# CHAPTER 2 Principles of Momentum Transfer and Overall Balance

2.1. Introduction • • (Please read the first two paragraphs) Two Types of Fluids:

- Incompressible Fluids: Effect of pressure on the fluid is neglected (small). - Compressible Fluids: Most liquids are incompressible, while gases are compressible. • If pressure and temperature changes are small, gas density change will be small and the gas can be considered as incompressible.

2.2 A Static Fluids • • • The important property in static fluids is the pressure. Pressure is a force exerted by a fluid against the walls of its container. Pressure exists at any point in volume of a fluid.

Law of Newton’s: F = mg F= mg/g c (SI) (English)

g c : Gravitational conversion factor = 32.174 lbm.ft/lbf.s2 Ex.2.2-1: See the textbook
P0 A0 P1 A1

2.2B Pressure in a Fluid At any point, the fluid must support all the fluid above it.
h1 h3

Pressure is the same at all points with the same elevation. Total mass of fluid (kg): m = V.ρ = h 2 A ρ
1
h2

P2 A2

flow rate is also needed. it is important to measure and control the pressure in a vessel or process and/or the liquid level in a vessel. 1. Height of a given fluid (h) will be the same pressure as the pressure it represents. Simple U-tube Manometer (SI) (English) 2 .2C Head of a Fluid Pressure can be expressed as head in m or ft of a particular fluid. For Flowing pipes. 2. pressure measurements are important. The Total Pressure (Pa): P 2 = P +P 0 = h 2 ρ g + P 0 So.2D Devices to Measure Pressure and Pressure Differences In industrial processing. Thus.P 1 = (h 2 -h 1 ) ρ g = (h 2 -h 1 ) ρ g/g c 2.Total Force (N): F = m g = h2 A ρ g The Pressure (Pa): P = F/A = h 2 ρ g P is the pressure on A 2 due to the mass of fluid above it. the total pressure at point i = P i = h i ρ g + P 0 Take the pressure difference between points 1 and 2: P1 = h1 ρ g + P 0 ΔP = P 2 . h = P/ ρ g Ex. Thus.2-3: See your textbook! 2.

ρ B ) g/g C (English ) Example 2.2-4: (See the textbook or write down from the board) 2.Pa Pb 1 Fluid B 5 Z 4 2 R 3 Fluid A Density of Fluid A > Density of Fluid B A and B are immiscible P a is exerted on one arm of the tube and P b is exerted on the other arm. and Pressure at point 5: P5=P b At point 2: P 2 =P a +(Z+R) ρ B g ( R: reading of the manometer) at point 3: P 3 =P 2 Also. P 3 = P a +(Z+R) ρ B g = P b +Z ρ B g + R ρ A g P a -P b = R (ρ A . Pressure difference between P a and P b : Pressure at point 1: P 1 =P a . Two-fluid U tube: 3 .ρ B ) g (SI ) P a -P b = R (ρ A . P 3 = P b +Z ρ B g + R ρ A g Therefore.

Pa Pb Fluid C Fluid B R Fluid A This is a sensitive device to measure small heads or pressure differences.ρ B )g (SI) P a -P b = R(ρ A .2-5: (See the textbook or write it down from the board) 3. Let A is the cross-sectional area of each reservoir and a is the cross-sectional area of each tubes forming the U tube. 4.ρ B )g/g c (English) Example 2. a/A is made small to be negligible and R 0 is often adjusted to zero. Gravity separator for two immiscible liquids 4 . P a -P b = (R-R 0 )(ρ A . therefore: P a -P b = R(ρ A . usually. The tube is connected to a pointer on a calibrated dial. The degree of straitening depends on the pressure difference between the inside and outside pressures. Bourdon pressure gage. It is a mechanical device consisting of a coiled hollow tube in the gage straighten out when subjected to internal pressure.ρ B + a/A ρ B – a/A ρ C )g R0 is the reading where P a =P b .

are separated by gravity. A(heavy liquid) and B (light liquid).Feed hT hB Two immiscible fluids. hA 2 − h b ρ B g + h a1 ρ A g = h a2 ρ A g  h a1 = hA1 = hA1 ρA ρB 1− ρA hT ρ B 5 hA2 .

Γ is concentration of the property (amount of property/m3). For steady state. Introduction: ( Reading) 2. General Molecular Transport Equation For Momentum. All three of transport processes (Momentum. General Molecular Transport Equation.m2). δ is a proportionality constant called diffusivity (m2/s).3.3-1: ( See the textbook or write it down from the board) Concentration of Property. Heat. and z in the direction of flow (m). For molecular transport or diffusion of a property: ψ z = −δ dΓ dz Where Ψ z is the flux of the property as amount of property being transferred per unit time per cross-sectional area perpendicular to the z direction of flow (amount of property/s. ψ ψ z ∫ dz = d Γ −δ ∫ z1 Γ1 z2 Γ2 Γ1 Γ2 ψ z Flux ψz = − δ (Γ 2 − Γ1 ) z2 − z1 z2 z1 6 . Rate of a transfer process = driving force/ resistance That means: A driving force is needed to overcome a resistance in order to transport a property.2.3A General Molecular Transport Equation and General Property Balance 1. Rearranging: Example 2. heat or mass) are characterized by the same general type of transport equation. and Mass Transfer 2. Ψ z is constant.

∂t ∂Γ (∆z *1) ∂t Dividing by ∆z. say z. with assumption of δ is constant. gives: dz ∂ψ z ∂ 2Γ = −δ 2 . General property balance for unsteady state To account for a property transported in the entire system. and letting ∆z go to zero. and unit volume. Thus. for onedimensional assumption.: 7 . ∂Γ ∂ψ z R + = ∂t ∂z Differentiating the equation above.3.m3.0 m2 crosssectional area: Input rate= (ψ z | z )*1 amount of property/s and output = (ψ z | z+∆z )*1. ψ z = −δ dΓ . the accumulation term is: Rate of accumulation of property = (ψ z | z )*1 + R(∆z*1) = (ψ z | z+∆z )*1 + ∂Γ (∆z *1) . ∂z ∂t Thus. the rate of generation = R(∆z*1) where R is rate of generation of property/s.): In = ψz|z Out = ψz|z+∆z z ∆z Z+∆z Unit area (rate of property in) + (rate of generation of property) =(rate of property out) + (rate of accumulation of property). a general balance (conservation equation) for this property at unsteady state is needed. For 1. ∆z(1) m3 (see the fig.

Heat transport and Fourier’s law: it can be written as: d ( ρ c p∂ T ) qz = −α A dz 8 .s 2. kg/m. and µ is the viscosity. Momentum transport and Newton’s law z x vx Fluid is flowing in x direction parallel to a solid surface: the fluid has x-directed momentum.moving layer of molecules.m/s)/ m3). random diffusion of molecules => equal no.to the slower. Thus. ∂Γ ∂ 2Γ =δ 2 ∂t ∂z NOTE that the final equation relates the concentration of the property Γ to position z and time t. (kg. = µ/ρ. The momentum transport equation is written as follows: τ zx = −ν d (v x ρ ) dz τ zx : flux of x-directed momentum in the z direction. momentum is transferred in the z direction from the faster. or heat occurs in a fluid due to rapid random movements of individual molecules.m/s). of molecules is moving in each direction between the faster-and slower. m2/s.m2.∂Γ ∂ 2Γ −δ 2 = R ∂t ∂z If there is no generation. 2. A net flux of a property from high to low concentration will occur. Momentum concentration is ρv x (Momentum/m3)= ((kg. (kg.moving layer. 1.3B Introduction to Molecular Transport Molecular transport or molecular diffusion of a property such as momentum.m/s)/s. mass. v: the momentum diffusivity.

Mass transport and Fick’s law: Fick’s law can be written as: J ∗ zx = − DAB dC A dz J* AZ : the flux of A. when there is a temperature gradient. when there is a concentration gradient. NOTE: Compare all the above three equations with the general equation of molecular transport. and ρc p T: concentration of heat (thermal energy). energy transfer by molecules moving equally between the hot and colder region.m2. J/m3. α: the thermal diffusivity. m2/s. D AB : molecular diffusivity of the molecule A in B. J/s. m2/s. mass transfer by molecules moving equally between the high and low concentration region. kgmol A/s.m2. 3. 9 . and C A : concentration of A in kgmol A/m3.q z /A: the heat flux.