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Universal Robina Corporation Universal Robina Sugar Milling Company Manjuyod, Negros Oriental

The Mill and Boiler

By: Rommel LitoNepalar JaypeeTimanuno Richard Mark Zamora

To: Engr. Dennis Cafe Manager Mill and Boiler Department URSUMCO

Mill and Boiler Department

Objectives: To mill canes and maximize juice extraction at the right time in accordance to costumers satisfaction To supply enough bagasse to boilers for efficient operation To generate steam required for smooth flow of the operation To execute organizational goal conforming to manufacturing plan and quality plan

MILLING
The extraction of juice from Cane constitutes the first stage of the entire process of cane sugar manufacture wherein the object of separation of juice from the fibrous portion of the cane is accomplish by employing heavy machinery. It begins by dumping of canes at the dumping station. Before dumping, canes are weighed to serve as method for payment to growers. Canes are arranged by batch in the dumping area. Then, the canes are being conveyed by the feeding carrier. The speed of the carrier is being controlled by an operator in the tower. It has a leveller which levels the cane and a kicker. Theleveller rotates in a direction opposite to the direction of the feeding carrier while the kicker rotates opposite in the direction of the leveller. Afterwards, the cane moves to the cane carrier which carries the cane to the shredder. As the cane move towards the shredder, it passes through levellers and cutters. The cane first passes through the first cane leveller. Then the cane passes through the two cutters which cuts the cane into smaller pieces, with different clearance and the number of blades. Cane cutter number has twice the number of blades as the first cutter. Then the cane moves to the kicker which kicks the cane to the shredder.

Note: (a)The sugarcane plant is essentially composed of two types of fiber, the interior soft pith which `holds sugar rich juice and the outer portion known as rind, containing juice with high impurities. (b)The feeding carrier and the cane carrier are an apron type conveyor.

Parameters

Feeding Carrier Motor Speed: Power: Reduction: 1185 rpm 132 kw 1:121.382

Cane Carrier Speed: 10 m/ min

Leveller (Feeding Carrier) Motor Speed: Power: Reduction: 1770 rpm 55 kw 1:43.192

Kicker (Feeding Carrier) Motor Speed: Power: Reduction: 1770 rpm 55 kw 1:43.192

Leveller #1 (Cane Carrier) Motor Speed: Power: Reduction: 1770 rpm 55 kw 1:43.192

Cane Cutter # 1 (motor driven) Motor Speed: Power: Knife Quality: Clearance: Pitch/number: 595 rpm 450 kw hard facing build-up om knife edge (19mm T x 210mm W x 483mm L) (250-300)mm From tip of the knife to cane carrier slats 28 pieces

Cane Cutter #2 (turbine driven) Turbine speed: Reduction: Knife quality: 4000 rpm 1:7:52 Hard facing build-up on knife edge (19mm T x 210mm W x 613mm L) Clearance (40-60) mm From tip of the knife to cane carrier slats Pitch/ number: 56 pieces Turbine Steam Supply Pressure: 182 kgf/cm2 Turbine Chest Pressure: 6-13 kgf/cm2 Turbine exhaust Pressure: 1.5 kgf/cm2 Oil Lubrication Supply pressure: 0.5-2 kgf/cm2 Bearing Temperature: not more than 75C Oil Temperature: not more than 60C Water Temperature : not more than 55C

Leveller #2 (Cane Carrier) Motor Speed: Power: Reduction: 1750 rpm 22 kw 1:32

The Iron Separator Iron separators are installed in the mill to separate metals which goes together with the canes. It is really important to separate metals because it may damage the mill rollers and most especially interrupt the operation. The efficiency of these separators in removing iron pieces and thus avoiding damage to processing equipment is 80-90%. The commonest objects are: pieces of knife-blades, bolts and nuts. Pieces of cast iron or special steel are the most dangerous. Whether it is detected in time or not such incidents are expensive. The Shredder The shredder is essentially a hammer mill adapted to the function of sugarcane pulverising. It composed of 88 swing type hammers arranged into 11 rows. Each row has 8 hammers which revolves on pivot. As the name indicates, the equipment shreds or tears the cane to pieces or pulverises it into long fluffy material which in effect increases the extraction of the mill. Shredder is always preceded by usual two sets of cutters and levellers which cut the cane prior to feeding the shredder.

Cane Shredder Hammer Quality No. of Hammer Cutting Bar Quality Number of Cutting Bars Clearance: inlet Discharge Turbine average speed Steam supply Pressure Chest Pressure Exhaust Pressure Oil Lubrication supply pressure Bearing Temperature Oil temperature Water temperature Hard facing build up 88 pcs. Carbon steel with hard facing build up 7 lengths (30-40)mm (45-55)mm 3500 rpm 182 kgf/cm2 7-14 kgf/cm2 1.5 kgf/cm2 0.5-2 kgf/cm2 not more than 75C not more than 60C not more than 55C

Shredded Cane Elevator is the responsible for the delivering shredded cane to the 1st mill. The shredded cane drops to a chute, namely Donnely chute, named after the inventor. Then itis fed to two pusher rolls followed by three roller mills forming a mill train in which the subsequent mills perform the function of extracting the juice.The pusher rolls are connected by a chain in the top mill roller and bottom mill roller. The three mill rollers that are responsible for the extraction: top roller, feed roller and discharge roller. The rollers have V shaped grooves, on the periphery of the shell, distributed over the entire length. The grooves serve two-fold purpose:

(1) To provide passage for juice extracted on compression (2) To disintegrate the bagasse to facilitate juice extraction The pure juice of the 1st mill is collected by the mixed juice tank and is pumped to the rotary screen filter. The rotary screen filter, filters the bagasse that mixed with the juice. After the 1st mill, the bagasse is transported to the 2nd mil by an intermediate carrier. An intermediate carrier is a rake type of conveyor as well as the shredded cane elevator. The bagasse drops to a chute, passed to the pusher roll and the mill rollers. Same goes with the 3rd, 4th, and 5thmill.The juice that is collected by the 5th mill will be pump to the 4thmill, the 4th mill to the 3rdmill and the 3rdmill to the 2ndmill. the mixed juice of the 2nd mill will be pumped to the rotary screen filter together with the pure juice of the 1 st mill. the bagasse that is filtered by the screen filter will be conveyed by a screw conveyor to the intermediate carrier of the 2nd mill. The bagasse that exits the 5th mill will be carried by the main bagasse elevator. The final bagasse will be used by the boilers as fuels.

The bagasse that exits the 5th mill must not be wet to avoid low steam pressure.

Mill 1 2 3 4 5

Feed roller to top roller 80 mm 95 mm 90 mm 75 mm 60 mm

Discharge roller to top roller 40 mm 45 mm Standard Mill Openings 40 mm 35 mm 34 mm

Standard Mill Openings

URSUMCO Milling operations can process an average of 8000 tons of cane per day

Mill # 1 Mill # 2, 3, 4, 5 Input Speed: 4521 rpm max Input Speed: 4463 rpm max High Speed reduction: 1: 37.64 High Speed reduction: 1: 27.05 Output Speed: 120.105 rpm Output Speed:165 rpm 1st low speed reduction: 1: 4.385 low speed reduction: 1: 24.94 Output Speed: 27.39 Output Speed: 6.61 2nd low speed reduction: 1:4.1 Output: 6.68 Speed Input, Output and Reduction for Mill Turbines

The input speed above are the maximum speed of the turbine. The current speeds that are used in the mills are the following: 2700 rpm (mill 1), 3800 rpm (mill 2), 3400 rpm (mill 3), 3900 (mill 4), and 3200rpm (mill 5). The governor is an auxiliary part of the mill turbine which regulates the speed of the turbine. The shaft of the turbine is coupled in the speed reduction. Speed reduction is a series of gears of different diameter.

Parameters Turbine Supply Pressure Turbine Temperature Turbine Speed

Mill 1 Mill 2 Mill 3 18 2 18 2 18 2 kg/cm2 kg/cm2 kg/cm2 o 320 5 C 320 5 oC 320 5 oC

Mill 4 Mill 5 18 2 18 2 kg/cm2 kg/cm2 320 5 oC 320 5 oC 4400 rpm max 8-15 kgf/cm2 1.5 kgf/cm2 max 2700 psi max

4000 rpm 4000 rpm 4400 rpm max max max 2 2 Turbine 5-7 kgf/cm 7-12 kgf/cm 7-10 Pressure kgf/cm2 2 2 2 Exhaust Pressure 1.5 kgf/cm 1.5 kgf/cm 1.5 kgf/cm 1.5 kgf/cm2 max max max max Top Roller Hydraulic 2700 psi max 2700 psi 2700 psi max 2700 psi Pressure max max Mill Roller Condition Groove Depth 65 mm 65 mm 65 mm 65 mm Pitch 64 mm 64 mm 64 mm 64 mm Extraction 77% 85% 90% 93.50% Milling Rate 360 tons/hr 360 tons/hr 360 tons/hr 360 tons/hr max max max max Maceration None (dry) Multiple Multiple Multiple compound compound compound maceration maceration maceration Oil lubrication Pressure Bearing Temperature Oil Temperature Water Temperature 0.5-2.0 kgf/cm2 75oC max 60 oC max 55 oC max 0.5-2 0.5-2 kgf/cm2 kgf/cm2 o 75 C max 75oC max o 60 C max 60 oC max 55 oC max 55 oC max Mill Parameter 0.5-2 kgf/cm2 75oC max 60 oC max 55 oC max

2600-3000 rpm Chest 5-7 kgf/cm2

65 mm 64 mm 95.80% 360 tons/hr max Multiple compound maceration (4070 C) 0.5-2 kgf/cm2 75oC max 60 oC max 55 oC max

START-UP OPERATING PROCEDURE (milling section) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. Start motor of cane carrier . Turn on the cane carrier kicker. Switch on the AVR of the cane carrier, push ON of speed controller panel. Turn the speed regulator of the cane carrier at rate speed 0-10m. Call the feeding carrier operator to start feeding canes. Inform the boiler control panel operator to start the bagasse elevator. Observe the thickness of the cane at cane carrier through ammeter. Swtich on the SCE when cutted cane reaches shredder. Switch ON screw conveyor and rotary screen as soon as shredded canes enter the mill. Swtich ON IC no. 1 when bagasses starts to came out of the mill no. 1 and switch ON juice pump no. 1. And the switch ON screened juice pump. Switch ON IC NO.2 when bagasse starts to came out of mill No. 2. Switch ON juice pump no. 3. Switch ON IC no. 3 as soon as bagasse came out from mill no. 3. Switch ON juice pump no. 5. Switch ON IC no. 4 as soon as bagasse come out from mill 4. Switch ON juice pump no.7. Signal the boiler panel operator that bagasse is now in the bagasse elevator Inform the juice pan tender to open the maceration and the hot water maceration and the sprayer. Switch ON interlock equipments.

SHUT DOWN PROCEDURE (milling section) 1. 2. 3. 4. Switch off the interlock of equipments. Empty first the cane carrier before stopping and switch off the drive motor at the control panel. Switch off the cane kicker. Switch off the maceration and empty the all mills of residual bagasse and inform the boiler operator. 5. Switch off the ff. juice pumps ,mixed juice pumps ,rotary screen ,screw conveyor and the intermediate carriers. 6. Inform to the feed water turbine tender to stop stop the steam supply for mills and shredder.

The Boiler or Steam Generator


The remaining fibrous solids, called bagasse are burned for fuel in the steam boilers. These boilers produce high-pressure steam. A boiler is a device for heating water or generating steam above atmospheric pressure. All boilers consist of a separate compartment where the fuel is burned, and a compartment where water can be evaporated into steam. Classifications of boiler: Fire Tube Boiler- a steam boiler in which ho gaseous products of combustion pass through tubes surrounded by boiler water Water Tube Boiler- a steam boiler in which water circulates within tubes and heat is applied from outside the tubes to generate steam.

Essential elements of boiler: (1) (2) (3) (4) Water Air Fuel Fire

In starting a turbine Check for: (a)cooling water (b) lubrication oil (c) fuel(steam)

In the plant, there are three water tube type of boiler. URSUMCO boilers are Pneumatic Spreader with Damping Grate type of boiler. Boilers 1 and 2 have the same capacity while boiler 3 has larger capacity. Boiler Parameters Boiler 1 and 2 Product 1.0 High Pressure Steam 1.1 Temperature 1.2 Pressure 1.3 Capacity 2.0 Make up Steam 2.1 Temperature 2.2 Exhaust Pressure Process 0.0 H.P Steam 0.1 Exhaust pressure 0.2 Feed water pump delivery pressure

32525C 182 kgf/cm2 60 tons/hr max 122 C 1.5 kgf/cm2

1.5 kgf/cm2 36 kgf/cm2 max

0.3 Lift pump delivery pressure 0.4 Feed Water Temperature 0.5 Boiler Drum level 0.6 Deaerator water level 0.7 Boiler gas outlet 0.8 AH gas outlet 0.9 AH air outlet 0.10 PFDF air outlet 0.11 Furnace chamber 0.12 IDF Gas inlet 0.13 IDF turbines 1 and 2 0.13.1 Bearing Temp. 0.13.2 Cooling Water temp. 0.14 0.15 Bagasse fuel Boiler water treatment

0.6 kgf/cm2 max. 9510 C 050 mm 50mm average level 27525C 21030C 15525mm HO 15050mm HO 020mm HO -100to -150mm HO Not more than 80C Not more than 55C 56% bagasse moisture max Refer to boiler water treatment

Boiler 3 Product 1.0High Pressure Steam 1.1Temperature 1.2Pressure 1.3 Capacity 2.0 Bleed Steam 2.1Pressure setting Process 1.0 H.P Steam 1.1 Boiler water level Boiler drum level Feed water pump delivery pressure Feed water treatment Deaerator level Deaerating steam pressure 1.2 Combustion temperature Boiler gas outlet AH gas outlet 1.3 combustion draft DC air outlet BO air outlet Furnace chamber 1.4 Bagasse fuel 2.0 Bleed Steam PRV opening

34020C 26 4 kgf/cm2 80 tons/hr max 182 kgf/cm2

Normal 75mm 42 kgf/cm2 max Refer to boiler water guidelines 100 mm setting level 0.5 kgf/cm2 setting pressure 17525C 180 to 250C -5 to 10mm HO +5 to 30mm HO 0 to 20 mm HO 56% bagasse moisture max 100% maximum opening

Bagasse and Ash Conveying System

Main Bagasse Elevator

Main Bagasse Carrier

Surplus Bagasse Conveyor

Travelling Bagasse Carrier

Shutter

Shutter

From 5th Mill

Return Bagasse Elevator

Boiler # 1

Boiler # 2

Boiler # 3

Deashing Conveyor 1&2

Deashing Conveyor 3

Air Preheater Conveyor 1&2

Air Preheater Conveyor 3 Ash Removal Conveyor 3

Ash Removal Conveyor 1&2

Dust Collector Conveyor 1&2

Dust Collector Conveyor 3

Ash Bin

Ash Bin

Bagasse Flow The figure above indicates how bagasse and ash are being conveyed. From the 5th mill, the bagasse is conveyed by the main bagasse elevator to the main bagasse carrier. The main bagasse carrier has the upper and lower portion. The lower portion carries the bagasse from the main bagasse elevator and distributes the bagasse to the boilers. The excess bagasse drops in the shutter and is carried to the surplus bagasse conveyor. The surplus conveyor has shutter which connects to the return bagasse elevator. The surplus bagasse conveyor connects to the travelling belt conveyor. The travelling belt conveyor conveys the bagasse to the bagasse warehouse. As the name implies, it is where the excess bagasse is stored. The stored bagasse will be used if the milling operation stops. Backfeeding is the feeding of bagasse in the return bagasse elevator using heavy equipment like payloader.

Boiler 1 2 3

Fuel Consumption (based on maximum capacity ) 30 tons/hr 30 tons/hr 40 tons/hr

Ash Flow Ash and unburned bagasse drops and collected in the deashing conveyor during deashing. Deashing is done in the 1st hour and every after four hours of the shift. It is done periodically to minimize the bagasse that goes with the ash in deashing. Deashing is done by the fireman. The fireman releases the lever to open and close the damping grate. The ashman make sure that no metal or stone is being carried by the conveyor. Metals or stones may clog in the conveyor. Ashes that are accumulated in the air preheater drops into the air preheater conveyor. Ashes that are being carried by the flow of smoke to the chimney are being trap by the ash trap and then drops in the dust conveyor. The ash and unburned bagasse that drops in the deashing conveyor, air pre-heater conveyor, and dust conveyor are conveyed into a conveyor that is common of this three conveyors and is called ash removal conveyor and is directed to the ash bin. Ash truck collects the ash in the ash bin.

Uses of Steam In sugar mills steam is used for both power generation and as source of heat in process operation. Some of the fundamental properties of steam which govern its use for generation of power and for heating as well as boiling in process are:

(1) High pressure and temperatures of steam are desirable for generating power. (2) Low pressure steam is required in process operation. High pressure steam from boilers is fed to prime movers for some units like mill turbines as well as to the power house turbines. And the exhaust from these prime movers is utilised for process operations. The steam that is being generated goes to the high pressure header(HPH) and the HPH is responsible for the distribution of steam. The exhaust steam that is produced by the turbines in the mills and power house will go to the low pressure header and will be utilized in the process. Boiler Feed Water The source of water for steam for steam generation in the boilers is mostly the condensate from the heat exchangers in the process and the condensate is derived from condensed vapour obtain from juice boiling in the evaporators and water from steam condensed in the heat exchangers . The condensate tank pumps water to the day tank. The day tank provides water supply in the boiler when there is no operation. If the mill operation starts, the deaerator tank will supply water in the boiler. A deaerator is a device that is widely used for the removal of oxygen and other dissolved gases from the feedwater to steam-generating boilers. Exhaust steam enters the deaerator and heats up the water to 110C. The water from the deaerator is being pumped to the boiler by a feedwater pump. Before entering the steam drum, the water enters an economizer. An economizer is a feedwater preheating device which utilizes the heat of the flue gas. Economizers are usually made of cast iron and their function is essentially to heat the feedwater and not to boil. When the water exits the economizer, water temperature is now 170C. Then it enters the steam drum. It collects the steam generated in the boiler. It must be half filled with water. The mud drum is located below the steam drum where impurities settle. The steam drum and mud drum is connected by the generating tubes The superheater isa bank of tubes suitably located in the path of hot gases and connected to the boiler drum. Air Flow in theBoiler Air is one of the essential part of a boiler. Without air the rate of combustion is slow. In the boiler, the force draft fan collects fresh air and carries it to the air preheater. Air preheater heats up fresh air and supplies it to three tubes: bagasse distribution fan(BDF), secondary force draft fan(SFDF) and undergrate fan. The BDF blows the bagasse into the furnace equally. The SFDF aids the burning of bagasse by blowing hot air in the furnace. The undergrate fan blow air under the furnace. The smoke(flue gas) produced in the combustion will be absorb by the induced draft fan(IDF). After the IDF, the flue gas discharged to the atmosphere by the chimney. The Safety Valve Safety valves are installed in the boiler which automatically releases the steam incase of over pressure. Boiler 1 and 2 has 4 safety valves (3 for the steam drum, 1 for superheater) and boiler 3 has 3 safety

valves (2 for steam drum , 1 superheater). Each safety has different settings and the valve settings are as follows: Boiler 1 SV1: 24.2 SV2: 23.6 SV3: 24.3 SHV:23.5
(all units are in kgf/cm )
2

Boiler 2 SV1:24.9 SV2: 23.8 SV3: 24.2 SHV:23.6

Boiler 3 SV1:34.5 SV2: 35.2 SHV:34.0

Boiler Water Treatment It is necessary for the water in the boiler be treated to achieve great steam production at a lower cost. Another reason is that the water has chemical elements it that must be controlled to limit and eliminate the formation of scaling, corrosion and entrainment in the boiler. Scaling may cause low heat transfer at the point of deposits. Some of the more common scale forming constituents are silica, iron, oil, hardness and sugar. Corrosion causes development of weak spots which could lead to failure. Corrosion may be due to chloride, iron, sugar, oil and dissolved gases such as oxygen. Entrainment is often caused by variety f soluble and suspended solids. Chemicals were put in the high pressure and low pressure chemical injection tank to control the formation of the chemical elements that is carried by the water to the boiler.

Dosing points Low Pressure Line Chemical Tank High Pressure Line Chemical Tank

Boilers 1 and 2 Chemical Dillution Diclean B-901 = 2.1 kg Oxynon S-340FG = 2.4 kg Dillute to 200 L water Caustic Soda = 2kg Diclean B-562 = 900g Dillute to 200 L water

Boiler 3 Chemical Dillution Diclean B-901 = 1.4 kg Oxynon S-340FG = 1.6 kg Dillute to 200 L water Caustic Soda = 2kg Diclean B-562 = 900g Dillute to 200 L water

The figure above indicates the chemicals and the dosage required. Dosage will vary depending on the result after the test has been done by the Q.A. in the water sample. the turbine tender gets water sample from the feedwater, continuous blowdown of the three boilers. Below is the table indicating the boiler water treatment control parameters.

Parameter pH Electrical Conductivity P-alkalinity M-alkalinity Total Hardness Calcium Hardness Silica Residual Sulfite Phosphate Ion Chloride Ion Total Iron Sugar Presence

Units S/cm mg CaCO3/L mg CaCO3/L mg CaCO3/L mg CaCO3/L mg SiO2/L mg/L mg PO4-3/L mg Cl-/L mg Fe/L -

Feed 8-9.5 0 0 0.1 max

Boiler 1 & 2 10.5-11.5 3000 500 max 600 max 0 0 10-20 20-40 150 max Absolutely negative

Boiler 3 10-11 1000 120 max 150 max 0 0 50 max 5-10 5-10 100 max -

How to fire a boiler? To fire a boiler, there are preparatory measures that needs to be considered: (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) Man power Operating abilities Sufficient water in the drum Fuel Fans are in good condition Base fire

If you have all of the stated above, you are ready to fire boiler. Coordinate with the process, power house, mill and refinery that you are ready to fire a boiler. If the boiler has too much water, open the blowdown valve. Open also the superheater drain to release the water residue in the superheater. Open the induced draft fan. Open the force draft fan, secondary force draft fan and bagasse distribution fan. Open the boiler feeders. Turn on the feedwater pump.

Boiler Calculation
For Boiler 1 and 2 Rated Boiler Horsepower

Where:

Solution:

Solving for Develop Boiler Horsepower


Given: @ , and @ ( )

From Steam Tables, table 3 (Superheated) 2.05 2.06 2.1 By interpolation; ;


( )

3113.5 hs 3112.4

From Steam Tables, table 1 (saturated), @

Where:

)(

Solving for Percent Rating


Percent Rating is the ratio of the develop boiler horsepower to the rated boiler horsepower.

Solving for ASME Evaporation Units


ASME Evaporation Units is the heat output of the boiler or the rate at which heat is transferred. ( ) ( )

Solving for Factor of Evaporation, (FE)


Factor of Evaporation is the actual heat absorption per kilogram of steam generated divided by 2257 (hfg from and at 1000C)

Solving for Equivalent Evaporation


Equivalent Evaporation is the product of the rate of evaporation of steam and factor of evaporation.

Solving for Actual Specific Evaporation (ASE) or Boiler Economy


Actual Specific Evaporation (ASE) or Boiler Economy is the ratio of the mass of steam to the mass of fuel.

Solving for Equivalent Specific Evaporation


Equivalent Specific Evaporation is the product of boiler economy and factor of evaporation.

Solving for Boiler Efficiency


( Where: )

)(

)(

For Boiler 3 Rated Boiler Horsepower

Where:

Solution:

Solving for Develop Boiler Horsepower


Given: @ , and @ ( )

From Steam Tables, table 3 (Superheated) 3.0 3.04 3.05 By interpolation; 3,138.7 hs 3,137.7

From Steam Tables, table 1 (saturated) @


(

;
)

Where:

)(

Solving for Percent Rating


Percent Rating is the ratio of the develop boiler horsepower to the rated boiler horsepower.

Solving for ASME Evaporation Units


ASME Evaporation Units is the heat output of the boiler or the rate at which heat is transferred. ( ( ) )

Solving for Factor of Evaporation, (FE)


Factor of Evaporation is the actual heat absorption per kilogram of steam generated divided by 2257 (hfg from and at 1000C)

Solving for Equivalent Evaporation


Equivalent Evaporation is the product of the rate of evaporation of steam and factor of evaporation.

Solving for Actual Specific Evaporation (ASE) or Boiler Economy


Actual Specific Evaporation (ASE) or Boiler Economy is the ratio of the mass of steam to the mass of fuel.

Solving for Equivalent Specific Evaporation


Equivalent Specific Evaporation is the product of boiler economy and factor of evaporation.

Solving for Boiler Efficiency


( Where: )

)(

)(

DAY TANK WATER SOFTENER TANK EVAPOTATOR CONDENSATE TANK

DEAERATOR TANK

LIFT PUMPS

TO STEAM HEADER

BOILER FEED PUMP

BAGASSE ROOM BAGASSE FEEDER MOTOR INDUSCED DRAFT FAN

CHIMNEY

AIR PREHEATER FORCED DRAFT FAN

CONDENSATE LINE

DEAERATOR TANK
EXHAUST STEAM

SOFTERNER WATER TANK

TO BOILER FEDD PUMP

STEAM DRUM

DISCHARGE

Legend: Bagasse Flow Juice Flow Pusher Rolls From Cane Carier
Screw Conveyor

Roller Mills

Cane Shredder

Mill no. 1

Mill no. 2

Mill no. 3

Mill no. 4

Mill no. 5

Mixed Juice Tank

Mixed Juice Tank

Mixed Juice Tank

Mixed Juice Tank

To Process
Screened Juice Tank

Kicker

Kicker

Leveller 1st Cane Leveller Cane Cutter 1 Cane Cutter 2 2nd Cane Leveller

Dumping Station