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1109/TMAG. PREVIOUS WORK The AINet algorithm was originally proposed for performing data analysis tasks [8]. deﬁned by the initial choice of parameters. and multimodal. In this paper. such as dynamic variation of the population size. This algorithm was inspired by the idiotypic network theory for explaining the immune system dynamics. The results obtained over an analytical problem and the design of an electromagnetic device show the applicability of the proposed algorithm. is limited by the fact that the population size is ﬁxed. An antibody and its clones are called a subpopulation. we present a modiﬁed version of the opt-AINet. The above cycle is repeated until the average ﬁtness of the population does not present a signiﬁcant variation between two iterations. However. and So Noguchi1 Laboratory of Hybrid Systems. Hokkaido University. 4. Additionally.IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS. including the global solution. and selection of the antibodies (points in the search space). This algorithm is capable of performing local and global search. A comparison between the characteristics and performance of the opt-AINet and the modiﬁed ver- sion proposed here (m-AINet) is presented. and the ability to maintain any number of optima. When this is achieved. and the algorithm proceeds to the suppression operator: the similarity (Euclidean distance) is determined among all the antibodies. It was later used for multimodal optimization (opt-AINet) [6]. The ﬁtness of the maturated clones is evaluated and only the best point from each subpopulation is allowed to proceed in the optimization process. population-based optimization algorithms are often used for solving such problems. as well as results for showing the applicability of the proposed algorithm for electromagnetic optimization. Frederico G. in most cases. This paper proposes a modiﬁed version of the artiﬁcial immune network algorithm (opt-AINet) for electromagnetic design optimization. The algorithm continues until the number of memory antibodies does not vary between two successive suppressions. the algorithm is able to ﬁnd a maximum number of optima. this advantage comes at the cost of a large number of objective function evaluations. however. local and global search. are called memory antibodies. immune networks. originally proposed in [5]. Arbitrarily increasing the size of the population is seldom a good alternative. The objective of this modiﬁed AINet (m-AINet) is to reduce the computational effort required by the algorithm. after the suppression operation. Due to these characteristics.871633 0018-9464/$20. The maturation operator submits each clone to Gaussian noise. Federal University of Minas Gerais. in order to avoid redundancy. The efﬁciency of these techniques. and the cloning/maturation/selection cycle is restarted. the one with lower ﬁtness is eliminated. since it implies an often worthless increase in the computational cost.2006. NO. I. as it enables the designer to choose the most suitable solution from a set of optimal points. but they are obtained at the cost of a very large number of objective function evaluations. and presents a number of interesting features. prohibitive in electromagnetic design. Hajime Igarashi1 . Jaime A. II. APRIL 2006 1111 A Modiﬁed Immune Network Algorithm for Multimodal Electromagnetic Problems Felipe Campelo1 . VOL. i. Guimarães2 . The optimization version of the AINet [6]. the population is said to have reached global stabilization. while the global exploration is done by the insertion of random points and variation in the size of the population. The cloning operator basically gives each point a user-deﬁned number of exact copies. the size of the population is increased by a fraction % of the number of surviving antibodies. Frequently. or the algorithm performs an user-de- Digital Object Identiﬁer 10. The local search is based in the operations of cloning. this price may be prohibitive. Index Terms—Artiﬁcial immune systems. Another improvement proposed is to make it more suitable for constrained problems through the utilization of a speciﬁc constraint-handling technique.. not only the global optimum but also other local optima may be interesting to obtain. Graduate School of Information Science and Technology. while the others are excluded. If two points are closer than a user-deﬁned threshold . a speciﬁc constraint-handling technique has been introduced. or clones. [7] is called opt-AINet. computationally expensive. which requires a lower number of objective function evaluations without losing the valuable characteristics of the original algorithm. Sapporo 060-0814. After the suppression. Brazil Some optimization algorithms based on theories from immunology have the feature of ﬁnding an arbitrary number of optima. nonlinear.e. while keeping or improving the convergence characteristics. Many techniques exist for making stochastic algorithms ﬁnd and maintain a set of suboptima [1]–[3]. as well as to dinamically adjust the size of the population. INTRODUCTION O PTIMIZATION problems in electromagnetics are usually multivariate.00 © 2006 IEEE . maturation. In the context of numerical electromagnetic problems. 42. The new antibodies are randomly generated. Japan Department of Electrical Engineering. The surviving antibodies. with the standard deviation as a function of the normalized ﬁtness of the original antibody. Ramírez2 . The artiﬁcial immune network (AINet) is an algorithm based on the artiﬁcial immune systems (AIS) paradigm [4]. These are highly desirable characteristics. Belo Horizonte MG 31270-010. electromagnetic design optimization.

For a more detailed description of the opt-AINet algorithm. the m-AINet starts by antibodies in the norgenerating an initial population of malized search space. but instead a ﬁxed . the feasible is selected. 4. this could lead the opt-AINet algorithm to converge to a large number of unfeasible optima. VOL. originally used in robust optimization algorithms [9]. These clones are symmetrically displaced from the original antibody by a distance (2) where is the normalized ﬁtness of the original antibody. see [6]. 1) is a random Gaussian variable. 42. as shown in Fig. It is important to notice here that. however. it also avoids the detection of unfeasible peaks by driving the subpopulations toward the feasible space. since the perfornumber mance of the opt-AINet algorithm is very sensitive to variations in the number of clones. • Between two feasible solutions. In the m-AINet. thus increasing even more the computational cost. An extra clone is generated at the estimated best vertex. are the inequality constraints and are the equality constraints. this scheme is also used for the estimation of the best vertex.1112 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS. III. This is especially true in heavily constrained spaces or when dealing with equality constraints. The m-AINet algorithm shares the overall structure of the opt-AINet. However. This is an interesting feature. This mutation scheme has been inspired by a technique called worst vertex prediction. even if this is the case. Each subpopulation is then checked for stabilization: if the surviving point did not change since the last iteration. this scheme greatly reduces computational cost of the algorithm. Although it is possible to use the penalization of the objective function by the constraint violations to transform a constrained problem into an unconstrained one. As in the opt-AINet. Consider a general mono-objective optimization problem Fig. the one with the lowest sum of constraint violations is selected. Moreover. Thus. as well as enabling the solution of constrained problems. in the case of constrained problems. which takes into account the constraint violations. Only the best point from each subpopulation is selected for surviving. the number of clones for each subpopulation is no longer a free parameter. While the paper concludes that this heavy computational cost can be somehow related to the increase in the size of the population. it does not explore the possibility of the populational growth being caused by the ﬁnding of local optima. This mechanism helps maintaining the diversity in the population. after this step. The reported results show that. By avoiding the evaluation of already stabilized subpopulations. a modiﬁed algorithm has been developed. It is hereafter called hypercubic maturation. such a large number of function evaluations makes the algorithm unsuitable for electromagnetic optimization. each antibody will have clones equally displaced over each dimension. when combined with the hypercubic maturation. THE MODIFIED AINET ALGORITHM In order to reduce the computational cost of the opt-AINet. for minimization. • If both solutions are unfeasible. APRIL 2006 ﬁned maximum number of iterations. the ﬁtness value of the violating point is used and the points are compared as in the item above. in contrast with the global stabilization criterion used in the optAINet. These selection rules ensure a strong convergence pressure toward the feasible space. Each point then receives two clones for each dimension of the problem. NO. The clones are evaluated over the objective function and the best point from each dimension is used for estimating the best vertex of the hypercube deﬁned by the clones. and Gauss (0. but most of its operators have been altered. Another limitation of the opt-AINet is the lack of a mechanism for dealing with constraints. the number of function evaluations needed was much bigger than that for the other algorithms used for comparison. Comparative tests between opt-AINet and other algorithms have been performed in [7]. the one with the highest ﬁtness value is selected. while the algorithm was successful in ﬁnding the global optimum of the test functions used. as described in this session. the subpopulation is said to have stabilized and is removed from the iterative cycle. • If one solution is feasible and the other is unfeasible. 1. and evaluating these points over the objective and constraint functions. An antibody and its maturated clones form a subpopulation of points. in contrast with the random Gaussian maturation from the opt-AINet. without the need of determining any penalization constant. The m-AINet uses a feasibility-based selection criterion [10]. The ﬁtness of a given antibody is equal to the value of the objective function for the point. The selection is done according to the following rules. It is especially effective when combined with the . Hypercubic maturation and best vertex estimation for an unconstrained two-dimensional maximization problem. in a small percentage of the cases. or the negative of this value. This criterion is called partial stabilization. (1) where is the objective function. in case of maximization problems. 1.

This strategy is particularly successful when combined with the hypercubic maturation: in the random Gaussian maturation the chance of a subpopulation to improve after stopping for one generation is still relatively big. . in particular the equality one. The convergence rate improved slighly. the following minimization problem was considered: with . Electromagnetic Problem The proposed algorithm was also tested on the design of an electromagnetic device. a number of new randomly generated antibodies are added to the nonstabilized antibodies and this new active population returns to the iterative cycle. since in this case there is a certain degree of determinism in the local search. The number of new antibodies is a fraction % of the memory population size. Generate and evaluate an extra clone for each subpopulation. The algorithm then proceeds for the suppression operator. Algorithm 1 m-AINet algorithm Given: npop0 . . but the biggest improvement was the reduction of the computational cost. Update Abmem . but also for the reduction on the computational cost. Finally. This is a valuable characteristic that contributed not only for the improvement in convergence and in the number of feasible peaks found. {number of supressions} • ngen = 0. Its unconstrained version presents peaks over the search space. maxgen. 0]. The number of clones was intentionally chosen as . even though it is not a fully deterministic search. Moreover. maxsup. end while TABLE I RESULTS FOR THE CONSTRAINED PROBLEM IV.e. and the convergence criterion used was . This memory population is only mixed with the active population for the consecutive suppressions: no more function evaluations are required for the memory antibodies. and is available at [11]. These results were obtained by using the following parame. the hypercubic maturation allows the use of the partial stabilizations technique without interfeering on the evolution of the subpopulations. while Abmem does not stabilize AND nsup < maxsup do while size(Ab) > 0 AND ngen < maxgendo Evaluate the population Ab. This can be justiﬁed by the use of the partial stabilization of the subpopulations. while the others are stored in an external memory population. but again using the feasibility-based selection in case of close points. The TEAM Benchmark Problem 22 [13] consists on the minimization of the magnetic ﬂux (3) . Generate 2n clones for each antibody. greatly reduces the number of feasible peaks. this possibility is much smaller. Check each subpopulation for stabilization Move the stabilized antibodies to Abwait . or if the algorithm reaches a user-deﬁned maximum number of suppressions (maxsup). The opt-AINet used the penalization of the objective function as the method for dealing with the constraints. The penalty function constant . The iterative cycle continues until all the subpopulations have stabilized or a maximum number of iterations (maxgen) is achieved. the use of the feasibility-based selection criterion seems to have enabled the m-AINet to concentrate on the search for the feasible peaks. • nsup = 0. Maturate the clones using the hypercubic scheme. B. Add new random antibodies to the Ab population. only the points that did not stabilize during the iterative cycle return to the active population. than The results obtained by the m-AINet are shown in Table I. as it uses a Gaussian variation of the hypercube size. used was Table I shows the effect of the proposed modiﬁcations on the performance and computational cost of the m-AINet when compared to the original opt-AINet. This process is repeated until the size of the memory population does not vary for two consecutive generations. and . since the size of the population is a function of the amount of peaks found. and ters: . {number of generations} Initialize empty populations Abwait and Abmem Generate initial population Ab. The tolerance for the equality constraint was set to which means that points with values for this constraint lower are considered feasible. Select the best antibody from each subpopulation. The constrained global optimum is located at the point [1. i. we have also tested the opt-AINet over this problem. The suppression is performed like in the opt-AINet. represented by the number of objective function evaluations (Evals column). Evaluate the clones.: MODIFIED IMMUNE NETWORK ALGORITHM FOR MULTIMODAL ELECTROMAGNETIC PROBLEMS 1113 hypercubic maturation. d. ignoring almost all the unfeasible ones (the number of unfeasible peaks is given by the difference between Optima(Total) and Optima(Feasible)). RESULTS A. but the constraints. The parameters used were the same as used and for the m-AINet. 0. Additionally. as suggested in [12]. The code for the m-AINet as it is described here has been implemented in Matlab. with the additinal parameters . For analyzing the effects of the proposed modiﬁcations on the performance of the algorithm. On the other hand. Thus. the number of clones generated for each subpopulation was the same for the opt-AINet and the m-AINet. due to a certain degree of determinism introduced by the hypercubic maturation. The objective function is the three-dimensional (3-D) Rastrigin function. at the estimated best vertex. end while Perform the supression operator.CAMPELO et al. Analytic Constrained Problem For testing the ability of the m-AINet to work on constrained search spaces..

” in Proc. Magele. 2004.1114 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS. A. Feb. the designer may analyze these solutions with respect to other characteristics not initially considered during the optimization process. N. [7] J. 3. Conf. Brazil. May 2005. 1–17. Steiner. Artiﬁcial Immune Systems: A New Computational Intelligence Approach. 41. G. Alotto. Coello. May 2002. 1992. no. From Table II. at an acceptable cost. [10] E. “Assessing the performance of two immune inspired algorithms and a hybrid genetic algorithm for function optimization. Abbass. 22. pp. with the following conﬁguration: . G.. 2001. we have used the 3-D version of this problem. A. 2nd Int. 5. Takahashi. These additional optima provide a range of design options for the designer. Two of the best points found are shown in Table II. Mahfoud. Sydney. and returned 10 feasible optima. 699–674. This value is not available for the best solution known [13]. Cambridge. J. Jul. 2002. Evol. July 1987. and by the Ministry of Education. [6] L.hpg. Goldberg and J. Mezura-Montes and C. Pasteur). The design parameters are three geometric variables which deﬁne the size and position of the outer coil of the device. IEEE Congr. 2003. [4] L. also 2400. [3] F. Solution m-AINet(2). and L. “Robust target functions in electromagnetic design.jp). [8] L.CNPq . Available: http://www-igte. de Castro and J. Sarker. vol. Immunol. pp. even if it presents a slightly higher value for the objective. 1321–1324. Vasconcelos. “aiNet: An Artiﬁcial Immune Network for Data Analysis. “Crowding and preselection revisited. pp. In this paper. is an interesting feature. Belgium. Renhart. Jerne. We remark that the proposed algorithm allows the determination of multiple optimal solutions. C. “Toward a Network Theory of the Immune System. de Castro and J.” in Proc. 3.tu-graz. 1.ac. This reduction makes the algorithm suitable for electromagnetic problems. vol. With these mod- iﬁcations. one can see that the solutions obtained by m-AINet are comparable to other results available in the literature. NO. such as sensitivity analysis or more subjective criteria. APRIL 2006 TABLE II RESULTS FOR THE SMES PROBLEM density at a certain distance from a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) device. no. J. vol.fcampelofp. 1. CONCLUSION A modiﬁed version of the artiﬁcial immune network algorithm for multimodal optimization has been proposed.” COMPEL.” in Proc. Brussels. Science and Technology: MEXT. E. New South Wales. no.ac. [13] TEAM Workshop Problem 22: SMES Optimization Benchmark [Online]. 1736–1739.. Timmis. [11] F. “Genetic algorithms with sharing for multimodal function optimization. V. the inclusion of a speciﬁc scheme for dealing with constrained problems. J. The main differences between the m-AINet and the original opt-AINet algorithm are the use of the partial stabilizations criterion. vol. and the use of the hypercubic maturation. IEEE Congr. 2005 (e-mail: pinto@em-si. and C. W.” Ann. no. Magnetics. Weber. “An artiﬁcial immune network for multimodal function optimization. together with other solutions available in the literature. Magn. F. . H. 1. Australia: Idea Group Publishing. Berlin. on the other hand. May 2003. Available: http://www. and A. Evolutionary Computation. Evolutionary Computation. and . while requiring the same number of function evaluations as a GA. and Energy [MJ] is the amount of energy stored by the device. not easily described in mathematical form. VOL. J. 41–49.htm Manuscript received June 20. Timmis. Sports. pp.” IEEE Trans. by coincidence. [5] N. “A clonal selection algorithm for optimization in electromagnetics. MA. C. the problem is deﬁned as the minimization . 39.” IEEE Trans. and J.” in Proc. 549–560.. The optimization process required 2400 evaluations of the device. Univ. “A multiobjective methodology for evaluating genetic operators. The number of function evaluations required by the GA [12] was. The fact that the proposed algorithm was able to ﬁnd multiple optima. The limits of the search space and other speciﬁc details of this problem are discussed in [13]. pp. shows a slighly larger value for . A. [9] P. pp.under Grant 141731/2004-4 and Grant 300353/1997-9. for a solution with lower sensitivity to variations in the design parameters. Ramirez. who may decide. Parallel Problem Solving from Nature. The m-AINet has been applied to solve this problem. Timmis. 9.” in Data Mining: A Heuristic Approach.” IEEE Trans. Edmonds. Culture. Newton. Sept. (Inst. Richardson. H. C. A. and a very small deviation from the reference value for Energy. pp. the resulting algorithm was able not only to maintain the interesting characteristics of the opt-AINet. Krahenbuhl. C. In this paper. [Online]. Subsequently. R. The need of a user-deﬁned value for the number of clones has also been removed in the m-AINet. von Zuben. [2] S. Genetic Algorithms. As stated above. 42. “A simple multimembered evolution strategy to solve constrained optimization problems. vol. 125C. Ramírez. Campelo. Eds. K. Campelo. Guimarães. 1044–1051. Comp. N. 373–389. Japan.ig. vol. pp. N.com. subject to of the value of (4) (5) is the maximum magnetic ﬂux density at the where outer coil. but also to greatly reduce the number of objective function evaluations required in the optimization process. the tolerance for the energy constraint has been set at 5% of the reference value of 180 MJ.hokudai. W. at a relative cost of 240 evaluations per optimum.eng. vol. 2005. Germany: Springer-Verlag. The ﬁrst result (m-AINet(1)) presents a very low value for the objective function. including the global one.at/archive/ team/team3dis. 4. for example. with a violation of the energy constraint within the 5% tolerance speciﬁed. 1974. Matlab Code for the m-AINet Algorithm.br/ [12] R. de Castro and F. 2nd Conf. Kelsey. ACKNOWLEDGMENT This work was supported by the National Council of Scientiﬁc and Technologic Development . REFERENCES [1] D. and J.

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