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CHAPTER 33

Surface Treatment, Coating, and Cleaning

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

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Surface Treatments for Various Metals


TABLE 33.1 Metal Aluminum Beryllium Cadmium Die steels High-temperature steels Magnesium Mild steel Molybdenum Nickel- and cobalt-base alloys Refractory metals Stainless steel Steel Titanium Tool steel Zinc Treatment Chrome plate; anodic coating, phosphate; chromate conversion coating Anodic coating; chromate conversion coating Phosphate; chromate conversion coating Boronizing; ion nitriding; liquid nitriding Diffusion Anodic coating; chromate conversion coating Boronizing; phosphate; carburizing; liquid nitriding; carbonitriding; cyaniding Chrome plate Boronizing; diffusion Boronizing Vapor deposition; ion nitriding; diffusion; liquid nitriding; nitriding Vapor deposition; chrome plate; phosphate; ion nitriding; induction hardening; flame hardening; liquid nitriding Chrome plate; anodic coating; ion nitriding Boronizing; ion nitriding; diffusion; nitriding; liquid nitriding

Vapor deposition; anodic coating; phosphate; chromate chemical conversion coating Source: After M. K. Gabel and D. M. Doorman in Wear Control Handbook, New York, ASME, 1980 p. 248.

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

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Roller Burnishing
Figure 33.1 Roller burnishing of the fillet of a stepped shaft to induce compressive surface residual stresses for improved fatigue life.

Figure 33.2 Examples of roller burnishing of (a) a conical surface and (b) a flat surface and the burnishing tools used. Source: Sandvik, Inc.
Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology 2001 Prentice-Hall Page 7-3

Thermal Spray Operations

Figure 33.3 Schematic illustrations of thermal spray operations. (a) Thermal wire spray. (b) Thermal metalpowder spray. (c) Plasma spray.

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

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Physical Deposition
Figure 33.4 Schematic illustration of the physical deposition process. Source: Cutting Tool Engineering.

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

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Sputtering

Figure 33.5 Schematic illustration of the sputtering process. Source: ASM International

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

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Ion-Plating Apparatus
Figure 33.6 Schematic illustration of an ion-plating apparatus. Source: ASM International.

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

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Chemical Vapor Deposition

Figure 33.7 Schematic illustration of the chemical vapor deposition process.

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

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Electroplating

Figure 33.8 Schematic illustration of the electroplating process.

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

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Electroplating Guidelines
Figure 33.9 (a) Schematic illustration of nonuniform coatings (exaggerated) in electroplated parts. (b) Design guidelines for electroplating. Note that sharp external and internal corners should be avoided for uniform plating thickness. Source: ASM International.

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

Page 7-10

Hot Dipping
Figure 33.10 Flowline for continuous hot-dip galvanizing of sheet steel. The welder (upper left) is used to weld the ends of coils to maintain continuous material flow. Source: American Iron and Steel Institute.

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

Page 7-11

Types of Ceramics and Their Properties and Applications


TABLE 33.2

Property
Wear resistance

Type of ceramic
Chromium oxide Aluminum oxide Aluminum titania Zirconium oxide (yttria stabilized) Zirconium oxide (calcia stabilized) Magnesium zirconate Magnesium aluminate Aluminum oxide

Application
Pumps, turbine shafts, seals, compressor rods for the petroleum industry; plastics extruder barrels; extrusion dies Fan blades, compressor blades, and seals for gas turbines; valves, pistons, and combustion heads for automotive engines

Thermal insulation

Electrical insulation

Induction coils, brazing fixtures, general electrical applications

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

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Painting

Figure 33.11 Methods of paint application: (a) dip coating, (b) flow coating, and (c) electrostatic spraying. Source: Society of Manufacturing Engineers.

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

Page 7-13