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2.1. Introduction • • (Please read the first two paragraphs) Two Types of Fluids:

- Incompressible Fluids: Effect of pressure on the fluid is neglected (small). - Compressible Fluids: Most liquids are incompressible, while gases are compressible. • If pressure and temperature changes are small, gas density change will be small and the gas can be considered as incompressible.

2.2 A Static Fluids • • • The important property in static fluids is the pressure. Pressure is a force exerted by a fluid against the walls of its container. Pressure exists at any point in volume of a fluid.

Law of Newton’s: F = mg F= mg/g c (SI) (English)

**g c : Gravitational conversion factor = 32.174 lbm.ft/lbf.s2 Ex.2.2-1: See the textbook
**

P0 A0 P1 A1

**2.2B Pressure in a Fluid At any point, the fluid must support all the fluid above it.
**

h1 h3

**Pressure is the same at all points with the same elevation. Total mass of fluid (kg): m = V.ρ = h 2 A ρ
**

1

h2

P2 A2

flow rate is also needed. it is important to measure and control the pressure in a vessel or process and/or the liquid level in a vessel. 1. Height of a given fluid (h) will be the same pressure as the pressure it represents. Simple U-tube Manometer (SI) (English) 2 .2C Head of a Fluid Pressure can be expressed as head in m or ft of a particular fluid. For Flowing pipes. 2. pressure measurements are important. The Total Pressure (Pa): P 2 = P +P 0 = h 2 ρ g + P 0 So.2D Devices to Measure Pressure and Pressure Differences In industrial processing. Thus.P 1 = (h 2 -h 1 ) ρ g = (h 2 -h 1 ) ρ g/g c 2.Total Force (N): F = m g = h2 A ρ g The Pressure (Pa): P = F/A = h 2 ρ g P is the pressure on A 2 due to the mass of fluid above it. the total pressure at point i = P i = h i ρ g + P 0 Take the pressure difference between points 1 and 2: P1 = h1 ρ g + P 0 ΔP = P 2 . h = P/ ρ g Ex. Thus.2-3: See your textbook! 2.

ρ B ) g/g C (English ) Example 2.2-4: (See the textbook or write down from the board) 2.Pa Pb 1 Fluid B 5 Z 4 2 R 3 Fluid A Density of Fluid A > Density of Fluid B A and B are immiscible P a is exerted on one arm of the tube and P b is exerted on the other arm. and Pressure at point 5: P5=P b At point 2: P 2 =P a +(Z+R) ρ B g ( R: reading of the manometer) at point 3: P 3 =P 2 Also. P 3 = P a +(Z+R) ρ B g = P b +Z ρ B g + R ρ A g P a -P b = R (ρ A . Pressure difference between P a and P b : Pressure at point 1: P 1 =P a . Two-fluid U tube: 3 .ρ B ) g (SI ) P a -P b = R (ρ A . P 3 = P b +Z ρ B g + R ρ A g Therefore.

Pa Pb Fluid C Fluid B R Fluid A This is a sensitive device to measure small heads or pressure differences.ρ B )g (SI) P a -P b = R(ρ A .2-5: (See the textbook or write it down from the board) 3. Let A is the cross-sectional area of each reservoir and a is the cross-sectional area of each tubes forming the U tube. 4.ρ B )g/g c (English) Example 2. a/A is made small to be negligible and R 0 is often adjusted to zero. Gravity separator for two immiscible liquids 4 . P a -P b = (R-R 0 )(ρ A . therefore: P a -P b = R(ρ A . usually. The tube is connected to a pointer on a calibrated dial. The degree of straitening depends on the pressure difference between the inside and outside pressures. Bourdon pressure gage. It is a mechanical device consisting of a coiled hollow tube in the gage straighten out when subjected to internal pressure.ρ B + a/A ρ B – a/A ρ C )g R0 is the reading where P a =P b .

are separated by gravity. A(heavy liquid) and B (light liquid).Feed hT hB Two immiscible fluids. hA 2 − h b ρ B g + h a1 ρ A g = h a2 ρ A g h a1 = hA1 = hA1 ρA ρB 1− ρA hT ρ B 5 hA2 .

Γ is concentration of the property (amount of property/m3). For steady state. Introduction: ( Reading) 2. General Molecular Transport Equation For Momentum. All three of transport processes (Momentum. General Molecular Transport Equation.m2). δ is a proportionality constant called diffusivity (m2/s).3.3-1: ( See the textbook or write it down from the board) Concentration of Property. Heat. and z in the direction of flow (m). For molecular transport or diffusion of a property: ψ z = −δ dΓ dz Where Ψ z is the flux of the property as amount of property being transferred per unit time per cross-sectional area perpendicular to the z direction of flow (amount of property/s. ψ ψ z ∫ dz = d Γ −δ ∫ z1 Γ1 z2 Γ2 Γ1 Γ2 ψ z Flux ψz = − δ (Γ 2 − Γ1 ) z2 − z1 z2 z1 6 . Rate of a transfer process = driving force/ resistance That means: A driving force is needed to overcome a resistance in order to transport a property.2.3A General Molecular Transport Equation and General Property Balance 1. Rearranging: Example 2. heat or mass) are characterized by the same general type of transport equation. and Mass Transfer 2. Ψ z is constant.

∂t ∂Γ (∆z *1) ∂t Dividing by ∆z. say z. with assumption of δ is constant. gives: dz ∂ψ z ∂ 2Γ = −δ 2 . General property balance for unsteady state To account for a property transported in the entire system. and letting ∆z go to zero. and unit volume. Thus. for onedimensional assumption.: 7 . ∂Γ ∂ψ z R + = ∂t ∂z Differentiating the equation above.3.m3.0 m2 crosssectional area: Input rate= (ψ z | z )*1 amount of property/s and output = (ψ z | z+∆z )*1. ψ z = −δ dΓ . the accumulation term is: Rate of accumulation of property = (ψ z | z )*1 + R(∆z*1) = (ψ z | z+∆z )*1 + ∂Γ (∆z *1) . ∂z ∂t Thus. the rate of generation = R(∆z*1) where R is rate of generation of property/s.): In = ψz|z Out = ψz|z+∆z z ∆z Z+∆z Unit area (rate of property in) + (rate of generation of property) =(rate of property out) + (rate of accumulation of property). a general balance (conservation equation) for this property at unsteady state is needed. For 1. ∆z(1) m3 (see the fig.

Heat transport and Fourier’s law: it can be written as: d ( ρ c p∂ T ) qz = −α A dz 8 .s 2. kg/m. and µ is the viscosity. Momentum transport and Newton’s law z x vx Fluid is flowing in x direction parallel to a solid surface: the fluid has x-directed momentum.moving layer of molecules.m/s)/ m3). random diffusion of molecules => equal no.to the slower. Thus. ∂Γ ∂ 2Γ =δ 2 ∂t ∂z NOTE that the final equation relates the concentration of the property Γ to position z and time t. (kg. = µ/ρ. The momentum transport equation is written as follows: τ zx = −ν d (v x ρ ) dz τ zx : flux of x-directed momentum in the z direction. momentum is transferred in the z direction from the faster. or heat occurs in a fluid due to rapid random movements of individual molecules.m/s). of molecules is moving in each direction between the faster-and slower. m2/s.m2.∂Γ ∂ 2Γ −δ 2 = R ∂t ∂z If there is no generation. 2. A net flux of a property from high to low concentration will occur. Momentum concentration is ρv x (Momentum/m3)= ((kg. (kg.moving layer. 1.3B Introduction to Molecular Transport Molecular transport or molecular diffusion of a property such as momentum.m/s)/s. mass. v: the momentum diffusivity.

Mass transport and Fick’s law: Fick’s law can be written as: J ∗ zx = − DAB dC A dz J* AZ : the flux of A. when there is a temperature gradient. when there is a concentration gradient. NOTE: Compare all the above three equations with the general equation of molecular transport. and ρc p T: concentration of heat (thermal energy). energy transfer by molecules moving equally between the hot and colder region.m2. J/m3. α: the thermal diffusivity. m2/s. D AB : molecular diffusivity of the molecule A in B. J/s. m2/s. mass transfer by molecules moving equally between the high and low concentration region. kgmol A/s.m2. 3. 9 . and C A : concentration of A in kgmol A/m3.q z /A: the heat flux.

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