Submitted in partial fulfillment of requirement for the ‘Master Of Business Administration(MBA)’ [ IIPM, DELHI ]

Prepared by: “RICHA PUSHP”

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The project is a part of curriculum of MBA. For this purpose, the student goes through an internship program at various companies/industries. I got this opportunity at Idea Cellular ltd., located at boring road,patna. My project is based on a practical study of training & development. Training & Development is a department which deals with all activities related to training & development of employees. This project report has been made after a practical & through study at Idea cellular ltd., patna. I have taken care of all present difficult ideas in a simple manner.

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In order to complete this project report, many data were collected which were helpful in gathering information about the organization, its people & the topic concerned. The methodologies which we used were basically secondary data. Secondary data are those data which are already collected & analyzed by someone before & has already been passed through the statistical processes. All the information about their functioning profile of the company was collected . Collection of the secondary data was done with geat care in order to present the most reliable facts through this report about the training & development programs at idea cellular ltd., patna.

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The written words as an unfortunate tendency to degenerate genuine gratitude into stilting formality. However this is an only way, I can record my feelings permanently. No work can be accomplished alone . It needs shades of various people to give a final result. A project is a team effort & it needs the cooperation of many people together, though my name is written there on the front page but in fact it is the contribution of many people who helped me out to complete my project on time. The main idea behind this project is to study about training & development program at IDEA,patna. While working at IDEA,patna, I had a great experience. All the knowledge that I gained through my book got a platform to be applied on to be tested & the people too there were very helpful & took pain to make me understand everything. I convey my gratitude, honor, adoration & love to all great souls who inspired & gave me wonderful ideas complete my project within the given period. First of all I would like to pay my regard & worthier thanks to almighty god for his blessings & the wisdom & strength which he has provided me. Secondly, I would like to pay my gratitude to my parents with the help of whom I have seen the world & who have helped me in each & every sphere of my life. I would like to pay my deep obeisance to Mr. Manoj Kumar Sinha, HR Head who gave me an opportunity to learn the practices of Training that Idea B&J follows. And last but not the least, I would like to thanks Ms. Payal Bose, an integral part of Service Delivery Training Team, Mr Satya Sheel Vatsa, MDF Head and Ms. Ankita Roy for giving their precious time in filling up the questionnaire . Place: PATNA Name: RICHA PUSHP
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 To have an idea of the organizational set-up of the above industry concern & to perceive the structure & its functioning.  To study & analyze the concept of training & development program at idea.Purpose & Objective of the study  To study & understand the basic features of idea cellular ltd. patna. Page | ..

The New Service Areas are Uttar Pradesh (East). Punjab. Our Values: Integrity .91% market share). Bihar. Haryana. Jammu & Kashmir. In 2002. Kerala. Andhra Pradesh. Idea acquired 500. Himachal Pradesh. The Mumbai launch was the largest Metro City launch in India. In 1997 it obtained licenses to provide GSM-based mobile services in the Gujarat and Maharashtra circles. It was incorporated as Birla Communications Ltd in 1995. honest. Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh (West). Chennai & Tamil Nadu.000 subscribers in just over 100 days.25% market share). it became a part of the Aditya Birla Group after the TATA Group sold its stake in the company. Category "B" and Category "C" service areas by the Government of India. Kolkata & West Bengal.Honesty in every action At Aditya Birla Group. and Assam & North East. In Bihar. Idea Cellular has operates in all 22 service areas of India. Idea Cellular is currently placed third (15. The Indian telecommunications market for mobile services is divided into 22 "Service Areas" classified into "Metro". Rajasthan. the company launched its Idea brand thus acquiring its current name. Gujarat. Orissa. Brand Idea was launched in Karnataka and Punjab. following the highest Page | . Mumbai. A leading GSM mobile services operator. Karnataka. Vodafone Essar (23.13% market share) in the overall subscriber base rankings behind Bharti Airtel (30. The telecom service areas have been divided into Established and New Service Areas. Idea Cellular is engaged in providing telecommunication services Idea Cellular is a part of the US $ 28 billion Aditya Birla Group. Integrity is defined as: Acting and taking decisions in a manner that is fair. through the acquisition of Spice Communications. and the North East states in FY10. These classifications are based principally on a Service Area's revenue generating potential. Chennai & Tamil Nadu. Idea launched its services in Mumbai and Bihar in 2008. Category "A". Jammu & Kashmir. The Established Service Areas are Delhi. Kolkata & West Bengal.Company Profile Idea Cellular Ltd (Idea Cellular) is a publicly listed company with BSE and NSE. Maharashtra. In 2006. The company has expanded its pan-India presence through service launches in Orissa.

The ICA was a 5 month long training intervention beginning from November 2009 and ending in March 2010. Relentless pursuit of goals and objectives with the highest level of energy and enthusiasm. business and geographies. Commitment . The circle regularly conducts training sessions to energize their employees and fine tune their skill sets in order that may record even higher levels of performance. Integrity for us means not only financial and intellectual integrity. but in all other forms as are commonly understood. hierarchies. Seamlessness is defined as: Thinking and working together across functional silos. that is voluntary and spontaneous. Speed is defined as: Responding to internal and external customers with a sense of urgency. Continuously seeking to crash timelines and choosing the right rhythm to optimize organization efficiencies.Energized action At Aditya Birla Group Passion is defined as: A missionary zeal arising out of emotional engagement with the organization that makes work joyful and inspires each one to give his or her best. Speed . doing whatever it takes to deliver value to all stakeholders. business and geographies.standards of professionalism and also perceived to be so. One of the primary reasons for this high performance is the circle‟s high quality of qualified and dedicated employees. Page | . Idea Cellular Gujarat Circle is one of the high performing circles of the company. Leveraging the available diversity to garner synergy benefits and promote openness through sharing and collaborative efforts. Seamlessness – Boundary-less in letter and spirit At Aditya Birla Group. those of our team and that part of the organization that we are responsible for. Passion . Leveraging the available diversity to garner synergy benefits and promote openness through sharing and collaborative efforts.boundryless in letter and spirit At Aditya Birla Group. In the step ahead always At Aditya Birla Group. Seamlessness is defined as:Thinking and working together across functional silos. One such unique training intervention is the IDEA CHAMPIONS ACADEMY (ICA). taking ownership of our actions and decisions.Deliver on the promise At Aditya Birla Group Commitment is defined as: On the foundation of integrity. hierarchies. Seamlessness .

thereby acquiring original license for the Andhra Pradesh Circle 2001:  Acquired RPG Cellular Limited and consequently the license for the Madhya Pradesh (including Chattisgarh) Circle Page | .Company History 1995:  Incorporated as Birla Communications Limited  Obtained licenses for providing GSM-based services in the Gujarat and  Maharashtra Circles  following the original GSM license bidding process 1996: Changed name to Birla AT&T Communications Limited following joint venture between Grasim Industries and AT&T Corporation 1997: Commenced operations in the Gujarat and Maharashtra Circles 1999: Migrated to revenues share license fee regime under New Telecommunications Policy (“NTP”) 2000: Merged with Tata Cellular Limited.

Reached the one million subscriber mark 2003: Reached the two million subscriber mark 2004:  Completed debt restructuring for the then existing debt facilities and additional funding for the Delhi Circle. Spain Sponsored the International Indian Film Academy Awards  Sponsored the International Indian Film Academy Awards Page | . Changed name to Birla Tata AT&T Limited  Obtained license for providing GSM-based services in the Delhi Circle following the fourth operator GSM license bidding process 2002:  Changed name to Idea Cellular Limited and launched “Idea” brand name  .  Acquired Escotel Mobile Communications Limited (subsequently renamed As Idea Mobile Communications Limited)  Reached the four million subscriber mark  First operator in India to commercially launch EDGE services 2005:  Reached the five million subscriber mark  Turned profit positive  Won an award for the “Bill Flash” service at the GSM Association Awards in Barcelona. Commenced commercial operations in Delhi Circle  .

2006:  Became part of the Aditya Birla Group subsequent to the TATA Group transferring its entire shareholding in the Company to the Aditya Birla Group  Acquired Escorts Telecommunications Limited (subsequently renamed as Idea Telecommunications Limited)  Restructuring of debt  Launch of the New Circles  Reached the 10 million subscriber mark  Received Letter of Intent from the DoT for a new UAS License for the Mumbai Circle. agreed to transfer its entire shareholding in Aditya Birla Telecom Limited to the Company for the consideration of Rs. ABNL. 28. 2006. Spain  Initial Public Offering aggregating to Rs. 2007:  Won an award for the CARE service in the Best Billing or Customer Care Solution at the GSM Association Awards in Barcelona.  Received Letter of Intent from the DoT for a new UAS License for the Bihar  Circle through Aditya Birla Telecom Limited.187 million and Listing of Equity Shares on the Bombay Stock Exchange and the National Stock Exchange Page | . pursuant to a letter dated November 22. the parent of Aditya  Birla Telecom Limited. 100 million.

International Bhd). West Bengal. Kolkata. Tamil Nadu & Chennai. P Murari .Mr.(Additional Director) . inter alia.Non Executive Director (Nominee of TM . Merger of seven subsidiaries with Idea Cellular Limited  Reached the twenty million subscriber mark 2008:  Idea Cellular Ltd has informed that the Board of Directors of the Company at its meeting held on October 20. R C Bhargava . has appointed the following persons as Directors on the Board of the Company: . Assam. Hans Wijayasuriya . 2009: 57.Dr. Orissa.fastest growing mobile operator in the world‟s fastest growing telecom market Page | .611.872  Idea becomes a pan-India operator  Emerging Company of the Year . North East and Jammu & Kashmir  Acquired Spice Communications with the operating circles of Punjab and Karnataka  Launched services in Mumbai metro in the largest single metro city launch.Independent Director (Additional Director) .  Idea acquired 9 licences for Punjab.Mr. Karnataka. 2008.Independent Director . ever  Launched services in Bihar 2009:  Subscriber base as on December 31.

Board of Directors Director Name Designation Kumar Mangalam Birla Chairman Himanshu Kapania Managing Director Rakesh Jain Non Executive Director Rajashree Birla Non Executive Director Biswajit Anna Subramanian Non Executive Director Shridhir Sariputta Hansa Alternate Director Hansa Wijayasuriya Alternate Director Juan Villalonga Navarro Nominee P Murari Independent Director Tarjani Vakil Independent Director G P Gupta Independent Director R C Bhargava Independent Director Arun Thiagarajan Independent Director Mohan Gyani Independent Director Pankaj Kapdeo Company Secretary Page | .

Tata DoCoMo. Bharti Airtel Ltd.Competitors of IDEA Idea competes with 14 other mobile operators throughout India. S Tel. Uninor. MTS. Reliance Communications. Loop Mobile. BSNL. Videocon. Tata Indicom. Page | . MTNL. Virgin Mobile Vodafone. They are :               Aircel.

To explore such potential partnerships. Some of our Technology and Content Partners: VAS Onmobile Asia Pacific Ltd Cellebrum India Ltd Siddhivinayak Astro Services Ltd. Kodiak Ltd Mauj Net4nuts India Ltd Yahoo Rediff Indiatimes Mobile2win Sify NDTV Page | .Our Partners IDEA welcomes all businesses and individuals interested in partnering with us to enhance and strengthen the IDEA products & services portfolio. kindly get in touch with us by submitting the Partners Form.

inc Starhome Bharti Telesoft MARKETING COMMUNICATIONS Lowe India Pvt Ltd Mindshare PUBLIC RELATIONS Imprimis PR NETWORK Nokia .ROAMING Roamware.Siemens Page | .

Grasim Industries Limited 3. Hindalco Industries Limited and 4.Ericsson BILLING Atos Origin Our Promoters are : 1. Birla TMT Holdings Private Limited Page | . Aditya Birla Nuvo Limited 2.

2010) CHENNAI & TAMILNADU Idea introduces 30 p/min tariff this festive season for its subscribers in Tamil Nadu (Chennai. 2011) Idea to promote the idea of 'Keep Cricket Clean' during the upcoming Cricket season (Mumbai. 2011) Mega Diwali promo (Hyderabad. 2010) Idea introduces Prepaid Roaming services in Assam & North East (Guwahati. February 23rd. July 29. November 10th. 2010) IDEA paints Patna Green! (Patna. 2010) BIHAR & JHARKHAND VAS Contest Car_Patna (Patna. March 28th. August 13th. 2011) ANDHRA PRADESH Idea reduces International Roaming rates by 30% for Dubai Shopping Festival (Hyderabad. February 3rd. February 5. October 15. 2010) ASSAM & NORTH EAST IDEA Cellular launches new tariff plans in Assam & NE (Guwahati. 2010) Page | .IDEA in Media CORPORATE Idea rings in the 'Power of 3G' (Mumbai. July 2.

2009) Page | . 2010) HIMACHAL PRADESH 'Kaho What's Your Idea' comes to Shimla Schools (Shimla on 21st September. November 10th. October 4th. January 13. 10th November. 2010) IDEA Cellular introduces breakthrough tariff plans to drive penetration in HP (Shimla/Chandigarh. June 23. 2011) HARYANA Idea 'My Card' offers free services to mobile consumers in Haryana (Noida.Idea brings the 'World of Tamil' to Coimbatore (Coimbatore. 2010) 'Kaho what's Your Idea' comes to Noida Schools (Noida. January 13. 2010) GUJARAT Idea reduces International Roaming rates by 30% for Dubai Shopping Festival (Ahmedabad. 2011) IDEA launches special Uttarayan Pack in Gujarat (Ahmedabad. 2010) DELHI & NCR Idea welcomes the visitors of Commonwealth Games with a bouquet of special communication services in Delhi & NCR (New Delhi. March 31st. October 9. 2010) IDEA Cellular launches 'Recharge & Win' offer in Haryana (Ambala.

2009 KARNATAKA 'Kaho what's Your Idea' comes to Mangalore Schools' (Mangalore. October 14.99 (Kolkata. 2011) Idea launches Diwali 'Shubh Labh' offer for mobile consumers in MP & Chhattisgarh (Indore. January 17. 3rd February. 2011) MADHYA PRADESH & CHATTISGARH 'Kaho what's Your Idea' comes to Raipur Schools (Raipur.JAMMU & KASHMIR IDEA expands in J&K. 2010) KERALA 'Kaho what's Your Idea' comes to Kochi Schools' (Kochi. 2011) Idea launches ISD 'Power Vouchers' in Kolkata & WB. 2011) Deccan Chargers get an Idea to woo fans in Bangalore! (Bangalore. 2010) KOLKATA & WEST BENGAL Kolkata's 'Idea' to Wish Team India the Very Best! (Kolkata. January 27th.1. 2011) 'Call and Fly' with Idea this season (Kochi. 4th October. launches services in the Valley (Srinagar. April 7th. January 19. 27th January. 19th February. 2010) Choose your own IDEA number in J&K! (Jammu. 2010) MAHARASHTRA & GOA Idea records 1 Crore subscribers in Maharashtra & Goa Page | . 26th November. now Call Bangladesh at Rs.

July 19. 2011) Mr. 21st September. 7th February. Taresh from Sawai Madhopur gets 'Tyohaaron Ki Saugaat' from Idea (Jaipur. February 3rd . October 1. 2011) 'Kaho what's Your Idea' comes to Ajmer Schools' (Ajmer. 2011) Idea powers its subscribers with 'Dus Ka Dum' Recharges in Punjab (Chandigarh. 2011) 'Kaho What's Your Idea' comes to Navi Mumbai and Thane Schools (Navi Mumbai/ Thane. 2010) Idea 'Maha Recharge' in Maharashtra offers 'Maha' benefit to mobile users (Pune. January 6th. May 17. 2010) IDEA introduces lowest STD tariff in Orissa during the festive season (Bhubaneshwar. 2010) ORISSA Talk to Friends with Idea's new youth product in Orissa (Bhubaneswar. 2010) RAJASTHAN 'Kaho what's Your Idea' comes to Kota Schools' (Kota. 2010) MUMBAI Idea reduces International Roaming rates by 30% for Dubai Shopping Festival (Mumbai. September 16. August XXth. 2011) Page | .(Pune. 2009) PUNJAB Idea extends Life Insurance benefit to 'Diamond Club' dealers in Punjab (Chandigarh. 20th January. January 13th.

UTTAR PRADESH (East) Mr. 2011) Idea introduces 30 p/min tariff for Calls within UP East & West (Lucknow. Raj Kishor from Anshik. 2010) UTTAR PRADESH (West) 'Kaho Idea brings 'Tyoharon ki Saugat' for prepaid mobile consumers in UP West (Noida. 2010) Page | . 2010) 'Kaho What's Your Idea' comes to Moradabad Schools (Moradabad. October 5th. January 14th. 8th September. Lucknow wins Idea's 'Kaun Banega Lakhpati Challenge' (Lucknow. October 21st.

Mumbai . „C‟ Circle .North East . „B‟ Circle .Department of Telecom has defined telecom circles in India (including metropolitan circles).Tamil Nadu 3. Circles are classified as metropolitan circles and as category „A‟.West Bengal & Andaman and Nicobar Islands 4.Madhya Pradesh .Maharashtra .Kolkata 2.Assam . „B‟ or „C‟ Circles.Punjab .Bihar .Delhi .Gujarat .Himachal Pradesh . „A‟ Circle .Haryana .Uttar Pradesh (West) .Karnataka .Chennai .Rajasthan .Orissa .Andhra Pradesh .Kerala .Jammu & Kashmir Page | . The circles are: 1. Metros .Uttar Pradesh (East) .

and International Harvester had factory schools that focused on training technical skills for entry-level workers. General Electric. the idea that organizations should devote resources to training employees in such skills would have been regarded as absurd. However. involving more and more employees and also expanding in content. only a few large companies such as Westinghouse.Training & Development Introduction: Since the beginning of the twentieth century and especially after World War II. The enormous expansion in the content of training programs over time has now largely been taken for granted. Such skills Page | . By the 1990s. In the 1910s. Now people would rarely question the necessity of training in conversational skills. training programs have become widespread among organizations in the United States. back to the 1920s. forty percent of the Fortune 500 firms have had a corporate university or learning center.

"Training programs became more elaborate. such as leadership. eleven percent of U. they incorporated. More than three hundred training organizations specialize in communications training (Training and Development Organizations Directory. conversational skills and time management training). draws attention to the enormous expansion in the content of training with an emphasis on the rise of personal development training (or popularly known as the "soft skills" training. seventy years later. however. a widening array of developmental. creativity. organizations deem communications skills as the most important on their priority lists of training. Nevertheless. Previous studies on training have largely focused on the incidence of formal training and the total amount of training offered.clearly were not part of the exact knowledge and methods that the employee will use on his particular job or the job just ahead of him. It is intended to develop one's personal potential and is not immediately related to the technical aspects of one's job tasks. Meyer and Scott (1994) describe the spread of personal development training programs based on their survey of and interviews with more than one hundred organizations in Northern California. This study. Personal development training can be defined as training programs that aim at improving one's cognitive and behavioral skills in dealing with one self and others. Page | . and many more regard it as highly important. 1994). teamwork.S. Monahan. in addition to technical training for workers and human relations training for supervisors and managers.

" Training Excuses Training is one element many corporations consider when looking to advance people and offer promotions. Courses of this nature include office professionalism. stress and nutrition. And while that might be true. mental health.personal growth. Training and development offers more than just increased knowledge. and self-management courses. It offers the added advantage of networking and drawing from others‟ experiences. holiday health. including safe diets. transacting with people. When you Page | . Some fail to see the value of training because they really believe that they already know it all. Training & Development Some people are just comfortable in what they are doing. some employees are still reluctant to be trained. injury prevention. individual contributor programs. the knowledge value of training and development is not the only perk. time management. career management. Although many employees recognize the high value those in management place on training and development. and applying intelligence in the workplace. Courses are also offered on health and personal well-being. It is not uncommon to hear excuses regarding why someone has not received training. exercise. and structured problem solving. entrepreneur.

Have you heard the old saying that you have to spend money to make money? Well. so why should a day of training be any different? Time is another often-heard excuse when training and development is mentioned. and timesaving hints learned in training and development sessions equal more time in the long run. You have to devote some time to training and development to make you more productive in the long run. you have the added benefit of sharing from life experience. ideas. the same is true for training and development.attend a seminar or event with others who have jobs that are much like yours. You usually don‟t think twice about taking a day of vacation. You can set up meetings with peers who are in similar positions and ask how they are doing their jobs. Who said that training always carries a heavy enrollment fee? Training can be free. in a sense. Your best piece of advice for the day might come from the peer sitting beside you. Page | . Have you considered that training and development might actually give you more time? Often the procedures. Another common excuse is that there is not enough money budgeted to pay for training. The seminar notes or the conference leader might not give you the key nugget you take back and implement in the workplace. Follow someone for a day to see how he organizes or manages his work and time. so the only drawback may be working a little harder on an assignment to catch up from a day out of the office. short cuts. The cost to you is a day out of your normal routine.

What is Training in terms of organization? “Transferring information and knowledge to employers and equipping employers to translate that information and knowledge into practice with a view to enhancing organization effectiveness and productivity. facilitating learning.. i. when actually we should be developing people from the inside out. Difference between Training and Learning There is a big difference:  'Training' implies putting skills into people.e. Page | .” It also means that in organizational development. and the quality of the management of people. beyond skills. the related field of training and development (T & D) deals with the design and delivery of workplace learning to improve performance.

Talk about learning.  Give people choice . not training.  Enable and encourage the development of the person . Importance of Developing a Role in Training Developing a national role in training is important for an employers' organization for several reasons. to better serve business needs. and compassion are more important than skills and processes. Focus on the person. not imposing training. It also enables it to influence employers in regard to the need for them to invest more in training and employee development .they will never be skills and processes. So focus on facilitating any way that you can. from the inside out. and offer opportunities for people to develop as people in as many ways you can. not the outside in. waiting to be fulfilled. analyze the root causes of your organization's successes and your failures . Page | . First. If you are in any doubt.  Emotional maturity. through its influence on education policies and systems and training by public training institutions. and we all have our own strengths and potential. it enables the organization to contribute to the development of a country's human capital.which employers should recognize as one key to their competitiveness in the future.we all learn in different ways. integrity.

Fifth. it compels its own staff to improve their knowledge without which they cannot offer training to enterprises through their own staff.policy lobbying. it provides an important service to members. business owners frequently send their people to Page | . Finally. This is completely understandable when you realize that in many companies.Second. Fourth. it is an important source of income provided the organization can deliver relevant quality training. it contributes to better human relations at the enterprise level and therefore to better enterprise performance. Sixth.. which can lead to increased membership and influence. it improves the overall image of the organization and invests it with a degree of professionalism. the knowledge required for training increases the quality of other services provided by the organization . especially in industrial relations in respect of which sources of training for employers in developing countries are few. The primary reason training is considered optional by so many business owners is because it's viewed more as an expense than an investment. training and development aren't focused on producing a targeted result for the business. advisory and representation services.a viewpoint that can be costly to both short-term profits and long-term progress. Third. Many entrepreneurs seem to view employee training and development as more optional than essential. by matching corporate goals and people management policies. As a result..

training budgets are solely a function of whether the company is enjoying an economic upswing or enduring a downturn. and in bad times. the pendulum swings to the other extreme and Page | . then you're more likely to be happy with what you spend on training. then money is more likely to be spent on courses that have no positive impact on the company. But without measurable results. but in most cases. this component must provide for the systematic identification and development of your managers in terms of the leadership style that drives your business and makes it unique and profitable. it's almost impossible to view training as anything more than an expense. In good courses that seem right and sound good without knowing what to expect in return. Have you spent time thoughtfully examining the style of leadership that's most successful in your environment and that you want to promote? What steps are you taking to develop those important leadership traits in your people? Financial considerations related to training can be perplexing. learning and leadership). But if the training budget isn't related to specific outcomes. At its core. Every successful training and development program also includes a component that addresses your current and future leadership needs. If your training is targeted to specific business results. In many organizations. companies tend to spend money on training that's not significant to the organization. the true budgetary impact depends on how well you manage the first three components (needs analysis.

followed by an in-depth look at the core concepts and steps involved in conducting a training needs assessment. Your employees are your principle business asset. Training & Need Assessment Introduction The training needs assessment is a critical activity for the training and development is eliminated altogether. To help counter this tendency. the training expense should be determined by the targeted business results you want. This paper will begin with an overview of the training and development function and how the needs assessment fits into this process. In any economic environment. you should be adept at performing a training needs assessment. not other budget-related factors. Whether you are a human resource generalist or a specialist. and you'll reap rewards that pay off now and for years to come. Invest in them thoughtfully and strategically. Once the needs assessment is completed and training objectives are clearly identified. the design phase of the training and development process is initiated: Page | . sit down and assess your training and development needs once or twice a year to identify your needs and brainstorm how to achieve your desired results effectively and efficiently.

facilities and participants.  Select and design the program content. • Conduct the training. Levels of Needs Assessment  Organizational analysis. • Schedule instructors to teach. design. implementation and evaluation process is a continual process for the organization. role play. classroom. the training is ready for implementation: • Schedule classes. etc.). how much participants learned and how well the participants transfer the training back on the job. simulation.  Identify and train instructors (if internal). videos. The evaluation process includes determining participant reaction to the training program. The information gathered from the training evaluation is then included in the next cycle of training needs assessment. training objectives.). It is important to note that the training needs assessment. The final phase in the training and development program is evaluation of the program to determine whether the training objectives were met. Select the internal or external person or resource to design and develop the training. etc.  Select the materials to be used in delivering the training (work books.  Select the techniques used to facilitate learning (lecture.  Select the appropriate setting (on the job.  Task analysis and Page | . • Prepare materials and deliver them to scheduled locations. etc.). After completing the design phase.

Staffing inventory. facilities. short term sickness. long and short term staffing needs. turnover rates. succession planning. materials on hand and current. employee willingness to participate. Individual analysis. absenteeism. • State of the economy and the impact on operating costs. strategic plans. suggestions. • Skills inventory: both currently available and short and long term needs. FMLA. OSHA.  Organizational analysis looks at the effectiveness of the organization and determines where training Organizational analysis should identify: • Environmental impacts (new laws such as ADA. Page | . The information needed to conduct an organizational analysis can be obtained from a variety of sources including: • Organizational goals and objectives. • Climate and support for training (top management support. organizational climate indices: labor/management relationships. responsibility for outcomes). resources available (money. customer complaints. • Political trends such as sexual harassment and workplace violence. observations of employee behavior. etc. grievances. accidents. • Changing work force demographics and the need to address cultural or language barriers. productivity.). • Changing technology and automation. mission statements. attitude surveys. • Increasing global/world market places. • Organizational goals (how effective is the organization in meetings its goals). available expertise within the organization).

quality of products. waste. attitudes and abilities needed to achieve optimum performance. • Delegation and control systems. review professional journals. Attitudes and Abilities required of incumbents. down time. If an accurate job description is not available or is out of date. • Ask questions about the job-. • Review literature about the job-. reward systems. late deliveries. • Employee attitudes and satisfaction.Of the incumbents.Research the "best practices" from other companies. costs of materials. • Performance standards-.A more detailed list of specified tasks for each job including Knowledge. repairs. • KSA analysis-. • Audit exceptions.A narrative statement of the major activities involved in performing the job and the conditions under which these activities are performed. Page | . one should be prepared using job analysis techniques. • Job inventory questionnaire-. Skills. skills. of the supervisor. technology or automation. There are a variety of sources collecting data for a task analysis: • Job description-. This is needed to identify performance discrepancies.• Analysis of efficiency indices: costs of labor.Objectives of the tasks of the job and the standards by which they will be judged. • Planning systems. production rates. of upper management. • Annual report. • Changes in equipment.  Task analysis provides data about a job or a group of jobs and the knowledge. costs of distribution.Evaluate tasks in terms of importance and time spent performing. • Plans for reorganization or job restructuring. equipment utilization.

equipment utilization. waste. the training manager can develop the instructional objectives for the training and development program. Page | . must measure jobrelated qualities such as job knowledge and skills. prioritizes the training based on the urgency of the need (timeliness). waste. Ask employee about what he/she believes he/she needs to learn. supervisor and employee.Productivity. Based on this information. repairs.Up-to-date listing of current skills.  Individual analysis analyzes how well the individual employee is doing the job and determines which employees need training and what kind. the training manager. Results of the Needs Assessment Assuming that the needs assessment identifies more than one training need. tests. product quality.Identifies weaknesses and areas of improvement.Observe both behavior and the results of the behavior.Measures morale.  Performance problems -.• Analysis of operating problems-.  Checklists or training progress charts -.  Questionnaires -. accidents. grievances. absenteeism or tardiness. motivation. working with management.Talk to manager.  Work samples -. satisfaction. Sources of information available for a individual include: analysis  Performance evaluation -.Observe products generated.Down time.  Observation -.Written form of the interview. down time. the extent of the need (how many employees need to be trained) and the resources available. repairs. late deliveries.  Interviews -. quality control. customer complaints.  Attitude surveys -.

Methods of needs identification . desirable situation. including the following:     self-report questionnaires observation individual interviews checklist / job description Page | . evidence suggests that there is a basic problem which can be addressed through training. Various methods may be used to do this. Stakeholder analysis The topic clearly indicates how important it is to identify all possible stakeholders with an interest in the training process. interest and possible impact on them.the process The following paragraphs describe ten important steps in training needs identification and analysis. 1. including the identification and assessment of the training needs. Stakeholder analysis in the context of needs assessment will reveal the importance and possible influence of the stakeholders . Selecting and using the research methods to identify training needs Identifying training needs is a form of research. So it is important to identify clearly the „training gap‟. This is found by comparing an existing situation with a future. It may also be necessary to address the problem with non-training measures. their type of participation. and then finding out how training can bring us from „here‟ to „there‟. First. 2.

    diary records work sampling technical expert conference critical incident The choice of research method will depend on the questions which are to be asked. The questions will emerge as you consider what needs are being addressed (organizational. One useful tool is to match the questions with the research methodology. as follows: Example: TNA related to mangoes 3. List questions to ask them. individual). what are the critical changes affecting the work and operations of the organization? What are Page | . e.g. Planning identification of organizational needs There are two steps:   List organizations with a stake in the training. job.

or with other stakeholders who are able to provide good quality information about the professional activities of the target group. Page | . prior to the training. The list of organizations and appropriate questions can be presented in a table: Example: TNA related to mangoes 4.the relevant policies within the organization? What are the current strengths and weaknesses of the organization? What opportunities and threats are being presented from the external environment? etc.Planning identification of job needs This should be carried out using a participatory methodology. ideally with the trainees themselves.

The following steps are recommended:  Identify main categories of jobs and make a list of all the tasks associated with a person in that category of job.  The following scoring/coding can be used for the different criteria related to this task: Frequency Importance Learning difficulty 1=Seldom (once or twice 1=Very little 1=Easy a year) importance 2=Moderately difficult 2=Occasional (every few 2=Moderate 3=Difficult months) importance 4=Very difficult 3=Weekly or monthly 3=Very important 4=Daily to weekly 5=Daily Page | . Using interviews. complete this frequency/ importance/ learning difficulty table. questionnaires or through observation of people performing tasks.

such as the following:             What difficulties do you face when doing these tasks or your job? What could help you to do your job better? What kinds of knowledge do you need to do your job? What skills do you need to do your job? What kinds of attitudes do you need to do your job effectively? Which of these KSA do you lack now? How long have you worked in this job? What do you like most about your job? What do you like least? What would you like to change about your job? Do you think you are doing a good job? How do you know if you are doing a good job? Page | . 5. The priorities may be stated as: * =low ** =medium *** =high Again through consultation with representatives of the target group and other relevant stakeholders. it is useful to find out what are the priority tasks. it is important to estimate the training needs of individuals. it is now possible to choose one of the high priority tasks and identify the (ideal) KSA required for someone to perform it.Once the table(s) have been completed. by preparing a variety of questions to them. Planning identification of individual needs Here.

which may be explored in more detail or clarified in some way. Identify categories into which data can be inserted. and when. This has two advantages. Flexibility. Firstly. there should be clear evidence which justifies its provision. Training is not the answer to every problem! 8. it will not be necessary to fight with a huge amount of data at the end of the survey. 7. It can also be useful in identifying non-training needs. and can be useful when developing a training strategy. The knowledge skills and attitudes (KSA) identified will form the basis of the curricula to be developed. Presenting the TNA data There are different ways in which the data could be presented. commitment. but always expect the unexpected. Once these KSA have been identified. energy. organization and a sense of humour will all be needed during this period. Secondly. The information collected in the survey which is not directly related to KSA will provide this evidence. Analysis of the data collected in the TNA It is important that data is sorted out as the TNA survey progresses. For any training course/programme developed. One way is as follows: Page | . It is therefore important to develop a training strategy once the results of the TNA are known. then the data collection should go smoothly. Data collection This is the point when plans become action. If the planning has been effective. it will be necessary to prioritize which training programmes can or should be offered. there will be a better understanding of important issues emerging during the survey.6.

and a rough idea of content). either in small groups or in a plenary session. to which key stakeholders are invited. 10.  Client organizational issues. Sharing the results All the stakeholders involved in the TNA should have the opportunity to give feedback on the results. It is not always possible to invite all stakeholders to a workshop.  Individual needs.  Tasks and activities (existing and future). This may be done through a workshop.  Curricula which are going to be planned (including time frame. This could be organized under the following headings:  Policy. The results may be presented. Reporting the data It is essential to prepare a report of the initial consolidated results of the TNA.9.  Environment.  Training provider organizational issues. the written report).  KSA (existing and future/required). Where data is collected from groups or individuals who cannot participate in a workshop to discuss the findings and have no access to Page | . and then participants should have the chance to discuss the results in detail. in this case the results of the TNA should be disseminated in some other ways (for example.

when you are developing a training program for someone to follow.  Fourth Lastly. if you are working with someone who sits at a desk all day. where the researchers present the findings from the field directly to those who contributed their ideas. and what their goals are in training. Design a Training Program  First. Are you going to incorporate speed and agility drills for your basketball client. you are going to probably incorporate a lot of flexibility and core strengthening exercises to loosen that person's hips and legs and help them keep a good posture throughout the day. or are you going to use weight training and a stretching routine to help the 40 year old stay at home mom reach her goals? There are various types of training ranging from low impact training to high intensity weight training. This is the most important thing for you to remember!!!  Second . you should take into consideration the person you are training. For example. for example. This improves the chance for feedback and validation of the results. It also emphasizes the importance for the researchers to sort their data as they proceed with the collection. it is important to provide opportunity for their feedback during the data collection process. A meeting could be held.  Third Next. Page | . You have to decide which one is right for the person you are training. their fitness level. You should make the training specific to what type of lifestyle the individual lives or what their job requires.written reports. you should decide what type of training you are going to put your client through. you need to develop a benchmark or evaluating tool for seeing where your clients are at when they complete the program. Your goal here should be to see if they reached their goals and if not what they need to do in order to reach their goals.

First. Second. which can lead to increased membership and influence. by matching corporate goals and people management policies. the knowledge required for training increases the quality of other services provided by the organization . especially in industrial relations in respect of which sources of training for employers in developing countries are few. through its influence on education policies and systems and training by public training institutions.policy lobbying. advisory and representation services. it contributes to better human relations at the enterprise level and therefore to better enterprise performance. Third. Fifth. it enables the organization to contribute to the development of a country's human capital. it compels its own staff to improve their knowledge without which they cannot offer training to enterprises through their own staff. it improves the overall image of the organization and invests it with a degree of professionalism.Importance of Developing a Role in Training Developing a national role in training is important for an employers' organization for several reasons. to better serve business needs. it provides an important service to members. Sixth. it is an important source of income provided the organization can deliver relevant quality training. It also enables it to influence employers in regard to the need for them to invest more in training and employee development . Page | .which employers should recognize as one key to their competitiveness in the future. Finally. Fourth.

This training follows a systematic sequence of activities which are as follows:  First step. is the training provided during the regular performance of duties.the trainee is given instructions by the trainer while performing the job on the site & doubts of the trainer are cleared immediately.  Example:-spending time with an expert so that the employee can observe how the expert performs their daily duties. Methods of on – the – job Training:     Job instruction Apprenticeship & coaching Job rotation Committee Assignment Job instruction training – In this method of training . the job to be performed & the venue & time of training .any doubts regarding the training should be cleared at this stage.Training Methods  On-the-job training  Off-the-job training On – the – job Training  On the job training. Page | . The trainee is prepared for the training by giving him clear information about the training to be imparted .

After the training is imparted to the trainee. interpersonal skills. the coach acts as a model for the trainee to emulate.The apprenticeship period typical ranges one year to five years. before the join their regular jobs.The time spent on each job ranges from one or two days to several weeks. Apprentices are not the employees of the organization & are not governed by any of the laws that are applicable to regular employees.This training refers to those who are required to go through formal apprenticeship under experienced employees. problem solving skills & leadership skills while solving the problem as a group. feedback & knowledge transfer to job are high in coaching. Appreticeship & coaching. The trainees develop their team management skills. with some designated to be called upon when he requires any instance or help. Page | .  Third step. the form of instructions. The supervisor of the HR professionals function as coaches in training the employee. a group of employees are given an actual organizational problem & are asked to find a solution . structured program. Committee assignments Under the committee assignment method. Job rotation-This is a training method where the trainee is placed on various jobs across different function in the organization. trainee is left on his own. the trainee is asked to demonstrate the job. communication skills. In coaching.This cross functional knowledge helps the organization in times of acute need for manpower.It is less formal than apprenticeship program because it is provided when needed rather than being a part of a more planned. Second step. After the trainer is satisfied by the performance of the trainee.

the trainee is exposed to an artificial work situation that closely resembles the actual work situation. experimental exercises.experiential modeling.Off – the – job Training  This is training provided away from the employee‟s usual work environment and the employee will stop their usual duties/work during the training.  Example:-This training may be provided by trainers working for the same employer as the employees being trained or an outside company hired by the employer. The lecture method works effectively if it is made interesting with the help of audio-visual tools & suitable demonstrations.the trainee is given a series of questions after he studies the relevant material required for the accomplishment of the job. Methods of off – the – job Training:  Class room lectures  Simulation exercises(case method.In such situation where organization can not afford any mistakes by the trainee during on the job training. simulation exercises are of great help. he is asked to refer back to the material. Page | .procedures & policies of the organization.It can in the form of case exercises.It is a two way communication which makes a session lively & interesting. computer modeling. he is given an immediate feedback whether it is right or wrong. After a trainee answer the question.If the answer is right.vestibule training & role playing. Simulation exercises-In this method. Programmed instructions-In this method.vestibule training & role playing)  Programmed instructions exercises. he is asked to proceed to the next question but if it is Classroom lectures-This approach is widely used for helping the employees understand the rules.This kind of program promotes continuous interaction between trainer & the trainee & facilitates learning.

reliable evaluation strategies.our training effectiveness is reneging on our commitment to our students.Training Evaluation  The Evaluation of any training programme has certain aims to fulfill.  The future requires more precise. by demonstrating an interest in staff development.  These are concerned with the determination of change in the organizational behavior and the change needed in the organizational structure. Benefits of training evaluation:  Helps employees to monitor their own improvement. problems and strength should be identified which would help the trainer in this future training programmes.  To maximize the training ROI (return on investment). we like to think of training effectiveness evaluation in the same way that we think of surveillance tests in the plant.  The analysis of data should be summarized and then compared with the data of other training programmes similar nature. to stop short of completion of the training systems design methodology. Page | .  The analysis of the information is the concluding part of any evaluation programme.  Hence evaluation of any training program must inform us whether the training programme has been able to deliver the goals and objectives in terms of cost incurred and benefits achieved.  On the basis of these comparisons. we perform training effectiveness evaluations to ensure our programmes work effectively. by avoiding the evaluation.  Builds morale.

Purpose of Training Evaluation Purposes of Training Evaluation  Feedback: It helps in giving feedback to the candidates by defining the objectives and linking it to learning outcomes.  Assists with identifying the effectiveness of different forms of teaching (such as classroom based or web based). Page | . Helps to determine the form of future training programs.

Process of training evaluation before training  Before Training. the top management (higher authoritative employee) uses the evaluative data to manipulate it for their own benefits. and training. then it can be dealt with accordingly.  Control: It helps in controlling the training program because if the training is not effective. transfer of knowledge at the work place. Research: It helps in ascertaining the relationship between acquired knowledge.  Intervention: It helps in determining that whether the actual outcomes are aligned with the expected outcomes.  Power games: At times. the learner's skills and knowledge are assessed Page | .

 During the start of training. Methods of Evaluation of Training Programmes The required data can be collected by using the following techniques.  Process of training evaluation once aware. Data can easily collected. This phase usually consist of short tests at regular intervals. a) Self assessments answer sheets. Page | . they are asked to give their opinions on the methods used and whether those methods confirm to the candidates preferences and learning style. c) Assessing the collected information and observation. Time consumption of the trainer and trainee is negligible. it is the phase at which instruction is started. d) Final result based on earlier information plus the new data Each method of data collection has its advantages and disadvantages. it is the phase when learner‟s skills and knowledge are assessed again to measure the effectiveness of the training. Effective relationships develop between the trainee. candidates generally perceive it as a waste of resources because at most of the times candidates are unaware of the objectives and learning outcomes of the program.  During Training. Merits of Self Assessment:      The cost factor is quite low. which need to taken into consideration.  After Training. b) Question confronted by the trainees. Outside interference is completely avoided.

The assessment must have enough reliability so as to draw right conclusion in regard to individual  assessment.  As far telephone interviews are concerned though there is lack of personnel touch. If any responses need to be clarified. Page | .  The information provided by the trainees cannot be evaluated in terms of their correctness. The trainer can do so instantly. the same can do immediately. This helps in ensuring correct information. Thus self assessment questions should be small and easy to understand inaddition no information should be sleeked which will embarrass the trainees. All the trainees do not prefer to give the required information lest it may be used against at any point of time. Well designed answer sheet can produce healthy results . Demerits of Self Assessment:  Self assessment is basically self evaluation which can be based of biased responses. These answers have far more validity as the responses are without any pressure. The trainee does not feel the pressure of the interviewer to give answers that suit the trainer. The trainer can answer all those question that are complex in nature. Similarly if the trainees want any clarification. Merits of Interviews:  Face to face interviews ensures some response.  The responses given by the trainees can be based on misrepresentation or misinterpretation of the questions asked.

Demrits of questionnaire:  If found appropriate. This can lead to a considerable waste of time.  Since it does not usually involve the design of some sort of formal survey instrument such as questionnaire. a pre _ test must be conducted to find out whether the questions mean the same thing to the trainer and the trainee.  Once the initial design has been properly framed.  Another important drawback is the possibility of the trainer being involved in the interview.  Data collected through interview methods may be out of date and hence difficult to interpret.“As with any method of data collection it is  vital to plan how the data is to be collected”. Full survey should be conducted and if found inappropriate the questionnaire should be redesigned again. Merits of Questionnaire:  Questionnaires in one form or another do appear in all kinds of research and surveys  It may be observed.Demerits of Interviews:  The interview is a lengthy and costly process as it requires trained and skilled personal to get results that are reliable. Page | .

It may be asserted that the public and private sector. structurally as well as behaviorally. For most organization internal compilations are bound to change in the computer age. Organization with their exiting format will not be in position to absorb this culture shock. The governments are being asked to play sensitive role of controlling the business ethical activities on one hand and safeguarding the interests of consumer on the other. The pertinent question is whether the new market situation will force the organization to go in for training as they are going to face new marketing situations in the times to come. The governments are formulating legislation to facilitate business activity both public and private as well as safeguarding the consumer interest. even in monopolistic conditions have to face competition. Thus managers and CEOs need to be acquainted to the new legislation that are being enacted from time to time. Page | .  The third factor that has influenced training needs is related the new role that the government are being asked to play.. In the era of privatization and globalization.Factors Influencing Training Needs  Technology in the computer age is being upgraded frequently and hence is the most important factors in increasing the complexity of an organization .  Another important factor that needs to be taken into consideration is concerned with social changes that are taking place in the new social environment. The change agent will be playing an important role in providing appropriate training to absorb culture shock. women. The organizations are bound to receive culture shock.People from diverse nations will from the workforce of modern organizations with increasing diversity in the culture.  The fourth factor that has influenced the training needs is the emerging competitive market Conditions. People from different backgrounds.

Training needs cannot be overlooked because it is an on going process. Internally organizations are going to face new dilemmas and problems. Will the new emerging conditions give rise to pressure groups that have henceforth not been seen in the business world. and others.Any strategic plan which does not take this fact into account is bound to face numerous problems. have to be kept up to date in expertise and at the same times need to be motivated to perform better. Page | . This is a difficult task which cannot be handled by the staff of the organization. Basically organizations are going to face situations that are the result of competitive markets and development of consumerism. workers.  The fifth factor influencing the training needs related to internal management of anorganization. Many of the managers in the public and private sector could not possibly have been oriented towards these new situations. In addition. Experts called change agents are required to fulfill the task. like managers. staff. Business needs are fulfilled by the human resources that exist within the framework of internal structure.Human resources. Hence need of training is unavoidable. Training is now considered a specialized function to be performed by the experts. There will be a continuous pressure on the organization to improve performance.

Training Process  STEP 1: Establishing a need analysis This step identifies activities to justify an investment for training.“Who” needs the training? and "Who" will conduct the training? .“Where” is the training needed? . The primary objective of all training is to improve individual and organizational performance.“When” is the training needed? . and high turnover. and attitudes are needed to improve the employee‟s performance in accordance with the company‟s standards. The objective in establishing a needs analysis is to find out the answers to the following questions . Establishing a needs analysis is. observations. an organization can decide what specific knowledge. and should always be the first step of the training process.  STEP 2: Developing training program & manual This step establishes the development of current job descriptions and Page | . low productivity. skills. low morale. and customer comment cards. The needs analysis is the starting point for all training.“Why” is training needed? . Several examples of an analysis outlining specific training needs are customer dissatisfaction. interviews.“How” will the training be performed? By determining training needs. The techniques necessary for the data collection are surveys.“What” type of training is needed? .

good planning.  STEP 3: Deliver the training program This step is responsible for the instruction and delivery of the training program. Before presenting a training session. and workshops are the most popular methods. Once the job description is completed. One-on-one training. A working knowledge of the subject being taught. the trainer should be conscious of several essential elements. Once you have designated your trainers. Appropriate audio/visual equipment to enhance the training session. The trainer should have: - A desire to teach the subject being taught. and trainee participation. Job descriptions should be clear and concise and may serve as a major training tool for the identification of guidelines. the use of various training methods. make sure you have a thorough understanding of the following characteristics of an effective trainer. This will standardize the necessary guidelines for any future training. the training technique must be decided. A dynamic appearance and good posture. A good sense of humor. including a controlled environment. An ability to motivate participants to “want” to learn. on-the-job training. a complete list of standards and procedures should be established from each responsibility outlined in the job description. group training.standards and procedures. For a training program to be successful. good communication skills. A strong compassion towards their participants. A strong passion for their topic. seminars. Page | .

Second. and an increase in customer satisfaction and profits. The importance of the evaluation process after the training is critical. There are several obvious benefits for evaluating a training program. more jobs will become created and available. Methods for evaluation are pre-and post. evaluations will indicate its cost-effectiveness. Third. First. Without it. You will be amazed with the results. The reason for an evaluation system is simple. the establishment of a cost/benefit analysis outlining your expenses and returns. The need for training your employees has never been greater. As business and industry continues to grow. Consider this information the next time you need to evaluate your training program. evaluations will provide feedback on the trainer‟s performance. The evaluation of training programs are without a doubt the most important step in the training process. allowing them to improve themselves for future programs. Page | . the trainer does not have a true indication of the effectiveness of the training.surveys of customer comments cards. It is this step that will indicate the effectiveness of both the training as well as the trainer. STEP 4: Evaluate the training program This step will determine how effective and profitable your training program has been. evaluations are an efficient way to determine the overall effectiveness of the training program for the employees as well as the organization.

and also highlights the occasions where training might not be appropriate but requires alternate action. employee productivity. areas where training is required. Why training need analysis? Training need analysis is conducted to determine whether resources required are available or not. To be successful.Customer demands. employee morale. The purpose of training need analysis is to determine whether there is a gap between what is required for effective performance and present level of performance. TRAINING NEED ANALYSIS An analysis of training need is an essential requirement to the design of effective training. and employee turnover as well as the current economic realties of a highly competitive workforce are just some of the reasons for establishing and implementing training in an organization. It is a team effort and must implemented by all members of the organization to be fully successful. all training must receive support from the top management as well as from the middle and supervisory levels of management. Training Need arises at three levels: Page | . It helps to plan the budget of the company.

And. Skills. If the difference between the expected performance and actual performance comes out to be positive. Threats can be reduced by identifying the areas where training is required. the organization checks whether an employee is performing at desired level or the performance is below expectation. At this level. and weaknesses and external environment such as opportunities and threats.Organizational Level – Training need analysis at organizational level focuses on strategic planning. structures. procedures. Individual Level – Training need analysis at individual level focuses on each and every individual in the organization. Page | . while strengths can further be strengthened with continued training. It starts with the assessment of internal environment of the organization such as. HR develops strategies to be sure that the employees in the organization have the required Knowledge. the HR department of the company requires to be involved in strategic planning. After doing the SWOT analysis. opportunities can be exploited by balancing it against costs. In this planning. business need. weaknesses can be dealt with the training interventions. then certainly there is a need of training. For this approach to be successful. and Attributes (KSAs) based on the future KSAs requirements at each level. strengths. and goals. policies.

The job analyst gathers the information on whether the job is clearly understood by an employee or not.However. TRAINING NEED IDENTIFICATION It is finding out what people need to learn about. For example. individual competence can also be linked to individual need. psychological test. it could be in an office where a new way of doing things is coming in. so that they can be taught those things. questionnaires asking the closed ended as well as open ended questions. so it is necessary to find out what people know so that the correct training courses are provided for them. The methods that are used to analyze the individual need are:        Appraisal and performance review Peer appraisal Competency assessments Subordinate appraisal Client feedback Customer feedback Self-assessment or self-appraisal Operational Level – Training Need analysis at operational level focuses on the work that is being assigned to the employees. He gathers this information through technical interview. Page | . You are identifying their training needs. observation. etc.

 To differentiate between the need for training and organizational issues and bring about a match between individual aspirations and organizational goals. and neighbours. releasing potential and maximising opportunities for development. suppliers. Similarly if seen from an individual's point of view. resources. it is a process that needs to be carried out with sensitivity as people's learning is important to them. employees. to meet people's aspirations. they want to develop and in order to learn and use new abilities. and the reputation of the organization is also at stake. people need appropriate opportunities.  Identification of training needs is important from both the organisational point of view as well as from an individual's point of view. Identification of training needs (ITN).IMPORTANCE:  To decide what specific training each employee needs and what will improve his or her job performance. And it is also important to see that there is a suitable match between achieving organizational goals and providing attractive learning opportunities. people have aspirations. Therefore people must know what they need to learn in order to achieve organisational goals. Therefore. Also requiring careful thought and analysis. if done properly. These objectives can be achieved only through harnessing the abilities of its people. From an organisation's point of view it is important because an organisation has objectives that it wants to achieve for the benefit of all stakeholders or members. including owners. the organization must provide effective and attractive learning resources and conditions. provides the basis on which all other training activities can be considered. Page | . customers. and conditions.

sub-unit. So training needs are now a days even identified at the group level. Information about this group's performance may identify areas of need . create a new product or service. Here identification of training needs is done to find out whether the organisation is meeting its current performance standards and objectives and if not. Page | . or develop significant new relationships. again. It is used to find out how efficiently a particular team or group goes about its business and meets its current objectives. may be for training or other interventions.which. or so on.Different Levels at which it is to be Conducted Identification of training needs can be done at three levels to ascertain three kinds of needs:  Organisational Needs These concern the performance of the organisation as a whole. such as joining with others to form new partnerships. department. rather than as members of a group).  Group Needs Since working in groups and teams have become very much prevalent in today's corporate world that is why nowadays there is increased emphasis given on team effectiveness and team performance. exploring ways in which training or learning might help it to do so.  Individual Needs These concern the performance of one or more individuals (as individuals. undergo a large-scale change programme. which may be a team. function. Training needs here are concerned basically with the performance of a particular group. Here identification of training needs is about finding out to what extent individuals need to learn or be trained in order to bring their current performance up to the required level as a result of changes in methods and processes that call for new competencies and skills. Sometimes organisational training needs are also identified when the organisation decides that it has to adopt a major new strategy.

Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham. hidden. blind. and unknown. as represented by its four quadrants: open. The lines dividing the four panes are like window Page | ." as illustrated above. A four paned "window. is one of the most useful models describing the process of human interaction. named after the first names of its inventors. divides personal awareness into four different types.JOHARI WINDOW Known to Self Not Known to Self Known to Others Not Known to Others The Johari Window.

any information describing who I am. or if your answer will be on the mark.. This information is in my blind quadrant because you can see it. 2. you may notice that eye contact seems to be lacking. and so do you. The "hidden" quadrant represents things that I know about myself. Then the problem is. The knowledge that the window represents. we could be eating at a restaurant. you know some of my interests. or you may draw your own inferences that perhaps I am being insincere. and if you have explored some of my website. I may notice a slight hesitation on your part. which can move as an interaction progresses. I may also have blindspots with respect to many other much more complex things. and perhaps this may lead to a question. You may not say anything. 3. and I may have unknowingly gotten some food on my face. Now. since you may not want to embarrass me. For example. since there has been little time to exchange information. In this model. enlarging the open quadrant's area. I have not told you. Let's describe mine: 1. that you do not know. but that I am unaware of. each person is represented by their own window. then the window shade moves to the right. placing more information into the open window. I know my name. nor mentioned anywhere on my Page | . motives. can include not only factual information. but I cannot.. how can I get this information out in the open. but my feelings. So. the size of the opening of this first quadrant is not very large. indeed. If you now tell me that I have something on my face.shades. there is no readily available answer. But who knows if I will pick this up. wants. For example. as described below. for example. When I first meet a new person. since it may be affecting the level of trust that is developing between us? How can I learn more about myself? Unfortunately. behaviors. needs and desires. and that you know about me. As the process of getting to know one another continues. The "open" quadrant represents things that both I know about myself. the window shades move down or to the right. perhaps in our ongoing conversation. So for example. The "blind" quadrant represents things that you know about me.

 It is determined by comparing post test scores with pre test scores. virtually my whole life's story." 4. The "unknown" quadrant represents things that neither I know about myself. and as we both attempt to understand its significance. of training courses achieving the required outcome *100% Total no . I am effectively pulling the window shade down.  It is measured in terms of extent to which a set of objectives are met. As soon as I tell you that I love "Ben and Jerry's Cherry Garcia" flavored ice cream. As we get to know and trust each other. nor you know about me. known to neither of us before the conversation took place. a new awareness may emerge. that has yet to be revealed to you. Training effectiveness  It is a measurement of learning. This process is called: "Self-disclosure. I will then feel more comfortable disclosing more intimate details about myself. there are vast amounts of  It means as the no. of units input. of units output for the no. what one of my favorite ice cream flavors is. For example.  It is a measure of learning training in the organization which is almost always about achieving a better performance or capability than is currently available. moving the information in my hidden quadrant and enlarging the open quadrant's area. I may disclose a dream that I had. This information is in my "hidden" quadrant. of training courses delivered Page | . It can be measured in several ways for example: No. Again.  It’s about outcomes that favour the customer & the shareholder.

we measure the participants‟ reaction to the programme. Their inputs can indicate the cause of success or failure. It also serves the important aspect of being a lead indicator for transfer of learning on to the job context. we measure the application of the learning in the work context. etc. It provides critical inputs to fine-tuning the design of the programme. It enables them to make decisions on continuing the programme. which is not an easy task. skill and attitude. At this level. It throws light on the level of learner satisfaction.This model articulates a four-step process. it is important to note that learning at this level does not necessarily translate into application on the job. This can be done a few weeks after the programme so that it gives the participants sufficient time to implement what they have learnt. sometimes it is possible that learning was Page | . methodology. Facilitators utilise pre-test and post-test measures to check on the learning that has occurred. We measure changes pertaining to knowledge. It is not easy to define standards that can be utilised to measure application of learning and there is always this question that preys on the minds of various people: „Can all changes be attributed to the training?‟ Inputs at this level can come from participants and their supervisors. At this level.One of the most popular methodologies for measuring training effectiveness . making changes to the content. * Level 3: Transfer of learning. * Level 1: Reactions. Measuring the effectiveness of training at this level is important as it gives an indication about the quantum of change vis-à-vis the learning objectives that were set. This is measured through the use of feedback forms (also termed as “happy-sheets”). These are changes that can be attributed to the training. * Level 2: Participant learning. The analysis at this level serves as inputs to the facilitator and training administrator. It makes sense to obtain feedback from the participants on the application of learning on the job. However.

The process starts with an understanding of the situation requiring more effective behavior. However. decrease in defects. but implementation did not happen due to system-related reasons. An organization‟s concerns before training lie mainly in four areas: Clarifying the precise objectives of training and the use the organization expects to make of the participants after training.good at level-2. it is worthwhile making the attempt even if the linkage at this level is indirect. etc. building favorable expectations and motivation in the participants prior to the training. the fact remains that it is not very easy to do this. It can help the organisation deal with the constraints posed by systems and processes so that they do not come in the way of applying learning. Many organisations would like to measure effectiveness of training at this level. But Page | . This may also be called the preparation phase. Phases of Training & development The training process is made up of three phases: Phase 1: Pre-training. selection of suitable participants. During the course of the training. There is no guarantee that the participants will in fact learn what they have chosen. At this level we look at aspects such as increase in productivity. participants focus their attention on the new impressions that seem useful. stimulating and engaging. and planning for any changes that improved task performance will require in addition to training. This measures effectiveness of the programme in terms of business objectives. * Level 4: Results. Phase 2: Training. as it is improbable that we can show direct linkage.

This may be called the "follow up" phase. they discard it. they incorporate this new facet into their habitual behavior in the training situation. When training per se concludes. Phase 3: Post-training. It is important that work organizations meanwhile prepare the conditions for improved performance by their participants upon their return. or discontinue learning in this direction. If they find the new behavior useful. Having explored. The intricate process of selection and testing is continuous and more or less conscious. Page | . The newly learned skills undergo modification to fit the work situation. they may step into a quagmire of negativity. and a training institution‟s basic task is to provide the necessary opportunities.the main purpose remains: participants explore in a training situation what interests them. When the participants return back to work from the training. participants try out some new behavior. Finally. try it repeatedly and improve it. try some variant. a process of adjustment begins for everyone involved. If they do not find it useful. On the other hand. check it for effectiveness and satisfaction. they try it again. the situation changes. Participants may find their organizations offering encouragement to use the training and also support for continuing contact with the training institution.

experiencing. which comes from doing. Training can bring about an improvement in a person‟s:  Knowledge  Skills  Attitude  Thereby raising his potential to perform better on the job. improvement is a dependent variable. observing. giving and receiving feedback and coaching. Objectives of Training & Development 1) Improvement in Performance Training will be an important aid to managers for developing themselves as well as their subordinates.More effective behavior of people on the job in the organization is the primary objective of the training process as a whole. Page | . training can contribute the vital 20% that makes the difference. In the simplest training process. Research has shown that 80% of a person‟s development takes place on the job. However. It is not a substitute for development on the job. and participants and organizations independent variables.

improving inter-group relations and quality of work life. This would have the effect of improving the morale of the existing employees. 3) Organizational Effectiveness In company training provides a means for bringing about organizational development. Page | . building teams. It can be used for strengthening values.2) Growth Training is also directed towards developing people for higher levels of responsibility thereby reducing the need for recruiting people from outside. The ultimate objective of training in the long run is to improve the company‟s performance through people performing better.

Training which has been planned and delivered is reflected on.The outcome may be to: Page | .Benefits of Training Evaluation Evaluation has three main purposes: Feedback to help trainers understand the extent to which objectives are being met and the effectiveness of particular learning activities – as an aid to continuous improvement Control to make sure training policy and practice are aligned with organizational goals and delivering cost-effective solutions to organizational issues Intervention to raise awareness of key issues such as pre-course and post-course briefing and the selection of delegates Evaluation is itself a learning process. Views on how to do it better are formulated and tested .

new methods. new content. Abandon the training  Redesign the training – new sequence. new precourse work  Rethink the timing of the training – earlier or later in people‟s career. earlier or later in the company calendar  Leave well alone The following are the clear benefits of evaluation:  Improved quality of training activities  Improved ability of the trainers to relate inputs to output  Better discrimination of training activities between those that are worthy of support and those that should be dropped  Better integration of training offered and on the job development  Better co-operation between trainers and line-managers in the development of staff Page | . new trainer  Redesign the preparation/pre-work – new briefing material. earlier or later in the training programme.

They include the following:  Unlike enterprises which can have their staff trained in management and other training institutions. there are no courses and training institutions which are geared to the needs of employers' organizations. and in providing training to members. Evidence of the contribution that training and development activities are making to the organization  Closer integration of training aims and organizational objectives Problems for Employers' Organizations Developing Training Role Several reasons account for the problems faced by employers' organizations in training their own staff. This places a heavy responsibility on senior staff to train new recruits and on staff to develop themselves. Therefore organizations often rely on the ILO to conduct training programmes designed to serve the needs of employers' Page | .

  Inadequate training material Inadequate information/knowledge relating to labor-related subjects needed to attract enterprises to the organization's training programmes.organizations. Therefore staff with special skills providing advisory and representation services should be trained as trainers to enable them to undertake some training in their areas of expertise. and to provide staff with study tours to other employers' organizations.e.  The economic viability of having full time training staff. Page | . Due to financial constraints.  Most organizations do not have skilled trainers i. persons who have been trained as trainers. an employers' organization would generally have to keep full time training staff to a minimum.

Therefore it is important for employers' organizations to Page | . Another is human resource management. general management.Identifying Areas of Training specialisation Employers' organizations do not usually offer training in all areas of management (e. in some areas training undertaken by employers' organizations and other institutions overlap. finance. and marketing) because  These are specialized areas requiring knowledge in subjects outside the mandate of an employers' organization  Such training is provided by other institutions like business schools and polytechnics which specially cater to these training needs. However.g. An example is negotiation skills on which business education institutions in some countries have highly effective programmes.

It is a subject in which it can develop a comparative advantage. they may lack the practical experience employers' organizations develop if they provide direct services to members. An increasingly important target group is the small enterprise sector which. which is a system of inter-related training packages and supporting materials for providing owners and managers of small enterprises with training in basic business management skills. workplace labor relations practices. Page | . usually lacks a human resource manager or a training policy and in house training facilities. Even if other institutions do. unlike the large scale sector. especially since in many countries such training is seldom offered by other institutions.develop an expertise in training in industrial relations (laws. The ILO has developed the Improve Your Business (IYB) programme. A special needs assessment may have to be conducted in this sector as its needs tend to differ from those of large and medium scale enterprises. wages. and negotiation).

Topics of Employee Training Page | .

4) Computer skills: Computer skills are becoming a necessity for conducting administrative and office tasks. 6) Diversity: Diversity training usually includes explanation about how people have different perspectives and views. It stresses the importance of communication being clear. 2) Communications: The increasing diversity of today's workforce brings a wide variety of languages and customs. Page | . 5) Customer service: Increased competition in today's global marketplace makes it critical that employees understand and meet the needs of customers. retirement. rush jobs etc. concrete and colorful. redundancy etc. 3) Career and life planning: A primarily employee-oriented training objective u undertaken to help employees plan for their lives. personal décor and good rapport. career. consideration. controversies. Right from the way the receptionist handles a call to how the CEO deals with a customer gives a glimpse of the image of an organization. and includes techniques to value diversity. courtesy. concise. Such training imparts the values of life skills that employees need under different and difficult circumstances. Such training encompasses oral. written and presentation skills.1) Corporate ethics: This covers the value of good manners. It also shows why and how to discourage gossip. personal work at office.

7) Staff management and team building: Such training shows the importance and benefits of good management and how everyone can achieve more through teamwork. 8) Stress management: Stress is an individual‟s response to threats and challenges in the environment. Manifested physiologically and physically, it may occur due to role conflict, role ambiguity, role incompatibility, role overload or role under load. Stress management techniques are covered under this objective. 9) Time management: Time management skills covered here showcase the importance of being specific, delegation and prioritization. They also show how to set measurable, attainable, relevant and time-bound goals. 10) Human relations: The increased stresses of today's workplace can include misunderstandings and conflict. Training can people to get along in the workplace. It also includes interpersonal relationship skills Communication is a two-way exercise and this objective covers the importance of listening, concentrating, showing empathy and self-awareness.

11) Quality initiatives: Initiatives such as Total Quality Management, Quality Circles, benchmarking, etc., require basic training about quality concepts, guidelines and standards for quality, etc. 12) Safety: Safety training is critical where working with heavy equipment , hazardous chemicals, repetitive activities, etc., but can also be useful with practical advice for avoiding assaults, etc.
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13) Memory skills: This objective highlights techniques for better reception, retention and recall through audio and visual learning techniques. It helps to improve skills by employing all senses, associating and following systematic plans. 14) Special skills: Besides the above, organizations also impart special job-related skills. These may include technology training, report writing, technical training, quality assessments etc. An organization may choose to impart training in any or many of the objectives mentioned above. But before one invests it is important to choose a trainer who is good and capable of making a positive difference with his or her training methodologies. Also organizational training needs to be undertaken keeping the mission and the vision statement of the organization in view.

Benefits from Development




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Regardless of the size or type of an industry or business, training can have a measurable impact on performance and the bottom line.

Research shows that productivity increases while training takes place. A staff who receives formal training can be 230 per cent more productive than untrained colleagues who are working in the same role. Staying competitive is the key to sustainability. Training your staff, keeping them motivated and up-to-

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date with industry trends and new technologies is essential to achieving that goal. In some companies. Ongoing training almost always shows a positive return on investment.  Staff retention Training increases staff retention which is a significant cost saving. Most businesses provide on-the-job training.000 per cent. learning new skills and becoming a valued asset in any organization.  Improved quality and productivity Training that meets both staff and employer needs can increase the quality and flexibility of a business‟s services by fostering:    Accuracy and efficiency Good work safety practices Better customer service. Training brings direct benefits to business and can be calculated as a return on investment. as the loss of one competent person can be the equivalent of one year's pay and benefits. particularly during induction. Staff benefit too.  The flow-on effect Page | . training programs have reduced staff turnover by 70 per cent and led to a return on investment of 7. services and reputations. High labor productivity increases business output and can open a greater share of the market or expand it by improving products. Successful training is focused on supporting your business objectives.

Over time. work practices and business strategies can also act as a benchmark for future recruitment and quality assurance practices. Training staff to manage the implementation of new technology. training can improve:     Staff morale and satisfaction 'Soft skills' such as inter-staff communication and leadership Time management Customer satisfaction Conclusion Page | .The benefits of training in one area can flow through to all levels of an organisation. training will boost the bottom line and reduce costs by decreasing:       Wasted time and materials Maintenance costs of machinery and equipment Workplace accidents. As well as impacting on business profit margins. leading to lower insurance premiums Recruitment costs through the internal promotion of skilled staff Absenteeism. Staying competitive Businesses must continually change their work practices and infrastructure to stay competitive in a global market.

should be seen as a tool. The effects of Internet technology on employee training are indeed profound. the Internet cannot.The employers should keep in mind these four rules of thumb when designing the company‟s strategy and solution: Rule #1: Internet technology is the key to a profound revolution in learning.any technology . technology . effective learning to maximize learning and retention levels. not a strategy or final goal. Page | . in and of itself. Likewise. however. improve the quality of the learning and the content they put on it. Just because they have good word processing software doesn't mean you write well. The employers need to use Internet technology combined with high quality.

They adjust it as their people become more skilled and knowledgeable.Rule #2: There is an enduring and important role for traditional classroom instruction. Often. employees forget what they have learned within two months of the workshop. Rule #3: Learning is a continuous. Therefore. they constantly test it against the mission and vision of their business. flexibility and capacity for growth in an organization. And. People who believe technology will totally replace great teachers in front of classrooms of highly motivated learners are as misguided as those who believe the Internet is a passing fad. The employers redefine it as new technology options become available. Rule #4: Strategy development and implementation are never really finished. anywhere. The blended learning solution. Accidents. Employees retain about 50% to 60% of what they learn in a formal training workshop. access and opportunities to learn should be available to anyone. and at any time within an organization.not simply a series of workshops. Page | . Due to training there is greater stability.e. cultural process . making sure they are always in alignment. scrap and damage to machinery and equipment can be avoided or minimized through training. i. a mixture of classroom and Web-based training is the most effective and comprehensive learning strategy.. Organizational learning is as much about what happens outside formal learning programs as it is about the programs themselves. Employers change as their business changes.

Organizational take fresh diploma holders or graduates as apprentices or management trainees. generally adding to his or her abilities and value to the employer. At the same time. absenteeism. the employee‟s personal goals are furthered. complaints.Even dissatisfaction. Training serves as an effective source of recruitment. the objectives of the HR department and also of the organization are also furthered. Training is an investment in HR with a promise of better returns in future. Though no single training programme yields all the benefits the organization which devotes itself to training and development enhances its HR capabilities and strengthens its competitive edge. Future needs of employees will be met through training and development programmes. Ultimately. They are absorbed after course completion. and turnover can be reduced if employees are trained well. Page | .

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Annexures Page | .

Bibliography    Human Resource Management.By VSP Rao Handouts given by idea cellular Page | .ideacellular.

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2.QUESTIONNAIRE Organisations Name: Name of member: Section: General staff 1.A Do you have a duty statement for your job? Is your job accurately described in the duty statement? Yes Yes No No (Go to Q 6) (Go to Q 14) If no. 4. Are you a new employee or a longstanding employee of the company? How long have you been in your present job? Confirmation of Current Duties 3. 5. what extra duties do you do that need to be added to your duty statement? Page | .

tools of trade. 7. machinery. Do you require a high degree of technical knowledge for your job? How do you work? Please circle Yes No Page | . 8. keyboard.5. 9. Describe the tasks you regularly perform that are critical to carrying out your job effectively. Describe the type of equipment you are required to use (for example.B What duties are no longer part of your job and can be deleted from your duty statement? Job Analysis 6. etc).

Very little Training Needs Moderately A lot 14. How much variety is there in your job. If you work as part of a team. bookkeeping. to what extent do you do different things at work. ie. How much autonomy is there in your job. English as a second language. ie.Alone Part of a team Other (specify below) 10. transfer to another section. using several skills and talents? Please circle. Very little Moderately A lot 13. such as customers. do you perform the same of different work to members of your team? 11. To perform your current job: What training do you still need (either on-the-job or a formal course) to perform your current job competently (eg. clients or people in your own organisation? Please circle. supervisor position. Very little Moderately A lot 12. etc)? Page | . Excel. To perform other jobs in the organisation: What other roles in the organisation would you be interested in doing if a vacancy became available (eg. etc)? 15. to what extent do you decide how to proceed with your work? Please circle. To what extent does your job require you to work closely with other people.

external degree study. Occupational Health and Safety Awareness. etc)? Recognition of Prior Learning 19. leadership training. What training have you attended within the last three years? (This will help identify if any training sessions have been missed or if any refresher training is required. What are your career aspirations? 18. etc)? Future Development Needs 17. negotiation skills.16. formal meeting procedures. What training or development do you need to help make this happen (eg. To perform other jobs in the organisation: What training or experience would be required (eg. machine operation.) Page | .

on-the-job experiences. and include the recommended dates the staff member can expect these to occur. buddy systems or mentor arrangements.20.) Training Date Signature of Staff Member : Signature Supervisor of : Date : Date : Page | . What training or skills have you acquired outside your current job that may be relevant to the wider organisation? Action Plan Agreed training and development to be provided over the next 12 months: (Record the details of training courses.

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