Universal Robina Corporation Universal Robina Sugar Milling Company Manjuyod, Negros Oriental

The Mill and Boiler

By: Rommel LitoNepalar JaypeeTimanuno Richard Mark Zamora

To: Engr. Dennis Cafe Manager Mill and Boiler Department URSUMCO

Mill and Boiler Department

Objectives:  To mill canes and maximize juice extraction at the right time in accordance to costumers’ satisfaction  To supply enough bagasse to boilers for efficient operation  To generate steam required for smooth flow of the operation  To execute organizational goal conforming to manufacturing plan and quality plan

the interior soft pith which `holds sugar rich juice and the outer portion known as rind. It begins by dumping of canes at the dumping station. It has a leveller which levels the cane and a kicker. Theleveller rotates in a direction opposite to the direction of the feeding carrier while the kicker rotates opposite in the direction of the leveller. The speed of the carrier is being controlled by an operator in the tower. Then the cane moves to the kicker which kicks the cane to the shredder. Canes are arranged by batch in the dumping area. Cane cutter number has twice the number of blades as the first cutter. canes are weighed to serve as method for payment to growers. the canes are being conveyed by the feeding carrier. (b)The feeding carrier and the cane carrier are an apron type conveyor. Before dumping. Then the cane passes through the two cutters which cuts the cane into smaller pieces.MILLING The extraction of juice from Cane constitutes the first stage of the entire process of cane sugar manufacture wherein the object of separation of juice from the fibrous portion of the cane is accomplish by employing heavy machinery. Parameters Feeding Carrier Motor Speed: Power: Reduction: 1185 rpm 132 kw 1:121. Afterwards. containing juice with high impurities. The cane first passes through the first cane leveller. Then. it passes through levellers and cutters. with different clearance and the number of blades. As the cane move towards the shredder. Note: (a)The sugarcane plant is essentially composed of two types of fiber. the cane moves to the cane carrier which carries the cane to the shredder.382 Cane Carrier Speed: 10 m/ min .

192 Cane Cutter # 1 (motor driven) Motor Speed: Power: Knife Quality: Clearance: Pitch/number: 595 rpm 450 kw hard facing build-up om knife edge (19mm T x 210mm W x 483mm L) (250-300)mm From tip of the knife to cane carrier slats 28 pieces .192 Kicker (Feeding Carrier) Motor Speed: Power: Reduction: 1770 rpm 55 kw 1:43.Leveller (Feeding Carrier) Motor Speed: Power: Reduction: 1770 rpm 55 kw 1:43.192 Leveller #1 (Cane Carrier) Motor Speed: Power: Reduction: 1770 rpm 55 kw 1:43.

Cane Cutter #2 (turbine driven) Turbine speed: Reduction: Knife quality: 4000 rpm 1:7:52 Hard facing build-up on knife edge (19mm T x 210mm W x 613mm L) Clearance (40-60) mm From tip of the knife to cane carrier slats Pitch/ number: 56 pieces Turbine Steam Supply Pressure: 18±2 kgf/cm2 Turbine Chest Pressure: 6-13 kgf/cm2 Turbine exhaust Pressure: 1.5 kgf/cm2 Oil Lubrication Supply pressure: 0.5-2 kgf/cm2 Bearing Temperature: not more than 75°C Oil Temperature: not more than 60°C Water Temperature : not more than 55°C Leveller #2 (Cane Carrier) Motor Speed: Power: Reduction: 1750 rpm 22 kw 1:32 .

bolts and nuts. The rollers have V shaped grooves. namely Donnely chute. of Hammer Cutting Bar Quality Number of Cutting Bars Clearance: inlet Discharge Turbine average speed Steam supply Pressure Chest Pressure Exhaust Pressure Oil Lubrication supply pressure Bearing Temperature Oil temperature Water temperature Hard facing build up 88 pcs. The efficiency of these separators in removing iron pieces and thus avoiding damage to processing equipment is 80-90%. It is really important to separate metals because it may damage the mill rollers and most especially interrupt the operation. named after the inventor. The Shredder The shredder is essentially a hammer mill adapted to the function of sugarcane pulverising. Carbon steel with hard facing build up 7 lengths (30-40)mm (45-55)mm 3500 rpm 18±2 kgf/cm2 7-14 kgf/cm2 1. on the periphery of the shell.5 kgf/cm2 0. Cane Shredder Hammer Quality No. Each row has 8 hammers which revolves on pivot. the equipment shreds or tears the cane to pieces or pulverises it into long fluffy material which in effect increases the extraction of the mill.The pusher rolls are connected by a chain in the top mill roller and bottom mill roller. Pieces of cast iron or special steel are the most dangerous. The grooves serve two-fold purpose: . The commonest objects are: pieces of knife-blades. feed roller and discharge roller.5-2 kgf/cm2 not more than 75°C not more than 60°C not more than 55°C Shredded Cane Elevator is the responsible for the delivering shredded cane to the 1st mill. Then itis fed to two pusher rolls followed by three roller mills forming a mill train in which the subsequent mills perform the function of extracting the juice. The shredded cane drops to a chute. As the name indicates. Shredder is always preceded by usual two sets of cutters and levellers which cut the cane prior to feeding the shredder. distributed over the entire length.The Iron Separator Iron separators are installed in the mill to separate metals which goes together with the canes. Whether it is detected in time or not such incidents are expensive. It composed of 88 swing type hammers arranged into 11 rows. The three mill rollers that are responsible for the extraction: top roller.

Same goes with the 3rd.385 low speed reduction: 1: 24. An intermediate carrier is a rake type of conveyor as well as the shredded cane elevator. and 5thmill. 5 Input Speed: 4521 rpm max Input Speed: 4463 rpm max High Speed reduction: 1: 37.68 Speed Input. Output and Reduction for Mill Turbines . the bagasse that is filtered by the screen filter will be conveyed by a screw conveyor to the intermediate carrier of the 2nd mill. the 4th mill to the 3rdmill and the 3rdmill to the 2ndmill. 3. 4th. The rotary screen filter.61 2nd low speed reduction: 1:4. filters the bagasse that mixed with the juice.The juice that is collected by the 5th mill will be pump to the 4thmill.05 Output Speed: 120. The bagasse that exits the 5th mill must not be wet to avoid low steam pressure. the bagasse is transported to the 2nd mil by an intermediate carrier.94 Output Speed: 27. The final bagasse will be used by the boilers as fuels. the mixed juice of the 2nd mill will be pumped to the rotary screen filter together with the pure juice of the 1 st mill.(1) To provide passage for juice extracted on compression (2) To disintegrate the bagasse to facilitate juice extraction The pure juice of the 1st mill is collected by the mixed juice tank and is pumped to the rotary screen filter. The bagasse drops to a chute.39 Output Speed: 6.1 Output: 6.64 High Speed reduction: 1: 27. The bagasse that exits the 5th mill will be carried by the main bagasse elevator.105 rpm Output Speed:165 rpm 1st low speed reduction: 1: 4. Mill 1 2 3 4 5 Feed roller to top roller 80 mm 95 mm 90 mm 75 mm 60 mm Discharge roller to top roller 40 mm 45 mm Standard Mill Openings 40 mm 35 mm 34 mm Standard Mill Openings URSUMCO Milling operations can process an average of 8000 tons of cane per day Mill # 1 Mill # 2. After the 1st mill. 4. passed to the pusher roll and the mill rollers.

5 kgf/cm2 max 2700 psi max 4000 rpm 4000 rpm 4400 rpm max max max 2 2 Turbine 5-7 kgf/cm 7-12 kgf/cm 7-10 Pressure kgf/cm2 2 2 2 Exhaust Pressure 1.5 kgf/cm2 max max max max Top Roller Hydraulic 2700 psi max 2700 psi 2700 psi max 2700 psi Pressure max max Mill Roller Condition Groove Depth 65 mm 65 mm 65 mm 65 mm Pitch 64 mm 64 mm 64 mm 64 mm Extraction 77% 85% 90% 93.5 kgf/cm 1.50% Milling Rate 360 tons/hr 360 tons/hr 360 tons/hr 360 tons/hr max max max max Maceration None (dry) Multiple Multiple Multiple compound compound compound maceration maceration maceration Oil lubrication Pressure Bearing Temperature Oil Temperature Water Temperature 0.5-2 kgf/cm2 kgf/cm2 o 75 C max 75oC max o 60 C max 60 oC max 55 oC max 55 oC max Mill Parameter 0.The input speed above are the maximum speed of the turbine.5 kgf/cm 1. The current speeds that are used in the mills are the following: 2700 rpm (mill 1).0 kgf/cm2 75oC max 60 oC max 55 oC max 0. 3400 rpm (mill 3). Speed reduction is a series of gears of different diameter.5-2 kgf/cm2 75oC max 60 oC max 55 oC max 2600-3000 rpm Chest 5-7 kgf/cm2 65 mm 64 mm 95. and 3200rpm (mill 5). The governor is an auxiliary part of the mill turbine which regulates the speed of the turbine.5-2 kgf/cm2 75oC max 60 oC max 55 oC max . The shaft of the turbine is coupled in the speed reduction.5-2.80% 360 tons/hr max Multiple compound maceration (4070 ˚C) 0. 3800 rpm (mill 2).5 kgf/cm 1. 3900 (mill 4). Parameters Turbine Supply Pressure Turbine Temperature Turbine Speed Mill 1 Mill 2 Mill 3 18 2 18 2 18 2 kg/cm2 kg/cm2 kg/cm2 o 320 5 C 320 5 oC 320 5 oC Mill 4 Mill 5 18 2 18 2 kg/cm2 kg/cm2 320 5 oC 320 5 oC 4400 rpm max 8-15 kgf/cm2 1.5-2 0.

15. 3.7. push ON of speed controller panel. Swtich ON IC no.rotary screen . 4. 3. 3 as soon as bagasse came out from mill no. Switch off the maceration and empty the all mills of residual bagasse and inform the boiler operator. Switch ON IC no. Switch ON juice pump no. 5. Inform to the feed water turbine tender to stop stop the steam supply for mills and shredder. Inform the boiler control panel operator to start the bagasse elevator. 14. 16. Switch off the ff. 10.screw conveyor and the intermediate carriers. Swtich on the SCE when cutted cane reaches shredder. SHUT DOWN PROCEDURE (milling section) 1. Switch off the interlock of equipment’s. 1.START-UP OPERATING PROCEDURE (milling section) 1. 13. Start motor of cane carrier . 2. 6. 20. 3. Switch ON IC NO. Switch on the AVR of the cane carrier. Turn on the cane carrier kicker. Switch ON interlock equipments. juice pumps . 18. Switch ON juice pump no. And the switch ON screened juice pump. 2. Switch ON screw conveyor and rotary screen as soon as shredded canes enter the mill. 6. . 4 as soon as bagasse come out from mill 4. 3. 12. Turn the speed regulator of the cane carrier at rate speed 0-10m. 9. 1 and switch ON juice pump no. Call the feeding carrier operator to start feeding canes. 5. 8. Switch ON IC no. 2. Signal the boiler panel operator that bagasse is now in the bagasse elevator Inform the juice pan tender to open the maceration and the hot water maceration and the sprayer.mixed juice pumps . 5. 17. Empty first the cane carrier before stopping and switch off the drive motor at the control panel. 1 when bagasses starts to came out of the mill no. 19. 11.2 when bagasse starts to came out of mill No. 4. Observe the thickness of the cane at cane carrier through ammeter. Switch off the cane kicker. 7. Switch ON juice pump no.

0 High Pressure Steam 1. and a compartment where water can be evaporated into steam. Classifications of boiler: Fire Tube Boiler.5 kgf/cm2 1. Boiler Parameters Boiler 1 and 2 Product 1.P Steam 0.2 Exhaust Pressure Process 0.1 Temperature 2. URSUMCO boilers are Pneumatic Spreader with Damping Grate type of boiler.1 Exhaust pressure 0.0 Make up Steam 2.3 Capacity 2.1 Temperature 1.2 Pressure 1.a steam boiler in which ho gaseous products of combustion pass through tubes surrounded by boiler water Water Tube Boiler.a steam boiler in which water circulates within tubes and heat is applied from outside the tubes to generate steam. These boilers produce high-pressure steam.The Boiler or Steam Generator The remaining fibrous solids.2 Feed water pump delivery pressure 325±25˚C 18±2 kgf/cm2 60 tons/hr max 122˚ C 1.0 H. Essential elements of boiler: (1) (2) (3) (4) Water Air Fuel Fire In starting a turbine Check for: (a)cooling water (b) lubrication oil (c) fuel(steam) In the plant.5 kgf/cm2 36 kgf/cm2 max . there are three water tube type of boiler. All boilers consist of a separate compartment where the fuel is burned. A boiler is a device for heating water or generating steam above atmospheric pressure. Boilers 1 and 2 have the same capacity while boiler 3 has larger capacity. called bagasse are burned for fuel in the steam boilers.

0 Bleed Steam PRV opening 340±20˚C 26 ± 4 kgf/cm2 80 tons/hr max 18±2 kgf/cm2 Normal ±75mm 42 kgf/cm2 max Refer to boiler water guidelines 100 mm setting level 0.7 Boiler gas outlet 0. 0.14 0.6 Deaerator water level 0.13.0High Pressure Steam 1.2 Combustion temperature Boiler gas outlet AH gas outlet 1.13 IDF turbines 1 and 2 0.11 Furnace chamber 0.P Steam 1.2Pressure 1.1 Boiler water level Boiler drum level Feed water pump delivery pressure Feed water treatment Deaerator level Deaerating steam pressure 1.5 Boiler Drum level 0.8 AH gas outlet 0.3 combustion draft DC air outlet BO air outlet Furnace chamber 1.3 Capacity 2.1 Bearing Temp.9 AH air outlet 0.2 Cooling Water temp.0 Bleed Steam 2.1Temperature 1.10 PFDF air outlet 0. 0.5 kgf/cm2 setting pressure 175±25˚C 180 to 250˚C -5 to 10mm H₂O +5 to 30mm H₂O 0 to ± 20 mm H₂O 56% bagasse moisture max 100% maximum opening .0.13.3 Lift pump delivery pressure 0.15 Bagasse fuel Boiler water treatment 0.6 kgf/cm2 max.0 H.4 Bagasse fuel 2. 95±10˚ C 0±50 mm 50mm average level 275±25˚C 210±30˚C 155±25mm H₂O 150±50mm H₂O 0±20mm H₂O -100to -150mm H₂O Not more than 80˚C Not more than 55˚C 56% bagasse moisture max Refer to boiler water treatment Boiler 3 Product 1.1Pressure setting Process 1.12 IDF Gas inlet 0.4 Feed Water Temperature 0.

Bagasse and Ash Conveying System Main Bagasse Elevator Main Bagasse Carrier Surplus Bagasse Conveyor Travelling Bagasse Carrier Shutter Shutter From 5th Mill Return Bagasse Elevator Boiler # 1 Boiler # 2 Boiler # 3 Deashing Conveyor 1&2 Deashing Conveyor 3 Air Preheater Conveyor 1&2 Air Preheater Conveyor 3 Ash Removal Conveyor 3 Ash Removal Conveyor 1&2 Dust Collector Conveyor 1&2 Dust Collector Conveyor 3 Ash Bin Ash Bin .

and dust conveyor are conveyed into a conveyor that is common of this three conveyors and is called ash removal conveyor and is directed to the ash bin. The stored bagasse will be used if the milling operation stops. From the 5th mill. Ashes that are being carried by the flow of smoke to the chimney are being trap by the ash trap and then drops in the dust conveyor. It is done periodically to minimize the bagasse that goes with the ash in deashing. Metals or stones may clog in the conveyor. The excess bagasse drops in the shutter and is carried to the surplus bagasse conveyor. Boiler 1 2 3 Fuel Consumption (based on maximum capacity ) 30 tons/hr 30 tons/hr 40 tons/hr Ash Flow Ash and unburned bagasse drops and collected in the deashing conveyor during deashing. Ash truck collects the ash in the ash bin. As the name implies. The lower portion carries the bagasse from the main bagasse elevator and distributes the bagasse to the boilers. The main bagasse carrier has the upper and lower portion. The surplus bagasse conveyor connects to the travelling belt conveyor. The ashman make sure that no metal or stone is being carried by the conveyor.Bagasse Flow The figure above indicates how bagasse and ash are being conveyed. Some of the fundamental properties of steam which govern its use for generation of power and for heating as well as boiling in process are: . Ashes that are accumulated in the air preheater drops into the air preheater conveyor. The travelling belt conveyor conveys the bagasse to the bagasse warehouse. the bagasse is conveyed by the main bagasse elevator to the main bagasse carrier. The ash and unburned bagasse that drops in the deashing conveyor. The fireman releases the lever to open and close the damping grate. The surplus conveyor has shutter which connects to the return bagasse elevator. Backfeeding is the feeding of bagasse in the return bagasse elevator using heavy equipment like payloader. Deashing is done by the fireman. air pre-heater conveyor. Deashing is done in the 1st hour and every after four hours of the shift. Uses of Steam In sugar mills steam is used for both power generation and as source of heat in process operation. it is where the excess bagasse is stored.

(2) Low pressure steam is required in process operation. Air Flow in theBoiler Air is one of the essential part of a boiler. The steam drum and mud drum is connected by the generating tubes The superheater isa bank of tubes suitably located in the path of hot gases and connected to the boiler drum. Without air the rate of combustion is slow. The water from the deaerator is being pumped to the boiler by a feedwater pump. The Safety Valve Safety valves are installed in the boiler which automatically releases the steam incase of over pressure. Economizers are usually made of cast iron and their function is essentially to heat the feedwater and not to boil. The exhaust steam that is produced by the turbines in the mills and power house will go to the low pressure header and will be utilized in the process. Before entering the steam drum. 1 for superheater) and boiler 3 has 3 safety . After the IDF. And the exhaust from these prime movers is utilised for process operations.(1) High pressure and temperatures of steam are desirable for generating power. In the boiler. secondary force draft fan(SFDF) and undergrate fan. Boiler Feed Water The source of water for steam for steam generation in the boilers is mostly the condensate from the heat exchangers in the process and the condensate is derived from condensed vapour obtain from juice boiling in the evaporators and water from steam condensed in the heat exchangers . water temperature is now 170˚C. the force draft fan collects fresh air and carries it to the air preheater. The SFDF aids the burning of bagasse by blowing hot air in the furnace. The condensate tank pumps water to the day tank. The undergrate fan blow air under the furnace. The day tank provides water supply in the boiler when there is no operation. The mud drum is located below the steam drum where impurities settle. Air preheater heats up fresh air and supplies it to three tubes: bagasse distribution fan(BDF). Then it enters the steam drum. A deaerator is a device that is widely used for the removal of oxygen and other dissolved gases from the feedwater to steam-generating boilers. the water enters an economizer. Exhaust steam enters the deaerator and heats up the water to 110˚C. Boiler 1 and 2 has 4 safety valves (3 for the steam drum. When the water exits the economizer. An economizer is a feedwater preheating device which utilizes the heat of the flue gas. The smoke(flue gas) produced in the combustion will be absorb by the induced draft fan(IDF). High pressure steam from boilers is fed to prime movers for some units like mill turbines as well as to the power house turbines. the deaerator tank will supply water in the boiler. If the mill operation starts. It must be half filled with water. the flue gas discharged to the atmosphere by the chimney. The steam that is being generated goes to the high pressure header(HPH) and the HPH is responsible for the distribution of steam. It collects the steam generated in the boiler. The BDF blows the bagasse into the furnace equally.

valves (2 for steam drum .5 (all units are in kgf/cm ) 2 Boiler 2 SV1:24. Dosing points Low Pressure Line Chemical Tank High Pressure Line Chemical Tank Boilers 1 and 2 Chemical Dillution Diclean B-901 = 2. oil and dissolved gases such as oxygen.6 Boiler 3 SV1:34. Another reason is that the water has chemical elements it that must be controlled to limit and eliminate the formation of scaling. Scaling may cause low heat transfer at the point of deposits.0 Boiler Water Treatment It is necessary for the water in the boiler be treated to achieve great steam production at a lower cost. Below is the table indicating the boiler water treatment control parameters. Chemicals were put in the high pressure and low pressure chemical injection tank to control the formation of the chemical elements that is carried by the water to the boiler.8 SV3: 24. Entrainment is often caused by variety f soluble and suspended solids. Some of the more common scale forming constituents are silica.6 kg Dillute to 200 L water Caustic Soda = 2kg Diclean B-562 = 900g Dillute to 200 L water The figure above indicates the chemicals and the dosage required.5 SV2: 35.2 SHV:34. 1 superheater).4 kg Oxynon S-340FG = 1. Corrosion causes development of weak spots which could lead to failure. iron. Corrosion may be due to chloride.2 SV2: 23. Dosage will vary depending on the result after the test has been done by the Q. corrosion and entrainment in the boiler. in the water sample.4 kg Dillute to 200 L water Caustic Soda = 2kg Diclean B-562 = 900g Dillute to 200 L water Boiler 3 Chemical Dillution Diclean B-901 = 1.1 kg Oxynon S-340FG = 2.6 SV3: 24. the turbine tender gets water sample from the feedwater. oil. Each safety has different settings and the valve settings are as follows: Boiler 1 SV1: 24.3 SHV:23. continuous blowdown of the three boilers.A. hardness and sugar.2 SHV:23. . sugar.9 SV2: 23. iron.

Turn on the feedwater pump. secondary force draft fan and bagasse distribution fan. open the blowdown valve.Parameter pH Electrical Conductivity P-alkalinity M-alkalinity Total Hardness Calcium Hardness Silica Residual Sulfite Phosphate Ion Chloride Ion Total Iron Sugar Presence Units μS/cm mg CaCO3/L mg CaCO3/L mg CaCO3/L mg CaCO3/L mg SiO2/L mg/L mg PO4-3/L mg Cl-/L mg Fe/L - Feed 8-9. there are preparatory measures that needs to be considered: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) Man power Operating abilities Sufficient water in the drum Fuel Fans are in good condition Base fire If you have all of the stated above.5 3000 500 max 600 max 0 0 10-20 20-40 150 max Absolutely negative Boiler 3 10-11 1000 120 max 150 max 0 0 50 max 5-10 5-10 100 max - How to fire a boiler? To fire a boiler. you are ready to fire boiler. Open the boiler feeders. Open also the superheater drain to release the water residue in the superheater.1 max Boiler 1 & 2 10. mill and refinery that you are ready to fire a boiler. Open the force draft fan. Boiler Calculation For Boiler 1 and 2 Rated Boiler Horsepower Where: Solution: .5-11. Open the induced draft fan. power house. If the boiler has too much water.5 0 0 0. Coordinate with the process.

05 2. ⁄ . table 3 (Superheated) 2.5 hs 3112. .4 From Steam Tables.Solving for Develop Boiler Horsepower Given: ⁄ ⁄ @ . table 1 (saturated).1 By interpolation. @ ⁄ Where: ( ⁄ )( ⁄ ⁄ ⁄ ) Solving for Percent Rating Percent Rating is the ratio of the develop boiler horsepower to the rated boiler horsepower.06 2. ( ) 3113. and @ ⁄ ( ) ⁄ From Steam Tables.

(FE) Factor of Evaporation is the actual heat absorption per kilogram of steam generated divided by 2257 (hfg from and at 1000C) ⁄ ⁄ ⁄ Solving for Equivalent Evaporation Equivalent Evaporation is the product of the rate of evaporation of steam and factor of evaporation. ( ) ⁄ ( ⁄ ⁄ ⁄ ) Solving for Factor of Evaporation. ⁄ ⁄ Solving for Actual Specific Evaporation (ASE) or Boiler Economy Actual Specific Evaporation (ASE) or Boiler Economy is the ratio of the mass of steam to the mass of fuel. ⁄ ⁄ .Solving for ASME Evaporation Units ASME Evaporation Units is the heat output of the boiler or the rate at which heat is transferred.

Solving for Boiler Efficiency ( Where: ) ⁄ ⁄ ⁄ ⁄ ⁄ ⁄ ⁄ ⁄ ⁄ ( ) .Solving for Equivalent Specific Evaporation Equivalent Specific Evaporation is the product of boiler economy and factor of evaporation.

and @ ⁄ ( ) ⁄ From Steam Tables.0 3. ⁄ 3. table 3 (Superheated) 3.04 3.( ⁄ )( ⁄ ⁄ ) ( ⁄ )( ⁄ ) For Boiler 3 Rated Boiler Horsepower Where: Solution: Solving for Develop Boiler Horsepower Given: ⁄ ⁄ @ .137.7 hs 3.7 .05 By interpolation.138.

From Steam Tables. Solving for ASME Evaporation Units ASME Evaporation Units is the heat output of the boiler or the rate at which heat is transferred. table 1 (saturated) @ ( . ) ⁄ Where: ( ⁄ )( ⁄ ⁄ ⁄ ) Solving for Percent Rating Percent Rating is the ratio of the develop boiler horsepower to the rated boiler horsepower. (FE) Factor of Evaporation is the actual heat absorption per kilogram of steam generated divided by 2257 (hfg from and at 1000C) . ( ⁄ ( ⁄ ) ⁄ ⁄ ) Solving for Factor of Evaporation.

⁄ ⁄ Solving for Equivalent Specific Evaporation Equivalent Specific Evaporation is the product of boiler economy and factor of evaporation. Solving for Boiler Efficiency ( Where: ) .⁄ ⁄ ⁄ Solving for Equivalent Evaporation Equivalent Evaporation is the product of the rate of evaporation of steam and factor of evaporation. ⁄ ⁄ Solving for Actual Specific Evaporation (ASE) or Boiler Economy Actual Specific Evaporation (ASE) or Boiler Economy is the ratio of the mass of steam to the mass of fuel.

⁄ ⁄ ⁄ ⁄ ⁄ ⁄ ⁄ ⁄ ⁄ ( ⁄ )( ⁄ ⁄ ) ( ⁄ )( ⁄ ) .

DAY TANK WATER SOFTENER TANK EVAPOTATOR CONDENSATE TANK DEAERATOR TANK LIFT PUMPS TO STEAM HEADER BOILER FEED PUMP BAGASSE ROOM BAGASSE FEEDER MOTOR INDUSCED DRAFT FAN CHIMNEY AIR PREHEATER FORCED DRAFT FAN .

CONDENSATE LINE DEAERATOR TANK EXHAUST STEAM SOFTERNER WATER TANK TO BOILER FEDD PUMP .

STEAM DRUM DISCHARGE .

1 Mill no. 4 Mill no. 3 Mill no.Legend: Bagasse Flow Juice Flow Pusher Rolls From Cane Carier Screw Conveyor Roller Mills Cane Shredder Mill no. 2 Mill no. 5 Mixed Juice Tank Mixed Juice Tank Mixed Juice Tank Mixed Juice Tank To Process Screened Juice Tank .

.Kicker Kicker Leveller 1st Cane Leveller Cane Cutter 1 Cane Cutter 2 2nd Cane Leveller Dumping Station .

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