This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

# Introduction

In power system some kind of control strategy is introduced to generate and deliver power in interconnected system as economically and reliably as possible while maintaining the voltage and frequency within permissible limits. Change in real power affects mainly the system frequency, while reactive power is less sensitive to change in frequency and mainly depends on changes in voltage magnitude. Thus real and reactive powers are controlled separately. The load frequency control (LFC) loop controls the real power and frequency and the automatic voltage regulator (AVR) loop regulates the reactive power and voltage magnitude. Load frequency control (LFC) has gained in importance with the growth of inter-connected systems and has made the operation of interconnected systems possible. Today it is still the basis of many advanced concepts for the control of large system. The methods developed for control of individual generators, and eventually control of large interconnections, play a vital role in modern energy control centers. Modern energy control centers (ECC) are equipped with on-line computers performing all signals processing through the remote acquisition system known as supervisory control and data ACQUISITION (SCADA) systems.

**BASIC GENERATOR CONTROL LOOPS
**

In an interconnected power system, load frequency control (LFC) and automatic voltage regulator (AVR) equipment are installed f each generator. Figure(-) represents the schematic diagram of the load frequency control(LFC) loop and the automatic voltage regulator(AVR) loop. The controllers are set for a particular operating condition and take care of small changes in load demand to maintain the frequency and voltage level within specified limit. Small change in real power are mainly dependent upon change in rotor angle δ and, thus, the frequency.

and transformed into real power command signal ΔPv.1. i. therefore.. which is a measure of the change in rotor angle δ. The change in frequency and tie-line power are synced. ΔQG ΔPtie Load frequeny control (LFC) Frequency sensor ΔPC Fig. brings change in the generator output by an amount ΔPg which will change the value of Δf and ΔPtie within the specified tolerance. which is sent to the prime mover to call for an increment in torque. Δf and ΔPtie are amplified. The prime mover. and to control the tie-line interchange schedules. Load frequency control The operation objective of the LFC are to maintain reasonably uniform frequency . the error Δδ to be corrected. i. mixed.to divide between the generators. Schematic diagram of LFC and AVR of Synchronous Generator.field steam Turbine Generator ΔPV Valve Control mechanism ΔPG. The signal.e. .Excitation System Automatic voltage regulator (AVR) Voltage Sensor Gen .e.

we have = (ΔPm-ΔPe) .The first step in design and analysis of control system is mathematic modeling of the system. The state variable approach can be applied to portray linear as well as nonlinear systems. we have = ΔPm-ΔPe or in terms of small deviation in speed .1 = (ΔPm-ΔPe) .3 Taking laplacetrans form. Proper assumption and approximation and transfer function model is obtained for the following components.2 With speed expressed in per unit. without explicit per unit notation. The two most common methods is transfer function method and state variable approach. the system must first be linearized. we obtain ΔΩ(s) = [ΔPm(s)-ΔPe(s)] . THE GENERATOR MODEL Applying the swing equation of a synchronous machine to small perturbation.4 The above relation is shown in block diagram form . In order to use transfer function and linear state equations.

such as lightning and heating load the electrical power is independent of frequency. So block diagram corresponding to equation .5.ΔPL(S) ΔPm(S) ΔΩ(S) D Fig.2.3 This block diagram can be expressed as following diagram . . The speed load characteristic is approximated by ΔPe = ΔPL+DΔω .5 Where ΔPL is non frequency-sensitive load changes. Motor load is sensitive to frequency.ΔPm(s) ΔPe(s) Fig . For resistive loas. D is expressed is present change in load divided by present change in frequency. ΔΩ(s) Load model The load on power system consist of a variety of electrical devices. How sensitive it is to frequency depends on composite speed-load characteristics of all the driven devices. and DΔω is the frequency sensitive load change. Generator block diagram..

the electrical power exceeds the mechanical power input. steam turbine whose energy comes from the burning of coal. Different types of turbine vary widely n characteristics. commonly known as the prime mover. consequently. may be hydraulic turbine at water falls. The change in speed is sensed by turbine governor which acts to adjust turbine . The simplest prime mover model for non reheat steam turbine can be approximated with a single time constant τT . gas. nuclear fuel. This power deviancy is supplied by kinetic energy stored in the rotating system.. and gas turbines. GT = = .6 So the corresponding block diagram is ΔPV(S) ΔPm(S) Fig. the generator frequency to fall.. The model for turbine relates change in mechanical power output ΔP m to change in steam valve position ΔPV. resulting the following transfer function.4. The reduction in kinetic energy causes the turbine speed and..ΔPL(S) ΔPm(S) ΔΩ(S) Fig.5. Generator and load block diagram Prime mover model The source of mechanical power. Block diagram of simple non-reheat steam turbine GOVERNOR MODEL When the generator load is suddenly increased.

ΔΩ(S) .8 The command ΔPg is transformed through the hydraulic amplifier to the steam valve position command ΔPv. The earliest governor was Watt governors which sense the speed by means of rotating Fly balls and provides mechanical motion in response of speed change. ΔPg = ΔPref - Δω . we have the following S-domain relation ΔPv(s) = . assuming the linear relationship and considering a simple time constant τg. Block diagram of speed governing system for steam turbine . However modern governor uses electronic mean to scenes speed changes.input valve to change the mechanical power output to bring the speed to new steady state. ΔPg(s) = ΔPref(s) . Governor typically have a speed regulation of 56percen from no-load to full-load.the speed governor mechanism acts as comparator whose output ΔPg is the difference between the reference set power ΔPref and he power Δω as given from governor seed characteristic.6.7 In S-domain.9 ΔPref(s) ΔPg(s) ΔPv(s) Δω(s) Fig .

Now combining block diagram of figure no. .7 .5. . . results in a complete block diagram of the load frequency control of an isolated power station is shown below.6. -ΔPL(S) Δω(S) - Fig.7 with the -ΔPL as input and ΔΩ(s) as output results in given block diagram. ΔPL(S) ΔPref(S) ΔPg ΔPv ΔPm ΔΩ(s) Governor Turbine Rotating mass and load Fig. . . LFC block diagram of an isolated power system. Redrawing the block diagram of figure .4. . LFC block diagram with input -ΔPL(S) and output Δω(S) .8 .