on the Web Interface. Check the file package_name.log in the ../swdis/work directory of the Tivoli Server for the results of the publishing of the software package. The users file in ../swdis/work should contain the list of the users that the Web objects are published for. On the endpoint where the Web Gateway Server is located, the outcome of the publishing of the software packages is recorded in the file called results located in the ..\swdis\1\ directory. Check this file for any error messages. The file called users contains the list of users that have access to the published Web objects. Enable the tracing and review the DMS_stdout.log for errors. You may have to enable more components for tracing depending on the situation. Publishing to

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an invalid user ID will fail and the log should reflect that. Refer to 7.8.2, Tracing the Web User Interface on page 265, for enabling tracing. Memory usage is increasing dramatically over time, causing the Tivoli Web Gateway application server to fail. Disable JIT for the Java Virtual Machine to circumvent this behavior. Note: JIT stands for just-in-time compiler. It is a code generator that converts Java bytecode into machine language instructions. If that will not solve the problem, check if you are running too many inventory jobs, since running a lot of inventory jobs on Red Hat Linux or Microsoft Windows platforms might increase memory usage dramatically, Problems with software package installation: Error in downloading attachment in the Operations Console. This error is not seen in the software_package.log. The Web Gateway Server could be down or the host name of the Web Gateway Server cannot be resolved. Make sure that you can resolve both the short and FQDN of the Web Gateway Server and perform the install again. DISSE0082E Error decoding software package object. It could be corrupted, or not a valid object. This error can be seen in both the Operations Console and in the software_package.log located on the Tivoli Server in the ../swdis/work directory. You will encounter this corrupt file error if you have used an IP address instead of the host name of the WebSEAL server in the URL to get to the Web Interface. Make sure the host name and short name of both the WebSEAL server and Web Gateway Server can be resolved. Use the host name of the WebSEAL server in the URL for the WEB UI Interface, log in again, and redo the install of the software package. In the dynamic resource group of the type User, the Query Selection group box on the Resource Group Members dialog is grayed out. Run the update_trm_query.sh script on the Tivoli server. Problems with the inventory scan. Inventory scan completed successfully but not data in the RDBMS database. Check the mcollect.log on the gateways and the trace file for the TWG-MCollect. Refer to 7.10, Troubleshooting Inventory on page 266, on Inventory mcollect to debug the failed collection.

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7.8.2 Tracing the Web User Interface


You can use wwebcfg to set the tracing parameters for the Web User Interface. The output trace files, WebUI*.trc, are located in the $DBDIR/WebUI directory. The available parameters for wwebcfg are: product_dir working_dir trace_size trace_level The default for product_dir is $DBDIR/WebUI and $DBDIR/WebUI/work for working_dir. The default trace_size is 1000000 and when the trace file size reaches this size, a new file is created. The trace_level can be set from 0 to 6. Your support personnel may request a higher level depending on the situation.
Table 7-6 Settings for trace_level trace_level 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Specifies No traces Level fatal Level error Level warning Level info Level verbose Maximum level

Tracing Software Distribution WEB UI plug-in


Set the trace_level parameter of wswdcfg to a level by running:
wswdcfg -s trace_level=9

The traces (*.trc) are located on the TMR server (by default) in the $product_dir directory, which is specified in the [#SERVER] section of the swdis.ini file. The swdis.ini is located on C:/WINNT for the Windows Tivoli Server and /etc/Tivoli for the UNIX TMR server. In the $product_dir, the spo*.trc and spde*.trc should have traces of the publishing of software packages to TWG. The swdmgr*.trc should have the results of the publishing.

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The swd traces directory can be changed using the product_dir parameter.
wswdcfg -s product_dir=trace_dir

Tracing for the Web Gateway


See 7.7.1, Tracing the Web Gateway on page 261.

Trace files of the endpoint on the Web Gateway Server


Locate the swdis.ini, which is located in C:/WINNT for Windows installation and etc/Tivoli for UNIX installation. Set the trace_level to level 6 (trace_level=6) in the endpoint section of the swdis.ini file. The trace files spde*.trc will be located in the $product_dir as specified in the swdis.ini file. When software packages are published to the TWG, these files should have the traces in them.

7.9 Troubleshooting Enterprise Directory Integration


Most of the issues involved in troubleshooting revolve around making sure the connection to the LDAP server is working and that the access to the context is correct. You can check this by setting a trace on the TMR server. For example:
odadmin environ set DQ_TRACE=max_size (MB)

The trace files are written to $DBDIR on the TMR server. DirQueryCli0 contains the CLI trace, and DirQueryEngine0.trc contains the engine trace. Sometimes the problem is a port issue. For Directory Integration, the communication takes place through a socket listening on port 9090. If this port is reserved for other applications, we suggest that you change it, setting the variable DQ_PORT to a different value. The command to use is again:
odadmin environ get/set

7.10 Troubleshooting Inventory


This section covers important information required to troubleshoot inventory scans. It is important that you understand the basic tasks and the logfiles used in order to troubleshoot effectively.

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Table 7-7 contains a summary of the logfiles we will be discussing in this chapter.
Table 7-7 Log file information Component Path Log file name lcfd.log Default log level 1 Debug level 3

Endpoint Upcall and downcall information Endpoint scan engine Inventory profile information Endpoint scan engine Scan data

$LCFDIR/dat/1.

From directory where the wepscan command was run. Created by wepscan -d command. From directory where the wepscan command was run. Created by wepscan -d command. From directory where the wepscan command was run. Created by wepscan -d command. $LCGFDIR\inv\Scan. $DBDIR.

sa_config.log

N/A

sa_results.lo g

N/A

Endpoint scan engine Debug information

INV_SA.LOG

N/A

Hardware scan library Debug information Gateway Upcall and downcall information RIM object SQLstatements and DB return codes Data Handler Debug information Collector Debug information

libInvHW.log gatelog

N/A 3

N/A 6

$RIM_DB_LOG Created by wrimtrace. $DBDIR/inventory/data_handler. $DBDIR/mcollect.

invdh_1_rim.l og mcollect.log mcollect.log

N/A

INFO|ER ROR 3 3

1 1

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Component

Path

Log file name lcfd.log

Default log level 1

Debug level 3

Endpoint Upcall and downcall information Endpoint scan engine Inventory profile information Endpoint scan engine Scan data

$LCFDIR/dat/1.

From directory where the wepscan command was run. Created by wepscan -d command. From directory where the wepscan command was run. Created by wepscan -d command. From directory where the wepscan command was run. Created by wepscan -d command. $LCGFDIR\inv\Scan. $DBDIR.

sa_config.log

N/A

sa_results.lo g

N/A

Endpoint scan engine Debug information

INV_SA.LOG

N/A

Hardware scan library Debug information Gateway Upcall and downcall information RIM object SQLstatements and DB return codes Inventory GUI log information

libInvHW.log gatelog

N/A 3

N/A 6

$RIM_DB_LOG Created by wrimtrace. Unix: $DBDIR directory. PC Systems: $DSWIN directory. Note: You need to open the inv_gui.sh file in a text editor on the system on which you are using the GUI, This file is located in $BINDIR/TME/INVENTORY. Change the DEBUG variable to 2 from 0. No files are generated by deafult value, which is 0.

invdh_1_rim.l og DEBUG3 (Unix) InvGuiDebug .log (PC Systems)

N/A

INFO|ER ROR 2

0 (no files created)

7.10.1 Enabling logging and tracing


The lcfd.log at debug level 3 contains important endpoint activity information. From there you can see the upcalls made by the endpoint, as well as downcalls

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make by the gateway to the endpoint. Depending on the type of problem you are troubleshooting, you may elect to only have certain traces enabled. For the purpose of this exercise we will enable all the traces.

Setting endpoint debug level


To enable endpoint debugging level 3, do the following from the endpoint: 1. Change the log_threshold line in the $LCFDIR/dat/1/last.cfg file to log_threshold=3. 2. Save the updated last.cfg. 3. Restart the lcfd service. Open a command line on the endpoint and run the commands in Example 7-7.
Example 7-7 Restart the lcfd service net The The net The The stop lcfd Tivoli endpoint Tivoli endpoint start lcfd Tivoli endpoint Tivoli endpoint service is stopping. service was stopped successfully. service is starting. service was started successfully.

Setting Collector logging


Mcollect.log debug level 3 is the highest log level and is the most widely used for troubleshooting. It can, however, generate a very large logfile in a short amount of time and will wrap every time it reaches the maximum debug_log_size. You should only set the debug level to three when troubleshooting. The Collector must be stopped and started, as illustrated in Example 7-8, when changing the debug level. Once these commands are executed, simply view or tail -f the SCS logfile. Remember to set logging back to level 1 after you finish. To enable Collector debugging run the command shown in Example 7-8. All commands are in bold.
Example 7-8 Enabling Collector debug level wcollect -d 3 @Gateway:win-rptr01a-gw wcollect -h graceful @Gateway:win-rptr01a-gw Performed 'graceful' halt of collector: @Gateway:win-rptr01a-gw. wcollect -s @Gateway:win-rptr01a-gw Started collector: @Gateway:win-rptr01a-gw.

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Setting Data Handler logging


Setting the Data Handler debug level is similar to setting the Collector, except instead of specifying a Collector, you specify the Data Handler object, as illustrated in Example 7-9.
Example 7-9 Enabling Data Handler debug level wcollect -d 3 @InvDataHandler:inv_data_handler wcollect -h graceful 3 @InvDataHandler:inv_data_handler Performed 'graceful' halt of collector: @InvDataHandler:inv_data_handler. wcollect -s @InvDataHandler:inv_data_handler Started collector: @InvDataHandler:inv_data_handler.

Setting the gateway debug level


A number of interesting messages can also be viewed in the gatelog file. If you are tracing SCS, you should set the gateway debug level to 9. Be sure to set it back to default when you are done tracing. The gateway logfile is called gatelog and is located in $DBDIR. This file contains information on downcalls, upcalls, and cache misses, and thus can be very useful when troubleshooting Inventory. Use the wgateway command to set the debug level of the gatelog file. Since you must restart the gateway, make sure there are no active distributions in progress. The commands in Example 7-10 set the gateway debug level to 9 on a gateway named win-rptr01a-gw.
Example 7-10 Setting gatelog to debug level 9 C:\Tivoli>wgateway win-rptr01a-gw set_debug_level 9 C:\Tivoli>wgateway win-rptr01a-gw restart

Setting the RIM trace


The RIM logfile contains very useful information when troubleshooting database-related problems. From the RIM log you can see what database calls are being made from the Data Handler to the RIM interface and what is returned by the database. To enable RIM trace do the following: 1. From the RIM host managed node run the following command:
odadmin environ get>c:\environ_rim.txt

2. Edit the c:\environ_rim.txt file by adding the following line:


RIM_DB_LOG=c:/temp/invdh_1_rim.log

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3. Set the RIM_DB_LOG environment variable:


odadmin environ set < c:\environ_rim.txt

4. Enable tracing on Data Handler RIM object:


wrimtrace invdh_1 "INFORMATION|ERROR"

5. Kill all RIM_vendor_Agent processes that are running on the RIM host managed node, as shown in Example 7-11.
Example 7-11 Killing the RIM agent process ntprocinfo|grep -i agent 1980 RIM_Oracle_Agent WIN-INV01A\tmersrvd ntprocinfo -k 1980 08/06/2002 10:02:09

RIM tracing is now enabled and will be tracing all invdh_1 RIM object calls. Notes: The RIM log can grow and fill up disk space very quickly at INFORMATION:ERROR. Be sure to set it back to no tracing when you are done tracing by running the following command:
wrimtrace invdh_1 "TRACE_OFF"

To troubleshoot RIM connection problems, the RIM_vendor_Agent can be started manually. On Unix, however, DB2 and Informix RDBMS systems require setting the shared library path first.

Troubleshooting on the endpoint


The wepscan command has two debug options, -c and -d. These options provide effective troubleshooting tools when diagnosing endpoint-specific problems. The -c option reads the profile configuration file (config.dmp) and writes results into a text file sa_config.log. config.dmp is created on the endpoint when the profile is distributed to it. The -d option has three levels (13). The three levels are as follows: 1: Logs error messages. 2: Logs error and warning messages. 3: Logs error and warning messages and debugging information. (Debugging information is not available from NetWare or OS/2 endpoints.) Depending on the log level used, the following files will be created. All these logs will be saved in the same directory from which you ran wepscan. sa_results.log: Contains the scan data in ASCII format. sa_config.log: The same logfile that is created using the -c option.

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INV_SA.LOG: Contains debugging information. It is identical to the logfile that is created using the wdistinv command and inv_ep_debug keyword. If you used the -s option, this logfile is sent to the Inventory Data Handler. You can also create these logfiles by creating an environment variable on your system named WEPSCAN_DEBUG. Set this environment variable to a value of 1, 2, or 3. These values correspond to the options you specify with the -d option. When using the -d option, the libInvHW.log is created. This file contains more detailed debug information of the Hardware Scan Library. It is very useful when troubleshooting hardware scan related problems. At this point in time there is no similar logfile for the software scan library.

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Appendix A.

Lab exercises
This appendix provides lab exercises for the related chapters. You need to first download the SG243946.zip, which has the necessary files for these exercises. Refer to Appendix B, Additional material on page 349, for instructions to download this zip file.

Copyright IBM Corp. 2005. All rights reserved.

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Introduction
In the these exercises we have used ITCM 4.2.2, but you can also use ITCM 4.2.1 or ITCM 4.2.0 if you prefer. Lab 1 contains installation instructions for getting all the support applications plus ITCM 4.2.2 up and running on a single box. All the other labs can be used as reference during a demo of a self-study guide. The lab setup is two Windows 2000 Server or Professional machines for each group. The machines are called TivoliServer and WindowsTarget. TivoliServer will serve as a Source Host, Tivoli Server, and endpoint; and WindowsTarget will serve as a second target endpoint in the exercises. We will install endpoints on both machines and these endpoints will have the same names as the machines. Most of the IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager 4.2.2 installation will be done on the TivoliServer machine.

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LAB 1 Using Integrated Install method to install a Tivoli Server


In this lab we use the Integrated Install method to install a Tivoli Server.

What this exercise is about


This exercise will give you the possibility to deploy a Tivoli Server using the new integrated installation method. During the exercise you will be guided through all the steps required to install a Tivoli Server and all the ITCM standard components.

What you should be able to do


At the end of the lab, you should be able to install a Tivoli server with all IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager (ITCM) components using the ISMP method.

Required materials
Before you start the exercises, you should make sure you have access to the following software: Framework 4.1.1 Installation CD1 Framework 4.1.1 Installation CD2 ITCM 4.2.2 Installation CD ITCM 4.2.2 Server CD Note: We have used ITCM 4.2.2 for implemening these labs. If you use ITCM 4.2.0, you will not see Figure A-10 on page 286 in the installation of ITCM (since this step was new with ITCM 4.2.1). Other than that, all lab instructions are applicable to ITCM 4.2.0 as well.

Exercise instructions
This exercise should be done after reviewing Chapter 3, Tivoli Configuration Manager fundamentals and installation on page 63.

Preface
DB2 V8.1 has already been installed on your Windows 2000 Server with the following options: DB2 database home: c:\Program Files\SQLLIB Instance owner: db2admin Instance: DB2

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Instance home: c:\DB2

Install your Tivoli Server with all ITCM modules


To install: 1. Log onto your TivoliServer machine as Administrator. Open a DB2 Command Window by selecting Start Programs IBM DB2 Command Window. 2. Using the command window, create a database to be used with ITCM. In this exercise, we will use a common database for all ITCM modules:
db2 create database cm_db

3. Execute the script to create the table space:


db2 connect to cm_db cd c:\temp db2 -f cm_db2_admin.sql -o -t -z c:\temp\cmdb.log exit

4. Create five new Windows 2000 user accounts for the default ITCM users: planner, invtiv, mdstatus, pristine, and tivoli. Make all users part of the Administrators group and give them tivoli as password. To create a user, select Start Programs Administrative Tools Active Directory Users and Computers. Note: If you are using Windows 2000 Professional, use the link Start Settings Control Panel and then select Users and Passwords. 5. Now it is time to start the integrated installation. Use the Windows Explorer to go to the <ITCM images>\CD5\ directory of the ITCM code installation directory. Double-click setup.exe. This will start the InstallShield wizard installation. 6. Select English as installation language. Click OK.

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Figure A-1 Installation welcome screen

7. Click Next on the installation welcome screen. 8. Accept the license and click Next again.

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Figure A-2 Destination Directory

9. Click Next to accept the default destination directory.

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Figure A-3 Type of installation

10.Select Custom installation. 11.A Typical installation will install all ITCM components but not configure Directory Query. If you choose the Custom option, it is possible to select what parts to install and to provide some configuration options. You also have the option to configure the Directory Query component. 12.In a Typical installation, one common database, cm_db, will be created for all components. In a Custom installation, you have the option to create separate databases, but in our installation we will create only one database, which is cm_db. 13.Click Next.

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Figure A-4 Selecting components

14.Select the components to install. Use the default of all selected. Click Next. 15.Click Next for Additional Languages. Do not specify any additional languages. Note: Your instructor has probably not added the Language CD for ITCM, so you will not be able to add additional languages. 16.In a Typical installation the installer will run all SQL scripts to create the table spaces, all tables, and views. When you run the custom installation you have the option to defer the execution of the scripts. Maybe your database administrator wants to create custom table spaces in different locations with different sizes.

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Figure A-5 Specify the repository configuration

We created the table spaces in step 3. Now we only want to run the schema scripts. Select the option to Run schema scripts only. 17.Click Next.

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Figure A-6 RDBMS and RIM information

Next, you will get a number of windows, one for each RIM object, where you specify the information needed for RIM to connect to the RDMBS. For all these windows, perform the following changes: a. Change the database name to cm_db. b. Enter the RIM password as tivoli. Leave the rest as default. 18.Click Next.

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Figure A-7 Specify user ID and password

19.For tivapm use the password tivoli. Click Next. 20.Fill in the rest of the RIM Information (similar to step 17). 21.For Enterprise Directory Query Facility, do not configure anything. Click Next.

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Figure A-8 Review the settings

22.Review the installation settings. Click Next to start the copy process.

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Figure A-9 Select how to manage product images

During this process, you will have to specify the location of the software. Ask your instructor for this location. Select Verify local depot and enter the location of the images (ask your instructor for this location). Note: If you receive a message window saying that the Integrated Installation program could not locate a program, specify the correct directory that has the .IND file for that component.

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Figure A-10 Components to install

23.Select Run All in the following Installation Step window. Note that this window gives you a last chance before the installation to change the selected components to install. You would not get this window if you had selected the Typical installation instead of Custom.

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Figure A-11 After Tivoli Management Framework installation

After completion of the installation, the Tivoli Management Framework system will ask you to reboot the machine. 24.Click Finish to reboot the machine.

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Figure A-12 Installation continues after reboot

Installation will continue from where it was, after the reboot. 25.Click Run All to continue to install. If any of these steps fails installation will stop and that particular step will get Error status. You can check the errors by clicking that line with the right mouse button and going to Properties.

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Figure A-13 Received error for registering APM plug-ins

If you receive an error while the system is registering plug-ins for Activity Planner, right-click the Windows desktop and select New Shortcut. Fill in cmd /k%systemroot%\system32\drivers\etc\tivoli\setup_env.cmd for the shortcut and name it Tivoli CLI. 26.Double-click the new shortcut. You should see the message Tivoli environment variables configured. 27.Open a command window and set the Tivoli environment and type the following commands;
bash wstopapm -f bash wstartapm

28.After APM starts, right-click the line where you get an error, and set the status to Ready and click Run All again.

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Figure A-14 Review the components installed successfully

29.When all components have been installed successfully, click Finish. 30.Double-click the new shortcut. You should see the message Tivoli environment variables configured. 31.Type the following Tivoli command:
odadmin odlist

32.Restart the Tivoli Server oserv process:


odadmin reexec

33.Verify that six RIM objects have been created using:


wlookup -ar RIM

34.Test one of the RIM objects using:


wrimtest -l mdist2

35.Cancel out of the session by typing x. 36.Verify the installed Tivoli products and patches using the wlsinst command:
wlsinst ah

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Exercise review/wrap-up
In this exercise, you have learned how to install a Tivoli Server and all the required ITCM components using the new integrated installation method.

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LAB 2. Using Integrated Install method to install a Tivoli server


In this section we use the Integrated Install method to install a Tivoli server.

What this exercise is about


In this exercise, you will learn how to install the Tivoli Desktop and ITCM GUIs. With the introduction of ITCM 4.2.2, the different GUIs that used to require a managed node can now be installed on endpoints or even on machines with no Tivoli Agent. ITCM provides a "desktop" CD that contains a number of Software Package Blocks; these can be used to install the APM, CCM, Editor, MDist2, and Inventory GUIs on Windows endpoints. In this exercise, we will install these GUIs on one of our Windows 2000 Servers.

What you should be able to do


At the end of the lab, you should be able to install a Tivoli Desktop with all ITCM components using the ISMP method.

Introduction
The Integrated Desktop installation can be used to install the Tivoli Desktop and all the ITCM administrative GUIs. You can only run this on Windows NT and 2000 systems.

Required materials
For this exercise, you need access to ITCM Desktop for NT Version 4.2.2 CD.

Exercise instructions
This exercise should be done after reviewing Chapter 3, Tivoli Configuration Manager fundamentals and installation on page 63.

Preface
All exercises of this chapter depend on the availability of specific equipment in your classroom.

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Installing the Desktop


To install: 1. Log into your TivoliServer machine as the Administrator user. 2. From the ITCM Desktop CD, launch the setup.exe (ask your Instructor for the location of the CD). 3. Select English as the installation language. 4. Accept the license agreement. 5. Select Tivoli Management Framework 4.1.1.

Figure A-15 Installing the Desktop

6. Click Yes for the default destination directory and click Next. 7. When you receive the following window, click Finish to finish the installation.

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Figure A-16 Review the installation steps

8. Test the desktop. Log into your TivoliServer as the Administrator user. 9. Start the MDist2 GUI from the Tivoli Desktop. Have a look at the "c:\Program Files\Tivoli\Desktop" directory. Where is the CMD file to launch the Inventory GUI located?

Install an endpoint on both of your Windows machines


Now you will install endpoint first on your Tivoli Server machine and then on your Windows Target machine. Start the endpoint installation from Framework CD2 by running \LCF\WINNT\setup.exe. Use all the default options. 1. In the Advanced Settings, remember to make sure your endpoint logs into the gateway on your Tivoli Server. Note: Substitute your Tivoli Gateway name in the following figure; do not forget that when the Integrated Install program creates a gateway, it uses the following syntax for the name: <Tivoli Server name-gw>. Click Next.

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Figure A-17 Port settings

2. Reboot the NT machine when you finish. 3. Also install the endpoint on the Windows Target machine, with the same settings. Note that endpoint names are same as the machine names.

Exercise review/wrap-up
In this exercise, we have covered the new method to install the Tivoli Desktop and the Tivoli administrative GUIs. We also installed endpoints on our lab machines.

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LAB 3. Create an Inventory profile and run a hardware scan


In this section we create an Inventory profile and run a hardware scan.

What this exercise is about


In this exercise, we create a hardware scanning profile and perform an initial scan of both of your Tivoli endpoints.

What you should be able to do


At the end of the lab, you should be able to configure an InventoryConfig profile.

Required materials
None.

Exercise instructions
This exercise should be done after reviewing Chapter 4, Inventory and Software Distribution components on page 93.

Create a hardware profile with SMBIOS capabilities


To create a hardware profile with SMBIOS capabilities: 1. Start the Tivoli Desktop on your Tivoli Server machine. 2. Log into your Tivoli Server as the Administrator user using the Tivoli Desktop. 3. Create a new policy region for Inventory and name it pr.itcm.inv. 4. Right-click the new policy region and select ManagedResources. Assign ProfileManager and InventoryConfig as valid ManagedResources.

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Figure A-18 Policy region

5. Open the new policy region and create a new dataless ProfileManager named pm.itcm.inv.hw.

Figure A-19 Profile Manager creation

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6. Open the new ProfileManager and subscribe all your Tivoli endpoints to the new ProfileManager. To do so, right-click the ProfileManager, select Subscribers, and move the endpoints to the Current Subscribers window. 7. Create a new InventoryConfig profile. Select Create Profile from the profile manager menu and select the InventoryConfig resource. Name the profile ic.hw. 8. Right-click the new profile and select Properties. The Inventory Configuration Java GUI will start. Customize the profile as follows: a. For PC and UNIX, deselect Software scanning. b. Check the hardware configuration. Click Configure.

Figure A-20 Hardware Scanner

9. We do not want to collect IPX and USB Device information, so deselect them. Leave all other options at the default. 10.Click OK to close the Inventory Configuration window.

7.10.2 Distribute the profile


To distribute the profile: 1. Right-click the profile and select Distribute.

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2. Select Advanced Options Timeout Settings from the top menu. 3. Note that you can enable Wake on LAN from the profile in Inventory. Close the Timeout Settings window. 4. Select all your endpoints and distribute the profile. 5. Check the distribution status from the command line:
wmdist -al wgetscanstat -a

6. Check the data that was collected. Run the Queries from the installed query library. Open the default policy region: <Tivoli server>-region.

Figure A-21 Inventory query

7. Open the INVENTORY_QUERY query library and execute some of the new queries to find out what data is collected.

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Figure A-22 Edit Query

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Figure A-23 Contents of Query

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LAB 4. Create an Inventory profile and run and cancel the software scan
In this section we discuss the creation of an Inventory profile and run and cancel the software scan.

What this exercise is about


In this exercise, we will learn how to perform a software scan and how to cancel the collection process of a software scan.

What you should be able to do


At the end of the lab, you should be able to: Configure an InventoryConfig profile. Run the wcancelscan command.

Required materials
None.

Exercise instructions
This exercise should be done after reviewing Chapter 4, Inventory and Software Distribution components on page 93.

Create an Inventory profile for software scan


To create an Inventory profile for a software scan: 1. Open the pr.itcm.inv policy region and create a new dataless ProfileManager named pm.itcm.inv.sw. 2. Open the new ProfileManager and subscribe all your Tivoli endpoints to the new ProfileManager. 3. Create a new InventoryConfig profile. Select Create Profile from the profile manager menu and select the InventoryConfig resource. Name the profile ic.sw. 4. Right-click the new profile and select Properties. The Inventory Configuration Java GUI will start. 5. Customize the profile as: Disable all hardware scans.

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For PC software, select to run a file scan. Configure the scan options as shown in Figure A-24. 6. Disable all hardware scans. 7. For PC software, select to run a file scan. Configure the Scan options as shown in Figure A-24.

Figure A-24 Scan Configuration

8. Also customize the profile to scan for .exe and .com files in the Program Files directory only. 9. Close the profile.

Distribute the profile and cancel the distribution


To distribute the profile and cancel the distribution: 1. Log into the Tivoli Server as Administrator. 2. Distribute the profile from the command line:
wdistinv -l inv_ep_debug=3 @InventoryConfig:ic.sw

3. Verify that the distribution has started.


# wmdist al

4. Name Distribution ID Targets Completed Successful Failed.

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Example: A-1 Example ic.sw 1709687078.3 # wgetscanstat -a Scan ID: Distribution ID: Profile name: Start time: Elapsed time: Clients completed: Clients pending: 1 0( 0%) 0( 0%) 0( 0%)

3 1709687078.3 ic.sw 01/22/2004 02:41:56 AM 0 Days 0 Hours 0 Minutes 13 Seconds 0 1

5. Now cancel the scan. (you can also use wcancelscan -i scan_id to cancel a separate scan):
# wcancelscan a

6. Start to cancel Inventory profile ic.sw with scan ID 4. 7. The cancel operation sent to Inventory status collector is complete. 8. The cancel operation sent to MDistII manager is complete. 9. The cancel operation sent to Scalable Collection Service is complete. 10.The cancel operation sent to Inventory data handler is complete. 11.Verify that the collection has been cancelled:
# wgetscanstat -a

12.No scans using the Inventory status collector are in progress. 13.Verify that no software data has been received into the repository. 14.Run the NATIVE_SWARE_QUERY from the INVENTORY_QUERIES QueryLibrary. 15.Now distribute the Profile again. Do not cancel the scan, and verify that data was collected by running the NATIVE_SWARE_QUERY and INVENTORY_SWARE query.

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LAB 5. Create a Custom Query with where clauses


In this section we discuss creating a Custom Query with where clauses.

What this exercise is about


In this exercise, we will see how we can create a Custom Query with where clauses. We will create a query that searches the Inventory data for Windows machines with higher than 128 MB memory.

What you should be able to do


At the end of the lab, you should be able to create a Custom Query with where clauses.

Required materials
None.

Exercise instructions
This exercise should be done after reviewing Chapter 4, Inventory and Software Distribution components on page 93.

Create a query library


To create a query library: 1. Create a query library called custom queries in the <Tivoli Server>-region. Select Create Query Library from the <Tivoli Server>-region. 2. Enter Custom_Queries in the name field. 3. Click Create & Close.

Create a query
To create a query: 1. Create a custom named High_Memory in the Custom Queries query library. Select Create Query from the menu. 2. Enter High_Memory in the name field. 3. For the repository, select inv_query.

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4. Click the ellipses () next to the Table/View Name field and select the INVENTORYDATA view. 5. Move the TME_OBJECT_ID and TME_OBJECT_LABEL from the Available Columns to Chosen Columns. 6. Click the ellipses () to the right of the Column Name field in the Where Clause panel. 7. Select the PHYSICAL TOTAL_KB column name, and then click the Close button. 8. Select >= from the drop-down menu next to the Column Value field in the Where Clause panel. 9. In the Column Value field, enter 131102 for 128 MB memory (128 * 1024). 10.Click Add. 11.Select only the Windows machines for this query, such as OS_TYPE = Microsoft 2000. (Tip: This step is similar to the previous step where you have selected the where clause for PHYSICAL TOTAL_KB.) Ask your instructor if you need help. 12.When you finish, click Create & Close. 13.Run the query and see if your workstations are listed.

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LAB 6. Create and install software packages for Windows


In this section we create software packages for Windows and experiment with installation options.

What this exercise is about


In the this exercise we first define and install a simple Windows application called Redbooks. We will use the Software Package Editor to define the package to be distributed. We will save the package as a Software Package Block (spb) in order to consolidate files and actions required to install it in a zip file. Next, we will use the disconnected CLI to test the package on the preparation machine. Then we will distribute the Software Package Block to our second endpoint. After that, we will experiment with different installation options. Finally, we will prepare a package called Ntprocinfo with advanced configuration options, such as Add Links, Registry Keys, and Text File objects, and install it on our endpoints.

What you should be able to do


At the end of the lab, you should be able to: Install the Software Package Editor using the ISMP installation method. Install a software package with various options.

Required materials
For this exercise you need to access to: ITCM Desktop installation CD (CD 3) Redbooks directory of the SG243946.zip NTprocinfo directory of the SG243946.zip

Exercise instructions
This exercise should be done after reviewing Chapter 4, Inventory and Software Distribution components on page 93.

Install the Software Package Editor


First, we will install the Software Package Editor on one of our Windows endpoints. Log onto one of your Windows endpoints as Administrator. From the ITCM Desktop CD, launch the setup.exe. (Desktop installation is on CD 3. Ask your Instructor for the location of the CD.)

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The InstallShield wizard will start. Follow the installation process, make sure you select the English language, accept the license agreement, and select the Software Package Editor component to be installed. (All the other components were already installed.) After the installation finishes, you will have two new icons on your Windows desktop, one to launch the Software Package Editor GUI and one icon to launch a CMD where the Software Distribution environment is source (allowing the use of the SWD CLI).

Create a simple package


To create a simple package: 1. On your Windows 2000 machine, create a folder called C:\SWPKGs. This is where we will store our software packages. 2. From your Windows endpoint, start the SP Editor GUI. Double-click the Software Package Editor icon. 3. Click OK to select a General Package. 4. Select the package called NoName and change it to Redbooks. 5. Click the Add Directory icon (under Add Object). Configure as shown in Figure A-25 on page 309.

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Figure A-25 General Package properties

6. Click the Advanced button. Check Descend Directories to include all files in the C:\LabFiles\Redbooks directory. Leave Create Directories checked. 7. Click OK for both windows. 8. Select Edit Properties. 9. Click Condition to add the following package installation condition: Choose os_name from the variable list and set the following Condition to install the package: os_type == 'Windows 2000'. 10.Click OK for both windows. 11.Save the package as both a software package and a software package block. 12.Choose File Save As and type C:\SWPKGs\Redbooks.sp and C:\SWPKGs\Redbooks.spd. Be sure to change the bottom pull-down menu to indicate either sp or spb when saving to a particular software package type.

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Test the software package


Before installing the software package on a production machine, the software package should be tested. Do the following on the Tivoli Server to confirm that the software package works by installing it using disconnected commands: 1. Select Start Programs Software Distribution SWDIST ENV to start the SWDIST ENV, where you can use disconnected commands. 2. Install the software package block with the wdinstsp command:
wdinstsp c:\SWDPKGs\Redbooks.spb

3. List the software packages installed on the machine and confirm that Redbooks.spb is listed. 4. Confirm that PDF files have been added to the c:\SWPKGs directory.

Import the software package


Before installing the software package, it must be imported into a Tivoli Software Package profile. This action puts the software package into the Tivoli database as a managed resource. Now you will import the package in the not-built format. 1. From the Tivoli Desktop, open the pr.itcm.swd policy region. 2. Open the SDLABs profile manager. 3. From the menu, select Create Profile. 4. Name the profile Redbooks^1.0 and click Create and Close. Notice that the icon created is an empty box, which is considered to be an empty software package. 5. Customize the Import window similar to Figure A-26 on page 311 (substitute your endpoint and source host name). Note: Unchecking the Build check box creates the software package in the unbuilt state.

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Figure A-26 Software Package Import

6. Click Import & Close when you are finished.

Install the software package


To install: 1. Right-click the Redbooks^1.0 profile and select Install. 2. Select your Windows Target endpoint as the subscriber. 3. Click Install & Close.

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Verify the distribution was successful


ITCM provides many ways to confirm that a distribution was successful. We will experiment with some of these. First check the default log as shown below. Logs by default are located on the TMR server. Go to <Tivoli BINDIR>\swdis\work\Redbooks^1.0.log. You should see that the software package status as IC.
Example: A-2 Default log Software Package: "Redbooks^1.0" Operation: install Mode: not-transactional,not-undoable Time: 2004-01-23 04:28:55 Log File: vasfi:C:\PROGRA~1\Tivoli\bin\swdis\work\Redbooks^1.0.log ================= vasfi: DISSE0074I Operation successfully submitted. Distribution ID is 1709687078.13. ================= Software Package: "Redbooks^1.0" Operation: install Mode: not-transactional,not-undoable Time: 2004-01-23 04:29:02 ================= vasfi: DISSE0155I Distribution ID: `1709687078.13' DISSE0029I Current software package status is 'IC---'. DISSE0001I Operation successful. =================

The second way is to check the Distribution Status icon on the Tivoli Desktop or by using wmdistgui from the command line. Select By Distribution Name and choose Redbooks^1.0.

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Figure A-27 Distribution Status

The third method is to use the Verify feature. From the Tivoli Desktop, right-click the Redbooks^1.0 profile and select Verify. Click Verify and Close. If the verify operation finds an error, it puts the status of the package in the error state of Installed-Committed-Error (IC..E); to see if it is successful, use the wdlssp command. You need to launch the Software Distribution environment (SWDIS ENV) first with the command. Example A-3 is a sample.
Example: A-3 IC state ---------------------------------------DISSE0164I Name : Redbooks DISSE0165I Version : 1.0 DISSE0166I State : IC------------------------------------------

Install software package in transactional mode and commit installation


Manually delete the two redbook PDF files from the c:\SWPKGs directory. Install the software package onto your machine using the following procedure: 1. Right-click the Redbooks^1.0 profile and select Install. 2. Under the Advanced Options (on the top), select Operation Modes. 3. Select Yes under Transaction Options. 4. Click Set & Close.

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5. Select Force in the checks section. You need to force the installation, since the software package state is IC. 6. Choose your Windows Endpoint as the target of the distribution. 7. Click Install and Close. 8. Check that the state of the software package is IP (Installed-Prepared) using the CM_STATUS_QUERY query. Note: This could also be achieved using the wdlssp command. 9. To run the query open up the CM_STATUS_QUERY from the INVENTORY_QUERY query library and run the query as shown in Figure A-28.

Figure A-28 Edit Query screen

10.You should see the status of the Redbooks^1.0 software package as IP.

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Figure A-29 Run Query

11.Go to the SDLABs profile manager again and right-click Redbooks^1.0. 12.Commit the installation by selecting Commit. 13.Confirm that the state of the package is now IC and the files have moved to the SWPKGs directory. Note: Alternatively, you could achieve the same results from the CLI with:
wrunquery CM_STATUS_QUERY

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Figure A-30 Query results

Undo an installation
Now we will undo the installation of Redbooks^1.0. 1. Right-click the Redbooks^1.0 profile. 2. Right-click the Redbooks^1.0 profile and select Install. 3. Select Force. 4. Select your Windows Endpoint as the target. 5. Under the Advanced Options (on the top), select Operation Modes. 6. Select Yes under the Undoable section. 7. Click Set & Close. 8. Click Install and Close. 9. Check that the state of the software package is ICU (Installed-Committed-Undoable). 10.Right-click the Redbooks^1.0 profile and select Accept to accept the distribution. 11.Check that the state of the software package is IC (Installed-Committed).

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Repair a damaged distribution


During verification of a software package, you may find that the distribution was corrupted and the software package is in an error state. Instead of completely redistributing the application, you can distribute what is necessary to fix it. 1. Install Redbooks^1.0 on your Windows Target Endpoint again (if it is not already installed). 2. Delete one of the PDFs in the C:\SWPKGs directory. 3. Perform a verification operation on the Redbooks^1.0 package. 4. Confirm that the packages state is IC..E. 5. Now repair the distribution. Right-click the Redbooks^1.0 profile. Select Install. 6. Select Repair in the changes section. 7. Select for Windows Endpoint as the target. 8. Click Install & Close. 9. Confirm that the package is once again in the IC state.

Add links, registry keys, and text file objects


Now we will create a software package that installs a program with links, registry keys, and text file objects. 1. From your Windows Endpoint, start the SP Editor GUI. Double-click the Software Package Editor icon. 2. Click OK to select a General Package. 3. Select the package called NoName, and change it to NTProcinfo. 4. Click the Add Directory icon (under Add Object) and customize as in Figure A-31 on page 318. When finished, select Advanced and select the Descend directories check box to include all source files and sub-directories, if any.

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Figure A-31 Directory Properties

5. Click OK to save and return to the add directory dialog. Click OK. 6. Next we will add an object to create a shortcut to the NTproclist application on the Windows desktop. From the package drop-down menu select Insert Add Object Windows shell folder. 7. In the Location field, click the right mouse button and then select all_users_shell_desktop from the list. Click OK to place a link on the Windows desktop.

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Figure A-32 Windows Shell Folder Properties

8. Click OK to save. 9. From the Windows Shell folder drop-down menu, select Insert Link. Customize as follows: Display name: NTprocinfo Command: C:\ntprocinfo.exe 10.Click Advanced. Customize as follows: Working directory: c:\temp Icon location: $(system_drive)\LabFiles\NTprocinfo\awt.ico 11.Now we will add a key that contains the version of the Ntprocinfo application to the Windows registry. 12.From the package drop-down menu, select Add Object Windows registry. Customize as follows: Hive: HKEY_LOCAL_MACHNE Parent key: SOFTWARE Key: NTprocinfo Class: Blank

13.Click OK.

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14.From the above Windows registry drop-down menu, select Insert value. Customize as follows: Name: Version Data: 1.0 15.Finally, we will add an entry to the c:\Winnt\Tivoli\lcf\1\lcf_env.cmd file. In order to do this, we must first define a Text File object in our package. Again, right-click the NTprocinfo package and select Insert Add Object Text File. Fill in c:\Winnt\Tivoli\lcf\1\lcf_env.cmd. 16.Right-click the new file object, select Insert Line, and input the following values: Text: REM: Ntprocinfo is running on this system Position: End 17.Now we will save the package as a software package. From the File menu select Save as and select the directory c:\SWPKGs. File name: ntprocinfo File of Type: Software Package Block (sp) 18.Click Save. Now we will install the software package on our second Windows Endpoint. 1. Open the Tivoli Desktop as Administrator. 2. Open the pr.itcm.swd policy region. Create a dataless ProfileManager called pm.swd.NTprocinfo and subscribe your Windows Endpoint (non-MN machine). 3. From the Profile Manager, create a software package called Ntprocinfo^1.0. 4. From the software profile drop-down menu, select Import. 5. On the Import panel, choose the Endpoint Machine and then type your Endpoint name. Click . to browse the file at the location C:\SWPKGs\Ntprocinfo.spb. 6. Enter the source host name <Your_Tivoli_server>. 7. Click Import & Close. 8. Install the software package on your other Windows Endpoint. Right-click and select Install. Accept all the default values and select your other Windows Endpoint as a target. 9. Look at the distribution log ${BINDIR}/../swdis/work/NTprocinfo.1.0.log on your Tivoli Server to verify the distribution. You should see an icon on your desktop called Ntprocinfo. (It is a small program used to browse Windows processes.)

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LAB 7. Creating a software package using AutoPack


In this section we create a software package using AutoPack.

What this exercise is about


In this exercise, we will use AutoPack to create a software package. We will install the WinZip software.

What you should be able to do


At the end of the lab, you should be able to create and install software using the AutoPack option.

Required materials
The images are located in the Winzip directory of the SG243946.zip.

Exercise instructions
This exercise should be done after rewiewing Chapter 4, Inventory and Software Distribution components on page 93.

Creating an AutoPack
On your Tivoli Server, start the Software Package Editor by double-clicking the Software Package Editor icon on the desktop. 1. Select AutoPack Technology and click OK. 2. Click Next to start the AutoPack Guided Process. 3. Under General Options, be sure to monitor the C: drive. 4. Explore the other options, but leave the defaults. 5. Start the first snapshot. 6. Next, install Winzip by launching c:\LabFiles\winzip80.exe. Install the application in c:\winzip. Complete the installation (select express setup). 7. Start the second snapshot from the AutoPack Guided Process. 8. When AutoPack Guided Process creates the package, change the name to Winzip and the Version to 8.0. 9. Have a look at the software package and delete any unwanted objects. Make sure you understand the meaning of each object in the package.

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10.Before saving the software package specify a log file on the target machine. Select Edit Properties Logfile c:\logs. 11.Save the package as Software Package Block in c:\spb. 12.Now create a new software package for the WinZip application and install it on your other Windows Endpoint. Create a new ProfileManager (pm.swd.winzip). Create an empty software package (winzip^8.0). 13.Import the SPB. Subscribe your Windows Endpoint. 14.Install the winzip^8.0 software package. 15.Verify that WinZip was correctly installed (by using the MDist 2 GUI, log file, or the wmdist command).

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LAB 8. Verifying the status of a software package


In this section we verify the status of a software package.

What this exercise is about


In this exercise, we look up the status of the Redbooks Package and we will verify whether the application is still correctly installed.

What you should be able to do


At the end of the lab, you should be able to run a QUERY to verify whether an application is correctly installed.

Required materials
None.

Exercise instructions
This exercise should be done after rewiewing Chapter 4, Inventory and Software Distribution components on page 93. 1. Bring up the Tivoli Desktop as Administrator and open the default policy region (hostname-region). 2. Open the INVENTORY_QUERY QueryLibrary. 3. Right-click the CM_STATUS_QUERY query and select Run Query. 4. Verify the status of the Redbooks application on your Windows Target. The status should be IC---- (Installed Committed). 5. Alternatively, you could achieve the same results from the CLI by running:
wrunquery CM_STATUS_QUERY

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LAB 9. Using the Activity Planner


In this section we use the Activity Planner.

What this exercise is about


The purpose of this exercise is to give the student the opportunity to configure and use the functionalities of the Activity Planner (AP) included with ITCM 4.2.2.

What you should be able to do


At the end of this lab, you should be able to: Register the Activity Planner plug-ins. Use Inventory scans and software packages in AP activities.

Required materials
None.

Introduction
In this exercise, we will first check the RIM object and RDBMS schema needed for the Activity Planner. Next, we will assign the necessary roles to our Tivoli Administrator, allowing him to use all AP functionality. We will also verify the AP Administrator settings. Before creating an activity plan, we will register the AP plug-ins. In the first activity plan, we will use an Inventory Scan for one of the activities.

Exercise instructions
This exercise should be done after rewiewing Chapter 5, Deployment Services on page 155.

AP - RIM and RDBMS configuration


If the Activity Planner server component was installed using the new ISMP installation mechanism, the RIM object and the database schema were created during the installation. If Activity Planner was installed using SIS or the "classic" Tivoli installation mechanism, the RIM object and database schema must be created manually. If you have successfully installed the product using ISMP, just read through this exercise and verify the different steps. Log into the Tivoli Server

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as Administrator user. Verify whether a RIM object for AP already exists by running:
wlookup -ar RIM

The name of the RIM object for APM should be planner. If it does not exist, use the wcrtrim command to create a new RIM object named planner. Ask your instructor for the correct RIM settings of your DB2 installation. 1. Verify the correct functioning of the RIM object using:
wrimtest -l planner

You should get output similar to Example A-4.


Example: A-4 wrimtest output Resource Type : RIM Resource Label : planner Host Name : vasfi User Name : planner Vendor : DB2 Database : cm_db Database Home : C:\Program Files\Sqllib Server ID : tcpip Instance Home : C:\Program Files\Sqllib\DB2 Instance Name : DB2 Opening Regular Session...Session Opened RIM : Enter Option >

2. Cancel out of the session using x.

Assigning AP roles and verifying the AP Administrator


Now we will assign the necessary roles to our Tivoli Administrator, allowing him to use all AP functionality. We will also verify the AP Administrator settings. Open the Tivoli Desktop as Administrator. Double-click the Administrator collection. 1. Right-click the Root Administrator and select Edit TMR Roles. Assign all the APM roles to the Root Administrator. Move the roles to the left and click Change & Close. 2. Now right-click the swd_admin_regionname Administrator and select Edit Logins. This Tivoli Administrator was added by the AP installation. What is the login name for this Administrator (default value is tivapm)? Do not change the settings. 3. Verify that APM is working correctly:
wapmgui ed

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4. You should get a message saying that activity plan database is empty.

Registering the AP plug-ins


Now we see the registered plug-ins for AP from the CLI (they were registered during the Integrated Installation). Use the wapmplugin command to list the registered plug-ins for AP:
wapmplugin -l

How many plug-ins are registered? All four plug-ins (TaskLibrary, Inventory, OSElement, and Software Distribution) should be registered. Launch the AP editor GUI on your Tivoli Server:
wapmgui ed

Which activities can you add to a plan? Does this correspond to the registered plug-ins? (It should.) Note that the number of registered plug-ins will depend on the installation order. For example, if Inventory is installed after AP, the Inventory plug-in should be automatically registered.

Creating a simple Activity Plan


In this step, we will create an Activity Plan that includes an Inventory scan. We will create an Activity Plan with two activities according to the following specifications: Plan name: PlanA. Plan Targets: Our two Windows Endpoints. Activity InventoryScan: Inventory scan using ic.hw profile. Activity RedbookPDFs: Install Redbooks^1.0. This activity can only start when the InventoryScan is complete. 1. Launch the AP editor GUI using the apmedit.bat file located in c:\Program Files\Tivoli\Desktop\Console or on the Tivoli Desktop. Log in as the Administrator user on the Tivoli Server. 2. Select View Plan Properties. In the General tab, fill in the plan name, PlanA, and a description of your choice. 3. Next, select the Targets tab. In the Included Targets section, select Profile Subscriber as the target selection type and click Insert. Click the () button and then select SDLab.

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Figure A-33 Adding Subscriber

4. Click Add to add the SDLabs. Then click OK.

Figure A-34 AP Propeties

5. Click OK again; this will return you to the main AP editor window. Now we will add the first activity. Click the Inventory Task activity icon. Fill in the values shown in Figure A-35 on page 328.

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Figure A-35 Activitiy Properties

6. Then click Properties. Select the ic.hw InventoryConfig profile (click ...).

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Figure A-36 Inventory Scan

7. Explore the different settings, but leave the default values. Return to the main window (click OK twice). 8. Next, we will add the second activity. Click the Software Distribution activity. Name the activity RedbookPDFs. Click Properties. Select the Redbooks^1.0 software package.

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Figure A-37 Selecting software package

9. In the Application Options tab, change the Checks option to Force. 10.Select the User Notification Settings tab. Enable the User Notification settings and fill in values of your choice. 11.Next, select the Distribution Options tab. Change the Priority to High. 12.Now add a condition on the RedbookPDFs activity. Right-click the activity and select Condition. Add a condition so that this activity will only start if the InventoryScan activity is complete.

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Figure A-38 Adding Condition

13.Will the RedbookPDFs activity start if the InventoryScan activity fails on one node and succeeds on the other node? 14.Click OK. Now save the plan as a Template. What is the difference between Template and Draft?

Figure A-39 Activity Plan Editor

15.Close the AP editor GUI and open the APM monitoring GUI (apmmon.bat file).

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16.From the APM monitor, select Plans Submit. Submit PlanA with the default settings. 17.Monitor the progress of the plan until it completes.

Figure A-40 Activity Plan Monitor

Exercise review/wrap-up
In this exercise, we have configured the Activity Planner component of ITCM 4.2.2, including the RIM configuration, the RDBMS schema creation, the AP plug-in registration, and assigning the AP authorization roles.

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LAB 10. Using Change Manager


In this section we use Change Manager.

What this exercise is about


The purpose of this exercise is to give the student the opportunity to configure and use the functionalities of the Change Manager (CM) included with ITCM 4.2.2.

What you should be able to do


At the end of the lab, you should be able to: Register the Change Manager plug-ins. Create a Reference Model using an existing Tivoli Endpoint as a template. Customize a Reference Model. Use the Change Manager command line interface.

Required materials
None.

Introduction
In this exercise, we will first verify the RIM object and RDBMS schema needed for Change Manager. Next, we will assign the necessary roles to our Tivoli Administrator, allowing him to use all CM functionality. Before creating a Reference Model, we will register the CM plug-ins for Inventory and Software Distribution. We will create a Reference Model using an existing Tivoli Endpoint as a template. We will add an Inventory scan to this Reference Model and use the new command line interface of CM to perform a number of operations on this Reference Model.

Exercise instructions
This exercise should be done after rewiewing Chapter 5, Deployment Services on page 155.

Configuring RIM and RDBMS for Change Manager


First, we will verify the RIM object needed for CM and we will create the CM database schema. If the CM component is installed using the new ISMP

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installation mechanism, the RIM object and the database schema will be created during the installation. If CM was installed using SIS or the "classic" Tivoli installation mechanism, the RIM object and database schema must be created manually. If you have successfully installed the product using ISMP, just read through this exercise and verify the different steps. 1. Log into the Tivoli Server as the Administrator user. Verify whether a RIM object for CM already exists:
wlookup -ar RIM

2. The name of the RIM object for CM should be ccm. If it does not exist, use the wcrtrim command to create a new RIM object named ccm. Ask your instructor for the correct RIM settings of your DB2 installation. 3. Verify the correct functioning of the RIM object using:
wrimtest -l ccm

4. You should get output similar to Example A-5.


Example: A-5 wrimtest output Resource Type : RIM Resource Label : ccm Host Name : vasfi User Name : tivoli Vendor : DB2 Database : cm_db Database Home : C:\Program Files\Sqllib Server ID : tcpip Instance Home : C:\Program Files\Sqllib\DB2 Instance Name : DB2 Opening Regular Session...Session Opened RIM : Enter Option >

5. Cancel out of the session using x. 6. Verify that CCM is working correctly:
wlstrmod

7. You should get an error message saying no reference models are in the CM database.

Assigning CM roles
In this step, we will assign the necessary roles to our Tivoli Administrator, allowing him to use all CM functionality. Open the Tivoli Desktop as the Administrator user. Double-click the Administrator collection.

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Right-click the Root Administrator and select Edit TMR Roles. Assign all the CCM roles to the Root Administrator, if they are not already assigned. Move the roles to the left and click Change & Close.

Registering the CM plug-ins


Now we will register the plug-ins for CM from the CLI. Log in as the Administrator user to your Tivoli Server. 1. Use the wccmplugin command to list the registered plug-ins for CM:
wccmplugin -l

2. How many plug-ins are registered? If four plug-ins are registered (InventoryScan, SoftwareDistribution, InventoryData, and OSElement), skip to the next exercise. 3. We want to register at least the following plug-ins for our exercise: InventoryScan and SoftwareDistribution. The plug-ins can be registered using scripts that are located in $BINDIR/TME/CCM/SCRIPTS. 4. Have a look at the scripts reg_swd_plugin.sh and reg_invscan_plugin.sh. Execute both scripts. 5. Again, list the registered plug-ins using:
wccmplugin -l

This time, you should see the InventoryScan and SoftwareDistribution plug-ins.

Creating a Reference Model using an existing Endpoint


ITCM allows the creation of Reference Models based on existing Endpoints. In this step, we will create a new Reference Model, based on one of our Windows Endpoints. 1. From your Windows 2000 Server, launch the CM GUI:
wccmgui

2. Log in as the Administrator user on the Tivoli Server. 3. Select Edit Create reference model from target. Fill in the settings as shown below. Fill in the name of one of your Windows Endpoints in the Target Name. Using these settings, we will add elements to our reference model for all software that is installed on the target node and Inventory elements for the memory size. Click OK.

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Figure A-41 Reference Model Properties

4. Have a look at the new Reference Model elements. You should see elements similar to the ones in the following figure.

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Figure A-42 List of subscribers

5. Save the reference model. We will customize the model more in the next step.

Customizing the Reference Model


Now we will customize the Reference Model we have just created. We will add an Inventory Scan and a software package to the Reference Model. We will synchronize the Reference Model with our Windows Endpoints using the CLI. 1. In the ACME Reference Model, double-click the Redbooks^1.0 element. Change the desired state from IC--- to -----, meaning we do not want to have Redbooks^1.0 installed on our subscribers.

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Figure A-43 Software Distribution element

2. Click OK. Now we will add a child reference model named ACME_sales. Right-click the ACME^1.0 model and select Create reference model. Create a new reference model using the settings shown in Figure A-44 on page 339.

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Figure A-44 Adding elements

3. Click OK. Now we will add two elements to the ACME_Sales model. First, we will add an Inventory scan. In the Element section, right-click and select Add Inventory Scan Element.

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Figure A-45 Adding Inventory Scan element

4. Select your InventoryConfig profile named ic.hw. Can you specify distribution options for this profile? (For example, can you specify an expiration date?) 5. Finally, we will set the subscribers for our reference model. Select the Subscribers tab, then right-click and select the Inventory subscriber. 6. Select only Windows 2000 machines, as in the following figure. Note that this is a dynamic subscription; the targets will be resolved at the execution time.

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Figure A-46 Reference Model

Save the Reference Model.

Submitting the Reference Model


We will now submit and synchronize the reference model. 1. Click Activities Submit. 2. Choose the options in the following figure to submit the plan. Why did we select Full Synchronization?

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Figure A-47 Selecting Activity Plan

3. CM will create a XML plan. What are the activities contained in the preview XML plan? Is this what you expected? After reviewing the plan, click OK to submit it. 4. Track the status of the submitted plan from the Activity Plan Monitor. You should see it as successful.

Figure A-48 Activity Plan Monitor

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LAB 11. Using Data Moving Service


In this section we use the Data Moving Service.

What this exercise is about


The purpose of this exercise is to give the student the opportunity to explore the functionalities of the Data Moving Service included with ITCM.

What you should be able to do


At the end of the lab, you should be able to: Use the Data Moving Service GUI. Recursively send an entire directory tree using the wspmvdata command. Use the reserved tokens of the Data Moving Services.

Required materials
The images are located in the Datamoving directory of the SG243946.zip.

Introduction
In this exercise, we will first explore the Data Moving Service GUI. We will use the GUI to delete a file from a target Tivoli Endpoint. Next, we will use the wspmvdata command to recursively send an entire directory, including all files and subdirectories, from a Tivoli Endpoint to another Tivoli Endpoint. Finally, we will use the new reserved tokens ($(MAX) and $(MIN)) to send a specific file from a source directory to a target machine.

Exercise instructions
This exercise should be done after rewiewing Chapter 4, Inventory and Software Distribution components on page 93.

Using the Data Moving Service GUI to delete a file


Verify that the DataMovingRequests.1 SoftwarePackage profile is created in your TMR (it is created when SD Server is installed). 1. From the Tivoli CLI, execute:
wlookup -ar SoftwarePackage

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343

2. If the package is not present, it can be created using the wspmvdata command. The profile should be located in your "main" policy region (<TMR_Server>-region) in a ProfileManager named DataMovingProfile. Open the DataMovingProfile ProfileManager. 3. Subscribe both of your Windows Endpoints to this ProfileManager. 4. Right-click the DataMovingRequests.1 profile and select Delete. 5. The file that has to be deleted is c:\LabFiles\Datamoving\To_Del.txt. 6. Select both of your Windows Endpoints and click Delete & Close. 7. Use the wmdist command or the MDist2 GUI to follow up on the status of the DataMovement operation. 8. Verify that the file was deleted on your target machines.

Recursively sending a directory


In this step, we will use Data Moving Services to send an entire directory, including subdirectories and files, from a Tivoli Server Endpoint to Windows Target Endpoint. The recursive capability and the Endpoint-to-Endpoint send are features that were available with ITCM 4.2.2. 1. Log into your Tivoli Server as the Administrator user. Use the wspmvdata command to send the directory c:\LabFiles\Datamoving\data", including all files and subdirectories, to your Windows Target Endpoint. The data should be placed in the /tmp directory on the target Endpoint. 2. Verify the MDist2 distribution by using the wmdist command or the MDist2 GUI. How many targets are in the distribution? 3. Verify that the entire directory, including files and subdirectories, was copied.

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LAB 12. Using Multicast to install a software package


In this section we use Multicast to install a software package.

What this exercise is about


The purpose of this exercise is to explore the new Multicast capability of MDist2.

What you should be able to do


At the end of the lab, you should be able to: Configure MDist2 repeaters for Multicast. Install a software package using Multicast.

Required materials
For this exercise, you need to access to Multicast directory of the SG243926.zip.

Introduction
In this exercise, we will configure and use the new Multicast functionality of MDist2. We will compare the performance of a traditional MDist2 distribution with a Multicast distribution. We will first create a simple software package with a size of 50 MB. We will distribute this profile twice to both of our Endpoints. First, we will distribute the software package without Multicast, then we will use Multicast and compare the results. This will allow us to see the advantage of using Multicast.

Exercise instructions
This exercise should be done after rewiewing Chapter 6, Multicast concepts and implementation on page 207.

Preface
This exercise depends on the network configuration of the classroom. If the network does not allow Multicast packets to be sent from one machine to another, this exercise will not work. If all machines are in a single subnet there should be no problem. If, however, your machines are on separate subnets connected through routers, these routers must be Multicast enabled.

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Configuring the repeaters for Multicast


On your Tivoli Server, verify the Multicast settings of the MDist2 repeater on your Tivoli Server using the wmdist command. From the Tivoli CLI type:
wmdist -s <TMR_Server>

Note that all the Multicast settings are disabled by default. 1. Enable the endpoint_multicast setting on your Tivoli Server. Use the wmdist command to change this setting to TRUE. You will be asked whether you want to start the Multicast receivers on all the endpoints connected to the Tivoli Server gateway. Specify y to start the Multicast receivers on the Endpoints. Wait until all the Multicast receivers on the Endpoints have been started. 2. Verify that on your Endpoints a new process is running named mcast_receiver. Use the Windows Task Manager to verify this. Also, you can have a look at the lcfd.log file on your Endpoints and verify that the mcast_receiver has started. 3. Now we will have a look at the Multicast settings of our repeater. Use the wmcast command to verify the settings of your Tivoli Server:
wmcast -s <TMR_Server>

4. What is the value of the mcast_advert setting? This is the address that the server will use to advertise Multicast distributions. On your Windows Target or Tivoli Server endpoint, locate the file:
<LCFDAT_DIR>\mcast\mcast_receiver.cfg

5. Open the file using a text editor. What is the value of MCADDR? Does it correspond to the mcast_advert setting in the previous exercise? (It should.) 6. On your Tivoli Server, change the mc_debug_level to 2. Use the wmcast command to do this. (Have a look at the man page if you are not sure how to do this.) After changing the debug level, you have to restart the oserv on the Tivoli Server:
odadmin reexec

7. What is the value of the MDist2 net_load setting on your Tivoli Server? What is the value of the Multicast mc_netload setting on the Tivoli Server. Are they the same? Note: The wmcast command has a (non-documented) setting (-p) that allows you to "Multicast ping" the endpoints connected to a gateway. Check that your Endpoints are "Multicast reachable":
wmcast -p <Tivoli_Server>

8. Finally, have a look at the Multicast log file on the Tivoli Server:

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$DBDIR/mcast.log

Creating the software package


To create the software package: 1. Log in as the Administrator user on your Tivoli Server and open the Tivoli Desktop. (Tip: There is a new command, wdtmsg, that allows you to display a pop-up message when the desktop is launched; feel free to test this now.) 2. Go to the pr.itcm policy region and create a new dataless ProfileManager named pm.mcast. 3. Open the new ProfileManager and subscribe all your endpoints to the new ProfileManager. Create a new software package profile named sp_50MB.1.0. 4. Right-click the new software package profile and select Import. The SPB file is located in c:\LabFiles\multicast\50MB.spb. Build the SPB on the Tivoli Server in the c:\SWPKGs directory. 5. Have a look at the properties of the software package, right-click, and select Properties. Launch the Software Package Editor and have a look at the contents of the software package. To which target directory is the 50 MB file being sent?

Distributing the software package without using Multicast


First, we will distribute the software package without using Multicast. 1. Use the Tivoli Desktop to distribute the software on both Endpoints. 2. Follow-up on the distribution status using the wmdist command (various options shown below).
Example: A-6 wmdist command wmdist wmdist wmdist wmdist -l -I <TMR_Server> -q <Dist_Id> -l -i <Dist_Id> -v

3. How long did it take to distribute the 50 MB to all three machines (this can be verified using wmdist -l -i <Dist_Id> -v)? What was the setting of the net_load parameter on the Tivoli Server? How long should it take theoretically to distribute the 50 MB to two targets using unicast?

Distributing the software package using Multicast


Now distribute the software package again, but this time using Multicast.

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1. When installing from the Tivoli Desktop, use the following options: Software package: sp_50MB.1.0. Targets: Both endpoints. Multicast enabled. Do not retry failed distributions using unicast. Force the distribution. (Why?)

2. How long did it take to distribute the 50 MB using Multicast? What was the setting of the mcast_netload? How long should it take theoretically to distribute the 50 MB to two targets using Multicast? 3. Launch the MDist2 GUI and log in as the Administrator user on the Tivoli Server. Compare both distributions (Time Spent, Node Table, and so on) using the MDist2 GUI.

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Appendix B.

Additional material
This redbook refers to additional material that can be downloaded from the Internet as described below.

Locating the Web material


The Web material associated with this redbook is available in softcopy on the Internet from the IBM Redbooks Web server. Point your Web browser to:
ftp://www.redbooks.ibm.com/redbooks/SG246691

Alternatively, you can go to the IBM Redbooks Web site at:


ibm.com/redbooks

Select the Additional materials and open the directory that corresponds with the redbook form number, SG246691.

Using the Web material


The additional Web material that accompanies this redbook includes the following files: File name SG246691.zip Description Zipped files required for the lab

Copyright IBM Corp. 2005. All rights reserved.

349

System requirements for downloading the Web material


The following system configuration is recommended: Hard disk space: Operating System: 100 MB minimum Windows/Linux/Unix

How to use the Web material


Create a subdirectory (folder) on your workstation, and unzip the contents of the Web material zip file into this folder.

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Related publications
The publications listed in this section are considered particularly suitable for a more detailed discussion of the topics covered in this redbook.

IBM Redbooks
For information on ordering these publications, see How to get IBM Redbooks on page 352. Note that some of the documents referenced here may be available in softcopy only. All About IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager Version 4.2, SG24-6612 High Availability Scenarios with IBM Tivoli Workload Scheduler and IBM Tivoli Framework, SG24-6632 Migration to IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager Version 4.2, SG24-6616 Implementing Automated Inventory Scanning and Software Distribution After Auto Discovery, SG24-6626 Automated Distribution and Self-Healing with IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager V 4.2, SG24-6620

Other publications
These publications are also relevant as further information sources: IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager: Introducing IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager, Version 4.2.2, GC23-4703 IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager: Planning and Installation Guide, Version 4.2.2, GC23-4702 IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager: Users Guide for Software Distribution, Version 4.2.2, SC23-4711 IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager: Reference Manual for Software Distribution, Version 4.2.2, SC23-4712 IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager: Users Guide for Inventory, SC23-4713 IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager: Database Schema Reference, Version 4.2.2, SC23-4783

Copyright IBM Corp. 2005. All rights reserved.

351

IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager: Messages and Codes, Version 4.2.2, SC23-4706 IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager: Users Guide for Deployment Services, Version 4.2.2, SC23-4710 Tivoli Management Framework Reference Manual, Version 4.1.1, SC32-0806

Online resources
These Web sites and URLs are also relevant as further information sources: The IBM Professional Certification Program Web site
http://www.ibm.com/certify/index.shtml

Tivoli software education Web site


http://ibm.com/training

IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager online publications


http://publib.boulder.ibm.com/tividd/td/tdprodlist.html#S

How to get IBM Redbooks


You can search for, view, or download Redbooks, Redpapers, Hints and Tips, draft publications and Additional materials, as well as order hardcopy Redbooks or CD-ROMs, at this Web site:
ibm.com/redbooks

Help from IBM


IBM Support and downloads
ibm.com/support

IBM Global Services


ibm.com/services

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Index
A
accept operation 147 Activity Plan Editor 67, 157 Monitor 67, 163, 165 types 157 Activity Planner 66, 156, 181 commands 167 components 156 configuration file 254 log files 255 processes 253 Roles 157 trace files 257 troubleshooting 253 ApiServlet.log 262 apply maintenance 85 authorization roles 25, 27 Automatic Deployment Services 191 Autotrace 239 dynamic control 239 First Failure Data Capture 239 Trace buffers 239 Trace ID 239 Trace Profiler 239 Change Manager 69, 168, 182 configuration file 258 trace files 259 checkpoint file 102 Checkpoint restart 219 checkpointGL_iqfile.dat 103 CM status summary 252 Collection clearing 120 data files 100 Manager 107 Manager components 107 scheduling 116 Collector 103, 116 Collection Manager 107 components 101 configuration 115 CTOC 116 debugging 269 deferring collections 116 depot chunk size 106 depot directory 104 disable a range of object ID 117 downstream 116 first Collector 118 input or error queue 106 Inventory Collectors 100 offlinks list 116 process 103 Queues 101 router cache 107 scheduling transmissions 116 setting offlinks 118 upstream 116 vieving configuration 107 Command wcancelscan 120 wcollect 103, 108, 116 wconvspo 138 wcrtdirctx 178 wcrtinvdh 108 wcrtqlib 130 wcrtquery 130 wcstat 99, 102

B
bandwidth 106 Best practices Multicast 234 browser 262

C
Callback object 108, 111112 caret 263 Certification benefits 3 checklist 5 IBM Professional Certification Program 2 process 7 Tivoli Certification 4 Change Management Status summary 252

Copyright IBM Corp. 2005. All rights reserved.

353

wdelep 53 wdistinv 272 wep set_config 220 wepscan 128 wexpspo 138 wfptosp 136 wgetscanstat 120 winviso 128 wloadiso 128 wmanagedir 179 wmcast 215 wmdist 215 wmvinvdh 110 wmvrim 82 wresgw add 186 wsetquery 130 wsetrim 114 wspmvdata 151 wweb 186 commit phase 147 confccm.xml 173 Configuration elements 169 consistent install 85 Courses 9 Creating Data Handler 108 deployment plan 74 Query 129 CTOC 104105 custom scans 127

deferred queue 102, 117 Delta Install 150 demilitarized zones 57 deploying components 75 deployment plan 74 Deployment services 83 Depot 34 chunk size 106 directory 103 server 213 depot chunk size 106 device management troubleshooting 261 differencing mechanism 171 Directory query libraries 179 distmgr.log 244 Distribution Status Console 36, 242 Distribution Topology view 40 dmsadmin 185 dmsuser 185

E
Endpoint 17 log 238 Manager 107, 243 policies 92 endpoint login sequence 47 Enterprise Directory Query Facility 71 Services 176 Enterprise Directory Integration trace 266 troubleshooting 266 error queue 102103 ETL 153 events 58

D
Data collection tasks 116 time slots 116 Data Handler 106 components 108 creating 108 troubleshooting 267 Data Moving 73 log file 250 Service 151 trace files 250 troubleshooting 250 Data Retention 116 datapacks 106 debug level 269 debug level 3 268

F
Firewall Security Toolbox 56 flight recorder 239 Framework 4.1 239 Autotrace 239 FRESH subdirectory 88

G
gatelog 270 gateway logfile 270

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gateways 17 General troubleshooting 240 Generic problem determination 237

H
Hub TMR 44, 46 hub-spoke architecture 43 Hyper Delivery 210

I
IBM Certification Agreement 6 initial login process 49 input queue 101 install operation 146 Installation Desktop Install 89 Java Virtual Machine 88 Multiple endpoints 91 Server 86 TMR server 86 Web Gateway 90 installation methods 85 installing endpoint proxy 61 event sink 6061 Firewall Security Toolbox 59 gateway proxy 6061 relay 6061 required roles 78 Installing pristine machines 192 Integrated Desktop Install Change Manager GUI 89 Components to install Activity Planner GUI 89 Distribution Status Console 89 Inventory GUI 89 Software Package Editor 89 Tivoli Desktop for Windows 89 Tivoli Java components 89 Integrated Install benefits 85 Integrated Desktop Install 89 Integrated Endpoint Install 90 Multiple Endpoints Installation 91 overview 85 Server Install 86 installation programs 88, 91

Typical Install 8687 Integrated Installation hints and tips 83 Installation types for ITCM 85 Java Virtual Machine 88 pre-install checks 83 Interface command line interface 1920 intermediate client 34 Inventory architecture 94 Configuration Repository 95 Data Handler 95, 108 Gateway / Collector 95 profile 96, 121 queries 128 repository 111 scan 188 scan methods 124 scanners 96 Inventory component 66, 94 Collector logging 269 log files 266 RIM trace 270 troubleshooting 266 troubleshooting on the endpoint 271 invtable.xml 173 ISMP 85 isolated login 52 scans 128 ITCM components 75

J
Java 1.3 for Tivoli 87 Client Framework for Tivoli 87 interface 34 RDBMS Interface Module 87

L
lcfd service 269 lcfd.log 268 LDAP troubleshooting 266 load opretation 147 lower level Collector 106

Index

355

M
Managed nodes 17 map of the collection hierarchy 107 mc_request_collection 107 Mcollect 269 mcollect.log 118 MDist 31, 33 MDist2 33 Depot 213 problems 244 MDist2 components 34 Distribution manager 34 GUI 34 Repeater Depot 34 Repeater manager 34 Repeater queue 34 Repeater site 34 Mobile Computing configuration files 251 log files 251 trace files 251 multicast 209, 225 broadcasts 214 distributions 220 limitations 230 log 232 receiver 213, 218 sender 213 multiple RIM objects 114 multiple TMR regions. 41 multiplexed distribution facility 31 multi-threaded process 100

list 117 method 116 offlinks list 117 off-peak period 116 one-way connection 42 Operations Console 264 orphan login 53 oserv 243 ostable.xml 173 output queue 101 thread 106, 118 output threads 118

P
Palm devices 184 Pearson VUE 6 Pervasive devices 183, 188 policy region 23, 46 policy scripts 54 after_install_policy 55 allow_install_policy 55 implementing 54 login_policy 56 Preboot Execution Environment 191 Pristine Manager 195 pristine tool 134 profile manager 29 Profile managers 30 Profiles 28 publications 11

N
name registry 43 netstat 234 netstat -s 234 network interface cards 221 nobody 103 Node Table view 39 normal login 51 Notification Manager 247

Q
query directories 179 queue 102, 106 Queues 101 queuing mechanism 34

R
RDBMS considerations 78 RDBMS Interface Module See RIM read data from Autotrace 240 Receiver 103 Redbooks Web site 352 Contact us xx region connection types 42

O
odadmin 270 environ 270 odlist 237 offlinks

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Remote Installation Service 190 remove operation 147 repeater depot 34 repository 112 Resetting offlinks 118 Resource Manager 70, 183, 185 Manager Gateway 86 types 186 retry function 34 RIM 34 agent process 271 considerations 81 host managed node 271 log 271 object 177 RIM_DB_LOG 271 Rim_vendor_Agent 271 runtime directory 104

Editor 132, 242 file 137 profile 143 Variables 141 Version 139 Source host 132 spoke TMR 4546 stable.xml 173 Status Chart view 37 Status Collector 110111 storage mechanism 34 store and forward collections 100 swdis.ini 266 synchronous 89

T
Task Library 253 Thomson Prometric 6 Time Spent Chart view 38 time-to-live integer 234 Tivoli administrator 22 architecture 16 Certification benefits 5 Data Warehouse interfaces 153 Desktop 19 Enterprise Data Warehouse 153 Framework Scheduler 118119 Management Console 95 Management Framework 86 Management Region See TMR Name Registry 46 resources 21 software education 9 tmersrvd 103 TMR 34 Toubleshooting Syncronization 252 trace 247 Troubleshooting Activity Planner 253 APM 253 append_log keyword 241 Autotrace 239 backup_fmt 246 base configuration file 247 Change Manager 258

S
Scalable Collection Service 97 Scenarios multicast 221 Multicast from gateways to Tivoli Management Agents 221 Pre-loading MDist2 depots with multicast 221 receiver and sender address is different 221 scheduler 25, 100, 106 scheduling activities 162 SCS 97, 111 select_gateway_policy 48, 50, 55 Setting Collector logging 270 Setup.exe 89 simplified maintenance 85 single server installation 86 slow wide area network 106 Software Distribution 131 component 65 components 131 delivery 144 process 134, 145 Software package 131 Autopack 142 block file 135 conditions 141 definition file 136 dependencies 140

Index

357

cm_status 241 Collector 269 Data Handler 270 Data Moving 250 default name for the log 242 e-mail 241 Enterprise Directory Integration 266 gateway log 243 Inventory 266 list_path 246 log_file 246 log_file_path 242 log_host 246 log_host_name 242 log_object_list 242 logs epmgrlog 238 gatelog 238 gwdb.log 238 odb.log 238 odtrace.log 238 oservlog 238 MDist2 244 Mobile Computing 250 notice group entry 241 object identification number 243 odadmin odlist command 243 pristine 251 pristine installation 251 prog_env 246 Resource Manager problems 261 set_debug_level option 243 Software Distribution traces 247 Software Package 245 software package 245 stop_on_error 246 Tivoli Software Distribution 240 trace_size 248 user_program 241 wadminep command 243 Web Gateway and device management 261 Web User Interface 262 wep command 243 wexpspo command 246 wgateway command 243 wgetspat command 246 wping command 243 two-way connection 43

U
undo operation 147 unicast 214 uninstallation 92 unload opretation 148 Upstream Collector 103

V
verify operation 147 view_config_info 243

W
wchkdb 46 wcollect 106 wcollect -h 103 wcollect -l 103 Web Gateway 184185, 261 component 70 Install 90 troubleshooting 261 Web Interface 71 Web Interface service 134 Web objects 185 Web User Interface DISSE0082E error message 264 inventory scan problems 264 login problems 262 Profile not found error 263 software package installation problems 264 tracing 265 tracing WebUI plug-in 265 Troubleshooting 262 troubleshooting 262 unable to publish web objects 263 Web-based courses 9 wgateway 270 wmdist 33, 35 wmsgbrowse 247 wrimtrace 271 wrpt 32 wswdcfg 247 wsyncsp 241 wsyncsp.log 252

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Certification Study Guide: IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager (ITCM) Version 4.2.2

Back cover

Certification Study Guide: IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager (ITCM) Version 4.2.2
Helps you become ITCM 4.2.2 certified Explains the certification path and prerequisites Tips and best practices
This IBM Redbook is a study guide for IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager Version 4.2.2 and is aimed at the people who want to get IBM Certifications in this specific product. The IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager Certification, offered through the Professional Certification Program from IBM, is designed to validate the skills required of technical professionals who work in the implementation of the IBM Tivoli Configuration Manager Version 4.2.2 product. This book provides a combination of theory and practical experience needed for a general understanding of the subject matter. It also provides sample questions that will help in the evaluation of personal progress and provide familiarity with the types of questions that will be encountered in the exam. This publication does not replace practical experience, nor is it designed to be a stand-alone guide for any subject. Instead, it is an effective tool that, when combined with education activities and experience, can be a very useful preparation guide for the exam.

INTERNATIONAL TECHNICAL SUPPORT ORGANIZATION

BUILDING TECHNICAL INFORMATION BASED ON PRACTICAL EXPERIENCE IBM Redbooks are developed by the IBM International Technical Support Organization. Experts from IBM, Customers and Partners from around the world create timely technical information based on realistic scenarios. Specific recommendations are provided to help you implement IT solutions more effectively in your environment.

For more information: ibm.com/redbooks


SG24-6691-00 ISBN 0738492361