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Brand PnsItInnIng DccIsInn

Mahindia & Mahindia Liniled (M&M), lhe fIagship conpany of lhe Mahindia gioup vilh a
luinovei of Indian Rupees (Rs) 55 liIIion (US $ 1.2 liIIion), vas pIanning lo Iaunch lheii nev
spoils uliIily vehicIe (SUV) ly lhe niddIe of 2OO2. SeveiaI najoi decisions had lo le
finaIized piioi lo lhe Iaunch dale. One of lhe inpoilanl decisions conceined lhe posilioning
of lhe nev vehicIe. IiopeIIed ly lhe iapidIy changing hues of lhe Indian aulonoliIe naikel,
lhe conpany had inilialed an exeicise lo ie-aIign lheii pioducl and lhe liand poilfoIio. They
had Iaunched a nev liand 8c|crc in lhe yeai 2OOO ly iedesigning one of lheii exisling
vehicIes. The posilioning slialegy, lheiefoie, had lo iefIecl lhe evoIved naluie of lhe liand
poilfoIio and lhe posilioning pIalfoin adopled foi 8c|crc. Inpuls fion lhe consunei cIinics
suggesled sone diieclions foi lhe posilioning slialegy foi lhe nev pioducl. Hovevei, a
delale exisled aloul lhe visdon of accoiding consunei inpuls a doninanl ioIe in lhe
decision. A ieIaled issue peilained lo lhe lianding slialegy. ShouId lhe conpany foIIov an
independenl liand, a sul-liand oi an endoised liand slialegy` Wilh lhe inlensifying
conpelilive silualion in lhe aulonoliIe naikel in India, lhese decisions denanded deep
anaIyses and caiefuI consideialions.

Cnmpany Backgrnund

Mahindia & Mahindia vas eslalIished in 1945 and conveiled inlo a pulIic Iiniled conpany
in 1948. The shaies of lhe conpany veie Iisled in lhe onlay Slock Lxchange in 1956.
IniliaIIy, lhe conpany inpoiled and assenlIed li||qs ]ccp. Manufacluiing aclivilies of lhe
aulonolive division slailed in 1954 lhiough coIIaloialion vilh WiIIys OveiIand
Coipoialion (cuiienlIy pail of lhe DainIei ChiysIei gioup). Iioduclion of Iighl conneiciaI
vehicIes (LCVs) slailed in 1965. The division had foui nanufacluiing pIanls, lhiee of lhen

Iiepaied ly Iiofessoi Aliahan Koshy, Indian Inslilule of Managenenl, Ahnedalad, India.

Case naleiiaI of lhe Indian Inslilule of Managenenl, Ahnedalad, is piepaied as a lasis foi cIass
discussion. Cases aie nol designed lo piesenl iIIuslialions of eilhei coiiecl oi incoiiecl handIing of
adninislialive piolIens.

Ceneious financiaI suppoil and coopeialion ly Mahindia & Mahindia foi piepaiing lhis case sludy is
gialefuIIy acknovIedged. The aulhoi aIso acknovIedges vilh lhanks lhe suppoil and coopeialion of
Mi. V. }agannalhan, Vice Iiesidenl, usiness IIanning, M & M, vho cooidinaled and faciIilaled dala
coIIeclion al lhe conpanys end, and expiesses gialilude lovaids Di. Iavan Coenka, Iiesidenl,
Aulonolive Secloi of M & M, Mi. Rajesh }ejuiikai, Lxeculive Vice Iiesidenl (Maikeling) and olhei
execulives foi lheii sinceie coopeialion.

AII dala used in piepaiing lhis case sludy, unIess noled specificaIIy, veie fion lhe conpany souices.

Copyiighl 2OO6 ly lhe Indian Inslilule of Managenenl, Ahnedalad
IndIan InstItutc nf Managcmcnt
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veie Iocaled in Mahaiashlia, an indusliiaIIy deveIoped slale in veslein India. These lhiee
nanufacluiing pIanls Iocaled in Munlai and Nasik pioduced uliIily vehicIes and lhe one in
Igalpuii pioduced engines. The fouilh pIanl Iocaled in Andhia Iiadesh in Soulh India
pioduced Iighl conneiciaI vehicIes (LCVs) and 3 vheeIeis. The conpany acquiied
InleinalionaI Tiacloi Conpany of India in 1977. The liacloi liand Mahindia vas
eslalIished in 1982 aflei lhe agieenenl lo use InleinalionaI Haiveslei liand expiied. In lhe
yeai 2OO3, lhe conpany soId aloul 87,OOO vehicIes and 47,OOO liaclois and had a luinovei of
Rs. 46 liIIion and a nel piofil of Rs. 1.46 liIIion. In 2OO3, lhe nel voilh of lhe conpany vas
Rs. 15.7 liIIion.

Up lo lhe yeai 1994, aII lhe lusinesses of lhe gioup veie undei one conpany - Mahindia &
Mahindia. SulsequenlIy, lhe conpany vas ie-sliucluied and as a iesuIl, lhe coie aclivily of
nanufacluiing uliIily vehicIes, Iighl conneiciaI vehicIes and liaclois ienained vilh lhe
fIagship conpany. Undei lhe fIagship conpany, lheie veie lvo opeialing divisions: (1) lhe
Aulonolive Secloi lhal nanufacluied and naikeled uliIily vehicIes, Iighl conneiciaI
vehicIes and lhiee vheeIeis, and (2) lhe Iain Lquipnenl Secloi lhal nanufacluied and
naikeled liaclois and olhei fain inpIenenls.

Iion 1997 onvaids, lhe conpany undeilook inilialives lo ie-aIign lheii pioducl and liand
poilfoIios and lo inlioduce nev naikel offeis. These inilialives veie pionpled ly lhe
changes in lhe aulonolive indusliy in India and lhe consequenl conpelilive enviionnenl
and changes in lhe consunei lasles, piefeiences and luying halils

5tructurc nf thc AutnmnbI!c Markct In IndIa

The size of lhe Indian aulonoliIe naikel vas snaII in conpaiison lo sone of lhe naikels in
deveIoped econonies. Hovevei, lhe naikel had leen undeigoing a najoi liansfoinalion in
size, giovlh iale and lhe iange of vehicIes. y lhe yeai 2OO3, lheie veie 12 pIayeis in lhe
aulonoliIe naikel. The lolaI naikel size of aulonoliIes (excIuding scooleis and noloi
cycIes) in 2OO3 vas eslinaled lo le aiound O.73 niIIion vehicIes pei annun. The CunuIalive
Aveiage Ciovlh Rale (CACR) vas eighl pei cenl (1999 - 2OO3). The passengei cai segnenl
accounled foi aiound O.6 niIIion unils vilh a CACR of nine pei cenl and lhe uliIily vehicIe
segnenl accounled foi O.13 niIIion unils vilh a CACR of foui pei cenl duiing lhis peiiod.

The Indian passengei cai segnenl can le divided in lo lvo lioad segnenls - peisonaI cais
and uliIily vehicIes. The IeisonaI Cai Segnenl can le fuilhei cIassified inlo lhiee calegoiies
lased on piice iange and funclionaIily. These aie:

|ccncnq Scgncn|. Majoi diiveis of consunei choice in lhis segnenl veie piice (cosl
savings) and fueI efficiency. Consuneis vho loughl lhe vehicIes in lhis segnenl used il
noslIy foi faniIy lianspoilalion. This segnenl vas fuilhei cIassified inlo lvo sul-
calegoiies, naneIy Ca|cgcrq A in lhe piice iange of Indian Rupees (Rs.) O.3 niIIion and
Ca|cgcrq 8 in lhe piice iange of Rs. O.3 niIIion lo Rs. O.5 niIIion.
Prcniun Scgncn|. The cusloneis in lhis segnenl soughl slalus and vaIue foi noney and
piinaiiIy used vehicIes foi faniIy lianspoilalion. The lvo sul-calegoiies in lhis segnenl
veie Ca|cgcrq C in lhe piice iange of Rs. O.5 niIIion lo Rs. 1 niIIion and Ca|cgcrq D in lhe
piice iange of Rs. 1 niIIion lo Rs. 1.5 niIIion.
Supcr Prcniun Scgncn|. The key diivei of choice in lhis segnenl vas slalus. This
segnenl iefeiied lo as Ca|cgcrq | cais vas in lhe piice iange of alove Rs. 1.5 niIIion.

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The UliIily VehicIe Segnenl couId le divided inlo pick-ups, sofl lops, and haid lops.
Iick-ups veie used essenliaIIy foi goods lianspoil. Sofl lops veie piinaiiIy used foi
conneiciaI puipose as passengei vehicIe in iuiaI India (noie peopIe couId le packed in lo
lhe vehicIe) oi as laxi vehicIe in seni-uilan aieas. Sofl lops veie seIdon used as a peisonaI
vehicIe. Haid lops veie of lvo calegoiies, naneIy, Iov end and high end. The Iov end haid
lops, sonelines aIso calegoiized as nuIli uliIily vehicIes (MUVs), veie nainIy used foi
conneiciaI puiposes. They veie soId al a piice iange up lo Rs. O.35 niIIion. High end haid
lops, aIso iefeiied lo as spoils uliIily vehicIes (SUVs), veie piiced alove Rs. O.5 niIIion and
lhese vehicIes veie conpaialIe lo a cai in leins of vehicIe Iuxuiy and diiving confoil.
TypicaI luyeis of lhese vehicIes veie Iuxuiy cai luyeis and an SUV vas his/hei second
vehicIe. This vehicIe vas used foi peisonaI lianspoilalion and veekend Ieisuie liips. The
size and giovlh iale of lhe diffeienl segnenls vaiied. In Lxhilil 1 (given al lhe end of lhe
lexl), lhe size and giovlh iale of lhe diffeienl cai segnenls is given.

Prnduct Pnrtfn!In nf thc Cnmpany

The pioducl iange of M & M consisled of lhiee-vheeIeis (liand nane - Cnanpicn), Iighl
conneiciaI vehicIes (liand nane - |cad|ing) and uliIily vehicIes. The uliIily vehicIes
consisled of sofl lop vehicIes, haid lop vehicIes and pick-up vehicIes. The sofl lop vehicIes
naikel vas sleadiIy decIining ovei lhe yeais, nainIy due lo changes in IocaI goveinnenl
poIicies acliveIy discouiaging sofl lop vehicIes due lo safely ieasons. The nunlei of vehicIes
soId in each of lhese lvo calegoiies, lhe giovlh iale and M & Ms peifoinance in lhese lvo
calegoiies aie given in Lxhilil 2. M & Ms liand of sofl lop vehicIe vas Ccnnandcr. The
olhei conpeling liands in lhis calegoiy veie Maiuli Gqpsq (1O pei cenl naikel shaie),
Hinduslan Molois Trc||cr (7 pei cenl naikel shaie), and ajaj Tcnpc Trax (2 pei cenl naikel
shaie). The haid lop vehicIes of M & M veie soId undei lhe liand nanes of MaXX, and
Marsna|. A nodified and inpioved haid lop vehicIe lhal vas naikeled eaiIiei undei lhe
liand Arnada vas Iaunched undei lhe liand nane Mahindia 8c|crc in lhe yeai 2OOO. The
najoi conpelilois in lhis calegoiy veie TATA Sunc (4O pei cenl naikel shaie), ajaj Tcnpc
Trax (11 pei cenl naikel shaie), and Maiuli Gqpsq (4 pei cenl naikel shaie). A significanl
poilion ofM & Ms vehicIes veie soId in seni uilan and iuiaI aieas as lhey veie designed
foi lhe iough leiiains of lhe inleiioi pails of India. The Ainy, lhe IoIice and olhei
paianiIilaiy foices lhal needed vehicIes lhal couId handIe difficuIl leiiains veie aIso najoi
useis of M & Ms vehicIes. In Appendix 1, lhe snapshols of M & Ms liands aie given. The
conpany had 2O aiea offices and 15O deaIeis spiead acioss lhe counliy lo seII and seivice lhe

RatInna!c fnr Ncw Prnduct ActIvIty

The conpuIsions of nev pioducl aclivily cane fion lhe changing ieaIilies of lhe evoIving
naikel pIace. M & M, hilheilo lhe doninanl pIayei in lhe uliIily vehicIe segnenl, vas
iapidIy Iosing naikel shaie. The specific segnenls in vhich lhe conpany had a sliong
piesence veie slagnaling. In addilion, seveiaI gIolaI pIayeis veie enleiing lhe Indian
naikel and Iaunching nev nodeIs and liands aggiessiveIy. Despile lhe facl lhal M & M
had a vide iange of pioducls undei ils poilfoIio, lhey did nol have a significanl piesence in
lhe fasl evoIving uilan naikels. Mosl of lhe giovlh and excilenenl veie in uilan naikels
vheie lhe conpany had Iiniled piesence. One of lhe najoi Iinilalions lhal iesliicled lhe
conpanys giovlh oppoilunilies in lhe uilan naikel vas M & Ms liand inage. Consunei
ieseaich indicaled lhal lhe liand inage of M & M had posilive connolalions of leing lough,
ieIialIe, iugged, easy lo nainlain and econonicaI vehicIes. Hovevei, lhe conpanys
pioducls veie nol peiceived as nodein oi lechnoIogicaIIy advanced. Consuneis on lhe
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olhei hand veie leconing noie denanding and lheii expeclalions veie incieasing. Yel,
Indian consuneis veie sliongIy 'vaIue-foi-noney oiienled. Theiefoie lhe lask vas lo
change lhe 'Mahindia inage dianalicaIIy and nake il ieIevanl lo lhe young, nodein
consuneis vho veie eneiging as a significanl consunei gioup, pailicuIaiIy in lhe uilan
aieas. In TalIe 1, ve give lhe iand Idenlily Iiisn of M & M deveIoped on lhe lasis of
cuslonei peiceplions ollained lhiough focus gioup discussions.

ased on lhe assessnenl of lhe eneiging naikel and conpelilive silualion, lhe conpany
decided on lvo oljeclives: (1) lo conlinue lo doninale lhe iuiaI and seni-uilan naikels
vilh a iange of pioducls caleiing lo lhe Iov cosl nass lianspoilalion needs, and (2) lo
deveIop a sliong piesence in lhe fasl gioving uilan naikels vilh a iange of vaIue-foi-
noney pioducls. The slialegic vision vas lo conlinue as lhe doninanl pIayei in lhe uliIily
vehicIe segnenl in lhe counliy and lo lecone a significanl gIolaI pIayei in lhis calegoiy.
This inpIied lhal lhe conpany vouId focus on lhe uliIily vehicIe segnenl and vouId nol
diieclIy pailicipale in lhe cai naikel. To achieve lhese oljeclives, lhe conpany did nol have
lhe financiaI nuscIe lhal lhe inleinalionaI najois had. Hence il vas inpeialive lo keep lhe
piojecl cosl lo a fiaclion of vhal lhe aulo najois in lhe voiId vouId spend. This condilion
enveIoped lhe nev pioducl piojecl fion lhe iniliaI slage ilseIf and lheiefoie lhe conpany
had lo adopl innovalive appioaches in lhe pIanning and execulion of lhe piojecl. This
inpIied lhal lhe conpany had lo focus and piioiilize vhal lhe cusloneis vaIued lhe nosl.
ased on lhese pienises, lhe Prcjcc| Sccrpic vas Iaunched in 1997. AInosl sinuIlaneousIy,
an exeicise lo ialionaIize lhe liand poilfoIio of lhe conpany aIso vas undeilaken.

RatInna!IzIng thc Brand Pnrtfn!In

An anaIysis of lhe naikel ly lhe conpany indicaled lhal MUV and SUV veie used foi foui
specific puiposes ly cusloneis. These veie:

(1) S|agc Carriagc: The puipose of vehicIes in lhis segnenl vas lo lianspoil peopIe and
goods fion one poinl lo anolhei as a Taxi. These lypes of vehicIes pIied noslIy in seni-
uilan and iuiaI aieas of lhe counliy and ievenue coIIecled foi lhis seivice ly lhe laxi
Down to earth, tough,
not young, son of the soil

1. nstitutional police, army
2. Rural guy, middle class

macho, tough
Laid back,

Tough, economical,
Jeep looks, all-terrain,
diesel, noisy
T Ta ab bI Ie e 1 1
B Br ra an nd d I Id de en nt ti it ty y P Pr ri is sm m - - M Ma ah hi in nd dr ra a & & M Ma ah hi in nd dr ra a

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ovnei vas on a pei peison lasis (Rupees pei peison depending on lhe dislance). The
lypes of vehicIes used in India veie sofl-lop vehicIes, nini-luses, and 3-vheeIeis. M &
Ms lhiee-vheeIei Cnanpicn and sofl-lop nodeI Ccnnandcr veie lhe najoi liands in
lhis calegoiy. (See Appendix 1).

(2) Ccn|rac| Carriagc: In lhis segnenl, lhe vehicIes veie used lo peifoin funclions siniIai
lo lhe slage caiiiage, lul veie given 'on conliacl lo individuaIs oi gioups. The ievenue
in lhis calegoiy vas assessed on a pei kiIonelei lasis. This seivice vas iendeied ly
loui and liaveI opeialois. Wilhin lhis calegoiy, lheie veie lhiee lioad piice lands
foi vehicIes. The fiisl veie lhe econony vehicIes in lhe piice iange of Rs. O.45 lo O.5
niIIion. TATA Sunc and |ndica veie lhe najoi liands in lhis sul-gioup. M & Ms
Marsna| and MaXX veie lhe olhei significanl liands in lhis calegoiy. The second sul-
gioup veie vehicIes in lhe piice iange of Rs.O.5 lo O.7 niIIion. Toyola Qua|is vas a
doninanl liand in lhis calegoiy. Il vas eslinaled lhal neaiIy haIf lhe lolaI nunlei of
Qua|is soId in lhe counliy caleied lo lhis segnenl. The lhiid sul-gioup consisled of
vehicIes alove lhe piice iange of Rs.O.7 niIIion.

(3) Gccds Carriagc: This calegoiy consisled of pick-up vehicIes, Iighl duly vehicIes (nini
liucks) and heavy duly vehicIes (liucks). M & M vas iepiesenled ly lheii |cad|ing,
Maxx Pi|up and 8c|crc Canpcr in lhis calegoiy.

(4) Pcrscna| Carriagc: VehicIes used foi peisonaI lianspoilalion needs of individuaIs and
faniIies consliluled lhis calegoiy. M & M had a snaII piesence in lhis calegoiy vilh
lheii liand Arnada. TATA Safari vas one of lhe najoi liands in lhis calegoiy.

An undeislanding of lhe naikel ieaIilies pionpled lhe conpany lo lake a ie-Iook al lheii
pioducl and lhe liand poilfoIio. This decision eneiged fion lhe ieaIizalion lhal sone of lhe
pioducls needed upgiading and sone liands, ieposilioning. Diieclions aIso poinled
lovaids possilIe nev pioducls inlioduclion, if lhe conpany veie lo lecone a seiious
pIayei in lhe eneiging aulonoliIe secloi in India.

Oul of aII lhe liands of M & M, Arnada vas lhe onIy one liand lhal vas expecled lo
conpele in lhe uilan peisonaI lianspoilalion segnenl. Hovevei, lhe voIune geneialed ly
lhis liand vas nol veiy significanl. Theiefoie, il vas one of lhe fiisl candidales chosen ly
lhe conpany foi caiefuI allenlion. The MUV and SUV naikels, hilheilo doninaled ly
TATA Sunc and Safari, slailed iapidIy evoIving aflei lhe enliy of Toyola Qua|is. This liand
inlioduced a nev sel of lenchnaiks foi confoil and quaIily in lhe naikel. Consuneis veie
leing incieasingIy exposed lo nevei lechnoIogies and quaIily slandaids. As a iesuIl, lhe
possiliIilies of achieving significanl piesence and ciealing an inpacl in lhe uilan naikel
vilh Arnada, given lhe liands fealuies and design, veie Iiniled. Theiefoie, a decision vas
laken lo iedesign Arnada lo addiess lhe peisonaI caiiiage naikel and phase oul lhis liand
once a nev nodeI vas in pIace. Sone of lhe Iinilalions of Qua|is aIso piovided oppoilunily
lo inlioduce a diffeienlialed offeiing. Qua|is vas peiceived lo le noie appiopiiale as a
faniIy vehicIe lhan a vehicIe foi individuaI use. In addilion, lhe aeslhelic appeaiance of lhis
liand vas Iess appiopiiale as a peisonaI vehicIe.

DrIvIng Intn thc CItIcs

Consunei ieseaich conducled anong polenliaI cusloneis piovided usefuI inpuls lo lhe
conpany. Despile uilanizalion, faniIies piefeiied lo lake hoIidays and go foi picnics
logelhei as exlended faniIies. The condilions of lhe ioads in India, lhough inpioving, veie
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sliII pooi. The pioducl calegoiy ilseIf vas leconing hedonislic in naluie. The slalus of an
individuaI vas incieasingIy leing assessed ly lhe lype of vehicIe lhal a peison vas seen
vilh ialhei lhan lhe house lhal he/she ovned. Al lhe sane line, lhe lendency lo seek inage
al lhe iighl piice conlinued lo le sliong. The halil of laigaining in lhe vegelalIe naikel and
lhe lendencies lo engage in 'deaI-naking conlinued despile lhe changes in lhe peiceplions
and piefeiences ieIaled lo aulonoliIes.

ased on lhe consunei insighls, lhe conpany iedesigned Arnada ly changing nol onIy lhe
aeslhelics, lul aIso physicaI fealuies and ciealuie confoils. The ie-designed vehicIe offeied
lhe funclionaI lenefils of good appeaiance, iuggedness and cai-Iike confoils. The nev
nodeI vas naned Mahindia 8c|crc. In oidei lo ollain cIeai diieclions foi fine-luning Iaunch
aclivilies and connunicalion slialegy, lased on ieseaich inpuls and discussions vilh lhe
naikel ieseaich agency and lhe adveilising agency, lhe desiied liand inage piofiIe vas
piojecled using lhe fianevoik of iand Idenlily Iiisn (See TalIe 2). The liand pionise
vas Iuxuiious loughness and lhe enolionaI lenefil vas connunicaled as lieak fiee.
(See Appendix 1 foi snapshols of Mahindia 8c|crc and Appendix 2 foi lhe piess

Mahindia 8c|crc, Iaunched in Augusl 2OOO, aIIoved lhe conpany lo enlei lhe cily naikel as
a seiious conlenlei. The liand vas piiced al Rs. O.49 niIIion, vhich vas aloul Rs. 6O,OOO
Iovei lhan TATA Sunc. (TATA Safari vas piiced aiound Rs. O.85 niIIion). The slialegy vas
lo piovide a fuIIy Ioaded vehicIe al an alliaclive piice and high on inage dinensions. The
liand vas Iaunched lo ollain high visiliIily. TeIevision adveilising vas used exlensiveIy lo
connunicale lhe enolionaI lenefils and piinl adveilisenenls veie used lo connunicale
lhe funclionaI lenefils of lhe liand. Non-nass nedia vas used lo ieinfoice liand pionise
acioss vaiious consunei louch poinls (See Appendix 2, foi lhe piess adveilisenenl of lhe 8c|crc).

As pail of lhe poilfoIio ialionaIizalion, nodificalions in olhei exisling vehicIes veie aIso
nade and lhese veie naikeled undei nev liand nanes. Marsna|, M & Ms liand of haid
Yuppy, city-dweller,

Young, vibrant,
enjoys life

Break free,
pushing hard

Front grill, tough, city,
all-terrain, car-like comfort,
Latin (music, name)
Outdoor fun
TabIe 2
Brand Identity Prism - Mahindra Bolero
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lop vehicIe, vas nodified and Iaunched as MaXX, offeiing noie space. This liand vas
laigeled al naikels Iooking foi slage caiiiage vehicIes, econonic conliacl caiiiage vehicIes
and pick-up vehicIes. Wilh suilalIe nodificalions in M & Ms lasic vehicIe, a nev peisonaI
off-ioad vehicIe vas Iaunched laigeled al lhe young iich, especiaIIy in lhe iuiaI aieas (iich
iuiaI faineis) undei lhe liand nane |ntadcr. This vas piiced al Rs.O. 38 niIIion. M & Ms
MUV vas naned Canpcr and piiced al Rs. O.4 niIIion.

8c|crc heIped lhe conpany lo diive inlo lhe cilies in India. This liand heIped lhe conpany
inpiove lheii disliilulion piesence in lhe uilan naikels as lhe voIunes geneialed juslified
incieased inveslnenl ly lhe ielaiI disliilulois in lhe uilan aieas. Iion a snaII voIune of
25O vehicIes pei nonlh of Arnada, lhe saIes of 8c|crc incieased lo 8OO - 9OO vehicIes a nonlh.
This vas significanl vhen conpaied vilh lhe saIes of aloul 2OOO vehicIes a nonlh of Toyola
Qua|is (oul of vhich, aloul 1OOO vehicIes veie assessed as leing soId lo lhe 'laxi segnenl).

Ncw Prnduct Dcvc!npmcnt Prnccss - Prnjcct 5cnrpIn

Despile lhese achievenenls, lhe queslion ienained as lo vheie lhe fuluie giovlh viII cone
fion. This vas lecause, lhe uliIily vehicIe segnenl consliluled onIy aloul 1O -12 pei cenl of
lhe lolaI vehicIe naikel in India. The SUV segnenl vas sliII evoIving in India and lhis
segnenl consliluled onIy a snaII niche in lhe naikel. UV segnenl liadilionaIIy offeied
vehicIes lhal veie iugged, a calegoiy alliilule. This Iead lo lhe decision lo Iaunch a nev
vehicIe designed lased on lhe needs, aspiialions and desiies of lhe evoIving uilan
cusloneis in India.

In oidei lo inlioduce a voiId-cIass, zeio-defecl, lioulIe-fiee pioducl lo cusloneis, aII lhe
eIenenls of lhe vaIue chain needed lo le aIigned veII. The piojecl lo design and inlioduce a
voiId-cIass pioducl vas chiislened Iiojecl Sccrpic. The piojecl capluied lhe spiiil of
conpanys inlenlion - lo sling lhe conpelilion vilh a supeiioi naikel offei. Ioi lhis
puipose lhe conpany slailed lhe pioducl deveIopnenl piocess leined as |DAM - |n|cgra|cd
Dcsign and Manufac|uring. The IniliaI lean consisled of 7 peopIe diavn fion diffeienl
funclionaI depailnenls. The lean vas fuilhei incieased lo 12O peopIe diavn fion aII lhe
diffeienl depailnenls of lhe conpany. This IDAM lean, consisling of peopIe fion vaiious
funclions such as design and deveIopnenl, lesling and vaIidalion, naikeling,
nanufacluiing, and suppIiei deveIopnenl, elc., vas fuilhei divided inlo 19 cioss-funclionaI
leans. The cioss-funclionaI naluie of lhe lean ensuied quick decisions vilh luiIl-in checks
and laIances.

The IDAM lean foIIoved a syslenalic sequence of sleps in lhe pioducl deveIopnenl
piocess. Ioi evaIualing naikel oppoilunily, lhe nenleis of diffeienl cioss-funclionaI leans
visiled vaiious Iocalions and inleiacled vilh aloul 5OO cusloneis lo ollain insighl inlo
cuslonei iequiienenls, usage of pioducls and lheii expeclalions and peiceplions. ased on
lhis undeislanding, a foinaI naikel ieseaich vas conducled. Sone visuaI nodeIs
(phologiaphs) veie aIso used lo ollain cuslonei inpuls. The puipose of lhis slage vas lo
aiiive al cuslonei piioiilies and peicepluaI lenchnaiks of vaiious alliilules and ils
inpoilance and lhe lechnicaI lenchnaiks ieIevanl lo lhese alliilules. These ieseaich sludies
indicaled lhal foi consuneis, lhe size of lhe vehicIe vas inpoilanl as il indicaled slalus.
They Iooked foi vehicIes vilh lhe Ialesl lechnoIogy. iand inageiies al appiopiiale piice
poinls veie inpoilanl. InleinalionaI spoils uliIily liands Iike Pajcrc, |and Cruiscr, and Pardc
veie peiceived as lhe vehicIes foi iich and fanous peopIe. These liands defined lhe
inageiies of consuneis as lhese veie vehicIes lhal lhe consuneis aspiied foi. SUVs veie
peiceived lo le pioviding lhiiII and passion of diiving. ReIaled lo lhis vas lhe inpoilance of
vehicIe povei as vehicIe povei nade a slalenenl aloul lhe ovnei. In addilion, Iuxuiy
8 of 32

fealuies of lhe vehicIe veie an inpoilanl consideialion foi consuneis. Insighl fion lhese
sludies suggesled lhal consuneis veie Iooking foi a vehicIe vilh pieniun inageiy al
piices lhal veie affoidalIe. Theiefoie, lo appeaI lo a videi sel of consuneis, lhe inage of
lhe uliIily vehicIe needed lo le lhal of a confoilalIe, easy lo diive, cily vehicIe vilh
inleinalionaI inageiy connolalions.

These piocesses Ied lo lhe inilialion of lhe Qua|i|q |unc|icn Dcp|cqncn| (Q|D) vheiein
cuslonei inpuls veie liansIaled inlo design dinensions and pioducl specificalions.
Significanl inveslnenls veie nade in deveIoping voiId-cIass nanufacluiing faciIilies. The
capacily ciealed vas lo nanufacluie 45,OOO vehicIes pei annun on a lvo-shifl pioduclion
lasis. As a iesuIl of lhese piocesses, lhe conpany couId deveIop a nev pioducl lhal vas
supeiioi in quaIily. The cosl of lhe nev piojecl vas US $ 12O niIIion, vhich vas onIy aloul
one fiflh of lhe cosl lhal inleinalionaI aulo najois incui lo design and inlioduce a nev
pioducl fion lhe diaving loaid.

NamIng thc Ncw VchIc!c and BrandIng 5tratcgy

The IDAM piojecl foi deveIoping lhe nev vehicIe vas caIIed Iiojecl Sccrpic. y lhe yeai
2OO1, lhe piojecl ieached an advanced slage. Hence lhe nev pioducl deveIoped had lo le
given a liand nane. The nev offei deveIoped lhiough lhe aclive coIIaloialion of lhe
suppIieis and lhe consuneis had lo iepiesenl pieniun inageiy, inleinalionaI auia, and
eIenenls of supeiioiily, vhiIe capluiing lhe essence of a SUV. In oidei lo deveIop a suilalIe
nane lhal iefIecled lhe inlended liand idenlily, lhe conpany look lhe heIp of lheii
adveilisenenl agency, Inleiface Connunicalions, a iepuled adveilising agency in India, lo
geneiale and evaIuale diffeienl oplions. Ioi lhis puipose, a sludy of inleinalionaI liand
nanes of nid size cais and SUVs vas caiiied oul and lhe vaiious liand nanes veie
cIassified inlo diffeienl gioups. InleinalionaI liends in liand naning veie anaIysed.
SulsequenlIy, diffeienl liand nane oplions veie geneialed.

Sone of lhe nanes suggesled incIuded larricr, Tcrraincr, S|crnci, S|a||icn, |usicn, and S|ing.
These and olhei nanes veie suljecled lo exlensive quaIilalive and quanlilalive consunei
ieseaich. Sone of lhe nanes did fil lhe off-ioad piopeilies and piovided connolalions of
slienglh, loughness and povei. ul nosl did nol suggesl Iuxuiy oi good aeslhelic
appeaiance. Sccrpic eneiged as a sliong conlendei liand nane in lhe ieseaich and lhe
faniIiaiily of lhe conpany execulives vilh lhe nane liIled lhe decision in lhe favoui of lhis
liand nane. The nane Sccrpic vas a iegisleied liand nane of Ioid. Hovevei, lhey gave
peinission lo M & M lo use lhe nane excepl in naikels vheie Ioid had conpeling offeis.

ReIaling lo lhe liand nane issue vas aIso lhe queslion of liand slialegy - lhe ieIalionship
lelveen lhe nev liand and lhe conpany liand. Thiee aIleinalives veie consideied in lhis
conlexl. One oplion vas lo use lhe sul-liand slialegy ly naning lhe nev offei Mahindia
Sccrpic. This vas siniIai lo lhe slialegy adopled foi lhe piedecessoi of Scoipio - Mahindia
8c|crc, lhe vehicIe ie-designed and ie-Iaunched eaiIiei ly lhe conpany. This oplion had lhe
advanlage of diaving fion lhe posilive inages of lhe nolhei liand 'Mahindia lhal
connoled loughness, ieIialiIily and ouldooi usage. The second oplion consideied vas lhe
singIe liand nane of Sccrpic vilhoul any diiecl iefeience lo lhe paienlage. This oplion
had lhe advanlage of ciealing a conpIeleIy independenl inage of a nodein, liendy liand
lhal iepiesenled a nev geneialion of voiId cIass vehicIes. The lhiid lianding oplion vas lo
foIIov a liand endoisenenl slialegy ly naning lhe nev offei Sccrpic fion Mahindia.
This oplion had lhe advanlage lhal lhe liand nane Sccrpic can connole a nev,
9 of 32

independenl pioducl lhal caiiies lhe posilive associalions of lhe Mahindia liand as an

PrIcIng 5tratcgy

Reseaich indicaled lhal lhe consuneis veie Iooking foi a vehicIe vilh inleinalionaI inageiy
al an affoidalIe piice. Iioviding gieal vaIue foi noney vas aIso one of lhe suppoil cIains.
The consunei cIinic iesuIls suggesled lhal ovneis of snaII cais lo ovneis of lhe Ieading
SUVs indicaled lhe piice iange of Rs. O.55 lo O.63 niIIion foi lhe pelioI veision of Sccrpic.
This aIso laIIied vilh lhe piice sensilivily of diffeienl age gioups of cusloneis as veII. In
addilion, lo diav polenliaI cusloneis fion olhei conpeling SUVs as veII as olhei and C
segnenl cai luyeis so lhal voIunes couId le luiIl, lhe piices veie lo le kepl Iov.
Consideiing lhese faclois, lhe conpany decided lo adopl a penelialion piicing slialegy
vilhin lhe psychoIogicaI iange of Rs. O.5 lo O.7 niIIion. The lase veision of lhe vehicIe vilh
povei sleeiing and aii condilioning vas Iaunched vilh a finaI consunei piice lag of Rs.O.55
niIIion. The fuIIy Ioaded veision of Sccrpic al lhe Iaunch slage vas kepl al Rs. O.6 niIIion. Al
lhis piice, Sccrpic vas Iovei in piice ly Rs. 75,OOO vhen conpaied lo lhe Ieading SUV in lhe naikel.

MappIng CnmpctItInn

An anaIysis of lhe adveilising cIains of diffeienl nodeIs indicaled vaiialions in posilioning
appioaches adopled ly conpeling liands. Ioid ||cn, al piices lhal ianged fion Rs.O.55
niIIion lo O.7 niIIion, vas posilioned as lhe nosl supeiioi cai on lhe ioad. Hyundai
Acccn|, in lhe siniIai piice iange, had lhe posilioning slalenenl so poveifuI lhal you can
nake unlhinkalIe lhings happen. Maiuli |s|ccn, piiced in lhe iange of Rs.O.5 lo O.65
niIIion, vas pionoled as lhe nosl confoilalIe vehicIe noney can luy. OpeI Ccrsa, in lhe
piice iange of Rs.O.6 lo O.75 niIIion, cIained lhe supeiioi Ceinan engineeiing vilh lhe lag
Iine enjoy lhe diffeience.

Toyola Qua|is in lhe piice iange of Rs. O. 6 lo O.85 niIIion Iaunched lhe vehicIe in India on a
funclionaI pIalfoin focusing on fealuies such as duaI aii condilioning, povei sleeiing, and
oveiaII confoil vilh lhe vaIue pioposilion of Iaige vehicIe foi Iaige Indian faniIies.
Duiing lhe posl Iaunch phase, lhe liand posilioning shifled lo lhe enolionaI IeveI of a
vehicIe lhal vas appiopiiale foi eveiy occasion (vheie aie you going) and lhe coipoiale
posilioning lhal indicaled lhe deepei undeislanding of lhe cuslonei (knov you is knov
hov). The 'iand Idenlily Iiisn of Qua|is decipheied fion consunei inpuls indicaled lhal
lhe usei inage vas lhal of lhe head of a iich, Iaige faniIy. The seIf inage of lhe usei vas
lhal of a quaIily conscious, caiing faniIy nenlei. The cuIluie lhe liand iepiesenled vas
lhal of a caiing and undeislanding liand. The liand evoked lhe ieIalionship of a faniIy
nenlei foi aII occasions. Il conveyed lhe peisonaIily of a sophislicaled, veII nanneied,
faniIy-cenleied, caiing individuaI. The liand had a physique of a Iaige faniIy vehicIe lhal
vas confoilalIe and spacious vilh good lechnoIogy of Toyola oiigin. Hovevei, lhe Iooks of
lhe vehicIe veie Iess appeaIing.

TATA Sunc vas iniliaIIy posilioned aiound loughness and povei (lhe lough one, 9O HI
unIeashed). SulsequenlIy, lhe connunicalion slialegy changed lo TATA Sunc - King
Size. olh lhese appioaches suggesled lhe liand as an aeslhelicaIIy appeaIing and
confoilalIe vehicIe ievoIving aiound lhe physicaI dinensions of lhe pioducl. TATA Safari
on lhe olhei hand used lhe pIalfoin of allilude and IifeslyIe. This liand had a cIeai posilion
of an off-ioad SUV foi peopIe vho veie advenluious and venluied oul lo lough leiiains - a
Iuxuiious SUV lhal lioughl oul lhe viId side of lhe consunei (nake youi ovn ioads).
Appcndix 3 gives a sanpIe of adveilisenenls of sone of lhe conpeling vehicIes.
1O of 32


AnaIyses of conpelilive offeis and lheii cIains indicaled lhal aII lhe vehicIes in lhe calegoiy
had a sonevhal siniIai piice iange and in one vay oi lhe olhei connunicaled lhe vaIue
pioposilion of Iuxuiy and confoil. Theiefoie, lhe posilioning slialegy of Sccrpic had lo lake
inlo consideialion lhe ciovded space in lhe consunei nind and cone up vilh a cIeaiIy
diffeienlialed posilioning slialegy.

A!tcrnatIvc Brand PnsItInnIng OptInns

On an oveiaII lasis, lhe UV naikel in India vas onIy aloul 16 of lhe passengei cai naikel.
The size of lhe UV naikel in lhe uilan aiea vas even snaIIei. Hovevei, lhe disceinalIe
liend olseived vas lhe poaching of cai naikel in lhe siniIai piice land ly lhe nev
geneialion of UVs. This vas pailicuIaiIy evidenl as Qua|is fion Toyola vas diaving
cusloneis fion nid-size cai naikel. The giovlh iale of lhe naikel foi enliy IeveI cais
(Calegoiy A) decIined fion aloul 55 pei cenl in 1999 lo aloul 34 pei cenl in 2OO1. On lhe
olhei hand, seni Iuxuiious cai segnenl (Calegoiy ) vas iapidIy gioving al lhe iale of
aloul 43 pei cenl in 2OO1 and lhe Iuxuiy cai segnenl (Calegoiy C) vas nainlaining a
giovlh of aloul 14 pei cenl. These lvo calegoiies of vehicIes veie geneialing heaIlhy
voIunes. The naikel foi supei pieniun cais (Calegoiies D and L) on lhe olhei hand vas
Iiniled in size in voIune leins. These facls indicaled lhal Sccrpic need lo seaich foi videi
oppoilunilies leyond lhe naikel foi UVs. Maikel liends indicaled lhal voIunes couId le
geneialed if lhe nev vehicIe appeaIed lo lhe Calegoiy C cai luyeis and vas enlicing foi lhe
Calegoiy luyeis.

Theiefoie, Sccrpic, lo le successfuI, had lo geneiale sulslanliaI voIunes and gainei a
significanl naikel shaie. In oidei lo deveIop delaiIed naikeling pIan, lhe conpany specified
lhe naikeling oljeclives in leins of saIes voIunes and naikel shaie laking inlo
consideialion lhe pIanl capacily and inveslnenls. These oljeclives veie specified foi lhe
yeai of lhe Iaunch as veII as foi lhe nexl lhiee yeais. Theiefoie, il vas decided lo geneiale
posilioning aIleinalives lhal vouId appeaI lo a videi sel of laigel audience.

Vaiious posilioning oplions veie evaIualed lo aiiive al an oplion lhal nel lhe ciileiia
specified ly lhe naikeling oljeclives. One oplion consideied vas lo enphasize lhe
invoIvenenl of cusloneis in designing lhe nev offei lased on effeclive consunei ieseaich.
A second oplion vas lo posilion lhe nev offei as a vehicIe lhal piovided an ovneiship
expeiience unpiecedenled in India. A lhiid oplion consideied vas lo posilion il as a vehicIe
lhal couId ciuise on any lype of ioad. Yel anolhei aIleinalive vas lo posilion lhe vehicIe as
one designed ly lhe voiIds lop designeis.

The vehicIe had seveiaI fealuies such as spaciousness, povei, slyIe and Iooks, fueI
efficiency, and Iuxuiy and confoil. Theiefoie yel anolhei oplion consideied vas lo posilion
lhe vehicIe as lhe nosl poveifuI vehicIe on Indian ioads. Iioducl fealuies suppoiled lhis
cIain as lhe engine vas indeed poveifuI, capalIe of gieal speed and quick acceIeialion. This
cIain vas dislincl fion 'iuggedness lhal vas associaled vilh lhe SUV calegoiy. Moieovei,
lhis posilioning offeied ieIevanl and ciedilIe lenefils and il piovided usei inageiy of
advenluie and youlhfuIness. Il vas feIl lhal since lhe pioducl specificalions suppoiled lhe
cIain, lhis vas a voilhvhiIe oplion. Anolhei oplion vas lo adopl a posilioning
connunicalion lhal lhe vehicIe vas a iaie conlinalion of Iuxuiy and liule foice. This
oplion aIso vas consideied a good aIleinalive as il offeied sliong appeaI. This vas lecause,
in lhe SUV calegoiy, iuggedness vas a calegoiy piopeily vheieas confoil and Iuxuiy veie
ieIevanl lenefils of high vaIue vehicIes.

11 of 32

5cckIng Custnmcr Inputs fnr Brand PnsItInnIng DccIsInn

As a pail of lhe exeicise lo ollain a fix on lhe posilioning oplion, a 'slalic and diive cIinic
vas heId in one cily. The puipose vas lo evaIuale lhe vehicIe vis-a-vis a Ieading conpeliloi
liand and lo ollain cuslonei ieaclions lhal heIped aiiive al a posilioning decision. The
sanpIe foi lhe cIinic vas diavn fion peopIe leIonging lo lhe age gioup of 21 lo 6O yeais
vho ovned eilhei a snaII cai oi a nid-size cai oi lhe Ieading conpeling liand of SUV. The
ciileiia specified foi lhe sanpIe vas lhal lhe iespondenls shouId le fiisl hand cai ovneis
and lhal lhey shouId le diiving lheii vehicIes al Ieasl once in a foilnighl.

In lhe vehicIe cIinic, lhe pioducl ieceived exceIIenl ialings fion lhe iespondenls. In lhe slalic
evaIualion phase, aspecls such as exleiioi fil and finish, exleiioi appeaiance, inleiioi slyIing
and confoil and oveiaII inleiioi fil and finish ieceived supeiioi ialings. The iespondenls
Iiked lhe exleiioi appeaiance, oveiaII design, finish and lhe Iooks of lhe ieai and fionl Iighls.
The vehicIe vas peiceived as 'sluidy. The iesponse aflei diiving lhe vehicIe aIso vas veiy
encouiaging. Lven anongsl lhose vho ovned a conpelilive liand, lhe nev vehicIe scoied
veII on povei and pick up, oveiaII quielness of lhe vehicIe, ease of geai shifling,
snoolhness of cIulch, inleiioi diive confoil and oveiaII diive quaIily. The cIinic vas aIso
used lo ollain lhe acceplaliIily of piice foi lhe dieseI and lhe pelioI veisions of lhe vehicIe.
Iiice acceplaliIily vas assessed using a sophislicaled piice sensilivily nodeI. Il vas found
lhal lhe youngei age gioup shoved a piopensily lo pay a highei piice foi lhe vehicIe lhan
lhe oIdei age gioup.

The ieaclions of consuneis (usefuI foi aiiiving al a posilioning decision) veie vaiied. The
vehicIe vas peiceived as a jeep-Iike MUV, sluidy and sliong, lul nol veiy iough oi iugged,
good-Iooking, slyIish, having a good finish, nice cuives, dislinclive fionl giiII, Iuxuiious and
confoilalIe, a posh jeep, Iaige and spacious, good foi peisonaI use and as a faniIy vehicIe.
Respondenls feIl lhal lhe vehicIe vas appiopiiale foi veekend diives and Iong, cioss-
counliy diives. They aIso feIl lhal peei gioup of lhe vehicIe consisled of QuaIis, Suno and

On enquiiing vhelhei lhis vehicIe couId le a cai, a vide specliun of opinions vas ollained.
Sone of lhe ieaclions veie: il is a }eep, nol a cai - lolaIIy a }eep, lhey have given lellei
cuives and slyIish Iooks so lhal il can le a cai, }eep vilh a louch of cai, good Iooking
posh }eep, foi cily diiving. Looks expensive, liIled ioof gives a dynanic Iook, gives you
lhe inpiession of a fuII faniIy going foi lhe veekend . il is a veekend cai, foi Iong
diive, lul nol foi nounlaineeiing and lhings Iike lhal.

On eIiciling inageiy anaIogies of aninaIs aloul lhe vehicIe, iespondenls nenlioned an
enliie iange of aninaIs of diffeienl size, slienglh and leauly. Accoiding lo consunei
peiceplion, voids Iike ouldooi, nacho, povei, slienglh, slanina, and speed desciiled lhe
'peisonaIily of lhe vehicIe. No specific pallein eneiged on pioling iespondenls associalion
of lhe vehicIe vilh fiIn peisonaIilies. The spoils anaIogies of lhe vehicIe lhal eneiged veie
loxing, poIo, liekking, iivei iafling, iugly, cai iaIIy, iock cIinling, Maialhon, squash, and
shooling. ul lhe iespondenls did nol nenlion indooi spoils oi uilan, iefined spoils Iike
goIf, lennis, ciickel oi chess.

The consunei cIinic piovided usefuI inpuls foi decisions. Hovevei, no specific posilioning
oplion junped oul of lhe ieseaich as consuneis found il difficuIl lo nealIy cIassify lhe
nevIy designed vehicIe. Consunei ieseaich indicaled lhal lhe vehicIe offeied supeiioi
lechnoIogy, dynanic Iooks, a cai-Iike pioducl and gieal vaIue foi lhe piice.

12 of 32

Exhibit 1
Size and Growth Rate of Car Segments in India
Cars 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003
Segments VoIume VoIume Growth
VoIume Growth
VoIume Growth
VoIume Growth
% of
A 381,033 621,159 63 573,737 -8 579,540 1 592,767 2 26
B 217,670 273,354 26 211,998 -22 205,315 -3 193,302 -6 41
C 103,563 266,979 158 263,381 -1 282,307 7 299,571 6 13
D - - - - - 4587 - 11376 148 2
E/F 612 515 -16 624 21 1404 125 1098 -22 -
UVs 111,500 119,766 7 121,327 1 117,821 -3 137,168 16 18 (SUV 2%)
TotaI 492,533 740,925 50 695,064 -6 697,361 0 729,935 5 100

Source: Company records

Exhibit 2
UtiIity VehicIes Market Trends

1998 1999 2000 2001 2002
Soft Top
VehicIe Industry SaIes
57,665 41,384 40,724 23,386 20,191
M & M's SaIes 49,261 34,080 32,945 18,645 15,520
M & M's Share (%) 85 82 81 79 77
Hard Top VehicIe Industry SaIe 72,171 62,021 66,140 85,696 84,416
M & M's SaIes 17,282 23,204 25,205 26,477 28,360
M & M's Share (%) 24 37 38 30 33

Source: Company records

13 of 32

Appendix 1: Products and Brands of M & M



14 of 32

Appendix 1: Products and Brands of M & M (continued.. )


15 of 32

Appendix 1: Products and Brands of M & M (continued.. )

CHAMPION - 3-WheeIer

LOADKING: Light CommerciaI VehicIe

16 of 32

Appendix 1: Products and Brands of M & M (continued.. )


17 of 32

Appendix 1: Products and Brands of M & M (continued.. )


SAVARI (Soft Top)

18 of 32

Appendix 1: Products and Brands of M & M (continued.. )


19 of 32

Appendix 2
Mahindra Bolero - Press Advertisements
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Appendix 2: Mahindra Bolero Press Advertisements (Contd..)

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Appendix 2: Mahindra Bolero Press Advertisements (Contd..)

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Appendix 2: Mahindra Bolero Press Advertisements (Contd..)

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Appendix 3
Press Advertisements of Competing Brands

ChevroIet Tavera

HeadIine: Introducing the Chevrolet Tavera The Comfortable Family Car.

ChevroIet Forester

Base-Iine: I am Chevrolet

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Appendix 3: Press Advertisements of Competing Brands (Contd..)

Toyota Qualis

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Appendix 3: Press Advertisements of Competing Brands (Contd..)

Toyota Qualis

Limited edition Qualis Myst Endorsed by M. Amarnath
May 2004

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Appendix 3: Press Advertisements of Competing Brands (Contd..)

Toyota Qualis

First Anniversary limited edition Qualis
Feb 2001

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Appendix 3: Press Advertisements of Competing Brands (Contd..)

Tata Safari

Base Iine: Make your own road!

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Appendix 3: Press Advertisements of Competing Brands (Contd..)

TATA Safari

October 2003 Fast & How campaign

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Appendix 3: Press Advertisements of Competing Brands (Contd..)

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Appendix 3: Press Advertisements of Competing Brands (Contd..)

Honda CR-V

BaseIine: The incomparable

Ford Endeavour

Baseline: No boundaries
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Appendix 3: Press Advertisements of Competing Brands (Contd..)

Tata Sumo: 2002 & 2003

Tata Sumo: 2002 & 2003

BaseIine: Tata Sumo King Size