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LOAD CAPACITY
OF CABLESTAYED
BRIDGES
z'
SI a a
By Ying Xii and J. S. Kuang,z Member, ASCE
ASSTRACT: This paper presents an energy method of analysis for the inplane ultimate load capacity of cablestayed bridges. The potential energy of the whole bridge. including bridge declc, stayed cables, and pylons. and the work done by externa110ads are considered in the development of the bridge energy equation. Both geometric and material nonlinearities are taken into account in the analysis. The method is simple to use and has a high convergence rateo The predictions of the proposed method show good agreement witb experimental results.
i¡ ti d d n le e
C¡
INTRODUCTION Cablestayed bridges possess excellent structural characteristics, economic material consumption, and aesthetic appearance. They have found wide and successful application in the world. During the last two decades. tbe spantodeptb ratio of cablestayed bridges has increased considerably. The span of steel cablestayed bridges has exceeded 800 m and that of concrete cablestayed bridges has exceeded 400 m. Witb high compressive forces in botb girders and pylons, tbe stability of cablestayed bridges has been a concem of bridge engineers. Under the action of extemalloading, the stiffening girders and pylons of cablestayed bridges are subjected simultaneously to axial compressive forces and bending moments (Troitsky 1988; Gimsing 1997). They work as beamcolumns and should be analyzed by tbe. tbeory of beamcolumns (Chajes. 1974; Chen and Atsuta 1976; Simitses 1976). As cablestayed bridges possess large spans and are very slender, the analysis of such bridges using tbe tbeory of beamcolmnns is very complicated. Due to tbe complexity of tbe tbeory oí beamcolumns, the stability oí stiffening girders, pylons, and tbe whole cablestayed bridges has usually been checked by tbe bifurcation stability theory. Tang (1976) first derived and calculated the buckling load oí cablestayed bridges using an energy method. Seif and Dilger (1990) conducted inplane nonlinear analysis and collapse load calculation of prestressed concrete cablestayed bridges by finiteelement method. Ermopoulos et al. (1992) performed an elastic stability analysis oí a cablestayed bridge with two pylons by tbe finiteelement metbod. Yan (1994) carried out the analysis of tbe inplane ultimate load capacity of long span steel cablestayed bridges by the fioiteelement method. Monteos (1995) carried out the research 00 the buckling safety factor by an energy metbod. However, most oí the reSearcherS employed the finiteelement method to carry out the investigation of inplane stability of cablestayed bridges. All of the reported research by the energy method is limited to analyze buckling load oí cablestayed bridges by the bifurcation stability theory. Because tbe general finiteelement paclcagesare usually oot convenient or cannot conveniently handle tbe special features of cablestayed bridges, it is desirable to develop a special procedure for cablestayed bridge analysis. The pwpose of this paper is to present an energy method íor analysis of the inplane stability and determination oí tbe overall stability limit load of cablestayed bridges. The proposed metbod is simple
'Grad. Res. Asst.. Dept. of Cív. and Struet. Engrg.. Hong Kong Unív. of SeL and Technol.. Clear Water Bay, Kowloon. Hong Kong. 1 Assoc. Prof., Dept. of Cív. and Struct. Engrg.. Hong Kong Unív. of
'
=
t:
7 t f
(
to use and has a high convergence rate, thus saving the computation time significantly. The proposed metbod may make it possible that tbe ultimate Ioad analysis oí a cablestayed bridge can be done by use of a personal computer. METHOD OF ANALYSIS An8lysls Consider the typical cablestayed bridge shown in Fig. 1,
which is subjected to concentrated loads P\, P2
f
. . . , P", and
distributed load qd' The bridge has one pylon and two cable planes, and tbe deck does not connect witb the pylon. The following assumptions are made in the analysis: 1. All cables are tixed to the deck and pylon at tbeir points oí attachment. ' 2. The pylon is fixed to the pier. 3. All rigid supports oí the deck are rollers. 4. The pylon and cables work at tbe elastic stage during the whole procedure oí loading. For convenience, two coordinate systems, x y and z Xh are choseo as shown in Fig. 1, which are employed for the deck and pylon systems, respectively. Because tbe bridge declc, pylon, and cables are all interconnected to each other, tbe whole structure can be treated as one entirety in the analysis. Thus, the potential energy of the bridge can be expressed as
U


=
+
f
1
2;.\
~ EdI.(x)(y"(x)]l
dx +
"
Ec;.Ác
ci
E
f
~ Ep/,(z)(X~(Z)]l dz . ,
L 1
~
'
(YI sin 9, ::!:XII COS9,)2 
L o '
_ Nd(x)(y' 2
dx
1
(X)]2 dx
"

Lo ~ N,(z)(X;(z)]2dz
q¡
II I I III III

~
ptYt
 Lo qdY(X)
I III
(1)
where EdI.(x)
=hending stiffness of the bridge deck in elastic
I I I I l' III
z
Sci. and Teehnol.. Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong. Note. Discussion opeo until luly l. 1999. To extend the elosíng date one month. a written request must be filed with the ASCE Manager of loumals. The manuscript for thís paper was submítted for l'evíew and possible publícation on June 2. 1997. 1bís paper ís pan of the Jo~ 01 Bridge EllflÜNerillg. Vol. 4. No. l. February. 1999. CASeE, ISSN I0840702l99/0001(XH400221$8.00 + $.50 per page. Paper No. 15882. 14/ JOURNALOF BRIDGE ENGINEERING FEBRUARY1999 /
x
..!
Xl y
1
L FIG. 1. Cabl.stayed Bridge
X1(Z) = horizontal deftection of the pylon at a point distance z from the fixed end of the pylon. 5. N= x The streS. Np(z) = = vertical deftection of the deck at a point distance x from the left end abutment. + o '2 E. 1 I . 2 1 =" . and h. Deflectlon Curve 01 Pylon x..1 and the deflection of the pylon (Fig.=:height of the pylon. COS91 .. I . U 1 (3) == L o'2EdI. lct = length of eable i.~. The strain of any point in the ~oss section is expressed as e. i'T1'X ali2 SlO 2 T  ] dx  ¡ . 4. n = total number of stay cables. as shown in Fig.Ac 181 ~ i "'1 ' . E)iz) = bending stiffness oi the pylons. and e" = yield strain. density of the cable material. I .. = ea where €o + <!>Y¡ (6) the eross section. <P = the curvature of (7) (8) (9) Movements of 'TINo Ends of Cable I q. 4) may be expressed by a trigonometric function 1 . '.. and O' = cable 6tre&S. O'y = yield stress. Ek = concentratedload.A.Ac = axial stiffness of cable i. = O'y for e¡ < €y l'¡ where "' . SectIon of Deck 2 . 3) may be expressed by a trigonometric series y y FIG. qJ 0.~) (4) ::!:b . 1 I I I 1 I . (2) . Ec.l(la eos 9/)2 1+ 120" where E = modulus of elasticity of tbe cable material.y.z zone. "Y = I 1'he deck deftectioo y at any poiot distance x from the left end abutment (Fig. 'T1' .2: Pt2: el¡ In 1 "'1 .(x) . cos 2h ) ] ."1 L a¡sindx1 2 'T1' i'T1'x =b (1 Xl' cos .0. Oeflectlon Curve 01 Deck M =2: A O'.. Yk = deek dt:ftection at a point where the toncentrated load Pk acts on the deck.[2: 1 ci A at sin brx.3.1s €y for e/ > €y 0'/ O'¡ 1 1 1 11 I I I .1 '2Nd(x) 1 1 i l  ()~ 2 2 'T1' . as shown in Fig. The equivalent mooulus of elastieity of the cable sug~sted by Ernst (1965) is used E Ect= E. 5.lleSand strains onany element Al are approximated by the stress and strain of the center of the elemento The equilibrium conditions 2: A O'¡AI (10) (11) y AG.o '2Np(Z)[ b 2h sm 2h] dz l A (1 1 'T1'Z. i'T1'xt _ + 1 2: Ec.I. 1 sin8.(z) 2 i 1 [() b 2h cos 2h ] dz 'Ir 'TI'Z (5) MNq. RelaJjona:hip " The cross &ection of the bridge deck can be dividedinto many elements. The stressstrainrelationships are given by FIG. Nd(x) = axial force in the deck. num = number of concentratedloads. i'frx all cosT ] dx . Cra. y(x) t I I I I I I Cleckdeftection at a point where cable i is conneeted with the deck. 91 = slope of cable i to horizontal. 2 'T1'Z where al and b are cee'fficients. Xl FIG.¡aism. y¡ = axial force in the pylon.1 :: deck 1>pan (between two end abutments). 0'/ =e/E = O'y for le... X'i = pylon de"Heetionat a point where cable i is conneeted with pylon.181 S _ XI . while the minus sign is used when the pylon moves toward cable i (Hogab 1986). Substituting (3) and (4) ioto (1) gives . L. qJ :: distributed load.1 [ i'frX ..' = the Mial strain oi the deck. The plus sign in (1) is uséd when the pylon moves h9rizontal1yaway from cable i.2. JOURNAL OF BRIDGE ENGINEERING I FEBRUARY 1999/15 .. Consider the geometric nonlinearity of the C<Ible sag.
one can obtain the following: where Xt =xeoordinate . a. (i .lp2 (h + Npk ~I SIn . and Aijt (1 eos ~ 2h ) eos el sin el ] (18) = i ~I ZO eos T I irrx jrrx eos T dx =2 { ( i +. . 3. '? . eos e.J tool (7) .~ (a) Bridge Deck element le cenler crosssection FIG.1.t (hp 2 Ec. =xeoordinate (12) (13) au =0 ab ft ~ In Fig.NdI.] ) rr[  . .. + [ 2 EctAc +~ L. = L. ] = 1. irrxt sm et eos et sm 1 al I 4 2h + ..= O. 2 . . . (i + i~XH ] +. ~) sin ] h.Av. and XtI (16) au =O.. mrrxl .JT CI [ L. where 1 is the moment of inertia of the eross seetion of the.3.SIn¡.(\.sm. (i . 3. aaJ j = 1.lel ECIAc _1 [ 2: . mrrxl . (14) Npk 2: = 11 :!: b . ~) ) [ ( . rrXt al :!: bol 1 ck ~ + { bol 2: . . Determine eoefficients a¡. N "" ECIAc "" . . h.rrZk Np~ ~ h ) ~ h + . SIn 1 b of the end of cable k eonneeted with the pylon.J :!:Ec.i)rrXH sm l ]} (15) 2. 6 the deek is divided into many elements along the xdireetion. bridge deck.. rrXt + L. . ~ . 6. sm T rrZt . and t = eoordinate = =irr(l . .eos 2h ) sm 9. m¡sm I s 11 1 :!: b ..tAc + .J SInSIn e. and Ik = 1.j)rrXt (1 . jrrXt eos et sm e. the total potential energy must be a minimum one. az. ~ Ec.  (7) ~ j N. For aUlaaJ= O. . 9 Method of Solutlons For the requirement of stable equilibrium. [ sm l (i + j)rrXt The procedure for solving the problem can be summarized as follows: 1. Npk= O.tAc . The number of elements will affeet the precision and speed of the calculation.A~ ( rr h _+1 rr )]} b =O (17) irrXt 1 ] al + L. I. 2".A~ . nc half number of the cables. Let P I = !1P.) 2 2h lrr hp [ 2 (7) ~ /EtI l.A1Ji . 6) in elastie zone. The number of elements will affeet the precision of ealeulation results and work loado t .eos]rr)+ ft .:. + sin + ~. and then the following eonditions should be satisfied: ' (1  eos ~) eos el] eos el of the cable k. + L. of the cable k . . SInal bol Ict I I ] 4 ~ 2 ~I 2 (2h rr . 2. SIn "'.7 () ~ ij ". rrZt h .SIn . irrxt Pt sm l' .'? + . Eplpl = bending stiffness of lower part of the pylon.Ja". Zt = EctAc :!: L:: qdl (1 rrZt eos 2h ) . _ . 16/ JOURNAL OF BRIDGE ENGINEERING / FEBRUARY 1999 . ~ = number of deek elements.Ic. For aUlab = O.. ... one can obtain the following: 4 ~ 2 ~I L:: (1 . [ EplPI 1 Ec. Deck DlvldedInto Many Elementa should be satisfied.SIn N. rrZk+I .sm el where It = moment of inertia of the eenter eross seetion of a deek element k (Fig. Eplpz = bending stiffness of upper part of the pylon.tAc rrZt .= ) ) 2 .. and b by solving (14) and (17). ]~ I ' SIn 1 I ..tAc eos2et ( (1 1 . Let Ec. .eos 2h eos rr. . irrXt . 1 1 ct SIn jrrXt _ i2/EtI ~ ~" SIn . .J bol ~ where hp height of lower part of the pylon. "=+1= eoordinate of the end of cable k + 1 eonneeted with the pylon..t= O..2. a".
. 16.2: ptYt . Calculaté the equivalent rnodulus of elasticity of fue bridge cable Ect using (2). 12.2 More dwI ceIUÍII times . el :t X2i COS6¡) 1 .4. OTHER CASES When the bridge has two pylons (Le. I '" EelAc.stop If cOllvergence cannot be achieved in Step 7 or 14.L. = €o + (NdJ:  N/AEd) and then go = No .. Xh and of the right pylon. Calculate rnaximurn positive and negative strains Etl and Ek2and rnaxirnurn positive and negative stresses O'k! and 0'k2of each deck elernent.1o qdY(X) dx .[ci (YiSin 2. 7. P P + AP) and then goto Step 3. The deftection of the left pylon. and caiculate the corresponding stress using (7)(9).! Nd[y'(X)]2 dx o 2 / .. This rneans that the ioad rcaches the ultimate load of the cablestayed bridge. force in the pylon Npt frorn (16) and (18). Determine the deftection of the deck y and the deftection of the pylon Xl using (3) and (4).. 5. and Np2(Z2) axial force of the right = = pylon. 11.. When O'tl or 0'k2 is equal to or larger than O'y. 13. 14. X2 horizontal deftection of the right pylon. Npl(Z¡) axial force of the left pylon. respectively. respectively.sJAE.P FIG. a ~span bridge) as shown in Fig. repeat Steps 36 until the convergence is obtained. A ftow chart for theiterative procedure is given in Fig. 17. X2. may be expressed. Calculate the strain E¡of each area elernent (Fig. Xl horizontal deftection of the left pylon. It has been found that only a few iterations are needed to achieve convergence and that a small number of terms are sufficient.1 14'EA (y¡ sin e/ 2 cos e/) + 1 2 . 15. repeat Steps 315 until convergence is obtained.. Determine the axial force N of the center cross section of the deck elernent k using (lO). assurne f{¡ = N. NdJ< and the axial 8. tbe analysis can follow the sarne proccdure given in theptevious section. P+f!. by Xl = = p. Stop + l2 o "2 Eplp(z¡)(x¡(z¡)] dZI  l2 o Np¡(zl)(X¡(ZI)] dz¡ + 1h ~ Eplp(Zv(x~(Z2)]2 dZ2 lh ~ Np2(Z2)[X~(Z2)]2 dZ2 (19) where nI No Stop = cable number of the left pylon. 9. n2 = cable number of the right pylon. calculate the value of It. The potential energy of the whole bridge can be expressed as u = 1 1o' 2 Edl.. go to Step 17. 6. f{¡ toStep 12.. 8. the cablestayed bridge becomes unstable.. Flow Chart for lteratlve P{'pcedure JOU~AL =b (1 'R"ZI cos 2h ) (20) ÓF BRIDGE ENGINEERING / FEBRUARY 1999/17 .J.. If the rnaximurn difference of the cable forces exceeds a given small percentage.1 h . 5) for the center cross section of the deck eiernent k using (6). If the difference of the axial forces is less than the given small percentage.(x)[y"(x)]2 / num / _ dx _ + 1 . Calculate the axial force in the deck 7.. 7. 10. If the difference of the axial forces exceeds a given small percentage. Check if O'u and 0'k2of the deck elernent k are equal to or larger than the yield stress O'y' If O'u and 0'k2of all deck elernents are srnaller than the yield stress O'y.1 :!: XII h 2 2: Tel . Increáse the load (Le.. If the rnaxirnum difference of the deftections of the bridge deck exceeds a given small percentage.
. au =0 ab au = O ac (22) (23) (24) ::!: Xli cos a.q.263 21.2: ptYt o ""1 .253 X 10.L.1 16. For the case where the fourth assumption is not held.093 14.and NI can be calculated from corresponding equations.cyld] Ac f ~ NAx)[y'(X)]2 dx I  _ 1 L 2 Np(z)[X. CsbleStayed Bridge wlth 1'woPylons .5 Ultimate (15. 2. When cables work at the elastoplastic stage. 9. replace the second terms in (1) by (25) and consider (26). 6@400 t FlG.02 X 10> Following the same procedure presented in the previous section. The energy caused by the pylon bending is Part of bridge (1) Cable Deck Pylon Moment of inertia ! (m4) (4) 1. U =L o + a 2 Edldc(~)[y"(~)]2dx 1~ .074 X lo' 2..341 12. X Xl . Xh X2. O ea o o en 01C\2 o o o C'. 8. the energy caused by the cables will be TABLE 2. Datafor Example Bridge Elastic modulus (MPá) (2) 1.3.7 11.(z)[x~(z)]2 dz (25) Seetíon (1) A D Theory Experiment Theory Experiment where Eplpc(z)= bending stiffness of the pylon in elastic zone. When pylons and cables work from the elastic stage to elastoplastic stage during the procedure of loading. And y.) + 13LJ (YI sin al 1001 ~ [ aaJ au = O. and EC)' yield strain of = cables. . . 2.04 X 10> 3. ~ 6@400 6000 í Example CableStayed Bridge (21) ~2=C ( i 1I'Z2 1cos2h ) . the problem can be solved by dividing the pylons into a number of elements along the zdirection.~ crcyf. FIG.4 10.414 16. sin al ::!:~II cos al)crC)' ~  (26) crcyf.939 14.L qdY(X) dx o (27) where a and ~ are the coefficients.8 kN) (5) 13. with similar treatment for the deck.35 kN) (14.)crC)' 4 .404 11. 7.4219 7.074 X lo' Ares (m2) (3) 3..c y L X.5 14.0 19.(Z)]2dz . coefficients ah a2.. . Strsln of Deck (x 104) Elastic Yleldíng Elastoplastlc (9. For the requirement of the equilibrium..926 X 10' 1.6193 7. el + Lo 2 Eplpc(z)[~~(z)]2dz 2 where b and e are coefficients.cyld] Ac where crC)'= yield stress of cables.7 strain gauge t [(y..7 X 10> f ~ Eplp.66 X lO' 2. At the elastic stage TABLE1.8 kN) (14. the following conditions should be satisfied: (YISIn al ::!:~Ii cos a.0 9. I 1 h 1 . stram gauge /r I Section A t I 11 rl Section D 11 ' .967 X lo' 2. j = l. The potential energy of the whole bridge is expressed by the following equation: 18/ JOURNAL OF BRIDGE ENGINEERING / FEBRUARY 1999 .98 kN) (2) (3) (4) 6.J t 2 1001 ECIAc..012 X 10. ah b and e can be determined from (22)(24). ..
8"P8rinent 11 (n 8xperinenlll <_n B) C) o .05 FlG. LoadDeflectlon Refatlon Compared wlth Experlment 11 JOURNALOF BRIDGEENGINEERlNG FEBRUARY1889/18 I .04 0.01 0.01 0.9 5 8 .02 CI) 0. 12.¡:: 0.03 (m) 0. o 0. 10.B2kN E c. 0. Vertical Deflectlon of Bridge Deck 20 B  15 z 'O .. 0.04 1.9 «J 10 8 8"P8dlilenll (MCtion B) 8"P8dmenll (MCtion C) 5 .00 0.06 15.04 Deflection (m) LoadOelfeotfon ReI8tIon Compared wlth Experlment I 20 Z 15 i 10 ..03 0.02 Deflection 0.00 0.00 ~G.0.02 Distance along the deck (m) FIG. 11. 0.02 0.8taall>ploak I e o 'ü el) .
20 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Straln (X 10"") l..) o o 5 10 15 Straln FlG.. 15.) .peftmen' 11 (oab181) _perimen' 11 (oab182) 5 A * O> _perimentll < 3) pertmen' 11 <081>. 10 15 20 25 30 Cable force (kN) L. ~traln 20 (x 10"") 25 30 35 40 Refatlon of Cable8 Compared wlth Exparlment 11 r 20 cable 3 15 Z C tU  10 .. o o FlG. 14.oadCable Force Relatlonehlp 20 I JOURNAL OF BRIDGE ENGINEERING I FEBRUARY 1999 .9 8 .9 5 o o 5 FlG. 13.20 cable 1 cable 3 z "'C tU .3 15 1 1 " 10 8 5 * A 8xperimenll (cable 1) 8xperimenll (cable 2) 8xperimenll (cable 3) 8xperimenll (cable .oad5traln Relatlon of Cable. Compared wlth Exparlment I cable 2 cable 3 15 Z 10 .
(1994).281 2 (3) 24. M. 923931. T. Both geometric and material nonlinearities have been taken into account in the analysis. Struct. H. = coefficient. = modulus = area of cross section of bridge deck. 40(2) (in Gennan). APPENDIX l. Bridges into tM 21st Century. VIahinos. a¡ BlJk b e E Edlú(x) E. G. (1974).column. It indicates that the deck becomes unstable at tbis load level.017 11 (12) O O 12 (13) O O (P = 15.r. and Wang. ASeE.'16751684.88 8 (9) 26. Table 2 . S. Changsha Railway University. Yan. (1997). An introduction oJtM elastic stability oJstructures. 10831089.08 9. "Buclding of cab1estayed girder bridges." J.. respectively.82 kN) Experimen161 Cable 1 (2) 11. ASCE.ln the analysis u only 30 terrns. 2nd Ed. 112(5). Engrg. Ermopoulos. = coefficient.) = bending stiffness of pylons in elastic zone. NOTATION The following symbols are used in this paper: A A¡ Ai/k CONCLUSIONS An eaer$)' method is presented for analysis of the inplane ultimate 10ad of cablestayed bridges. H. 13 and 14 show the curves ofload versus strains of Cables 14 and the comparison wi&hExperiments 1 and lI. Hegab. Table 3 shows the tlieoretical and experimental values of cable fOTCes ndertbe ultimate load. Principies 01 structurql stability theory. J." Comp. Figs. Troitsky. (1976). Tang. It can be seen that the loads could not be increased more than 15. "Ultimate 10ad capacity anal~is of long span steel cablestayed bridges. It can be seen from tbe numerical investigation of the example bridge tbat U1eiteration procedure has a very highconvergencerate and only asmaIl number of series terrns are needed.57 25.ge. 116(3). S. 1. S.649 '4. 10e deck and oables have constant cross section throughout their entire length. 11821195. "Buclding of cablestayed decks.. It Cwl be seen that the loaddeftection relationship curves display nonlinearity at the beginning of loading. A. "Nonünear analysis and collapse load of Pie cab1estayedbridjeS. stiffness of pylon. N. Both the geometry and loading conditions are symmetric." PhD thesis. 2nd Ed. = integration. and under the condition that all components work at tbe elastoplastic stage. H.. (1976).. 15 is tbe relationship between load and cable forees of Cables 14. McGrawHill. = coefficient. 44(5)..649 4. JOURNAL'OF BRIDGEENGINEERJNG FEBRUARY1999/21 / . 9. 9 was analyzed usingthe proposed potential energy method. 10e displacement near the load positions has the same direction as that of the loads. 10 shows the vertical deftection curves of bridge deck under different load levels.(z. (1992)." J. and Struct. Div. China (in Chinese). 10e pylon is fixed at its base. an4 Atsuta. The predictions of fue proposed method for the ultimate load and loadsat differ.J. Fig.Theory qJ beam. = integration.391 9 (10) 24. P..is the comparison oftheoretical and experimental values of the strain of the symmetric deck cross sections A and D (Fig. Ernst. EclAc= axialstiffnessof cablei.. tlte potential energy of the whole bridge and the work done by external loading have been considered. S.749 5 (6) O O 6 (7) 1) O 7 (8) 5. Figs. are taken in the iteration procedure. 9). but me deRections increase rapidly atthis load leve!. In the development of the bridge energy equation. Q. 1I and 12 show the tbeo1'eticaland ~xperimental (Yan 1994) loaddeftection relationships for the cross sections B and e of the bridge deck. "Der EModul von Seilen unte! Berucksichtigung des Durchan¡es.TABLE 3. Eplp. (1988). The proposed method is a relatively safe metbod for the ultimate load analysis of cablestayed bridges when compared with tbe experimental results. while that in the middle part is opposite with the direction of the loads. . ::: = bending bending stiffness of dcck in elutic zone. Montens.. Volume 1: /nplane behaviour and design. (1976).271 3 (4) 26. 10e geometry aDd loading of the bridge are shown in the figure." Proc. REFERENCES = Chajes. (1995). C.analyzil'lgcablestayed bridges with more than one pylon = area of element i of center cross_sectionin deck element k. A. APPENDIX 11. S.35 kN under which the deck starts to work at the elastoplastic sta.) of elasticity of cable material.. 10e method can be used fOl'. W. (1986)..fp(z. W. Pt:enticeHall. Wiley. (1990). Changsha. 10e proposed method may thus make it possible that the stability analysis of cablestayed bridges can be done in a few minutes by a personal computer.57 25. (1965).J. J.. and thus P¡ 15. Gimsing. Englewood CIifK." J. Fig. C. New York. Struct. Y. ASCE. Strkt. 10e plastic hinge could not be forrned before the bridgebecomes unstable. which is enough to get accurate results for tleck deflections. 10e tension strains and cable forees of Cables 13 basically disptay linear relation with loads.. The stiffnesses of the various cQmponents and geometric data of fue bridge are listed in Table 1. J. Cable Force under Ultlmate Load (kN) =Value (1) TheoretiC'al (p = 15. "Stability anaiysis of cablestayed bridges. . 10e declc is supported at the ends by rollers but does not connect with the pylon. New York. England. Simitses. and Dilger. C." Der Bauingenieur. N. "Energy anaiysis of cablestayed bridges. 10e lheoretical results show very gpod agreement with those of Experiment n. N. Engrg. M.. ' Chen. F.9 kN) a=1 13=0 and at the elastoplastic stage a=O (28) (29) (30) (31) 13= 1 NUMERICAL tNVESTIGATION An example cablestayed bridge with two cable plaJ1es shown in Fig. ~ewood Clilfs.12 23. .82 kN. A. antl thepylon has two different closs ~tions.12 23.506 4 (5) 5. The extreme fiber yields when p¡::: 14. Chichester.08 9. J.ent elastic and elastoplastic stages show good agreement witb fue experimental results. Gennany. 829849. Cabk supported bridges: Concept and design.101  10 (11) 11. Cable 4 unloads when the load approaches the ultimate load. Ven Nostrand Reinhold.82kN is tbe ultimate load of the cablestayed bridge. PrenticeHaIl. Cablestayed bridges: An approach to mockm bridge cksign. Seif.
deck deftection at point where concentrated load P. X. l. h = height of pylon. 13 = coefficient. CTcy yield stress of cables. N = axial force of cross section of deck. Xz = horizontal deflection of right pylon. = distributed load. = total number of stay cables. = cable number of left pylon...(z) = deflection of pylon at point distance z frorn fixed end of pylon. y. "Y density of cable material. and 4> = curvature of cross section. Y. x. CTy= yield stress. = CT¡= stress of area element i.':. ~ 00'. XII = pylon deflection at point where cable j is connected with pylon.E"Jp. qd = cable number of right pylon.ti. = coordinate of end of cable k connected with pylon. E. Nd(x) = axial force of deck. = bending stiffness of lower part of pylon. = xcoordinate of cable k. '. Ndt = axial force of deck between cable k and k + 1. " = numberof deck elements.¡'<'i. end abutment. Eplpz bending stiffness of upper part of pylon. length of lower part of pylon. = number of concentrated loads. = axial force of pylon between cable k and k + 1. = strain of area element i. e. Np. ex = coefficient. acts on deck. M = bending moment of cross section of deck.(z. le.\i ¡  22/ JOURNAl OF BRIDGE ENGINEERING / FEBRUAAY 1999 . CT= cable stress. U X'I = xcoordinate of cable k . Np. = vertical deflection of deck at point distance X from left = = axial force of right pylon. = horizontal y(x) 1 ::: span of bridge deck (between two end abutments). = = x.1. Eo = axial strain of deck. = half number of cables. €cy = yield strain of cables. ... = moment of inertia of center cross section of deck element k elastic zone.(z) = axial force of pylon. z.)1 . = length of cable i. 'v'.". hp 1 moment of inertia of cross section of bridge deck. = slope of cable i to horizontal. = concentrated = energy of whole bridge. .0 :. '.) Npz(zz) n nc num ni = axial force of left pylon. = horizontal deflection of left pylon.. 6. = deck deflection at point where cable i is connected with deck. N. . ZHl = coordinate of end of cable k + 1 connected with py. = nz P.1 u ~ (. (' ". load. = yield strain. Ion..
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