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Migration from Galicia to Europe

Cristeta Noguera Espinosa Elia Prado Gmez Elvira Albertino Lpez Flori Pagn Saura Francisca Garea Martnez Mara Teresa Garca-Cot Maribel Martin Blanco Eloy Palenzuela Herrero Fernando Chantada Valdeolmillos

While european democracies enjoyed the economic miracle of the post-war, driven by the Marsall Plan, Spain isolated and excluded from this plan Stagnated in underdevelopment. For many regions of Spain were times of: Lack of Work Lack of Training Poverty No future In short, time to look for life outside the Country, in other European states

Considering migration positive element for modeling migration in the interests of the country, Spanish Government, signed several agreements with the european industrial countries. These agreements helped the emigration in the way Spanish government wanted, preventing the bleeding of skilled workers, limited and necessaries for the industry. With the mediation of the Spanish Institute of Emigration sought jobs with low level of training to give employment to manpower with less preparation which was the most abundant.

With these agreements, in addition to regulating the rights of the foreign population in receiving countries, was intended to receive a controlled emigration which was essential for workers who had to fulfil two important requirements:

Have passed a medical examination. And have a specific employment contact for the visa. Despite of that, there was a big amount of clandestine jobs. Thus began a massive influx of Spanish labor(two million) towards the higher economical level countries of Europe

Work Save

Buy a house Return.

Everybody had the same aim and were moved by the same goal

Passed the customs process proceeded to deal with .

An unknown country. A new language. Different habits to asume. A Precarious Habitat. A full of hardship life.

And also have to deal with loneliness and overcoming the complexes derived from ignorance.

To his credit they had: A great spirit of work A great self-sacrifice

Their purpose was not to improve their lifestyle in the foreing country, but save enough money to return as soon as possible. They lived an austere life, that was really what allowed them to achieve greater savings, favored by the difference of exchange of currencies. Often, returning meant to assume a strange situation: they didnt want to stay in the foreign country but coming back was complicated and difficult. Not only their country had changed, but their view of it.was different.

They had to start a new life in their own country, as if they were foreigners

Testimony of Francisco Garca He emigrated in 1961, aged 18, from his native Corunna. He was a single and it was his adventurous spirit that made him leave his job as a typographer in a local company and go to Germany, Osnabrk city, where he worked for ten months in a chemical fertilizer factory, continuing in a subsidiary of Volkswagen for two years more. He had got a job through the IEE, after thorough medical examination conducted by personnel arrived from Germany. He went by train to Irun with a group of Galicians, there they met with hundreds of other spaniards from all regions of Spain, they were put a label with a number on the flap and travelled by train to Cologne, where representatives of companies which had employed them drove to their destinations. He lived in barracks used by soldiers in II WW, with capacity for 40 people. All the expenses were paid for the workers, but the money for the housing was discounted from their salary. On a vacacion trip to Corunna, he met who would be his wife, and decided not to return to Germany and work again in his former job, later worked in the newspaper La Voz de Galicia, where he recently retired. He recognizes the experience as good, he received nice treatment and assessment from their German heads, but he thinks that even earning less, the quality of life in Spain is far superior to the rest of Europe. Testimony of German Lpez Garca Native from Betanzos, Germn arrived at the Canton of Switzerland, just to the city of Zurich in 1964. At first he had the logical language difficulties but he began to frequent the House of Spain named Miguel de Unamuno where he shared experiences with other migrants and received lessons of German, he soon joined his new life. Although the standard of living in Zurich was very high and expensive, his previous training as a cabinetmaker and his greatly facilitated to find a good job, it was harder for other friends with less preparation. He met Ursula, a native of Bern and Secretary of Magistracy, they got married and at present they are both retired and living in Betanzos. Ursula is a charming woman who speaks fluent Spanish and Galician languages, besides their native language and French.

Information about Spanish emigration in 1960 Andalusia was the Spanish region which had a higher volume of migrants in absolute numbers (30.4%), highlighting Granada. In 1970 had migrated one in four Andalusian (1611791). But as was also one of the most populated regions of Spain (living on 19% of Spanish), Almeria and Cadiz would be the ten provinces that suffered most from emigration to Europe. 6.4 out of Almeria people per thousand, and Cadiz 5.4. In absolute numbers Galicia next largest, with 25.5% of migrants came from this community. Moreover, the vacuum population exceeds that of Andalusia, as only 8 out of 100 Spanish lived in Galicia. Stresses Orense, where left over 28 people in 1000. The sixth and seventh place were taken by the provinces of Valencia and Madrid, after Orense, A Corua, Granada, Seville and Pontevedra. In absolute numbers over most of the Andalusian provinces, but to relate this figure with the provincial population, give place to others of Castilla-Len and Extremadura. The western provinces of Castilla-Leon sent fewer immigrants than other regions, but, being less populated, depopulation was most obvious of Zamora and Salamanca left almost seven in every thousand inhabitants. A similar case occurred in Badajoz, Extremadura province where six of every thousand inhabitants emigrated.

Agreements: The main agreements trough the IEE were signed as follow: In 1956 migration agreement signed with Belgium. He was followed by signed with West Germany in 1960, with France, Switzerland and the Netherlands in 1961.

Agreement with Belgium

Spanish emigration to Belgium started in the emigration of miners agreement of 1956, signed by Brussels and Madrid. Just this year he was born on Spanish Emigration Institute. Belgian coal mines accounted for most of the Spanish workforce. The Spanish were to replace the Italians, after the occurrence of a large number of fatalities as a result of which the Roman government stopped sending Italian miners. The agreement signed between Spain and Belgium stated that the miners had to work for five years before changing careers or activity, however the average stay of stay in the wells did not exceed one year. A decade after the agreements, after a serious crisis in the coal sector which led to the closure of many wells, the Spanish workforce was already going to diversified sectors of construction, metallurgy, chemicals and textiles. In 1962 there were thirteen houses in Belgium Spain. Catholic missions, especially in the wake of Vatican II, through his chaplains, were identified with the cause and claims of migrants, in fact such clerics were most worried about the defense of education children of migrants. Also the Catholic Action militants. Some Spanish emigrants in Belgium, the mining conflict in Asturias had a significant political impact. Many strikers Asturian went to Belgium to form Solidarity Rocks that were locating in Spanish and local centers. These first rocks, in 1962 became Rocks of Workers' Commissions in the Belgian capital came to reach number 17. Beyond the demonstrations for specific reasons, Franco was a regular activity. It is well documented in this regard, the work of Garcia Lorca Club of Brussels. This club had a Commission for amnesty, in which women exercised a very active role.

Agreement with the Federal Republic of Germany

The agreement with Germany was signed on March 29, 1960. The Spanish government had and with the ideal tool for modeling the migration to a country, their wages, became the first destination for people seeking work. Madrid was especially important to prevent the drain of skilled workers, highly prized in Europe, but essential to expanding the domestic industry. The key control was decentralized in the complex process of recruitment. When receiving a job offer from a German company in Madrid, the Spanish Institute of Emigration, by level of unemployment or labor market forecasts, the province assigned to a given. In that province's delegation IEE summoned the candidates. Who overcame a medical

examination were submitted after the recognition being carried out by the German government moved by a physician. German overcome then recognition were given the contract. It was extremely slow process that sometimes stretched nearly half a year in duration. This caused Germany to divert his preference was Turkey, Greece and Yugoslavia where after recruiting only lasted a few weeks. The IEE, defended his work as a security assistance to the migrant, although for many Spanish but did not represent an instrument of the dictatorship of arbitrariness which could not escape, even to leave the country. Those living in the provinces to which the IEE or who just sent quotes to be skilled or have anti-regime political history, had little chance of being accepted as candidates. That left the underground route to emigrate. Immigration fever 1960 and 1961, broke the strict filter of the Government and half of those coming to Germany they did outside the Immigration Agreement. Madrid in 1962 removed restrictions which significantly increased the ease of hiring assisted. At the same time exerted some pressure on Bonn to cut the alternative routes. The German government then tried to balance the interests of the Spanish government with the interests of their industry. Thus Bonn ignored "partial" to the Spanish request. On average, about 800 emigrants assisted out weekly to Germany, of which over 25% were women. Concentrated in Irun, the French train traveling to Cologne, where they were distributed throughout the country. Between 1960 and 1973, some 400,000 Spanish with one-year contract reached on these trains. It is estimated that the actual total of Spanish emigrants in this period were 600,000. Employment sectors were: 40% metal industries. 30% Chemical industries of paper and textiles. Service sector 22%. 8% Construction. As for the distribution of immigrants by the German nation was preferably to: North Rhine-Westphalia a 35.23%. Hessen 19.06%. Baden-Wrttemberg a 18.33%: The interest of the Franco dictatorship to influence emigration continued once crossed the Pyrenees. The biggest concern was that the brush with democratic societies and especially anti-Franco organizations, migrants could develop a critical awareness of the regime. This was not only dangerous to return to Spain because if a significant portion of the emigrants were to mobilize in European capitals against Franco, would reveal that Spain did not enjoy the supposed social and political stability that the regime was trying to sell as argument for integration into the European order as NATO and the EEC. Given these considerations Germany appeared in the eyes of the Spanish government in the early 60's, the ideal destination for emigrants. Not only anti-Franco organizations were very active in France and Belgium, but the deeply conservative and anti-environment of the country failed to provide fertile ground for development.

The regime took advantage of the willingness of the German administration to promote broader health care network with the political orientation that interested him. With the goal of Spanish workers do not come into contact with the German unions, the embassy established the position of labor adviser, who reported on any legal matter and even went to court representing Spanish workers for free. This network was the most comprehensive care provision of the Spanish in Europe. The sense of impermanence and the low cultural level of most migrants made it difficult to learn German that motivated the action of consolidation between them. This created centers called House of Spain, as places of socialization where dances were held, was seen football on television or movies projected in Spanish. Thus the worker lived in a virtual Spain and there was influenced by current political or union contrary to the regime. Through Parents' Associations, which had a significant expansion in number of partners and partnerships, pressured the German and Spanish governments to lend resources to support their children's integration in the German education system to overcome the obstacles that represented the German language and motivate them to reach the highest level possible, by the transmission of culture with classes in Spanish language. The fruits were swift and Spanish students were Spanish kids away from low yield rates equating to go to normal levels of German children overcoming one of the main concerns of the Spanish in that country.

Agreement with France

The Spanish-French agreement of emigration began in 1961. The Spanish Institute of Emigration signs an agreement with France to facilitate migration but with a different model. It only promoted the emigration of males and one year contracts. It tries to prevent the installation of migrants in the host country. However, the facilities provided by the French settlement prompted a movement amount of illegal immigration, to the point that most Spanish residents came outside the agreement. Although the figures of the early residents are mixed with belonging to earlier times mostly exiles from the Spanish Civil War. The settlement offer was aimed at young people that they valued their professional qualifications. They underwent a health check prior. France was generous in its policy of granting residence adjustment that had a contract. This provided access to many Spanish outside the signature of the Hispano-French. Facilitating family reunification and access to public school system and health: After five years of residence in France could apply for French nationality. This period was reduced to two years old when he contracted marriage between a Spanish and a French, or vice versa. So were the children of immigrants born in France. France's industrial growth demanded labor in the secondary sector. In the sixties more than half of Spanish emigrants were engaged in this sector. 34.5% to construction. 19.5% to industry. Next in importance is the tertiary sector. 26% domestic, exercised mainly by women (only in Paris 50,000). 7.2% trade.

Devoted to agriculture more than 13% of permanent migrants. Most employees in viticulture. The rate for women is very low, 4.5%. Another peculiarity of immigration in France was the hiring of temporary workers, for the collection of agricultural products. Spanish occupied about 100,000 per year for a period not exceeding two months, depending on the product: Beet forty days working overtime. The harvest for a month, eight hours a day. fruit collection periods was more variable Most workers arrive with them closed league contract to an owner and also sets the characteristics of the housing and meal plan. They often sleep in common rooms between four and eight people and food was running on its own. Often whole families move because it was low-income stage work in places of origin. The information is from a French source so these data include migrants assisted by the agreement and secretly arrived outside it.

Agreement with Switzerland

In 1959 the Spanish emigration begins. It was not an organized emigration was installed while receiving Office in Geneva station, Cornavin arrived by train where most of the migrants. This office offering jobs to the Spanish and even took them to their destination. In 1961, the Spanish Institute of Emigration going to organize the emigration to this country but as personal contacts between companies and migrants were already established, an important part of the contracts were made outside the IEE. According to the Institute between 1964 and 1971, moved to Switzerland 656,729 Spanish. But figures from Swiss sources fixed between 1966 and 1971 the amount of 910,965 Spanish at home. Switzerland needs the flow of migration to economic growth but also feared losing their culture continued to grow if the level of immigration. For this reason a restrictive policy practiced immigration. Established two classes of contracts. Some year, renewable from year to year, and seasonal workers could not exceed eight months and twenty days, and not renewable. Initially formalizing the year, but grew slowly until the storms in 1971 accounted for half of the existing contracts. Family reunification was avoided, although if you had lived 18 months could get it. At first the migrants came to the French cantons of Geneva and Vaud as they had a language more similar to Spanish, but was Zurich, German-speaking canton which hosted more Spanish. German-speaking Bern was also the fourth largest area. In Zurich and Bern predominated Galicia and Leon. Between 1966 and 1976 the Spanish colony in the French cantons had grown 40%, while in the German cantons, especially Zurich had multiplied by three:

Agreement with the United Kingdom

One of the main features of Spanish emigration in England was his secret. The performance of agencies, regardless of the IEE, producing a gap between the actual entries of migrants and migration assisted more than 80%. For example, in 1969 the IEE counted entries in 941 compared to 7,290 recorded by the British authorities. These agencies were the ones actually channeling the Spanish emigration to England and the real beneficiaries of the black labor market. Facilitated placement and work permits to migrants in exchange for money (up to 35 pounds).

Bibliography Instituto espaol de la Emigracin de Madrid ( D.G. Inmigracin y Emigracin). Facultad de sociologa de La Corua (Profesos Lpez de Lera y Gerardo) Consejera Laboral y de Asuntos Sociales de la misin permanente de Espaa ante organismos Internacionales de Ginebra. Centro Gallego de Bruselas. CEPAM (Centro de emigraciones e inmigraciones gallegas). La Voz de Galicia. Revista de la secretara general e emigracin (Xunta de Galicia). Galicia/Europa 1955 2005, medio siglo de proximidad de Manuel Jaime Barreiro Gil. El Pas. D. Ramiro Bieito, presidente de la Casa Gallega de Nuremgerg. Archivo de Emigracin A Carballeira. Archivo de Emigracin Gallega de Santiago de Compostela. Exilio del Emigrante de J.A. Garmendia (Instituto Cervantes de Munich). Revista Espaa Exterior, de la Xunta de Galicia. Enciclopedia de emigracin gallega (Ministerio de Trabajo y Asuntos Sociales).