ENGLISH IN CONTEXT 2N BATXILLERAT

UNIT 1: DEFINING AND NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES
DEFINING: No porten comes, el WHO i el WHICH es poden sustituir per THAT. I es pot omitir el relatiu (WHICH; WHO o THAT) quan darrere del relatiu hi ha un pronom personal o el nom d´una persona. Ex: This is the boy (who/that) I told you about yesterday. NON-DEFINING: Porten comes, donen informació extra. El relatiu no es pot sustiuir mai per that i tampoc es pot omitir Ex: Mr Brown, who is a famous scientist, discovered the new treatment.

ADJECTIVE, VERB AND NOUN PREFIXES
PREFIX MEANING EXAMPLES

AntiCoMisOutOverReUnder-

Anti-war anti-learning Cooperation, coeducational, coexist Wrongly / equivocat Misprint, misbehave, misunderstand Better than / millor que Outplay, outrun Too much / massa Overwork, overcharge, overconfident Do again / Fer de nou Rewrite, retake Not enough / no fer Underachieve, suficient undercook, underestimate

Against / en contra Together / junts

FALSE FRIENDS

Advise Attend Career College

recommend be present at Series of jobs
A place where you can continue to study after you’ve finished school

Donar consell Assistir Carrera professional Institut de formació

Lecture Library Realize Success

Talks on a particular Classe magistral subjects A place which lend you Biblioteca books Understand, be aware Adonar-se’n of Achievement Exit, assoliment

UNIT 2: MODAL VERBS A) Present: MODAL VERB + INFINITIVE: Obligation: MUST, HAVE TO, NEED TO You must arrive on time. People have to be fit if they want to climb high mountains. She needs to buy a ticket to enter the museum. Certainty: MUST That tennis player must be very good. He has won ten tournaments. Prohibition: MUSTN`T You mustn’t smoke at school. No necessity: DON’T HAVE TO, NEEDN’T They don’t have to come if they don’t want to. We needn’t take any food; they have already bought everything we need.

Permission: CAN. B) Past: MODAL VERB + HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE Possibility: COULD. he didn’t dance Certainty: MUST She must have passed her exam. I could write poetry when I was nine! In the future. MIGHT I’m not sure. Not possible: CAN’T She can’t be English. . Possibility: MAY. COULD They may/might explain the reason why they are late. or you’ll fail the exam. BE ALLOWED TO Can I leave the room. you never know! My mum can/could cook something for dinner. Not possible: CAN’T Tony can’t have liked the music. HAD BETTER I think you should/ought to. MAY. BE ABLE TO Tom can swim very fast.Advice: OUGHT TO. She’s got American accent. MIGHT. shouldn’t/ought not to go to the doctor. but she could/might/may have left already. she looks really happy. My brother is furious! I’d better not go home! Ability: CAN. we aren’t/weren’t allowed to eat or drink in class. You might/may or might not/may not like it. people will be able to use mobile phones on a plane. COULD. please? Am I allowed to leave the room? At school. My friends and I have been able to keep in touch since we left school. SHOULD. You had better study. CAN.

unusual. Dishonesty.no ser honrat.incompatible Irrational.no ser lleial Illegal.que no es pot llegir Immature. I feel sick today! NEGATIVE PREFIXES DisDissaprove.Opinion or criticism: SHOULD. Illegible. Impolitemaleducat .immadur.il·legal.no estar d’acord amb. Imposibleimposible Incompatible.irresponsable Uncomfortable.irracional .incómode .inusual ILIm- InIrUn- PRASAL VERBS : RELATINSHIPS Ask out Chat up Fall for Fall out Get on Go out Demanar eixir Tirar-li els trastos a algú Enamorar-se Disgustar-se Portar-se bé Eixir . irresponsible. OUGHT TO Ramón should have bought more drinks for the party! I shouldn’t have drunk so much last night. Disloyalty.

Joan bought those shoes. We went to the beach despite the fact that it was cloudy. he can’t stop smoking. Linkers of purpose To/ in order to/in order not to so as to/ so as not to + inf. So/ so that + oració We hired a bike in order to tour the island. She went to bed early in order not to be tired. In spite of the nice weather we did not swim in the sea. In spite of the fact that it was a cloudy day we went to the beach. He took a book so that he could read on the Per per a Per per a .Grow apart Put up with Settle down Split up UNIT 3: LINKERS Linkers of contrast Althoug/though + oració Despite the fact that/ in spite of the fact that + oració Distanciar-se Suportar Posar arrels Acabar una relació Encara A pesar de Despite/ in spite of + nom/ gerundi/ pronom A pesar de Though he is a doctor. Despite being quite expensive.

que ....bus. It was such a beautiful landscape that I couldn’t stop taking photographs..... Linkers of reason As / since/ because + oració Because of Ja que / Perque Per culpa de As she was pregnant she couldn’t drink beer. que .... incont + that + oració Noun suffixes VERB Determine Endure Inspire Encourage Enjoy Imagine NOUN Determination Endurance Inspiration Encouragament Enjoyment Imagination ADJECTIVE Ambitious Able Tough Weak Violent Patient NOUN Ambition Ability Toughness Weakness Violence Patience . They were such nice people that I was delighted to stay with them. So + adv + that + Tan . que .... oració Such + a(n) + adj + Tan . Such + adj + nom Tan . We didn’t travel because of the bad weather. D) Linkers of result So+adj+ that + oració Tan .. The train was so slowly that we arrived late... nom+ that + oració Paul was so tall that he had a special bed. que .

Present Perfect Simple→ Past Perfect simple: “We have bought a book” They said that they had bought a book. Present Perfect Continuous→ Past perfect cont. She said that she lived in Paris. Present continuous→ Past continuous: “I am not writing today” He told me that he was not writing that day.: “I’ve been eating with Bob” She said that she had been eating with Bob.Perform Performance Cautious Happy Real Caution Happiness Reality Phrasal Verbs Break down Carry on Come across Get away Get back Head for Pick up See off Set off Take off Trencar-se Continuar Trobar-se amb Escapar Tornar Anar cap a Arreplegar Despedir a Eixir Despegar UNIT 4: REPORTED SPEECH A) STATEMENTS Present simple → Past simple: “I live in Paris”. Past Simple→ Past Perfect Simple: .

“He phoned me last night” She said that he had phoned her the night before. Future → Would: “We will be there at ten” They said they would be there at ten.The following month Last Tuesday. This week. Can → Could: “We can speak three languages” They said. Time expressions: Today.The Tuesday before These days.The day before Tonight. May → Might: “She may come tomorrow” He said that she might come the following day.Those days . They said they could speak three languages. She told me I had to do it then.The following day Yesterday.That week Next month. eat your food here” They told us. Past Continuous→ Past perfect continuous: “We were working very hard” They said they had been working very hard. B) “Do you speak English?” She wanted to know.That day Tomorrow. C) REPORTED COMMANDS: “Please. -They told us to eat our food there.That night B) REPORTED QUESTIONS: A) “Where are you leaving now?” He asked me. Must → Had to: “You must do it now” She told me. -He asked me where I was living then. She wanted to know if I spoke English.

Chocolates are being given. REPORTING VERBS: OFFER-oferir INVITE-convidar ADVISE-aconsellar SUGGEST-sugerir ORDER-ordenar INSIST-insistir REMIND-recordar ENCOURAGE-animar Compound nouns Care home. IS/ARE + BEING + PAST PARTICIPLE .residència Community service.advocat defensor CRIMINAL Robber Burglar Thief Mugger Shoplifter Kidnapper Vandal Murderer VERB Rob Burgle Steal Mug Shoplift Kidnap Vandalize Murder UNIT 5: THE PASSIVE Present Simple: She gives chocolates. Chocolates are given.servei comunitari CRIMES AND CRIMINALS CRIME Robbery Burglary Theft Mugging Shoplifting Kidnapping Vandalism Murder Traffic lights. -The teacher said not to talk in the exam.“Don’t talk in the exam” The teacher said. IS/ARE + PAST PARTICIPLE Present Continuous: She is giving chocolates.semàfor Defence lawyer.

Chocolates were given. Ex. . The prices are expected to get higher. HAD + BEEN + PAST PARTICIPLE Future: She will give chocolates. Chocolates will be given. Chocolates should be given. Chocolates must be given. WAS/WERE + BEING + PAST PARTICIPLE Past Perfect: She had given chocolates. SHOULD/MUST/MAY + BE + PAST PARTICIPLE . Chocolates had been given.Present Perfect: She has given chocolates.PASSIVE WITH REPORTING VERBS: A) SUBJECT + IS/ARE + PAST PARTICIPLE + TO + INF. B) IT + IS + PAST PARTICIPLE + THAT + SENTENCE Ex. She must give chocolates.TWO OBJECTS: Ex: The waiter gave us the bill. . WAS/WERE + PAST PARTICIPLE Past Continuous: She was giving chocolates.THE CAUSATIVE: HAVE/GET (en qualsevol temps verbal) + OBJECTE + PAST PART. HAVE/HAS + BEEN + PAST PARTICIPLE Past Simple: She gave chocolates. It is known that walking is healthy. 1) We were given the bill (by the waiter) 2) The bill was given to us (by the waiter) . Chocolates have been given. Ex: My father is getting/having his car repaired at the moment. Chocolates were being given. WILL + BE + PAST PARTICIPLE Modals: She should give chocolates.

Ex: Bob got/had his motorbike fixed yesterday. ADJECTIVE SUFFIXES NOUN Fashion Knowledge Love Child Self Effect Act Danger Hazard Adventure Harm Success Environment Nature +SUFFIX -able -able -able -ish -ish -ive -ive -ous -ous -ous -ful -ful -al -al ADJECTIVE Fashionable Knowledgeable Loveable Childish Selfish Effective Active Dangerous Hazardous Adventurous Harmful Successful Environmental Natural MEANING PHRASAL VERBS PHRASAL VERB Bring about Carry out Deal with Face up to MEANING: Make something happen (donar lloc a) To do something (dur a terme una cosa) Solve (resoldre) Accept and recognize something (fer cara a ) .Ex: My father will get/have his hair cut tomorrow.

Get across Look into Point out Put off Communicate (transmetre) Investigate Make something clear to other people (remarcar) Delay doing something (retardar) UNIT 6: FIRST CONDITIONAL: IF CLAUSE Present simple If my sister wins the race. MAIN CLAUSE Will/won’t + infinitive SECOND CONDITIONAL: IF CLAUSE Past simple If I were a famous singer. I would have many fans. Però només si . we will have a big party. MAIN CLAUSE Would/wouldn’t + infinitive THIRD CONDITIONAL: IF CLAUSE Past perfect If you had gone to the party... . you would have had a great time. (first conditional). MAIN CLAUSE Would/wouldn’t + have + past participle AS LONG AS / PROVIDING THAT They will win the match as long as/providing that they play well.

Encara que (first. WISH/ IF ONLY + WOULD + INFINITIVE I wish/ if only it would stop raining Quan ens queixem d’una situació o alguna cosa.EVEN IF I wouldn’t go to the party even if he had invited me.NOT / NOT UNLESS A no ser que. Quan ens penedim d’una cosa del pasat. si no WISHES AND REGRETS: WISH/ IF ONLY + PAST SIMPLE/PAST CONTINUOUS I wish/If only I had a motorbike Quan desitjem que una situació fora diferent en el present. second & third cond) IF .anar a sopar Put on weight.. FOOD & VERBS: Cut out.augmentar de pes Go on a diet..eliminar Eat out.posar-se a règim . WISH/ IF ONLY + PAST PARTICIPLE I wish/ if only I had gone to bed early last night.

Ex.Give up. It feels like winter. It’s raining today and it is cold. NOUNS + PREPOSITIONS: Addiction to Improvement in Description of Argument with Ban on Damage to Reason for Pride in Damage to Pride in Smell of Interview with Influence on Solution to Responsibility for Recipe for Risk of Problem with Solution to SENSES: SENSE NOUN Hearing Sight Smell Taste Touch SENSE VERB Sound Look Smell Taste Feel Senses: expressions It looks/feels/smells/sounds/ tastes/ seems as if/ as though + clause Ex: It sounds as if they are having a party. .deixar Stick to a diet. It looks/feels/smells/sounds/ tastes/ seems like + noun.fer règim.

ask. don’t mind. AS SUBJECT: Walking is healthy. suggest. recommend. AFTER ADJECTIVES: I’m happy to be here. learn. give up. fail.It looks/feels/smells/sounds/ tastes/ seems + adjective. can’t stand. advise. threaten. hesitate. demand. UNIT 7: GERUND AND INFINITIVE WE USE GERUNDS: AFTER PREPOSITIONS: After reading the book you have to write an essay. finish. seem. intend. imagine. appear. VERB + GERUND/ TO+ INFINITIVE FORGET + to + infinitive: Oblidar-se de fer una cosa en el futur Please don’t forget to call me when you get home. keep. practise. resist. need. offer. risk. mind miss. My grandmother forgot living in Malasia. mean. deserve. discuss. VERB + TO + INFINITIVE Afford. refuse. wish. She seems really shy. wait. prepare. agree. manage. want. hope. mention. attempt. can’t help. AFTER CERTAIN VERBS & PHRASAL VERBS: She avoids telling the truth. WE USE TO + INFINITIVES: AFTER NOUNS: This is a book to read carefully. report. beg. VERB + GERUND Admit. dare. complete. Ex. pretend. choose. consider. regret. promise. arrange. . decide. dislike. enjoy. AFTER CERTAIN VERBS & PHRASAL VERBS: We want to travel to Iceland. expect. avoid. FORGET + gerund: Oblidar una cosa del passat. can’t imagine.

ARTICLES A/AN = Davant de les professions. COMPARATIVES TOO + ADJECTIVE/ADVERB = massa You are too short to be a model. I tried to ask her out. STOP + to + infinitive: Parar per fer una cosa I stop to have lunch at 1 p. (NOT) AS + ADJECTIVE/ADVERB + AS = Expressar similitud o no. REMEMBER + gerund: Recordar una cosa del passat. TRY + to + infinitive: Intentar fer una cosa sense aconseguir-ho. I remember kissing my boyfriend for the first time. TRY + gerund: Provar fer una cosa. THE = Per a ressaltar un nom. I stopped eating meat two years ago. ONE = Per a ressaltar que simplement és un. Mai per a plural en general ni davant de lloc o temps. i noms comptables en singular. Please remember to call me when you get home. NOT + ADJECTIVE/ADVERB + ENOUGH = No ser prou He didn’t run fast enough to win the race. PERSONALITY ADJECTIVES .REMEMBER + to + infinitive: Recordar de fer una cosa en el futur.m. but I was too shy. I tried walking every morning. My cousin isn’t as funny as my sister. She is as tall as you. STOP + gerund: Parar definitivament de fer una cosa.

Ambiciós Caring.sensible Ambitious.sensat Lazy-gos Sensitive.Adventorous-aventurer Calm-tranquil Charming-encantador Easy-going-tranquil Emotional-sensible Moody-temperamental Sensible.generós .protector Confident-segur de si mateix Embarassed-avergonyit Hard-working-faener Unselfish.

SIMILES & IDIOMS .

estar molt content Pain in the neck.estar deprimit Fly off the handle.més fresc que una lletuga.As cool as a cucumber.pedre la paciència . As gentle as a lamb.roig com una tomaca Heart of gold.amable As quiet as a mouse.ser callat As red as a beetroot.tindre el cor d’or Over the moon.estar molt prim Down in the dumps.ser un maldecap As Thin as a rake.

COMPOUND ADJECTIVES .

de cabell clar Good-natured.Badly-behaved.tranquil Hot-headed.amb bon caràcter Strong-willed.obert de mires Narrow-minded.impetuós Dark-haired.que es porta bé Broad-minded.que es porta mal Well-behaved.de cabell obscur Fair-haired.estret de mires Cold-hearted.despietat Warm-hearted.de bon cor Cool-headed.decidit Quick-tempered.amb mal caràcter .

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