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20TH century has been regarded as the period of incredible change in human history. Philosophers and scientists have been various names to this period. Peter Drucker has called it


“The Age of Discontinuity”, John Galbraith has called it “The Age of Future Shock” and Hari Albrecht called it “The Age of Anxiety”. Stress has become the 21 century buzz word, from the high pervading corporate echelons to the bassinets of teaching infants’ nurseries we find this world liberally used. Stress is part of modern life. Various events in life cause stress, starting with the birth of a child and enduring with the death of a dear one. Urbanization, industrialization and the increase scale of operations in society are some of the reasons for rising stress. It is an inevitable consequence of socio-economic complexity and to some extent, its stimulant as well. People experience stress as they can no longer have complete control over what happen in their lives. The telephone goes out of order, power is shut down, water supply is disrupted, children perform poorly at school etc, we feel frustrated and then stressed. The word stress is derived from a Latin word “stringere”, meaning to draw tight. From the view point of physical sciences, the phenomena of stress are evident in all materials when they are subjected to “force, pressure, strain or strong-front”. Every material steel, rock or wood has its own limit up to which it can withstand stress without being damaged. Similarly human beings can tolerate certain level of stress. Stress is highly individualistic in nature. Some people have high levels of stress tolerance for stress and thrive very well in the face of several stressors in the environment. In fact, some individuals will not perform well unless they experience a level of stress which activates and energizes then to put forth their best results. For every individual there is an optimum level of stress under which he or she will perform to full capacity. If the stress experience is below the optimum level, then the individual gets bored, the motivational level of work reaches a low point and it results to careless mistakes, forgetting to do things and thinking of things other than work during work hours and also leads to absenteeism which may ultimately lead to turnover. If on the other hand, stress experience is above the optimum level, it leads to too many conflicts with the supervisor or leads to increase of errors, bad decisions and the individual may experience insomnia, stomach problems, and psychosomatic illness. The present world is fast changing and there are lots of pressures and demands at work. These pressures at work lead to physical disorders. Stress refers to individual’s reaction to a disturbing factor in the environment. It is an adaptive response to certain external factor or situation or what can be called environmental stimuli as reflected in an opportunity, constraint,

Personality traits are ‘Type A’ personality. implementing time management techniques. prolonged illness in the family. Some of well known time management principles include. etc. They are impatient.or demand the outcome of which is uncertain but important. In short stress is a response to an external factor that results in physical. or of a close friend. They are. increasing physical exercise. poor quality of supervision. change to a different line of work.  Time management Many people manage their time very poorly. Stress is an all pervading modern phenomenon that takes a heavy toll of human life. Those can be divided into factors related to the organization and factors related to the person which include his experience and personality traits. And they are particularly prone to stress inducing anticipatory emotions such as anxiety. role conflict and ambiguity. They set high goals and demands of themselves and others. • • Individual approaches Organizational approaches INDIVIDUAL APPROACHES An employee can take individual responsibility to reduce his/her stress level. Person related factors are death of spouse. competitive. eating habits. REMEDIES TO REDUCE STRESS There are two major approaches to reduce stress. insecure political climate. family problems. aggressive. and expanding the social support network. difference between company values and employee values. and hardworking. emotional. ambitious. behavioral deviations in a person. time pressures. change in social activities. Different situations and circumstances in our personal life and in our job produce stress.. o Making daily list of activities to be accomplished o Scheduling activities according to the priorities set o Prioritizing activities by importance and urgency 5 . relaxation training. Individual strategies that have proven effective include. Job related factors are work overload.

 Social support Having families. and riding a bicycle. The objective is to reach in state of deep relaxation. friends or work colleagues to talk provides an outlet.o Knowing your daily cycle and handling the most demanding parts of your job. because these factors give the employee greater control over work activities and lessen dependence on others. Fifteen or twenty minutes a day of deep relaxation releases tension and provides a person with a pronounced sense of peacefulness.  Relaxation training Relaxation techniques such as meditation. Selection and placement decisions should take these facts into consideration. eat better and develop a regular exercise program. hypnosis and bio-feedback. jogging. brisk walking. improved organizational communication and establishment of corporate wellness programmes. somewhat from detached from the immediate environment. more autonomy. where one feels physically relaxed. It also provides motivation. control alcohol usage. and increased feedback can reduce stress.  Physical exercise Practicing physical exercises like aerobics. So expand your social support network that helps you with someone to hear your problems. ORGANIZATIONAL APPROACHES Several of the factors that cause stress particularly task and role demands and organizations structure are controlled by management. They typically proud work ships to help people quit smoking. redesigning of jobs. use of realistic goal setting. Individual with little experience or an external lower of control tend to be more proven to stress. Increasingly formal organizational communication with employees reduces uncertainty by reducing role ambiguity and role conflict. swimming. Certain jobs are more stressful than others. 6 . Goal setting helps to reduce stress. Some of the strategies that management want to consider include improved personal self section and job placement. Wellness programs like employee counselling form on the employee’s total physical and mental condition. Designing jobs to give employees more responsibility. when stress levels become excessive. more meaningful work. As such they can be modified or changed.

six hours of sleep is sufficient whereas people over 65 years may just need three or four hours. the stress at which a material begins to deform plastically. some types include: Chronic stress.Another remedy for reducing stress is cognitive restructuring. physiological or psychological stress. The second step consists of replacing these irrational thoughts with more rational or reasonable ones. First irrational or maladaptive thought processes that create stress are identified. positive stress that can lead to improved long-term functioning Workplace stress. Generally studies shows that young adults can manage with about 7-8 hours. Research conducted on laboratory specimen to have met with startling discoveries. the stress applied to materials resulting in their compaction. The American National Sleep Foundation claims that a minimum of eight hours of sleep is essential for good health. One important remedy to reduce stress is the maintenance of good sleep. Sleep starved rats have developed stress syndrome. stress caused by employment Other • • Stress (game). It involves two step procedures. For example Type A individuals may believe that they must be successful at everything they do. card game Stress (linguistics). the average amount of force exerted per unit area. After the age of 35. Biological • • • • Stress (biological). The amount of sleep one requires varies from person to person and is dependent on one’s lifestyle. phonological use of prominence in language 7 . Yield stress. Compressive stress. TYPES OF STRESSES The different types of stress are as follows: Mechanical • • • Stress (physics). persistent stress which can lead to illness and mental disorder Eustress.

is the average stress. 8 . exercise. It is a measure of the intensity of the total internal forces acting within a body across imaginary internal surfaces. Stress is a concept that is based on the concept of continuum. and • is the force acting over the area . also called engineering or nominal stress. healthy diet. stress is expressed as Where. which include. stress management. Symptoms of chronic stress can be: • • • • • • • upset stomach headache backache insomnia anxiety depression anger In the most severe cases it can lead to panic attacks or a panic disorder. In general. Chronic Stress Chronic stress is stress that lasts a long time or occurs frequently.STRESS IN MECHANICAL TERMS : Stress (physics) Stress is a measure of the average amount of force exerted per unit area. There are a number of methods to control chronic stress. and relaxing hobbies. It was introduced into the theory of elasticity by Cauchy around 1822. Chronic stress is potentially damaging. adequate rest. relaxation techniques. as a reaction to external applied forces and body forces.

which can be a factor in continued chronic stress. some soils and plastics) or as rupture for brittle behavior (geometries. In long. then this material is under increase of compressive force F leads to structural failure due to buckling at lower stress than the compressive strength. STRESS IN BIOLOGICAL TERMS: 9 . slender structural elements -. Compressive stress: Compressive stress is the stress applied to materials resulting in their compaction (decrease of volume). compressive stress applied to bars. leads to shortening. in those individuals with lower levels of magnesium or those who have a magnesium deficiency. cast iron. A very large number of these new cases suffer from insomnia. Usually. Loading a structural element or a specimen will increase the compressive stress until the reach of compressive strength. etc). compressive stress is represented with positive values. glass. etc. When a material is subjected to compressive stress. However in geotechnical engineering. Chronic stress can also lead to a magnesium deficiency. the authors found that stress plays a role in triggering or worsening depression and cardiovascular disease and in speeding the progression of HIV/AIDS. Compressive stress has stress units (force per unit area). columns. In a review of the scientific literature on the relationship between stress and disease.Ensuring a healthy diet containing magnesium may help control or eliminate stress. According to the properties of the material. It has been discovered that there is a huge upsurge in the number of people who suffer from this condition. and a whole host of other negative medical conditions caused by a magnesium deficiency. failure will occur as yield for materials with ductile behavior (most metals. usually with negative values to indicate the compaction.such as columns or truss bars -.

whether actual or imagined. GOOD STRESS V/S BAD STRESS: Stress has often been misunderstood to be negative. It refers to the inability of a human or animal body to respond. short-term resistance as a coping mechanism. hence our emphasis should be on differentiating between what is good stress. This will help us to learn to cope with negative stress. inability to concentrate and a variety of physical reactions. just "stressed out". In our everyday lives. It includes a state of alarm and adrenaline production. and harness the power of positive stress to help us achieve more. namely eustress. In Selye's terminology. Eustress. EUSTRESS This is a positive form of stress. muscular tension. The term is commonly used by laypersons in a metaphorical rather than literal or biological sense. Negative stress can cause many physical and psychological problems. a way of referring to problems and eliciting sympathy without being explicitly confessional. whilst positive stress can be very helpful for us. hyper stress and hypo stress. can be an adaptive response prompting the activation of internal resources to meet challenges and achieve goals. In popular usage almost any event or situation between these extremes could be described as stressful. There are 4 main categories of stress. and "stressor" to the perceived threat. It also became a euphemism. "stress" refers to the reaction of the organism. for example. as a catch-all for any perceived difficulties in life. Here’s how we differentiate between them. which prepares your mind and body for the imminent 10 . and exhaustion. such as headaches and accelerated heart rate. and what is bad. It covers a huge range of phenomena from mild irritation to the kind of severe problems that might result in a real breakdown of health. stress is everywhere and definitely unavoidable. He later broadened and popularized the concept to include the perceptions and responses of humans trying to adapt to the challenges of everyday life. Common stress symptoms include irritability.Stress is a biological term which refers to the consequences of the failure of a human or animal body to respond appropriately to emotional or physical threats to the organism. with few people acknowledging the importance and usefulness of positive stress. The term "stress" was first used by the endocrinologist Hans Selye in the 1930s to identify physiological responses in laboratory animals. distress. Stress in certain circumstances may be experienced positively.

it would be a good idea to implement some form of job rotation so that there is always something new to learn. This is due to an insufficient amount of stress. INDUSTRY PROFILE 11 . and know that it is a negative form of stress. hypo stress occurs when a person has nothing to do with his time and feels constantly bored and unmotivated. They can be categorized into acute stress and chronic stress. On the other hand. If you suspect that you are suffering from hyper stress. It is important for you to recognize that your body needs a break. If the job scope is boring and repetitive. or you may end up with severe and chronic physical and psychological reactions. you are likely to have sudden emotional breakdowns over insignificant issues. allowing them to derive the inspiration and strength that is needed. DISTRESS We are familiar with this word. resulting in a higher heart rate. Athletes before a competition or perhaps a manager before a major presentation would do well with Eustress. but does not last for long. HYPO STRESS Lastly. Eustress is a natural physical reaction by your body which increases blood flow to your muscles. Companies should avoid having workers who experience hypo stress as this will cause productivity and mindfulness to fall. HYPER STRESS This is another form of negative stress that occurs when the individual is unable to cope with the workload. the proverbial straws that broke the camel’s back. Acute stress is intense. chronic stress persists over a long period of time. Trigger events for distress can be a change in job scope or routine that the person is unable to handle or cope with. Examples include highly stressful jobs. This occurs when the mind and body is unable to cope with changes. and usually occurs when there are deviations from the norm. which require longer working hours than the individual can handle.challenges that it has perceived. hence some stress is inevitable and helpful to us.

Germany and France represent huge growth potential in the industry. Even Canada. both software and services revenue grew by 32 percent to $ 22 billions and $ 28. India's domestic market. Japan. grew by 24 per cent. Why India? • • • • • • • Rapidly Improving infrastructure Large Talent Pool Availability Infrastructure High Quality Educat ional Low Operaing Costs R&D Strengths Established Technology Clusters Government Incentive Progress of IT Industry (In terms of US $ billion) 12 . The year 1995-96 was a boom for the industry. The performance of the industry over the years is as follows: (In terms of US $ millions) Domestic software Market490670920125017002450 Software Exports 73410851750265040006300 Indian Software Industry 122417552670390057008750 India's Software Exports: Software exports has major share in India's total exports. The shares of total Indian exports form 4. As of the year 2004-05. Presently Indian companies have concentrated on only two largest IT service markets.Industry Profile Overview on India's Software Industry According to statistics.4 percent in 2002-03.9 per cent in 1997 to 20. They are USA and the UK.5 billions in 2005-06. which accounts for 7 per cent of India's total GDP as in the year 2008. According to NASSCOM. country's software exports reached total revenues of Rs 46100 crores. It is expected that the industry will generate a total employment of around four millions peoples.

India's IT industry is expected to grow at an annual average rate of 18% in the next five years.5 *Estimated Source: Ministry of Communications and IT. Softwares and services are exported to bout 195 companies from India.2 million people being employed in the IT industry of India by the end of 2012. The projections about the size of India's IT industry present a very optimistic picture.028. • • • • • Contribution of software and services to the total GDP of India will be more than 7.94.86. accord to this report. FDI (Foreign Direct Investment) of 10. The projected exports or the year 2008. Success story of India's Software Industry is a step in the same direction.5 billion US Dollars expected in the IT industry by the end of 2011. Adoption of new liberal policies in India has given birth immense opportunities to its industries.3900 million US Dollars 1999. 13 .Year2003-042004-052005-06*IT software and service exports3.3Domestic market3.2670 million US Dollars 1998-1999 . is 50 billion US Dollars. The industry is expected to grow to double its current size by the year 2012. The IT industry of India is largely dependant on the export market. North America accounts for 61% of the software exports from India. One of the major areas of growth for the IT industry of India is by tapping the potential in the domestic market. The Software Industry.65. which is a main component of the Information technology.1755 million US Dollars 1997-1998 .McKinsey report related to the size of India's IT industry are There is potential of 3.2ITE-BPO 1995-1996 . Penetrating more into the domestic market would create further opportunities of growth for the IT industry. 225 billion US Dollars worth of market capitalization from ITshares.McKinsey report on the IT industry of India. The industry is also expected to cross the 100 billion US Dollar mark by 2011. Some of the important aspects of the NASSCOM.015. exports9. the projected revenue of the IT industry of India for the year 2008 is 87 billion US Dollars.5700 million US Dollars 2000-2001 .212.722.1224 million US Dollars 1996-1997 .27.0Total16.8750 million US Dollars According to the NASSCOM. 45% of total exports from India will be from IT exports.2000 . has brought tremendous success for the emerging economy.5%.

7 Software 221 -2." Worldwide IT Spending Forecast (Billions of U.5 353 5.5 trillion. a 5.2 percent increase from 2010. "Following strong fourth quarter sales. The IT industry will continue to show steady growth with IT spending in 2011 projected to surpass $3.4 trillion in 2010. it's important to note that nearly 4 percentage points of this growth will be the result of a projected decline in the value of the dollar relative to last year. longerterm.5 3. "Computing hardware suffered the steepest spending decline of the four major IT spending category segments in 2009.394 5.7 Telecom 1. research director at Gartner.3 Percent in 2010 Unseasonably Strong Hardware Sales in First Quarter Sets Up 2010 for Solid IT Spending Growth Worldwide IT spending is forecast to reach $3.S.7 percent increase from 2009 (see Table 1).988 5. Presently there are more than 500 software firms in the country. Additionally. Enterprise hardware spending will grow again in 2010. server spending will be curtailed by virtualization. but it will remain below its 2008 level through 2014. Spending on storage will enjoy the fastest growth in terms of enterprise spending as the volume of enterprise data that needs to be stored continues to increase. IT spending in exchange-rate-adjusted dollars will still grow 1.4 percent in 2009. cloud computing.6 percent this year. potentially. research vice president at Gartner." Worldwide computing hardware spending is forecast to reach $353 billion in 2010. "However. a 4. However. a 5. powered by strong consumer spending on mobile PCs. professional PC spending will contribute just over 1 percentage point of spending growth in 2010 as organizations begin their migration to Windows 7 toward the end of the year. Robust consumer spending on mobile PCs will drive hardware spending in 2010.0 821 5. it is now forecast to enjoy the joint strongest rebound in 2010.India's young aged manpower is the key behind this success story.4 1.3 14 . Near-term spending on servers will be concentrated on lower-end servers. Worldwide IT Spending to Grow 5. "Consumer PC spending will contribute nearly 4 percentage points of hardware spending growth in 2010. Inc. after declining 1. an unseasonably robust hardware supply chain in the first quarter of 2010.892 -3.223 -4. according to Gartner.1 All IT 3. combined with continued improvement in the global economy. consolidation and." said George Shiffler.1 232 5.2 trillion in 2009.3 percent increase from IT spending of $3. Dollars) 2009 2009 2010 2010 Spending Growth (%) Spending Growth (%) Computing Hardware 333 -12." said Richard Gordon.1 IT Services 777 -4. sets up 2010 for solid IT spending growth.

" The worldwide IT services industry is forecast to have spending reach $821 billion in 2010. virtualization capabilities and that have a good open-source strategy will continue to benefit. team collaboration and enterprise content management are forecast to have doubledigit compound annual growth rates (CAGR)." Worldwide telecom spending is on pace to total close to $2 trillion in 2010. and the shifts in spending form mega suites to the automation of processes will continue to benefit alternative software acquisition models as organizations will look for ways to shift spending from capital expenditures to operating expenditures. Gartner analysts said the impact of the recession on the software industry was tempered and not as dramatic as other IT markets. such as hosting.7 percent from 2009. The industry experienced some growth in reported outsourcing revenue at the close of 2009. a 5. Web conferencing. and in the absence of equivalent pressure from stockholders. we believe vendors will generally choose to maintain margins over revenue growth. Worldwide enterprise network services spending is forecast to grow 2 percent in revenue in 2010. is the largest segment in terms of revenue and the fastestgrowing through the 2014. the mobile device share of the telecom market is expected to increase from 11 percent to 14 percent. largely on the back of growth in Internet services. "Longer term. in the face of growing competition surrounding social networking and content. The hottest software segments through 2014 include virtualization. IT asset management.Worldwide software spending is expected to total $232 billion in 2010. the global enterprise network services market is expected to grow modestly. an encouraging sign for service providers." said Joanne Correia. said Kathryn Hale. which Gartner analysts believe will spread to consulting and system integration in 2010. security. We also see mobile-device support or applications. "Because of this. but Gartner analysts said this masks ongoing declines in Europe and many other mature markets as well as an essentially flat North American market. data integration/data quality and business intelligence. which includes all the software to build. managing vice president at Gartner. the majority of enterprise software markets will see positive growth." said 15 . Between 2010 and 2014.1 percent increase from 2009. a 5. The infrastructure market. In 2010.1 percent increase from last year. "In the face of that ongoing strong pressure to renegotiate contracts. run and manage an enterprise. "We continue to see a long-term recession 'hangover' as a more-cautious mind-set continues as the norm among a lot of buyers who keep looking for small. as well as cloud services driving new opportunities. which includes personal productivity and packaged enterprise applications. up 5. has some of the fastest-growth segments. vendors offering software as a service (SaaS). safe deals where cost take-out is a key factor. The applications market. research vice president at Gartner. "Cost optimization. while the service share drops from 80 percent to 77 percent and the infrastructure share remains stable at 9 percent of the total market.

outsourced to an offshore vendor. India provides IT services at one-tenth the price. through large. Ahmedabad. Now. Ten years ago. Delhi-Noida-Gurgaon. the vast majority of IT services (software development being just one of them) from developed countries. India’s most prized resource is its readily available technical work force. India has the second largest Englishspeaking scientific professionals in the world. partly as it moves up the value chain and partly as a response to the market dynamics. The enormous base of skilled manpower is a major draw for global customers. second only to the U. Most of the Indian software companies at that moment offered only limited software services such as the IT and the engineering software. The professional IT services on the other hand are becoming increasingly expensive. medium or small companies or through individuals recruited directly. such as Bangalore. one. The offshore software development model is today where onsite professional services were ten years ago. the Indian IT software and services industry is maintaining a steady pace of growth. the software boom started somewhere in the late 1990s.785 computer software professionals every year. research director at Gartner. Despite the global economic slowdown. a vast majority of US companies use the professional services of Indian Software engineers in some manner. No wonder more and more companies are basing their operations in India. The IT industry can be broadly divided into four segments – 16 . The market competition is forcing organizations to cut down on costs of products. Mumbai. Calcutta. Bhubaneswar. Software development activity is not confined to a few cities in India. will be. which train more than 67. Chandigarh.832 educational institutions and polytechnics. over 1. Software development centers. albeit at the expense of both legacy services and multiprotocol label switching (MPLS). There is a high chance (almost a mathematical certainty). Goa. • India's IT industry caters to both domestic and export markets. Exports contribute around 75% of the total revenue of the IT industry in India. when a large number of skilled personnel were required to fulfill the mammoth database-correction demand in order to cope up with the advent of the new millennium The profile of the Indian IT Services has been undergoing a change in the last few years. Chennai. It is estimated that India has over 4 million technical workers. Vadodara. All of these places have state-of-the-art software facilities and the presence of a large number of overseas vendors.S. ten years later. Pune. The business software boom started with the emergence of Y2K problem." In India. Trivandrum are all developing quickly. that in less than ten years. outsourced and two. "Ethernet services will also grow significantly.Peter Kjeldsen. Hyderabad. most US companies would not even consider outsourcing some of their IT projects to outside vendors.

India is among six countries that launch satellites and do so even for Germany and Belgium. India is among the three countries that have built supercomputers on their own. with dozens of new offshore IT services vendors emerging everyday. India has the third 17 . trusted vendors. 80 percent of all outsourced offshore development work will be done by 20 percent of all vendors. a small number of high quality.The industry is in an expansion mode right now. Only a few select countries and only the most professional companies in those countries. The third choice could be far distant. We have the potential to become and remain the country of choice for all software developments and IT enabled services. second only to the USA. India will definitely be the country of choice for offshore software development. In perhaps another ten years. The other two are USA and Japan. will emerge as winners. the industry has a high probability of being subjected to the 80:20 rule in not too distant a future. India's INSAT is among the world's largest domestic satellite communication systems.

we need to constantly keep moving up the value chain. and it is among the top ten networks of the world. rather than offering them as raw material. The IT industry of India is hugely dependant on skilled manpower. focusing on finished products and solutions. To become a global leader in the IT industry and retain that position. We need to be able to recognize and build up on our strengths and work on our weaknesses. The IT industry of India got a major boost from the liberalization of the Indian economy. The industry structure in the IT sector has four major categories. The IT industry has emerged as one of the most important industries in the Indian economy contributing significantly to the growth of the economy. The structure of the IT industry is quite different from other industries in the Indian economy. India's software exports have grown at an annual average rate of more than 50% since 1991. These are 18 . rather than purely on skill sets and resumes. the IT industry of India has reordered significant success due to the huge availability of skilled personnel in India. We need to be able to package our services as products.largest telecommunications network among the emerging economies. Primarily a knowledge based industry.

 IT services  IT enabled services  Software products  Hardware  IT services IT services IT services constitute a major part of the IT industry of India. the Indian software 19 . Some of the important services covered by the ITES sectorin India are             Customer-interaction services including call-centers Back-office services Revenue accounting Data entry and data conversion HR services Transcription and translation services Content development and animation Remote education. The major users of IT services are  Government  IT  Financial services  Retail and distribution  Manufacturing The services which make extensive use of information and telecommunication technologies are categorized as IT enabled services. management services. IT services include client. Data search GIS Market research Network consultancy Software products Software products are among the most highly exported products from India. The IT enabled services is the most important contributor to the growth of the IT industry of India. Between 1996-1997 and 2002-2003. server and web based services. Opportunities in the IT services sector exist in the areas of consulting services. internet services and application maintenance. The software industry in India originated in the 1970s and grew at a significant pace in the last ten years.

industry grew more than five times from 2630 crores to 13200 crores. companies have invested in the computer hardware market in India. The first step that needs to be taken is to create an environment for innovation that could be carried for a long time. During the same period software and service exports from India grew by almost twelve times. Due to the rise in the number of ITcompanies. 20 . One of the most important crises facing the Indian information technology industry concerns the human resources aspect. One of the major challenges for the Indian information technology industry was to keep maintaining its excellent performance standards. The innovation needs to be done in three areas that are connected to the information technology industry of India such as business models. etc have been on the rise in recent years. routers. Many domestic and multi-national. The experts are of the opinion that the business process outsourcing service providers in India need to change their operations to a way that is more oriented to the knowledge process outsourcing. The skill level of the information technology professionals is one area that needs improvement and presents a considerable amount of challenge before the Indian information technology industry. The export market. laptops. There are two major market classifications . The experts are however of the opinion that there are certain things that need to be done in order to make sure that India can maintain its status as one of the leading information technology destinations of the world. Hardware The hardware sector of the It industry focuses on the manufacturing and assembling of computer hardware.the domestic market and the export market. sales of desktops. ecosystems and knowledge. The problems with outsourcing in countries like the United States of America are posing problems for the Indian information technology industry as well. The improvement however. servers. Another categorization in the structure of India's IT industry is related to the market. The Indian information technology industry also needs to co-ordinate with the academic circles as well as other industries in India for better performance and improved productivity. also needs to be qualitative rather than just being quantitative. The information technology sector of India also has to spread the range of its activities and also look at the opportunities in other countries . dominates the IT industry accounting for 75% of the revenue. The consumption of computer hardware is high in the domestic market. Challenges before Indian IT Industry At present there are a number of challenges that are facing the information technology industry of India.

This is supposed to have an adverse effect on the outsourcing that is the source upon which the information technology industry of India thrives. The size of this sunshine industry of India grew from 150 million US Dollars to 50 billion US Dollars between 1990-1991 and 2006-2007. Wisconsin and Maryland. Connecticut. The size of the Information Technology industry of India was 5. These states are also supposed to be considering these laws and their implementation. 21 . This legislation has also affected some other states like Missouri. The growth of the IT industry has been very high in the last few years.In the recent times a bill has been passed in the state of New Jersey that allows only the citizens or legal non-Americans to be given contracts. After the turn of the century the industry experienced exponential growth to reach the 50 billion mark by 2006-2007. The information technology professionals who aim at working in the country are also likely to be hindered by the legislation as a significant amount of these professionals have been going to work in the USA for a long time The size of India's IT industry has grown significantly over the years.7 billion US Dollars in 1999-2000.

22 . Harrison Wang Hong She. K R Chandrasekaran.A P Parigi.8069 ( USD in Millions ) Market Cap 815. Alok Sharma.N R Panicker Directors . Chennai-600029.accelfrontline. Nelson Manickam Chairperson .95125 ( Rs.Aminjikarai. in Millions ) Corporate Address75. Tamil Nadu www.COMPANY PROFILE ACCEL FRONTLINE TECHNOLOGIES Date of Establishment 1995 Revenue78.N R Panicker MD .

Multi-location operations commenced in 1992 with off FinancialsTotal Income . 3404. During this year Accel acquired the Systems and Engineering Services business of Fujitsu ICIM in India. In 1996. This provided the company with a national footprint of 16 offices and 250 trained engineers. an HCL Group company focusing in office automation products and services.Rs. In 1998. The company commenced operations by providing multi-vendor services for computers systems. the company took over a computer manufacturing unit from Kothari group of companies in 1993 to provide system integration and product solutions. Suresh K Sharma. 63. Steve Ting Tuan Toon.793748 Million ( year ending Mar 2011) Company SecretarySweena Nair BankersAuditorsKS Aiyar & Co Accel Frontline was incorporated as Accel Automation in the year 1991. Having identified opportunities in hardware infrastructure solutions and system integration. Accel forayed into software by setting up an application development center in Chennai. In 1999.Rs. which was at one time the country’s largest IT Company. the company raised private equity from one of India’s largest venture capital funds ICICI Ventures. The company also expanded its operations to various parts of South India. Sinnakaruppan R. This resulted in Accel acquiring a Delhi based company named Athreya Technologies and Industrial Development Private – an offshoot of India Telecomp. Sweena Nair Business OperationIT . In 1997. Steve Ting Taun Toon. Sudhir Narang. Five engineers with more than 50 years of combined experience in the IT industry came together with a vision to build an organization focusing on IT services. which provided a base for Accel in all major cities of North India. Multi-location operations commenced in 1992 with offices in Coimbatore and Thiruvananthapuram. the company decided to expand its service network nationally. N R Panicker. The IT business of Accel was re-organized in to Accel ICIM Systems & Services after this 23 .327287 Million ( year ending Mar 2011) Net Profit .Lakshmi G Menon. Five engineers with more than 50 years of combined experience in the IT industry came together with a vision to build an organization focusing on IT services.Software Background Accel Frontline was incorporated as Accel Automation in the year 1991. The company commenced operations by providing multi-vendor services for computers systems. Accel acquired the services business of Network. The company’s turnover crossed USD 10 million in 1998.

In 2000. SBU 1 – IT Infrastructure SolutionsSBU 2 – Infrastructure Management ServicesSBU 3 – Enterprise Software Solutions SBU 1 . It also started operations in Dubai and Singapore to create a market for its software services. The strategic business units are aimed at giving customers the ability to choose from the best services available while the company stays focused and remains profitable in its various practice domains.2005 to reflect the new direction. The company received strategic investment from Intel Capital.acquisition and Accel then became the holding company. From 2001 to 2003 the company focused on institutionalizing the organization and consolidating its position as a leading systems integration and infrastructure services company. The joint venture would help Accel ICIM financially as well as for its business expansions. The company was assessed at SEI CMMi Level 5 for its Enterprise Software Solutions practice. The year 2004-2005 witnessed the emergence of the Software Division as a major business unit within Accel Frontline.IT Infrastructure Services (IIS) 24 . The name of the company changed to Accel Frontline with effect from 01. Accel crossed the $25 million turnover milestone and established itself as a leading enterprise IT services company operating in the corporate segment with one of the largest network of offices in India. Citrix etc. Frontline has operations in five countries spread across the Far East and China. Frontline invested in the equity of Accel ICIM to improve its long-term viability and profitability and introduced an array of new support offerings through the Indian arm. It forged alliances with Sun Microsystems. The company reached a turnover of Rs 150 crores for the year ended 31st March 2003. Strategic Business Units The company has organized its business into four strategic business units to help enterprises boost performance and enhance operational efficiency through optimal use of information technology. in its national Employee Satisfaction Survey conducted for the Indian IT Industry. For the third year in a row Accel Frontline was adjudged among the top 10 IT employers in India by Dataquest in September 2005. Oracle. Major long-term software contracts were awarded to the company and the manpower resource of the software group grew to more than 300 professionals in 2005. the company forged a strategic alliance with Singapore based Frontline Technologies Corporation (FTC) and made Accel ICIM a joint venture between Accel and FTC and changed the name to Accel ICIM Frontline. In the year 2004. FTC is a leading IT services company listed on the Singapore Exchange Main Board with a group turnover of US$ 200 Mn. to provide Enterprise IT solutions and software services.11. The key management team was moved from Accel & Fujitsu ICIM to Accel ICIM Systems & Services. As part of the joint venture agreement. Major steps initiated by the company to improve process quality and manpower competence resulted in the company securing ISO-9001 for its IT Services division and SEI CMMi Level 5 for its Software Division. JD Edwards.

LIC. Accel Frontline is well entrenched in the enterprise application software space. an HCL Group company 1999 . Milestones: • • • • • • • • • • • • 1991 .000 including Bajaj Electricals. to managed and hosting services. SBU 2 . Greaves India. Titan Industries.Whether it is enhancing operational efficiency. Hindalco. BHEL.The company forays in software business 1997 .Commencement of multi-location operations with offices in Coimbatore and Thiruvananthapuram 1993 . ONGC.The company forges a strategic alliance with Frontline Technologies Corporation (FTC) and makes Accel ICIM a joint venture between Accel and FTC and changes its name to Accel ICIM Frontline 2005 . and with the experience of having executed important software development and ERP delivery projects. SBU 3 . Accel's dedicated teams from the 300-strong and growing number of software professionals. build and optimize their IT infrastructure to drive business growth cost effectively. TISCO. CESC. and SBI among others. manageability and performance perspective.The company acquires the systems and engineering services business of Fujitsu ICIM in India 1999 . The IIS division provides end-to-end solutions for all IT Infrastructure and Integration needs of corporate and government customers. handling exponential data growth. A host of services devised to meet diverse customer requirements spans simple reporting of basic level availability of technology infrastructure to advanced system administration activities. Clients of the company Accel Frontline has got a prestigious client list of over 2.The company acquires the services business of Network.Infrastructure Management Services (IMS) Accel Frontline has established and time-tested practices for IT infrastructure management that include onsite and offsite service delivery methodologies to ensure that customers’ requirements are met. Accel Frontline helps its customers to assess. The objective of this service is to manage enterprise infrastructures from an availability. Starts operations in Dubai and Singapore to create a market for its software services 2004 .The company changes its name to Accel Frontline to reflect the new direction 25 . tackling security issues or improving service availability.Enterprise Software Solutions (ESS) With a CMMi Level 5 Software development and delivery practice.The company raises private equity from ICICI Ventures 1999 .The company takes over a computer manufacturing unit from Kothari group of companies 1996 . TVS. custom application development and services.Accel re-organizes its IT business in to Accel ICIM Systems & Services and Accel then becomes the holding company 2001 to 2003 . focus on ERP consulting.The company achieves a turnover of Rs 150 crore.Incorporation of the company 1992 .The company decides to expand its service network nationally 1998 .

In the last few quarters we have initiated several small steps which will ultimately help us take a giant leap. To cite an example here – the company took 12 long years to build a solid foundation and grow into Rs 200 crore company and only three years to almost double it up. With the India growth story pegged at 9% plus. We have seen a sharp recovery from the slowdown witnessed during the last two years and have bagged several prestigious orders from domestic and international companies. 26 . I look forward to your co-operation and continued success of Accel Frontline Limited. the Chairman & CEO. discussions and employee involvement have led us to shape our strategy and goals. These measures have started to yield results.Panicker is widely regarded in the IT industry and investor circles as a successful technocrat and businessman who is totally focused on customer service.Chairman Message FY11 has been a successful year for Accel Frontline Limited. N R Panicker Chairman & CEO BUSINESS FOCUS Accel Frontline is managed by a core group of technocrats headed by N. This performance is far superior by any standards. It’s not the domestic market only. Version 2. the IT industry will continue to receive uptick in orders and better margins. Such are the kind of steps that we are determined to take in the future. N. A lot of deliberations.0 of the company is about accelerated growth as Accel Frontline Limited becomes a truly global IT services player. AFL is determined to be part of this domestic and international growth story.R.R.Panicker. Overall. We are confident that our continued slew of new initiatives will help us achieve accelerated growth in the coming years. focused on Enterprise Applications and Infrastructure Management Services (IMS). His reputation stems from the way he steered Accel from a humble beginning to a well-respected total IT Services organization over the last 20 years in a highly competitive Indian market. I am also of firm belief that this feat is surely not a one-off performance. AFL has seen 46% growth in FY11 over FY10. it thrusts confidence that the IT Industry is going to witness explosive growth. We have already begun FY2012 on a bullish note with some visibility and clarity to keep this momentum going. It appears that the uncertainty is behind us and we can look forward to the future with optimism. As the world continues to recover. to focus on offshore software development activities for overseas customers. Application Management. It has partnered with global software majors such as Oracle. The company established state-of-the-art software development facility in Chennai. The company has created expertise in industry domains such as IT. by tapping the overseas markets. The business also include systems integration.htm SCOPE & SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY 27 . Education and Government. With the joint venture operation with FTC going on stream. Manufacturing. Two subsidiaries were set up in UAE and Singapore to offer near shore services. IBM and Microsoft to offer services around their products. A separate entity has been formed by name Accel Frontline Technologies (www. For more information visit: www. The BPO services division of Accel Frontline has got a unique business software services and business process outsourcing. Outsourced Product Development and Industry Specific Solutions. The software unit specializes in providing ERP Consulting.“IT Infrastructure Services” remain the core business focus of Accel Frontline Ltd. Healthcare. facilities management. A slew of measures were initiated to expand the software services Accel Frontline has introduced a full new range of service offerings in Infrastructure Management in association with FTC. it decided to expand its software services business. As the company matured to become a total IT solution provider. wherein it provides warranty outsource and technical helpdesk services to six major IT and telecom product companies.

The world today is fast changing and every individual faces a lot of pressure and demand at work. These pressures at work lead to mental and physical disorders. Stress refers to an individual’s response to a disturbing factor in the environment and the consequences of such a reaction. This study will help organizations know what causes stress and how to reduce the same in employees since it is a well known fact that a healthy and sound employee is a productive employee.

Primary objective:

To undergo an in-depth study about the existence of stress among the employees of the ACCEL FRONTLINE TECHNOLOGIESPost - Recession.

Secondary objective: • •

To identify the factors causing stress among the employees. To find out the level of stress among the employees of different age groups. To study about the effects of stress on employees in ACCEL FRONTLINE TECHNOLOGIES. To identify the coping strategies to manage stress.


In spite of the precautions, vigilance and scrupulousness taken by the investigator to make the study objective, it cannot be denied that there are certain limitations.

• • •

The questionnaires were filled be 30 employees working in various Companies. So the scope of sample findings was less. The questionnaire was filled by 30 employees of different designations. So the point of view of employees differs as per their designations. The employees from whom the questionnaires are filled are in a heavy workload so some of the questionnaires filled by the employees who are in stress cannot be called reasonable.

• • •

The responses of the employees cannot be accurate as the problem of language and understanding arises. (These problems are not in all cases.) As the study was done within a limited time, investigator could not select a sufficiently large sample for the study. The employees were reluctant to give correct information.

A review on the previous studies on stress among the employees is necessary to know the areas already covered. This will help to find our new areas uncovered and to study them in depth. The earlier studies made on stress among the employees are briefly reviewed here. The research study of Jamal. M* finds that job stressors were significantly related to employees’ psychosomatic problems, job satisfaction, unproductive time at the job, and


absenteeism. Type A behaviour was found to be an important moderator of the stress outcome relationship. Hans Selye was one of the founding fathers of stress research. His view in 1956 was that “stress is not necessarily something bad – it all depends on how you take it. The stress of exhilarating, creative successful work is beneficial, while that of failure, humiliation or infection is detrimental.” Selye believed that the biochemical effects of stress would be experienced irrespective of whether the situation was positive or negative. The most commonly accepted definition of stress (mainly attributed to Richard S Lazarus) is that stress is a condition or feeling experienced when a person perceives that “demands exceed the personal and social resources the individual is able to mobilize.” In short, it's what we feel when we think we've lost control of events. Brief. A. P. and J. M. Atieh*, argues that it is not safe to assume that job conditions that have an adverse impact on affective reactions to the job will also have a negative impact on overall subjective well-being. Fienmann views stress as a psychological response state of negative effect characterized by a persistent and a high level of experienced anxiety or tension.

* Jamal M. “Job stress-prone Type A behaviour, personal and organizational consequences”, Canadian Journal Administration Sciences, 1985. pp 360-74. * A. P and J. M. Atieh, “Studying job stress: Are we making mountains out of molehills?” Journal of occupational behavior, 1987 pp115-26. Hans Seyle, the endocrinologist, whose research on General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS), for the first time, revealed how human beings adapt themselves to emotional strives and strains in their lives. According to him emotional stress occurs in three important stages. 1. Alarm reaction stage 2. Resistance stage 3. Exhaustion stage.


Alarm reaction is caused by physical or psychological stressors. Resistances are brought about by ACTH hormone of the body. Exhaustion follows when ACTH dwindles as a result of continual stress. (ACTH-Aprinocorticotropic) According to Stephen .P. Robbins*, stress related headaches are the leading cause of loss of work time in U. S. industry. Cooper and Marshall* visualize stress as characteristics of both the focal individual and his environment. They designate the internal and external consultive forces as ‘pressures’ or ‘stressors’ and the resulting stalk of the organism on stress. Recent research into the interaction between the mind and body show that we may place our body on stress ‘alert’ quite unconsciously, because of our psychological and emotional attitudes to stress. Anticipatory emotions like impatience, anxiety, and anger can produce the same nerve impulses and chemical reactions as being faced with a concrete challenge. So when faced with a stressful situation, we must either use up the energy created by the body to challenge or learn how to “turn off”, the response using a conscious relaxation technique.

*Stephen Robbins, “Organizational Behavior”, Prentice Hall, U.K, 1989 pp 499-501. *Cooper. C. L. and Marshall. J, “Understanding Executive Stress”, The McMillan Press Ltd, 1978 p 4. WHAT IS STRESS? Stress is a dynamic condition in which an individual is confronted with an opportunity, demand or resource related to what the individual desires and for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important. This is a complicated definition.

many professionals see the pressures of heavy workloads and deadlines as positive challenges that enhance the quality of their work and the satisfaction the get from their job. This knowledge will help you to identify when you need to take a break. it also has a positive value. as stress management refers to using stress to our advantage. negative stress can result in mental and physical strain. The individual will experience symptoms such as tensions. whilst some stress may be seen as a motivating force. the superior performance that an athlete or stage performer gives in “clutch” situations. or perhaps seek professional help. it is evident that some form of positive stress can add more color and vibrancy to our lives. leading to emotional and physical pressure. also known as eustress. On the other hand. Such individuals often use stress positively to rise to the occasion and perform at or near their maximum. It’s an opportunity when it offers potential gain. In our fast paced world. Hence. as well as how to identify if you are performing at your optimal stress level (OSL) or if you are experiencing negative stress. Consider for example. The IT employees are the people who also have to achieve the certain target and so for the non achievement of target the employees remain stressed and tensed. Although stress is typically discussed in a negative context. There is both positive and negative stress. and not on eradicating the presence of stress in our lives. For example. The employees who have the simple table work also have to face the problem of stress. Part of managing your stress levels include learning about how stress can affect you emotionally and physically. irritability and in extreme cases. can help an individual to function at optimal effectiveness and efficiency. for example. Hence. it is impossible to live without stress. positive stress. The presence of a deadline. can push us to make the most of our time and produce greater efficiency. It is also your first 32 . Due to recession the ITing sector is also facing the problem of employee cutoffs and so the work load of the existing employees increases and the feel stressed. Stress refers to the strain from the conflict between our external environment and us. Not all stress is bad. It is important to keep this in mind. But it is different in the case of IT employees. headaches. Similarly. depending on each individual’s unique perception of the tension between the two forces.Stress is not necessarily bad in and of itself. it is important to manage stress levels so that it does not have an adverse impact on your health and relationships. whether you are a student or a working adult. heart palpitations.

bereavement stressors occur when there is a sense of loss such as the death of a loved one.step towards developing techniques to managing your stress levels. and that which causes stress is also known as a stressor. Larsen 33 . For example. Physical symptoms take the form of heart palpitations. Decision making models proposed by Janis and Mann support this hypothesis and suggest that under stress. or a prized possession. there are various stressors. and even more varied methods and techniques of dealing with stress and turning it to our advantages. AND COGNITION Stress can affect an individual’s decision making process and ability to make effective judgments. individuals may make decisions based on incomplete information. What causes stress? There are many different causes of stress. lunch with the boss. Research on decision making under stress supports these theoretical models. headaches and an inability to focus. Common lifestyle stressors include performance. and make decisions based on oversimplifying assumptions. PERCEPTION. such as an economic downturn. or giving a speech. Furthermore. and bereavement stressors. Friedman and Mann suggest that when under conditions of stress. ignore long-term consequences. Threat stressors are usually when the current situation poses a dangerous threat. breathlessness. Competition at work and an increased workload can also cause greater levels of stress. Thus. Peripheral stimuli are likely to be the first to be screened out or ignored. threat. or from an accident. This could be during performance appraisals. Easterbrook proposes a “cue utilization model” and argues that when exposed to stressors. excessive sweating and stomachaches. we must learn to tell when we have crossed the line from positive to negative stress. STRESS AND DECISIONMAKING. Observe the decision making processes of individuals under time pressure. How do you identify if you are suffering from excessive stress? Psychological symptoms commonly experienced include insomnia. In order to do so. or emotional frictions. the individuals may suffer from performance rigidity as a result of their reduced search behaviour and reliance on fewer perceptual cues to make decisions. individuals may fail to consider the full range of alternatives available. Lastly. to name a few. Performance stressors are triggered when an individual is placed in a situation where he feels a need to excel. individuals experience “perceptual narrowing” — meaning that they pay attention to fewer perceptual cues or stimuli that could contribute to their behaviour or decision. Modern day stresses can take the form of monetary needs. We find that individuals under time pressure tend to focus their attention only on a few salient cues.

g. Some hormones released during the 'fight or flight' situation prompt the body to replace the lost carbohydrates and fats. anxiety attacks. asking an individual to perform more than one task under a time constraint) and it is seen that the addition of multiple required tasks reduces the quality of individual performance and increases the magnitude of the performance decrement as compared with the case in which the individual has only one task to perform. Sleep-deprived (stressed) individuals in his study were more likely to obey orders without thinking and to ignore cues that implied the presence of something unusual. The description of stressors and 34 . or time pressure. Moreover. sleep deprivation can reduce an individual’s ability to reason. Like "stress reactions". tightened muscles and an exhausted mind crave for looseness. we don't get relaxing and soothing situations without asking.finds that. DIFFERENT TYPES OF STRESSORS As mentioned previously. To be relaxed we have to strive to create such situations. "relaxation responses" and stress management techniques are some of the body's important built-in response systems. which are inter-linked with stress. In such unsettling moments we often forget that stressors. and to make effective decisions. either quick or constant. can induce risky body-mind disorders. cardiovascular and nervous systems and lead individuals to habitual addictions.. Stress can also contribute to performance decrements by slowing cognition and individual information processing. STRESS MANAGEMENT Stress management is the need of the hour. and restore the energy level. are fairly manageable and treatable. Immediate disorders such as dizzy spells. we tend to overlook causes of stress and the conditions triggered by those. sleeplessness. if not escapable. life seems to find new ways of stressing us out and plaguing us with anxiety attacks. mind-body exhaustion or our erring attitudes. However hard we try to go beyond a stress situation. be it our anxiety. nervousness and muscle cramps can all result in chronic health problems. lack of sleep. today. risk of injury or death. The knotted nerves. tension. including extreme heat or lighting. stressors can come in a variety of forms. As a relaxation response the body tries to get back balance in its homeostasis. Unfortunately. like other types of stressors. They may also affect our immune. to analyze complex situations. Stress. Stress can be looked at as a form of “task overload” (e.

This also happens when the causes of stress are there long enough for us to get habituated to them. RECOGNIZING A STRESSOR It is important to recognize whether you are under stress or out of it. adventurous sports or having a baby. But.g. It is important to remain attentive to such symptoms and to learn to cope with the situations. these conditions may lead to poor work performance or even injury. For instance. fatigue. when we are compelled into such situations against our will or knowledge. we tend to respond positively under stress. including psychological disorders (e. Stress-related disorders encompass a broad array of conditions. tension. and current research considers an increasing number of events and conditions to be stressors. or needs of the worker. substance abuse). depression. they are always external and produce similar physiological responses within the body.their impact on behaviour is an open-ended task. dizzy spells. defined as a stress response. stress may mount when one is coerced into undertaking some work against one's will. Job stress is also 35 . can include increased blood pressure. The body constantly tries to tell us through symptoms such as rapid palpitation.. dissatisfaction. even if we are under the influence of a stressful condition and our body reacts to it internally as well as externally. Although stressors can be • • physical (biological or chemical demands on the body) or cognitive (threat of death. more often than not.. tight muscles or various body aches that something is wrong. These physiological effects. concentration and memory problems). WORKPLACE STRESS Workplace stress is the harmful physical and emotional response that occurs when there is a poor match between job demands and the capabilities. We cope better with stressful situation. In cases of relocation. maladaptive behaviors (e. etc.g.. when we encounter them voluntarily. dilated pupils and increased heart rate.g.. personal assault) in form. post-traumatic stress disorder) and other types of emotional strain (e. In turn.g. we fail to realize that we are reacting under stress. and cognitive impairment (e. aggression. anxiety. Many times.). we wilt at the face of unknown and imagined threats. resources. promotion or layoff.

for workers reporting high levels of both stress and depression. CAUSES OF WORKPLACE STRESS Job stress results from the interaction of the worker and the conditions of work. The increment rose to nearly 150%.000 workers. According to one school of thought. About one-third of workers report high levels of stress. High levels of stress are associated with substantial increases in health service utilization. differences in individual characteristics such as personality and coping skills are most important in predicting whether certain job conditions will result in stress-in other words. Views differ on the importance of worker characteristics versus working conditions as the primary cause of job stress. In a 1998 study of 46. Workers who report experiencing stress at work also show excessive health care utilization. an increase of more than $1. This viewpoint leads to prevention strategies that focus on workers and ways to help them cope with 36 . such as cardiovascular disease. periods of disability due to job stress tend to be much longer than disability periods for other occupational injuries and illnesses. Stress is a prevalent and costly problem in today's workplace. health care costs were nearly 50% greater for workers reporting high levels of stress in comparison to “low risk” workers. Three-quarters of employees believe the worker has more on-the-job stress than a generation ago.700 per person annually. On the basis of research by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and many other organizations. One-quarter of employees view their jobs as the number one stressor in their lives. The differing viewpoints suggest different ways to prevent stress at work. Health and Healthcare Utilization Problems at work are more strongly associated with health complaints than are any other life stressor-more so than even financial problems or family problems.associated with various biological reactions that may lead ultimately to compromised health. Evidence also suggests that stress is the major cause of turnover in organizations. what is stressful for one person may not be a problem for someone else. Additionally. Many studies suggest that psychologically demanding jobs that allow employees little control over the work process increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. it is widely believed that job stress increases the risk for development of back and upper-extremity musculoskeletal disorders.

the percentage of workers reporting that they worked at high speeds at least one-fourth of their working time was 48%. By one estimate. However. How to Change the Organization to Prevent Job Stress 37 . These figures represent a considerable increase over the previous three decades. and psychological disorders. especially for women. Although the importance of individual differences cannot be ignored. Similarly. there has been an upward trend in hours worked among employed women. more than 26% of men and more than 11% of women worked 50 hours per week or more in 2000. and a considerable increase in combined working hours among working couples. Nonetheless. scientific evidence suggests that certain working conditions are stressful to most people. particularly couples with young children.demanding job conditions. A substantial percentage of Americans work very long hours. increasing to 56% in 1995 and 60 % in 2000. and 2000. increasing to 54% in 1995 and to 56% in 2000. The effects of job stress on chronic diseases are more difficult to see because chronic diseases take a long time to develop and can be influenced by many factors other than stress. and disturbed relationships with family. Personal interview surveys of working conditions. Results showed a trend across these periods suggestive of increasing work intensity. 50% of workers reported they work against tight deadlines at least one-fourth of their working time in 1990. Such evidence argues for a greater emphasis on working conditions as the key source of job stress. PREVENTION A combination of organizational change and stress management is often the most useful approach for preventing stress at work. evidence is rapidly accumulating to suggest that stress plays an important role in several types of chronic health problems-especially cardiovascular disease. According to the Department of Labor. In 1990. 1995. friends and girlfriends or boyfriends are examples of stress-related problems. including conditions recognized as risk factors for job stress. upset stomach and headache. musculoskeletal disorders. SIGNS OF WORKPLACE STRESS Mood and sleep disturbances. and for job redesign as a primary prevention strategy. an increase in extended work weeks (>40 hours) by men. were conducted in Member States of the European Union in 1990. no change was noted in the period 1995–2000 (data not collected in 1990) in the percentage of workers reporting sufficient time to complete tasks.

Clearly define workers' roles and responsibilities.• • Ensure that the workload is in line with workers' capabilities and resources. Stress refers to the pressure and reactions to our environment which results in psychological and physical reactions. What is the reason for this? There is partly the fear from being retrenched in bad times. too much stress can result in negative impacts such as reduced effectiveness and efficiency. Design jobs to provide meaning. there was no reduction in claims in a matched group of 22 hospitals that did not implement stress prevention activities. leading to greater job insecurity on the part of those who remain. the stresses faced at work have also increased. Program activities included (1) employee and management education on job stress. Improve communications-reduce uncertainty about career development and future employment prospects. Establish work schedules that are compatible with demands and responsibilities outside the job. (e. In a second study.g. and (3) establishment of employee assistance programs. stimulation. In one study. nationality and language ) • • • • • • St. the frequency of medication errors declined by 50% after prevention activities was implemented in a 700-bed hospital. Whilst some stress is good for motivation and increasing efficiency. there was a 70% reduction in malpractice claims in 22 hospitals that implemented stress prevention activities. In contrast. Give workers opportunities to participate in decisions and actions affecting their jobs. (2) changes in hospital policies and procedures to reduce organizational sources of stress. Paul Fire and Marine Insurance Company conducted several studies on the effects of stress prevention programs in hospital settings. Undoubtedly. More and more people are feeling isolated and disrespected at work. hence the term “Monday Blues”. occupational stress is one of the most commonly cited stressors faced by people all over the world. and opportunities for workers to use their skills. Discrimination inside the workplace. COPING WITH STRESS AT WORK PLACE With the rapid advancement of technology. and this has led to greater 38 . Many people dread going to work. Provide opportunities for social interaction among workers.

and if you are constantly worried.occupational stress. However. These stressors can be external and internal. Step 2: Identify the Cause You need to be able to analyze the situation and identify what is causing the rise in stress. it is up to you to make sure that you can cope with stress at your workplace. This is important. or the onset of headaches. identify if you are feeling any overwhelming negative emotions. such as excessive sweating or heart palpitations. and some have not gotten it quite right. Keep a diary or a list of events that have caused you to feel strong negative emotions. as being able to identify signs of being stressed can help you to take steps to ensure that your overall quality of life does not drop. we only start reacting to stress when a combination of stressors working together exceeds our ability to cope. leading to disastrous consequences to your health and overall wellbeing. You can identify if you are feeling stressed by checking if you have any physical or psychological reactions. tipping the scales from positive to negative. Here are 3 simple steps to help you with coping with stress in the workplace. Many companies have taken to consulting experts and professionals on ways to increase connectedness and motivation of their employees. not all companies have such measures in place. Internal stressors refer to your own thinking and attitude. and use it to help you work better. This will help you to identify the causes of your stress. Step 3: Coping with Stress 39 . Whilst it is not always possible to eradicate them. translating into greater productivity. Often. or that are likely stressors. the problem will only snowball. Some companies organize parties and make their employees feel valued at work. irritability or the need to escape. These are measures to motivate employees and help them to feel secure at their jobs. Step 1: Raising Awareness Help yourself to identify when you are facing rising levels of stress. External stressors refer to things beyond your control. If left unacknowledged. If you experience any of these reactions. we can change the way that we cope with it. Hence. such as the environment or your colleagues at work.

The key to making these 3 steps work for you is to practice them. It helps you to cut through clutter and distraction to get to the heart of what you need to do. by focusing on the things that are important for job success and reducing the time we spend on low priority tasks. The risks here are that we become exhausted.In order to deal with the situation that is causing you stress. These are not instantaneous solutions. If it is an internal stressor. stop your thought process until you are able to deal with it logically. By understanding the priorities in your job. Job analysis: We have all experienced that appalling sense of having far too much work to do and too little time to do it in. If a situation is triggering your stress and you are unable to calm down. high-pressure role. that we have so much to do that we do a poor quality job and that we neglect other areas of our life. Alternatively. While this may seem obvious. The first of the action-oriented skills that we look at is Job Analysis. and work unreasonably long hours to stay on top of our workload. We can choose to ignore this. Each of these can lead to intense stress. 40 . you can try implementing relaxation techniques such as deep breathing. you need to fully understand what is expected of you. This can be through different methods. To do an excellent job. it is oftentimes something that is easy to overlook. and keep your workload under control. Go outside and take a walk to calm down. and you need to condition your mind and practice them so that you can implement it when you are feeling stressed. This helps you get the greatest return from the work you do. remove yourself from it. Job Analysis is a useful technique for getting a firm grip on what really is important in your job so that you are able to perform excellently. you need to calm your mind and body so as to stave off the reactions and cope with it in a positive way. you can focus on these activities and minimize work on other tasks as much as possible. The alternative is to work more intelligently. Job Analysis is the first step in doing this. such as taking time off. Job Analysis is a key technique for managing job overload – an important source of stress. and what constitutes success within it. fast-moving. in the hurly-burly of a new. REDUCING STRESS 1.

put yourself down.2. One approach to it is to observe your "stream of consciousness" as you think about the thing you're trying to achieve which is stressful. and write them down on our free worksheet as they occur. When you analyze your diary at the end of the period. Then let them go. Another more general approach to Thought Awareness comes with logging stress in your Stress Diary. Negative thinking damages confidence. or expect failure. 41 . Instead. Thought awareness is the first step in the process of managing negative thoughts. do their damage and flit back out again. criticize yourself for errors. we do not challenge them properly. Do not suppress any thoughts. you should be able to see the most common and the most damaging thoughts. Worry about how the audience (especially important people in it like your boss) or the press may react to you. as you cannot manage thoughts that you are unaware of. with their significance having barely been noticed. Rational & positive thinking: You are thinking negatively when you fear the future. or Self-criticism over a less-than-perfect rehearsal. Since we barely realize that they were there. Unfortunately. which means that they can be completely incorrect and wrong. negative thoughts tend to flit into our consciousness. harms performance and paralyzes mental skills. Tackle these as a priority using the techniques below. just let them run their course while you watch them. Here are some typical negative thoughts you might experience when preparing to give a major presentation: • • Fear about the quality of your performance or of problems that may interfere with it. • • Dwelling on the negative consequences of a poor performance. Thought Awareness is the process by which you observe your thoughts and become aware of what is going through your head. doubt your abilities.

and don't just reflect a lack of experience. so that these can be sorted out before the performance. then remind yourself that the purpose of the practice is to identify areas for improvement. If you perform as well as you reasonably can. Look at every thought you wrote down and challenge it rationally. and you do the best you can. What evidence is there for and against the thought? Would your colleagues and mentors agree or disagree with it? Looking at the examples. • Problems with issues outside your control: Have you identified the risks of these things happening. make sure that your negative thoughts are genuinely important to achieving your goals. Where there is some substance. If people are not fair. Ask yourself whether the thought is reasonable. you should be able to see quickly whether the thoughts are wrong or whether they have some substance to them. • Worries about performance during rehearsal: If some of your practice was less than perfect. then fair people are likely to respond well. which everyone has to go through at some stage. • When you challenge negative thoughts rationally. prepared and rehearsed enough? If you have done all of these. then you should be satisfied. you've done as much as you can to give a good performance. the following challenges could be made to the negative thoughts we identified earlier: • Feelings of inadequacy: Have you trained yourself as well as you reasonably should have? Do you have the experience and resources you need to make the presentation? Have you planned. take appropriate action. and have you taken steps to reduce the likelihood of them happening or their impact if they do? What will you do if they occur? And what do you need others to do for you? • Worry about other people's reactions: If you have prepared well.Rational Thinking The next step in dealing with negative thinking is to challenge the negative thoughts that you identified using the Thought Awareness technique. However. the best thing to do is ignore their comments and rise above them. Positive Thinking & Opportunity Seeking 42 .

I am going to perform well and enjoy the event. Stanley Tan at Loma Linda University School of Medicine have produced carefully controlled studies showing that the experience of laughter lowers serum cortical levels.By now." • Problems issues outside your control: "I have thought through everything that might reasonably happen and have planned how I can handle all likely contingencies. Dr. which are converted to cortical in the blood stream. I am well positioned to give an excellent performance. These have an immunosuppressive effect. rational assessments of facts that you made using Rational Thinking. the adrenal gland releases corticosteroids." Make sure that identifying these opportunities and focusing on them is part of your positive thinking. LAUGHTER During stress. I will rise above any unfair criticism in a mature and professional way." • Worries about performance: "I have prepared well and rehearsed thoroughly. The final step is to prepare rational. increases the amount and activity of T lymphocytes—the natural killer cells. 3. you should already be feeling more positive. Continuing the examples above." • Worry about other people's reaction: "Fair people will react well to a good performance. you can use them to undo the damage that negative thinking may have done to your self-confidence. Laughter also increases the number of T cells that have suppresser receptors. What Laughter Can Do Against Stress And Its Effects? 43 . By basing your affirmations on the clear. positive affirmations might be: • Problems during practice: "I have learned from my rehearsals. Lee Berk and fellow researcher Dr. I am very well placed to react flexibly to events. positive thoughts and affirmations to counter any remaining negativity. This has put me in a position where I can deliver a great performance. It can also be useful to look at the situation and see if there are any useful opportunities that are offered by it.

and the development of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge on a wide variety of scientific matters of our world and the universe. laughter induces reduction of at least four of neuroendocrine hormones—epinephrine. Research can use the scientific method. • Boosts immune function by raising levels of infection-fighting T-cells.•Laughter lowers blood pressure and reduces hypertension. • It increases muscle flexion. 44 . The primary purpose for applied research is discovering. associated with stress response). but need not do so. disease-fighting proteins called Gamma-interferon and disease-destroying antibodies called B-cells. and growth hormone. • Laughter cleanses the lungs and body tissues of accumulated stale air as it empties more air than it takes in. •It provides good cardiac conditioning especially for those who are unable to perform physical exercise. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research is defined as human activity based on intellectual application in the investigation of matter. dopac. • Produces a general sense of well-being. • Laughter triggers the release of endorphins—body's natural painkillers. It is beneficial for patients suffering from emphysema and other respiratory ailments. cortical. •Reduces stress hormones (studies shows. interpreting. relaxation and fluent blood circulation in body.

• • • A well structured questionnaire is framed. DATA COLLECTION METHOD The data collection method used in this research is questionnaire method. sampling methods. In this approach. APPROACHES TO RESEARCH Descriptive approach is one of the most popular approaches these days. which is collected for the first time and fresh in nature. 45 . survey. This approach enables a researcher to explore new areas of investigation.Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem. DATA SOURCES There are two types of data collection namely primary data collection and secondary data collection. Findings are made and necessary suggestions and recommendations are given. and happen to be original in character through field survey. a problem is described by the researcher by using questionnaire or schedule. The research methodology in the present study deals with research design. analysis and interpretations. PRIMARY DATA The primary data is defined as the data. SECONDARY DATA The secondary data are those which have already been collected by someone else and have been passed through statistical process. RESEARCH DESIGN A research design is the arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure. data collection methods. Data is collected from the employees in the ACCEL FRONTLINE TECHNOLOGIES. Here the data are systematically recorded from the respondents.

Results from probability theory and statistical theory are employed to guide practice. In non probability sampling. and stratified sampling. Survey weights often need to be applied to the data to adjust for the sample design. In non probability sampling. In probability samples. These include convenience sampling. When inferring to the population. systematic sampling. especially for the purposes of statistical inference. SAMPLING Sampling is that part of statistical practice concerned with the selection of individual observations intended to yield some knowledge about a population of concern. location. Probability methods include random sampling. judgment sampling. SAMPLE UNIT The employees of the ACCEL FRONTLINE TECHNOLOGIES are the sample unit in the survey. 46 . results are reported plus or minus the sampling error. Sampling error is the degree to which a sample might differ from the population. quota sampling. each member of the population has a known non-zero probability of being selected. the degree to which the sample differs from the population remains unknown. members are selected from the population in some nonrandom manner. SAMPLE SIZE The sample size chosen for this study is 30 as instructed by the department since it is a MINI RESEARCH PROJECT. SAMPLING METHOD Sampling methods are classified as either probability or non probability. and snowball sampling.) of an observable entity enumerated to distinguish objects or individuals. Each observation measures one or more properties (weight. The advantage of probability sampling is that sampling error can be calculated. The questionnaire consists of a variety of questions presented to the respondents for their despondence.RESEARCH TOOL A structured questionnaire has been prepared to get the relevant information from the respondents. etc.

Each member of the population has an equal and known chance of being selected. This is usually an extension of convenience sampling. Judgment sampling is a common non-probability  method. a researcher may decide to draw the entire sample from one "representative" city. so the pool of available subjects becomes biased. When using this method. the sampling methods used are Random sampling. the researcher must be confident that the chosen sample is truly representative of the entire population. it comes at the expense of introducing bias because the technique itself reduces the likelihood that the sample will represent a good cross section from the population. Snowball sampling is a special non-probability method  used when the desired sample characteristic is rare. It may be extremely difficult or cost prohibitive to locate respondents in these situations. While this technique can dramatically lower search costs.In this research. For example. The researcher selects the sample based on judgment. STATISTICAL METHODS USED  Percentage analysis  Pie diagrams 47 . Convenience sampling and Snowball sampling  Random sampling is the purest form of probability sampling. even though the population includes all cities. When there are very large populations. Snowball sampling relies on referrals from initial subjects to generate additional subjects. it is often difficult or impossible to identify every member of the population.

Percentages are used in making comparison between two or more series of data. distribution of two or more series of data. of Respondents Percentage of Respondents = -----------------------Total Respondents X 100 Percentage is used to describe relative terms the 48 . No.PERCENTAGE ANALYSIS: Percentage refers to a special kind of ratio.


3 100. 2.7 33.GENDER PROFILE OF THE RESPONDENTS 50 .0 46.0 INFERENCE: Maximum respondents were in the age group of 30 – 35.TABLE 1 AGE Frequency Valid 25 – 30 30 – 35 35 – 40 Total 6 14 10 30 Percent 20.

0 100. 3.WORK EXPERIENCE OF RESPONDENTS 51 .0 INFERENCE: There are equal number of male & female respondents.0 50.TABLE 2 GENDER Frequency Valid MALE FEMALE Total 15 15 30 Percent 50.

3 100.TABLE 3 EXPERIENCE Frequency Valid < 5 YEARS 5 . 4.EDUCATIONAL QUALIFICATION OF RESPONDENTS 52 .0 INFERENCE: More than 50% of the respondents had a work experience of about 5 – 10 years.7 13.10 YEARS > 10 YEARS Total 9 17 4 30 Percent 30.0 56.

0 100.0 INFERENCE: 70% of the respondents are PG qualified with an MBA or equivalent degree.0 30.1 53 . Q1. Do you suffer with difficulty in sleeping? TABLE 1.TABLE 4 QUALIFICATION Frequency Valid UG PG Total 21 9 30 Percent 70.

Therefore.7 100.2 54 .RESPONDENTS WITH DIFFICULTY IN SLEEPING Frequency Valid NOT AT AL RARELY SOMETIMES OFTEN VERY OFTEN Total 8 8 7 5 2 30 Percent 26.7% of the employees rarely have any trouble in sleeping .23.3 16.3% find it difficult sometimes . Q2. Do you find it difficult to concentrate? TABLE1.7 23.16.7% of the employees find extreme difficulty in sleeping. it is understood that 26.0 INFERENCE: From the above table.7 6. it is observed that for most parts.the employees do not have any problems with sleeping.7% face the problem very often and 6.7 26.

0 INFERENCE: It is clear that 16.RESPONDENTS WITH DIFFICULTY IN CONCENTRATING Frequency Valid NOT AT ALL RARELY SOMETIMES OFTEN Total 5 11 10 4 30 Percent 16.3% sometimes and only a small group of 13.36.3% find it difficult to concentrate at work. Therefore.3 55 .7% of the employees have absolutely no difficulty in concentrating.7 33.7% of them rarely have a problem . Do financial problems get you down? TABLE 1.33.7 36. Q3.3 100.3 13. it can be said that mostly the employees have no trouble in concentrating at work.

Therefore. Do you find yourself 'self-medicating' with additional alcohol. it is identified that financial trouble does put down people sometimes.3 40.7% of them felt that very often it caused them problems. 40% of the employees feel that financial problems put them down sometimes. nicotine or other substances? Table 1.0 26.RESPONDANTS WITH FINANCIAL PROBLEMS Frequency Valid NOT AT ALL SOMETIMES OFTEN Total 10 12 8 30 Percent 33. 30% felt that it did not affect them at all and 26.0 INFERENCE: The table shows that.7 100. Q4.4 56 .

3% resort to alcoholism etc very frequently to relieve stress while 23. It shows that most employees give into excessive alcoholism or some other forms of self medication most times to reduce stress Q5.5 57 .3% of them do not resort to substance abuse at all .0 16. 23.RESPONDENTS AND SUBSTANCE ABUSE Frequency Valid NOT AT ALL RARELY SOMETIMES OFTEN VERY OFTEN Total 7 3 5 8 7 30 Percent 23.7 26.7 23. Do you get angry quickly? TABLE 1.7% of the employees ‘‘self medicate’’ quite often.3 100.0 INFERENCE: This table indicates that 26.3 10.

Q6.6 58 .3 40.7% of them say that they get very angry most of the time. Therefore. Also 26.0 INFERENCE: 40% of the employees claim that they sometimes get angry often while 33.7 100.3% feel that they do not get angry very often. Do you find you are prone to negative thinking about your job? TABLE 1.RESPONDENTS AND FREQUENCY OF ANGER Frequency Valid NOT AT ALL SOMETIMES VERY OFTEN Total 10 12 8 30 Percent 33.0 26. it is inferred that most of the employees are relatively calm and get angry only sometimes.

7 59 .3.% say that it never happens. does it take you a long time to recover? Table 1. Therefore. When you have been ill with relatively minor illnesses. the rate of job pessimism or negative thinking about one’s job is very low.RESPONDENTS WITH JOB PESSIMISM Frequency Valid NOT AT AL RARELY SOMETIMES Total 10 13 7 30 Percent 33.0 INFERENCE: The table clearly shows that the employees have no negative thoughts about their job since 40% of them feel that it happens only rarely and 33.3 100. Q7.3 43.3 23.

7%) recuperate pretty quickly from an illness while only 26. Q8. with no-one to talk to? TABLE 1.7% of them say that sometimes a long slow recovery period is taken. it is seen that most of the employees (36.7 100. Do you feel you are isolated. It is inferred that most of the employees get back to their feet pretty soon after an illness and do not stay in bed for excessive periods of time.8 60 .7 26.0 INFERENCE: From the table.7 36.RESPONDENTS WITH SLOW RECOVERY DURING ILLNESS Frequency Valid NOT AT ALL RARELY SOMETIMES Total 11 11 8 30 Percent 36.

RESPONDENTS WHO FEEL ISOLATED Frequency Valid NOT AT ALL RARELY SOMETIMES Total 14 10 6 30 Percent 46. Therfore.3 is seen that most of the employees have someone to talk to and relate with and are not isolated or alone.3% say it happens rarely.7 33. Q9.9 61 . Do you feel out of control and as if you're not in the driving seat of your life and health? TABLE1.0 INFERENCE: This table shows that majority of the people do not feel isolated or lonely.7% of them do not feel any isolation while 33.0 100. 46.

0 40. Q10. Do you 'snack' instead of eating 'wholesome' meals? TABLE 1.10 62 .0 INFERENCE: This table shows that most of the employees have control of their lives and are in the driving seat of their own lives while only 20% felt that they are being controlled by others and not themselves.RESPONDENTS WITH NO CONTROL OF LIFE Frequency Valid RARELY SOMETIMES OFTEN Total 12 12 6 30 Percent 40.0 100.0 20.

time constraints and job demands. Q11.0 INFERENCE: The values in the table clearly indicate that all the employees indulge in snacking rather than in consumption of wholesome nutritious meals due heavy work pressure .0 30.0 40.0 100. do you tend to over- react? TABLE 1.11 63 . When conflict arises at work or at home.RESPONDENTS WITH BAD EATING HABITS Frequency Valid SOMETIMES OFTEN VERY OFTEN Total 9 12 9 30 Percent 30.

7% of them tend to over react in some situations.7 100.3 26. Q12.0 INFERENCE: It is seen that most people do not over react to conflicts either at home or at work. Only 26.RESPONDENTS WHO OVER REACT TO CONFLICTS Frequency Valid NOT AT ALL RARELY SOMETIMES Total 9 13 8 30 Percent 30.0 43. Do you feel that there is more work to do than you realistically have the capacity to do? 64 .

0 16.7%) felt that it was not so.0 : INFERENCE: The table shows that most of the employees feel that their job demands and requires more than what they are actually capable of doing. Only a small group (6.12 RESPONDENTS WHOSE WORK EXCEEDS ONE'S CAPACITY Frequency Valid RARELY SOMETIMES OFTEN VERY OFTEN Total 2 11 12 5 30 Percent 6. In most cases.TABLE 1.7 40. Q13.7 100. Do you feel caught between the pressures of responsibility for family and work life? 65 .7 36. their workload exceeds their capacity.

7 20.7 100. Q14.0 6. Do you feel under – par at the beginning of the day? 66 .20% feel caught often and 16.0 16.13 RESPONDENTS CAUGHT BETWEEN FAMILY AND WORK PRESSURE Frequency Valid NOT AT ALL RARELY SOMETIMES OFTEN VERY OFTEN Total 3 5 14 6 2 30 Percent 10.7 46.TABLE 1.7% of the employees feel that sometimes they are trapped between the pressures of home and work .0 INFERENCE: From the table it is seen that 46.7% felt that it happened very rarely.

Do you shy away from social contact with colleagues and friends? TABLE 1.3%) actually feel under-par on working days.14 RESPONDENTS WHO FEEL UNDER .3 100.3 26.3 3.7 3.TABLE 1.PAR AT THE BEGINNING OF A WORK DAY Frequency Valid NOT AT ALL RARELY SOMETIMES OFTEN VERY OFTEN Total 4 16 8 1 1 30 Percent 13.3% of the employees rarely feel under-par even at the beginning of a working day and only a handful of employees (3.3 53. Q15.15 67 .0 INFERENCE: The table clearly shows that 53.

0 100. Q16.0 10.0 30.RESPONDENTS WHO SHY AWAY FROM SOCIAL CONTACT WITH COLLEAGUES Frequency Valid NOT AT ALL RARELY SOMETIMES Total 18 9 3 30 Percent 60. Do other people comment on your not taking care of your appearance? 68 .0 INFERENCE : It clearly shows that majority of the employees are actively sociable and do not shy away from social contact especially with colleagues.

Do you claim you have no time for hobbies and interests? 69 .3 100. Q17. it is clearly understood that most of the employees are well dressed and maintain a certain level of grooming and therefore are not commented upon for shabby appearances by their colleagues.0 3.16 RESPONDENTS WHOSE APPEARANCES ARE COMMENTED UPON Frequency Valid NOT AT ALL RARELY SOMETIMES OFTEN Total 16 12 1 1 30 Percent 53.0 INFERENCE: From the table and the pie chart.TABLE 1.3 3.3 40.

70 .7 33.17 RESPONDENTS WITH NO TIME FOR THEMSELVES Frequency Valid NOT AT ALL RARELY SOMETIMES OFTEN VERY OFTEN Total 1 1 11 10 7 30 Percent 3.3 36.0 INFERENCE: The pie chart and table values clearly indicate that most of the employees are so busy and caught up with work pressure that they barely have any time for themselves.TABLE 1.3 23.3 100. They have almost no time for their hobbies and self interests.3 3.

Only 20% feel that at certain times they are misunderstood. Do you feel misunderstood or unappreciated by your colleagues.3 20.0 100. friends or family members? TABLE 1.Q18.18 RESPONDENTS WHO FEEL MISUNDERSTOOD/ UNAPPRECIATED BY OTHERS Frequency Valid NOT AT AL RARELY SOMETIMES Total 17 7 6 30 Percent 56.0 INFERENCE: Here again. most of the employees are satisfied and not misunderstood or unappreciated by their colleagues or family members.7 23. 71 .

one group(40%) feel that very rarely do they have to be copers for everyone else with no support for themselves while the other group also of 40% feel that sometimes they have no one to seek support from.Q19. Do you feel you have to be the 'coper' for the family or for colleagues.0 16.19 RESPONDENTS WHO ARE COPERS FOR FAMILY/ COLLEAGUES WITH NO SUPPORT FOR THEMSELVES Frequency Valid NOT AT ALL RARELY SOMETIMES OFTEN Total 1 12 12 5 30 Percent 3. with no option for seeking support for yourself? TABLE 1.3 40. 72 .0 40.7 100.0 INFERENCE: Here there are 2 strong groups.

not because you feel ill but overwhelmed.3 40.Q20. 73 . mentally and physically? TABLE 1. MENTYALLY & PHYSICALLY Frequency Valid NOT AT ALL RARELY SOMETIMES OFTEN VERY OFTEN Total 6 1 12 10 1 30 Percent 20.0 3.3 100.20 RESPONDENTS WHO TAKE A DAY OFF JUST TO RECUPERATE EMOTIONALLY. just to keep your 'head above water' emotionally.3 3.0 33. Would you take a sick day.mentally and emotionally.0 INFERENCE: The chart and table indicate that many employees call in a sick day at work not because they are really sick but because they are too overwhelmed and need time to recuperate physically.

Most of the employees feel that they have no time for themselves and their personal lives because of work overload. 4. Employees’ are satisfied with the working conditions. The respondents face a moderate level of stress 74 . 3. 5. Role overload is the major cause of stress. 6. Most of the respondents have many years of long association with the organisation 2. The respondents are sociable and have no problems interacting with their colleagues.FINDINGS 1.

 The organization must introduce Employee Assistance Programmes (EAPs) and stress control workshops accordingly to the level of employees. because counseling is the discussion of a problem that usually has emotional content with an employee in order to help the employee cope better. EMPLOYEES’ SUGGESTION TO REDUCE STRESS This project consists of the information about the employees. and coping with health problems. because there is a strong relation between the level of stress and level of employees. It means instead of carrying the pressures of the work to home.SUGGESTIONS      The employees must give importance to time management techniques there by they can complete their work within the specified time. the topic becomes one of the most important part of the project as it consists of the opinion of the employees who work 75 . Many tasks can be delegated to subordinates without losing effectiveness so that we can reduce the overload of work.  Engaging the bored employee in aerobic exercise. the suggestion is to start the unwinding process during the work day and enter the home in a relaxed and peaceful mind. because it stimulates the brain and the body. who are undergoing stress. working in the Accel Frontline Technologies. Introduce Flexi time Organisations must introduce recreational zones within the premises for the employees to unwind. So considering this factor. EAP includes counseling employees who seek assistance on how to deal with alcohol and drug abuse. Also the employee must practice meditation and yoga regularly. managing personal finances. Adopt the work to home transition strategy. handling conflicts at the work place. dealing with marital and other family problems.  Counseling the employees when they face problems.

Positive attitude is only that reduces stress and achieves success. . Pass your time with your close friends and relatives. others happy. So get positive attitude about work. The response of employees from major IT in the city was marvellous as they gave their valuable opinion about reducing stress as a result of the last question included in the questionnaire. Find and spend time for prayer.Going for a walk or long drive” An employee“Believe in God” An employee“Respect yourself and give time to yourself” An employee“Working in environment welfares.” An employee- See oneness in all. All are manifested of the supreme GOD” An employee- 76 . lot of positive attitude. and forget the stress” An employee• • • • “We should do such activities from which we get happiness and also make “Play and watch cricket” An employee“Listen music and spend time with family” An employee“Get adjusted with others.Watching TV or listening good the IT. Study the scriptures. about life. Most of the people frustrate due to lack of positivity and stress level climbs up due to that. The opinion of the employees were as follows: • • • • • • “Just smile away” An employee“Just believe in yourself and just do what your heart wants” An employee-“Talking to family member “.

If we enhance the psychological well being and health of the employees.improve physical work environment. and more importantly. Organization must begin to manage people at work differently. by not providing individuals with the autonomy to do their work as they would like. Because it is said that.CONCLUSION Stress in the work place has become the black plague of the present century.the organizational revenue increases and there is employee retention as well. “A Healthy Employee is a Productive Employee” 77 .. Much of the stress at work is caused not only by work overload and time pressure but also by lack of rewards and praise. treat them with respect and value their contribution.

Johnson –“Organizational Behavior”.medicinenet. Ltd. K. 1987 pp115-26. 5.htm 4. Dewey E. “Understanding Executive Stress”.wikipedia. www. http://stress. Aswathappa. “Organizational Behavior”. Blanchard. 1998. 6. “Organizational Behavior”. A. “Job stress-prone Type A behaviour.K. Canadian Journal Administration Sciences. Kenneth H.htm and Marshall. 1978 p 4. 1999. http://helpguide. 6. Jamal M.studygs. pp 360-74. Atieh. 2. Stephen 78 . “Studying job stress: Are we making mountains out of molehills?” Journal of occupational behavior. 3. 8. P and J. PaulHersey.lifepositive. 7. M. Prentice Hall of India Pvt. Prentice Hall. The McMillan Press Ltd.BIBLIOGRAPHY BOOKS 1. personal and organizational consequences”. 4. U . 2. C. Cooper. 1985.htm 3. Robbins.Himalaya Publishing House WEBSITES 1. L. www.

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QUESTIONNAIRE NAME: GENDER: 1 Do you suffer with difficulty in sleeping? a. Rarely c. Sometimes d. Not at all b. Rarely c. Very Often 80 . Not at all b. Not at all b. Often e. Often e. Rarely c. Not at all b. Rarely c. Not at all b. Rarely c. Sometimes d. Very Often AGE: QUALIFICATION: 4 Do you find yourself 'self-medicating' with additional alcohol. Sometimes d. Often e. Rarely c. Sometimes d. Very Often \ 5 Do you get angry quickly? a. Very Often 6 Do you find you are prone to negative thinking about your job? a. Often e. nicotine or other substances? a. Sometimes d. Sometimes d. Not at all b. Very Often 3 Do financial problems get you down? a. Often e. Very Often 2 Do you find it difficult to concentrate? a. Often e.

with no one to talk to? a. Rarely c. Very Often 10 Do you snack instead of eating “wholesome meals”? a. Often e. Sometimes d. Often e. Very Often 13 Do you feel caught between the pressures of responsibility for family and for work? 81 . Rarely c. Sometimes d. Not at all b. Often e.7 When you have been ill with relatively minor illnesses. Rarely c. Often e. do you tend to over-react? a. Sometimes d. Very Often 11 When conflict arises at work or at home. Often e. Sometimes d. as if you are not in the driving seat of your life and health? a. Rarely c. Not at all b. Not at all b. Very Often 8 Do you feel you are isolated. Not at all b. Sometimes d. Often e. Sometimes d. Very Often 9 Do you feel out of control. Rarely c. does it take you a long time to recover? a. Not at all b. Very Often 12 Do you feel that there is more work to do than you realistically have the capacity to do? a. Rarely c. Not at all b.

Not at all b. Often e. Rarely c. Sometimes d.a. Sometimes d. Not at all b. Rarely c. Not at all b. Sometimes d. Sometimes d. Not at all b. Rarely c. Rarely c. Not at all b. Very Often 14 Do you feel 'under par' even at the beginning of a working day? a. Often e. Often e. Often e. friends or family members? a. Very Often 17 Do you claim you have no time for hobbies and interests? a. Sometimes d. Often e. Not at all b. Very Often 15 Do you shy away from social contact with colleagues and friends? a. Very Often 16 Do other people comment on your not taking care of your appearance? a. Sometimes d. Rarely c. Not at all b. Very Often 19 Do you feel you have to be the “coper” for your family or colleagues with no option for seeking support for yourself? a. Rarely c. Often e. Very Often 18 Do you feel misunderstood or unappreciated by your colleagues. Rarely c. Often 82 . Sometimes d.

to manage stress _____________ 83 . Often e. mentally & physically? a.e. Very Often 21 Kindly give us your suggestions. Not at all b. Sometimes d. if any. just to keep your “head above water” emotionally. Rarely c. Very Often 20 Would you take a sick day not because you feel ill but overwhelmed.

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